Herpes is a generic word for a group of viral diseases that cause painful, fluid-filled sores or blisters in and around the mouth or genital area. Also known as herpes simplex, it is of two types:

Genital herpes is a prevalent sexually transmitted disease (STD) characterised by genital blisters and ulcers. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is the most common cause of genital herpes (HSV-2). According to the CDC, one out of every six persons aged 14 – 49 faces this condition.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which is more commonly associated with oral herpes, can also cause genital herpes.

Oral herpes causes tiny cold sores and fever blisters in the mouth, lips, and gums. HSV-1 is the most common cause of oral herpes, however HSV-2 may also be to blame in rare situations.


It’s crucial to remember that an infection might exist even if there are no apparent symptoms. They might potentially spread the infection to others. Blistering sores (in the mouth or on the genitals), discomfort while urinating and itching are some of the symptoms linked with this virus.

Symptoms that are comparable to the flu may also occur. Fever, enlarged lymph nodes, headaches, exhaustion, and a loss of appetite are some of the symptoms. Herpes keratitis is a disease caused by HSV spreading to the eyes. Symptoms include eye discomfort, drainage, and a gritty sensation in the eyes.


Doctors can diagnose a herpes infection by examining at the skin and/or swabbing the sores for evidence if signs of HSV type 1 or 2 are present. A blood test can assist establish whether or not you have an infection if you don’t have any visible symptoms.

Viral culture: This test entails obtaining a tissue sample or scraping the lesions for analysis.

PCR test: Even if there are no symptoms, a PCR test can determine if someone has genital herpes. In a sample collected from fluids from the urinary system, the PCR test looks for fragments of the virus’s DNA. This is an extremely accurate and widely used test.

Cell culture: During the checkup, the doctor might collect a sample of cells from a sore and examine them under a microscope for HSV.

If the lesions have started to heal or have been infected recently, a cell culture or PCR test may produce a false-negative result.

Blood test: To diagnose a previous herpes infection, this test examines a sample of blood for the presence of antibodies.

Antibodies against a herpes virus are detected in type-specific herpes blood tests, which also determine if the antibodies are against HSV-1 or HSV-2. Type-specific testing is unable to pinpoint the exact location of the infection in the body. Antibodies to any kind of herpes are detected in general herpes blood tests, but they do not indicate for which type the antibodies are present for.

After being infected, it generally takes two weeks for symptoms to develop. If you do not have any lesions that can be tested, it’s a good idea to wait at least a month or two after a possible exposure before obtaining a test. This is due to the fact that the body takes time to produce antibodies that may be detected in the blood, without these antibodies a false-negative test may occur.


Prescription antiviral medicines may: Aid in the healing of sores following a first outbreak In repeated outbreaks, reduce the severity and duration of symptoms. Recurrence frequency is also reduced. It also reduces the risk of spreading the herpes virus to others.

Antiviral medications used for genital herpes include:

Acyclovir (Zovirax)

Valacyclovir (Valtrex)



India is a land of festivals and fairs. Virtually celebrating each day of the year, there are more festivals celebrated in India than anywhere else in the world. Each festival pertains to different occasions, some welcome the seasons of the year, the harvest, the rains, or the full moon. Others celebrate religious occasions, the birthdays of divine beings and saints, or the advent of the New Year. A number of these festivals are common to most parts of India. However, they may be called by different names in various parts of the country or may be celebrated in a different fashion. Some of the festivals celebrated all over India are Diwali, Id-ul-Zuha, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Ramnavami, Christmas. India is a multi-cultural country, and it is reflected in the Festivals of India: Festivals of India is about various social, religious, and national festivals celebrated in different parts of India. India has been rightly described as a sub-continent and of its major festivals, many are region-specific festivals too. There are many festivals which are celebrated as national festivals; while a number of them are celebrated by members of particular religious or social groups. India is a land of festivals. These Indian festivals bind all Indians together of different castes, religions, etc there is no discrimination while celebration. When there is no discrimination then it is called INDIA.



The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) was born in 1967 and was aimed at
promoting regional trade, investment and joint ventures. It proved to be the nucleus of regional
cooperation, was booming and looking for new markets and investment opportunities. It found
India and Vietnam complementary, now attracting investment opportunities. It also perceived
India and Vietnam complementary for strengthening regional political and security profile. Vietnam
had started the process of Doi Moi (Renovation) aimed at liberalisation, privatisation and
globalisation. India on the other hand, adopted the policy of economic liberalisation under the
stewardship of P V Narasimha Rao and Manmohan Singh, prime minister and finance minister
respectively, in 1991. The new government in India also started initiating the process of liberalisation,
privatisation and globalisation. India too announced tax-free incentives for foreign investors.
These policies encouraged the ASEAN for further consolidation of its co-operation with India.
ASEAN offered sectoral dialogue partnership to India in 1992. Accordingly, four core sectors
of co-operation were recognised, namely trade, investment, tourism, science and technology.
Sectoral partnership was instrumental in establishing the institutional linkage between India and
ASEAN and the partnership proved so useful that the ASEAN upgraded it within two years to
full dialogue partnership in 1995. This facilitated the growth of relationship in different areas with
economic, security and political implications. India was invited to participate in the post-ministerial
conferences of the ASEAN and also in ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the security forum of
ASEAN. Subsequently, both India and ASEAN began to talk of a common vision and a shared
ASEAN-India co-operation committee was established to function as a key institutional mechanism
to provide substantive content to different sectors of co-operation. ASEAN-India working group
was also established to find out the areas for co-operation in science and technology, trade and
investment, human resource development and culture. The Joint co-operation committee
recognised the Indian expertise in the field of science and technology, especially in biotechnology
and IT (Information Technology). Proposals were given to co-operate in food processing, health
care, agriculture, engineering, electronics, communication and service sectors.
The meeting of the ASEAN-India co-operation committee decided to set up the India- ASEAN
fund to develop co-operation in trade, investment, tourism, computer technology, solar energy
and environmental protection. This fund was placed at the disposal of ASEAN Secretariat and
administered by a joint management committee. Joint co-operation committee also agreed to set
up an ASEAN-New Delhi committee consisting of the heads of diplomatic missions of the ASEAN
countries. The then Indian foreign secretary J.N. Dixit announced the scheme of scholarship and
said that each side could offer six post-doctoral fellowships upto six months in the area of science
and technology. India and the ASEAN region also started ASEAN lecture series from eminent
persons under which prominent ASEAN leaders and intellectuals delivered their lectures in India
and vice versa. This has proved useful in the confidence building and objective understanding of
the issues in the foreign policy and diplomacy of the ASEAN vis-a-vis dialogue partners.


BIMSTEC is a sub-regional economic grouping involving Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka
and Thailand. This is the first grouping of its kind in which two ASEAN partners have come
together with three South Asian Countries for economic cooperation. Established in 1998, this
grouping has already identified important areas for cooperation such as communications,
infrastructure, energy, trade and investment, tourism and fisheries. Each country has assumed a
specific responsibility for coordination and important projects under consideration of the forum
have been Asian Highway Link, Asian Railway Network and a Natural Gas Pipeline Grid.
Constituted on the Bay of Bengal Rim, BIMSTEC aims at tapping the vast potential of resources,
both natural and human in this sub region.
BIMSTEC (Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand Economic Cooperation) is
endeavoured to provide an economic forum with both private and public sector participation
from member countries to promote a high level exchange of views relating to trade, investment
and economic cooperation. The primary emphasis is on the exchange of views on sectors such
as textiles and clothing, drugs and pharmaceuticals, gems and jewelleries, horticultural and floricultural products and information technology. Economic and Social Commission for Asia- Politic (ESCAP) hosted an expert group meeting in March 1998 at Bangkok to promote private sector participation in the BIMSTEC process. There were more than 80 participants at the meeting from all five countries. The meeting urged the private sector to play a key role in enhancing
economic cooperation and concluded with a series of general and specific recommendations.
A BIMSTEC chamber of commerce and industry was established and decided that there would
be annual meetings of BIMSTEC Economic and Trade ministers to follow up on the implementation
of economic cooperation initiatives. A BIMSTEC Senior Economic Officials Committee (SEOC)
was also established. The responsibilities for the various sectors identified for cooperation were
delegated amongst the five countries, as follows:
Bangladesh – Trade and investment
India – Technology
Thailand – Transport and Communication
Myanmar – Energy
Sri Lanka – Tourism and Fisheries.
It is remarkable that the economic ministers agreed that BIMSTEC should aim and strive to
develop into a free trade arrangement. The new sub-sectors were added to the aforementioned
five sectors for future cooperation and they were the following:
i) Commodities such as rubber, tea, coffee, coconut and spices.
ii) Automotive industries and parts thereof.
iii) Processed food.
BIMSTEC Ministerial meeting in Dacca on 19 December 1998 stated: “We emphasise the need
for establishing a BIMSTEC economic forum which will work as an important engine of greater
economic cooperation and progress within the BIMSTEC sub-region. We reiterate our resolve
to take all necessary steps to making the BIMSTEC economic forum operational for convening
at the next ministerial meeting”. It stated further that, “conscious of the important role that can be
played by transport and communication linkages in enhancing commercial, industrial, cultural and
social interaction and tourism, we reiterate the emphasis that we place on developing rail, road,
multi-modal transport, shipping and air-linkages. This would reinforce complementarities arising
out of the Bay of Bengal rim identity of BIMSTEC”.
The BIMSTEC meeting in Myanmar in December 2001 emphasised the desirability of
strengthening linkages among the think tanks of the member countries. They also agreed to
explore external financing of Mekong-Ganga Co-operation (MGC), a programme of action
involving India and Indo-China states. It was hoped that the flexible nature of the co-operation
agenda, ranging from culture and tourism to transport and communication could enable speedy
progress. MGC involves India with five ASEAN countries, namely Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar,
Vietnam and Thailand. It is endeavoured to build a road linking Thailand to India through Myanmar.
MGC wants to go a long way in developing the infrastructure for transnational trade involving
India’s northeast border, Myanmar, Mekong region and beyond. Located between India and
China, Mekong region is very important for India’s security, peace and trading with East Asian
The first India-ASEAN Summit, which took place at Phnom Penh in November 2002, had
focused attention on relations with the countries in the Mekong region. Prime Minister A.B.
Vajpayee on this occasion spoke about the common visions and designs with the ASEAN. India
extended $ 10 million credit to Cambodia and signed three agreements in the areas of trade,
technical education and maintenance of the 1000-year-old Tam Pram Temple. India also accorded/
granted greater tariff concessions to Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. It was considered
as an important gesture towards the ASEAN.


What is Photography?

Answering the question, “What is photography?” is kind of like trying to answer the question, “What’s the meaning of life?”

That’s because photography is incredibly complex. It has many facets and types. There are technical aspects to photography as well as creative ones. The manner in which photography is used is even different, often from one person to the next.

Moreover, there is an unlimited variety in the quality of photos. In that regard, trying to explain the difference between an ordinary snapshot and a work of art is a very difficult job. You can tell by looking at two photographs which one is which, but conveying how to get from being an amateur to a pro is not an easy task.

But, you have to start somewhere, so in this guide, I offer a few foundational ideas that will help you answer the question, “What is photography?”

Photography Defined

When trying to quantify what is photography, it’s important to first start with a photography definition.

In layman’s terms, photography is quite simply the process of capturing light with a camera to create an image.

This was done for the first time in 1826, when Joseph Nicéphore Niépce took a photo out of his window. The image, shown above, was entitled View from the Window at Le Gras.

In terms of subject matter, the photo isn’t all that impressive. However, as the oldest surviving photograph, it is nonetheless an important part of photography.

As simple as this image is, it demonstrates the technical process of photography perfectly.

To process the image captured by his camera, Niépce used a process of his invention called heliography.

A Brief Timeline of Photography

After Joseph Nicéphore Niépce successfully created the first permanent photograph, there were many other turning points in photography that got us to where we are today.

The Basics of Photography

For all you beginner photographers out there, photography is built on light, and as such, you have to learn how to control it.

There are three camera settings that comprise the very basics of photography, and that each independently control light in a different way. Yet, these three settings are used together to create an exposure.

Sure, you can shoot in full auto mode and let the camera determine the exposure. In many cases, it works okay. But we’re here to learn, right? So, here’s a quick overview of the exposure triangle – aperture, shutter speed, and ISO.

Types of Photography

Just like there are all sorts of things to learn when you’re studying photography, there are all sorts of types of photography you can explore.

You can learn about the most popular types of photography in our detailed guide, but for our purposes in this article, here’s a quick run-down of some of the possibilities you can try:

* Landscape photography
* Portrait photography
* Wildlife photography
* Travel photography
* Street photography
* Newborn photography
* Macro photography

Again, this isn’t a complete list of the types of photography, but it’ll get you started. And as you explore and learn more about photography, you’ll likely find that the answer to our original question – What is photography? – is much deeper and broader than we’ve covered here.

More than the technical and artistic elements that comprise it, photography is about feelings, emotions, and making connections with people and places.

So, what is photography? It’s an incredibly personal experience, that’s what!

What photography is to me is probably very similar to what it is for you, but at the end of the day, our own experiences, opinions, biases, beliefs, and so forth influence what photography means. That’s part of what makes photography so great; it can bring us together thanks to the power of the lens, yet at the same time, we can enjoy it as a highly personal experience.


Hi all,

Today I thought of sharing a, lovely story, “I CAN’T BELIEVE YOU’RE MINE” written by Aknier.

It was a glorious,colorful autumn.

We’d just left the coffee shop. When we walked by, she had giggled and pulled me inside, saying, “c’mon, let’s be basic white girls and get some pumpkin spice!”.

I don’t like coffee. I never had. But when she handed me my cup and looked into my eyes while I tried it, it was the best thing I’d ever tasted.

My hand still tingled where she grabbed it.

As we walked through the park with our drinks, a light drizzle began to fall. She pulled out an umbrella from her bag, I pulled up my hood and hunched my shoulders.

Don’t be silly, “giggled, pulling me under the umbrella with her. I couldn’t help out but laugh too, her laugh is infectious.

As the sun started to shine again, she pulled me down to sit on a bench. She beamed down at me, and I could only gaze back adoringly.

“So Ava…” She began. I knew this time of voice, it’s dangerous.

“Who do you like?” She whispered, and I looked away. I wanted to say,
‘ you, you, a thousand times you. You’re the only one I can ever think about. You’re gorgeous and sweet and funny and..’

Instead, I shrugged my shoulders and looked down at my cup.

She looked at me with a cautious smile.
“If I tell you mine, will you tell me yours?”

“Okay.” I said.

“The person I like …is YOU.”

I drop my drink.

“I’ve been wanting to tell you for a while though. I know you’re not interested in me, but I–“
I put my hand over her mouth.

She looks at me in surprise. I take a deep breath.
“Nancy, I -“
My voice catches in my throat.

She removes my hand from her mouth, leans in a tiny bit closer. “What is it?’ she asks, looking concerned.

Because I can’t seem to form the words, I tell her how I feel the only way I can.

Before I can lose my courage, I lean forward, pressing my lips to hers.

I think, ” I can’t believe this is happening.”

Finally getting courage, I grab her hands, pulling her to her feet.
“Nancy, “I say.
“Will you be my girlfriend?”.

She squeals, jumping up and down in that way that I always thought was simply adorable but we never able to tell her.
So I tell her now.
“You’re adorable.”

I’ve never seen Nancy blush before, either, but she does. She pulls me into a hug, and I rest my head on her shoulder.

“So, is that a yes?” I whisper against her skin and she giggles, grabbing my hands and spinning me around.
“Of course that’s a yes, silly!”
She laughs.

“Good.” I say.
“Because now I can do this again.”
Finally I can’t believe she became mine.

Hope so, you enjoyed reading this story.

Have a lovely day.

Keep Smiling ❣️❣️❣️

The link for the above story: https://commaful.com/play/aknier/i-cant-believe-youre-mine/

Search Engine Optimization

SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is a process of optimizing web pages and sites to get more traffic and make them search engine friendly, thus getting a higher ranking in search results. 

Here are step by step processes if you want your website to rank higher in search engines like google :

  • Find keywords

Keywords are fundamentals to the search process but they should be relevant to the context. Using long-tail keywords is a great strategy. It consists of three to five words and is more specific. They are less competitive than common keywords which tend to attract more traffic to your website.

  • Creating good content

If you want your website to get a good ranking, to get popularity then start creating good and engaging content. One of the reasons why most of the websites don’t get ranking is because the contents don’t get shared or linked to. To get someone to link or share your website, you need to create unique content which

  1. Publish in-depth and engaging content so that the reader gets want he wants to know without getting bored might lead to sharing your content or even gain links.
  2. Adding hooks to your content will help you get more links. It can be anything such as statistics or an interview which can be used to engage your website visitors and guide them to take actions you want them to take next.  

  • Keyword optimize your content

Keyword optimization is to make sure that chosen keywords are effective and map your targeted keywords in a few important places on your page. This will help search engines to understand better what your page is all about the targeted terms. You should decide where to use each keyword depending on the content of each page on the site. Key areas on your website are the title tag, image alt text, H1 heading, H2 and H3 subheaders, and so on. Using LSI keywords will help search engines to know what your content is about. LSI keywords are terms closely related to the keywords you are targeting.

  • Optimize your content for users

To boost your website rank higher in the search engine you have to optimize your content such that the user remains engaged with the content for a longer period otherwise they will leave your page and will eventually lead to a lower rank in the search engine. 

Structure your content by giving a short introduction about what the topic is all about. This will grab the reader’s attention and then start with the topics covered in the post. Add come relevant images to make your website look clean and easy to read.

  • Build backlinks

Backlinks help to promote your site just by being hyperlinks to you from another source. Search engines aggregate the volume and relevance of all of the pages linking to your site which impacts your page rank.

There are many ways to build backlinks and one of them is broken link building. When a site has been taken down entirely, existing backlinks on the other site will result in a 404 error. These are called broken links. Find resource page and check for broken links and this is done by using a browser extension like Check My Links. Broken links will be highlighted in red, making them easy for us to find at a glance. Find a good replacement on your site and send the resource site owner an email asking him to swap the dead link for a link to your content.

There are too many websites that are clustered with the same stock photos. The more original images you will put on your website, the better experience for the user and the better your odds are of ranking on search engines.


Having hobbies is not just a fun past time but it can be very beneficial for personal growth . Here are reasons why developing and inculcating hobbies is good for you ,

MITIGATES STRESS – Life can be pretty stressful and challenging and dealing with stress can be overwhelming , but having a hobby can help you with that . Having a hobby can help you uncoil your stress and channelise it in a healthy way .

EXTRA INCOME – You can monetise your hobbies to earn extra income . It is not a compulsion though , but it is a great form of a passive income .

BENEFICIAL FOR MENTAL HEALTH – If you practice your hobbies it can help in producing chemical reactions that can be beneficial for your mental health . It also helps in improving your self esteem .

KEEPS YOU ACTIVE AND FIT – Having a hobby actually helps you in being fit and active as you are constantly keeping your brain active .

IMPROVES CAREER – Having hobbies helps you in improving your skills that can in turn for your job and career .

Women need more calcium, Says Research

Calcium is a nutrient that all living organisms need, including humans. It is the most abundant mineral in the body, and it is vital for bone health.

Getting enough calcium is a good idea, since women are far more likely than men to develop osteoporosis — a condition of weak and fragile bones that makes you prone to fractures.

It’s important to protect your bone strength and guard against fractures as you age, but taking a supplement isn’t the best way to do that, says an expert.

           Women already have lesser bone tissue than men to begin with, but this reduction in absorption of calcium only gets more accelerated, as we approach menopause due to the dramatic change in estrogen levels. What’s more, those women who have hormonal issues such as thyroid might find themselves even more susceptible to bone issues.

            While taking calcium supplements may produce unwanted side effects, meeting your calcium needs through your diet is safe. “Most people can get adequate calcium through their diet if they make an effort.”

Women ages 19 to 50 should consume 1,000 milligrams of calcium a day, and the target for women over 50 is 1,200 milligrams per day.

Good dietary sources of calcium include:

  • Almonds.
  • Soybeans.
  • Low-fat dairy such as milk and yogurt.
  • Leafy green vegetables such as kale and spinach.
  • Seeds mix.
  •  Lentils.
  •  Fish, especially salmon.

So, up your intake of these foods to keep your bones healthy. At the same time, remember to get more vitamin D from the sun and also from your diet, because calcium can’t be digested as efficiently by your body without the help of the sunshine vitamin.

15 Hacks To Prepare For Exams

1.Read Loudly Instead of Simply Reading:

Although this may make you look a little crazy, give it a go! You will be surprised how much more you can remember when you’ve said it out loud. 

2.Creative Mental Associations:

The ability to make connections is not only an easier way to remember information, but it’s the fuel of creativity and intelligence. f Steve Jobs famously said “Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn’t really do it, they just saw something”.

3. Mind Maps:

Mind maps are an easy way to connect ideas by creating a visual overview of different connections.

4.Walk Before an Exam:

It’s been proven that exercise can boost your memory and brain power. Research conducted by Dr. Chuck Hillman of the University of Illinois provides evidence that about 20 minutes’ exercise before an exam can improve performance.

5.Draw Diagrams:

Drawing diagrams will help you to visualize information which would be hard to describe. This creates a visual memory in your mind which can be recalled in an exam.

6.Watch a Documentary on the Topic:

Documentaries are an entertaining way of compacting an entire story into a short timeframe. This will help you remember key details from a story plus you may even get extra credit for mentioning that you took the initiative and watched a film about the topic.

7.Google It like a Pro:

Save time when researching sources online by mastering the biggest search engine in the world; Google.

8.Take Study Breaks:

When your brain is working, you need to take regular study breaks to help your brain absorb more information but also to keep you motivated and focused when you are working. Take a short break after 45-50 minutes’ study as your focus and concentration will become impaired after this period, anything new after 1 hour 30 minutes does not get assimilated.


Meditation is one of the study methods that can help students stay focused when studying. Not only will meditation help you concentrate when studying but it will help reduce pre-exam stress as it improves both mental and physical health.

10.Make Your Study Space Portable:

We may be creatures of habit with favorite seats in the library but information retention actually improves when you vary the places where you study.

11.Practice, Practice, Practice:

Practice makes you perfect. Practicing sample answers to past exam questions can help train your brain to retrieve information. Create realistic, exam-like condition and test your understanding.

12.Don’t Stay Up All Night Before an Exam:

Make sure to get adequate rest the nights leading up to your exams. When you sleep, your brain assimilates the information you have learned when studying so getting a good night’s sleep will help you remember.

13.Discover News Ways to Learn:

Trying new study methods can help you find what really works for you. Use technology to your advantage by watching educational TED Talks or downloading useful dictionary applications.

14.Group study:

Studying in a group can help you collect new insights to enhance your learning experience. Our Groups study helps you share resources, discuss ideas and interact with members of your team or group project. 

15.Use Scents or Gum to Jog Your Memory:

This may seem a bit random but spraying an unfamiliar scent while you’re studying is one of the study methods that can help jog your memory when you spray it again just before an exam. Chewing a strange kind of gum will work the same way.


Market and marketing these two words revolve around in our daily life. A product without marketing is nothing. From a needle to an airplane everything needs marketing. As we all know, consumers and the market are directly proportional to each other. Both are dependent upon each other. Digital marketing is a far better thing than traditional marketing such as magazine ads, television, direct mail, and billboards. Now in the 21st century, everything is online and connected to the digital world. In recent times, digital marketing is an essential platform to establish any product or anything in front of consumers. Through this platform, you can reach more global customers.

What is digital marketing?

Digital marketing is also known as online marketing. It is a path of promoting brands or products to connect with valuable customers using the internet or any kind of digital media like the computer, mobile, or tablet. In simple words, the marketing which performs on a digital platform is called digital marketing. Mobile, internet, email, and social media are the mediums where digital communication takes place. So, we can say the digital strategy helps to reach customers in a timely, relevant, and cost-effective manner.

Types of digital marketing

There are many ways to promote your brands and product online. Below, we are discussing the many different ways of digital marketing.

1.Social Media Marketing

Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Linkedin, and Youtube are the most popular social media marketing platform. In those platforms, the customers are always active. It is a trouble-free way to attract consumers. Social media marketing helps to know how well you connected with your consumers through the built-in engagement metrics. Many brands use social media marketing to communicate with audiences. The number of shares, comments, likes or total clicks to your website is the measuring factor of social media marketing. Social media marketing not only attracts consumers also creates brand awareness through online discussion.

2.Affiliate Marketing 

By promoting another person’s business is the prime thing in affiliate marketing. You can earn money in this way. It is a revenue share model. You get a commission whenever a customer buys something that you will promote for that merchant. In every single item sale, you earn money according to this.

3.Search Engine Optimization

SEO is a marketing tool that helps to optimize the web page. Optimizing the web pages is based on some key points.

  • Level of user engagement
  • Mobile-friendliness
  • Number and quality of inbound links
  • Quality content

SEO helps for ranking a web page on Google. It’s a non-predictable thing that you are never 100 percent sure about your web page ranking. It’s due to the frequent changes of the algorithm by Google. You have to work on your website accordingly.

4.Content Marketing

Valuable, creative, and relevant content are the prime things to a target audience.SEO played a vital role in content marketing. We read about the product like its origin, its features, its price, its merits, and many more. When a consumer buys a product, they are willing to know the details. In traditional marketing, some salespersons are there to describe that product or brand. But in content marketing, content is the vital thing between the consumer and the product. If the content is not genuine and well written, then the customer may not buy that product.

According to a survey 

  • 92% of marketers think content is an important asset for their company
  • 62% company have 5000 content writers for publishing the content daily
  • 84% audience expect helpful and relevant content from the company on online platform before purchase 

Innovative and unique content can rank high your website on the Google platform.

5.Marketing Automation

Marketing automation is applied to automate sales to increase revenue and maximize efficiency. Frequently it is used by marketing and sales departments. It also helps to automate online marketing campaigns. It has the power to accelerate sales by 14.5% and can also lower marketing overhead by 12.2%. By selecting the appropriate automation software, you can automate digital marketing.

6.Pay-per-Click Marketing

It’s a complex process when and how people see your ad. Search Engine Results Page fills the spot based on what is necessarily an immediate auction. It is an internet advertising model used for manages traffic to websites. In this marketing, when a user clicks on online ads, advertisers pay for that. An algorithm is used for ranking the ads based on certain aspects.

  • Bid amount
  • Ad quality
  • Keyword relevance
  • Landing page quality

Usually, businesses should pay $1 to $2 per click. By research, a small or medium-size industry spends approximately $108,000 to $120,000 per year. The competitive market is the main thing for the expensive cost of Google’s PPC advertising program.

7.Native Advertising

The sponsored posts on the news website are the best example of native advertising. Its other name is sponsored content. Native ads are listed as digital ads. The message podcast and GE, Taco Bell and Snap chat, Patron Tequila, and Twitter are examples of native advertising.

Sleep Deprivation

Sleep is an important body function required for mental and physical well-being. The amount of sleep required changes with age in an inverse manner. For example, an infant may sleep up to 18-20 hours, whereas someone more than 80 years may need only a few hours of sleep. Lack of recommended 7 to 8 hours (for an adult).

  • The long-term effects of sleep deprivation can drain mental abilities and affect physical health, varying from weight gain to a weakened immune system. Long-term sleep deprivation also increases the risk for chronic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, stroke, and heart disease.
  • Lack of sleep affects the two types of hormones one is leptin and the other is ghrelin. Talking about Leptin which tells the brain that you’ve had enough to eat. Due to not getting proper sleep your brain reduces leptin and raises ghrelin, which is an appetite stimulant.
  • It is also found that sleep deprivation can lowers the body’s tolerance for glucose and is associated with insulin resistance, which can control feelings of hunger and fullness. Also, these disruptions can lead to diabetes mellitus and obesity.

Causes of sleep deprivation:

  • Disturbances in physical or mental health can cause sleep problems. Also, unsuitable bedroom environments like the extremes of temperature, noise level, or improper lighting can contribute to sleep deprivation.
  • Drinking an excessive amount of caffeine, stimulant medication, smoking and alcohol can adversely impact sleep.
  • Certain mental health conditions like anxiety disorder, depression, substance misuse can cause insomnia.
  • A night-time breathing disorder called obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can interrupt sleep and lower the quality of sleep. It is a common condition mainly seen in obese people. Common symptom is of loud snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness.

Consequences of Sleep Deprivation:

The effects of sleep deprivation and sleep deficiency can be serious and far-reaching.

  • Diabetes: Insufficient sleep appears to affect the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar, increasing the risk of metabolic conditions like diabetes.
  • Obesity: Research has found that people tend to consume more calories and carbohydrates. when they don’t get enough sleep, which is just one of several ways that poor sleep may be tied to obesity and problems maintaining a healthy weight. 
  • Immunodeficiency: Sleep deficiency has been shown to lead to worsened immune function, including a poorer response to vaccines.
  • Mental health disorders: Sleep and mental health are closely intertwined, and poor sleep has strong assoiations with conditions like depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder.

Symptoms and signs:

  • irritability, lack of concentration
  • daytime fatigue
  • increased accidents
  • excessive daytime sleepiness
  • frequent yawning


The asleep study is a useful diagnostic tool performed at home to aid the exact cause of sleep problems. The treatment will depend on the cause. Sleep hygiene is an important aspect of the treatment and most of these are simple, yet very effective self-help measures.

  • Maintain bedtime routine by sleeping and waking at the same time
  • Ensure that the room environment is conducive to sleep
  • Stick to your bedtime routine during weekends and holidays
  • Avoid daytime naps
  • Say no to caffeine past 4 pm
  • Avoiding heavy meals within a few hours before bedtime
  • Avoid using electronic devices at least 2 hours before bedtime
  • Exercise regularly, but not 3 hours before bedtime
  • Reduce alcohol intake

If the above measures fail to improve the sleep problem, then a combination of psychological counselling using cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and a short course of medication is recommended. The choice of medication will depend on the underlying cause of sleep deprivation. Long-term sleeping pills or sedatives have a negative impact on sleep which may lead to further mental health complications.



The abnormal growth of cells anywhere in the body causes cancer. These cells are called cancer cells. These cells destroy the normal tissues in the body. Normal body cells grow, divide and die in an orderly way whereas cancer cells continue to grow and divide in a disorderly fashion and these cells do not die. These cells form a tumor. But, not all cancer cells form tumors. Cancer can occur at any age but 67% of cancer deaths occur in people who are 65 years. There are two types of tumors. Malignant tumors and benign tumors. Malignant tumors spread to other parts of the body at a rapid speed. It spreads to other parts through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. Whereas benign tumors stay in one place and start to grow slowly and expand in the same tissue. Although cancer is common, 5-10% of it can be hereditary, i.e they are inherited from their parents. The inherited cells undergo mutation and cause cancer.


There are several causes of cancer. The substance that causes cancer is known as a carcinogen. This carcinogen affects the normal growth of cells.

Lifestyle factors: Smoking, drinking alcohol and drugs high fat-diet, and working with some toxic chemicals are the risk factors that may cause cancer in adults.

Inheritance: Cancer cells can also be inherited from our past generation to the present generation in some cases. It may be caused by a genetic mutation, exposure to chemicals in the living residence, or a combination of these factors. 

Genetic disorders: Some syndromes like Wiskott-Aldrich and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes are responsible for altering the immune system. The immune system helps to fight back against diseases and infections. Sometimes the stem cells in the bone marrow become damaged and when they reproduce, it results in the growth of cancer cells. The stem cells are damaged by some inherited genetic defects.

Environmental exposure: The use of pesticides and fertilizers in the growth of food plants have a direct link to childhood cancers. There is also evidence of cancer occurring in a child who lives in a polluted environment.


Cancers are classified into four types based on where it is found.

  1. Carcinomas: This type of cancer appears in the epithelial tissues of the skin or some inner tissues of the internal organs. Carcinomas may spread to other parts of the body or it may develop in the same tissues where it was provided. The risk of carcinoma increases with age, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, exposure to ultraviolet rays. Examples of carcinomas include breast cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, and prostate cancer.
  2. Sarcomas: Sarcomas appears in the tissues that support and connect the body. Sarcomas can develop in fat, joints, blood vessels, muscles, nerves, lymph vessels, bones, cartilages. Example: Bone cancer (osteosarcoma), liposarcoma in fat, and rhabdomyosarcoma in muscles. Sarcoma occurs in both children and adults.
  3. Leukemia: Cancer that occurs in the blood is known as leukemia. Leukemia involves white blood cells (WBCs). WBCs are responsible for fighting against infection and diseases. Normally they grow in an orderly fashion. But in the case of leukemia, the bone marrow produces more amount of WBCs, and those cells do not function properly. Example: Blood cancer.
  4. Lymphomas: It begins from the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system consists of vessels and glands that help in fighting against infection. The most common types of lymphomas are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.


Some of the cancers will have only one treatment. But most of the cancers have combinations of treatment such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.

Chemotherapy: In this treatment, drugs are used to kill the cancer cells. The disadvantage is that it may also affect the normal cells and bone marrow and causes loss of hair and loss of weight and it reduces the immune responses.

Radiotherapy: In this treatment, high-energy rays are used to kill the cancer cells. These rays stop the growth and division of cancer cells. Some of the side effects are skin rashes, lowers WBCS count, and loss of appetite.

Surgery: In this treatment, the person has to undergo the surgery to remove the entire mass of cancer cells i.e, tumors in a particular area. In some cases, the only way to know if the person has cancer or what kind of cancer he has is by removing small tissue from the tumor and testing it.  


  • Always eat healthy foods. 
  • Consume more vegetables and fruits. 
  • Exercise regularly to keep your body fit and free from diseases. 
  • Don’t smoke and don’t drink alcohol. 
  • Minimize your exposure to harmful rays and chemicals. 
  • Avoid usage of tobacco. Reduce your exposure to the sun.
  • Consume nuts reduces the risk of cancer

We should follow preventive measures to avoid cancer. If already cancer has occurred, one has to undergo proper treatment.

Under Taliban, Afghanistan is the location of worldwide jihad

India because of its geological area, local foes, vote based nation and culture will confront expanded radicalisation and will be the ideal objective of fear alongside the US, Europe and Australia.

US President Joe Biden has waded into controversy with dread when he asserted job well done in his August 20 discourse subsequent to assuming praise for the obliteration of al Qaeda in Afghanistan and 2011 balance of Osama canister Laden in Pakistan. The pusillanimous retreat of the US powers from Afghanistan, abandoning the two weapons and men, is out and out a servile acquiescence on account of shalwar-kameez-shoe wearing AK-47 rifle-hauling Sunni Islamic local army. The tragic part is that the Taliban didn’t convey a take out punch, the US powers just decided to flee from the war zone. The deficiency of the US validity all around the world on the guidance of its second-division partner UK with the Pakistan armed force, of the multitude of individuals, going about as a merchant in the awful arrangement with the Taliban, will work out in the coming decade with blameless people addressing the cost of fear.

While al Qaeda might not have the hierarchical design of the earlier decade in Afghanistan, the Salafi association with its philosophical sibling, Lashkar-e-Taiba in Pakistan, is particularly alive in the Af-Pak locale. So is the Islamic State of Khorasan Province. The Taliban alongside Haqqani Network and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) share a similar Deobandi philosophical stage, which gets enlivened from Wahhabism. Also, the point of every one of these young men, as the hallucinating UK head of protection staff Nick Carter characterized the Taliban, is the foundation of the Islamic Caliphate and worldwide jihad.

With the Taliban presently involving 652,000 square kilometers of Afghanistan Emirates an area notwithstanding Panjshir Valley, the worldwide jihad currently has a location in Kandahar with a display area in Kabul. This second is much the same as the Islamic State catching Mosul in Iraq in 2014 and the world particularly the Yazidis Shias actually have bad dreams of those fierce days.

While the US might have washed its hands off playing the worldwide cop and offered need to sexual orientation legislative issues, Afghanistan under the Taliban will be the signal of jihad and will turn into the electrifying power for other firearm carrying non-state entertainers to take on their administrations especially in Africa and Asia. A feeble Taliban might drive duplicate the clout of its tutor Pakistan yet a solid Taliban will press for Pashtun rights far past the Durand Line and destabilize Islamabad. A comparative gradually expanding influence will likewise be found in the Middle East with increment Islamic radicalisation from one side of the planet to the other.

Despite the fact that the US and the UK accept the Taliban account that they won’t trade fear to a third country for acknowledgment and assets, Afghanistan will turn into the new dread industrial facility with in excess of 40 dread gatherings in Pakistan sending their framework for graduation with best in class US weapons, specialized gadgets, robots and helicopters. With Baloch agitators and Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan previously focusing on the Chinese specialists chipping away at the CPEC project, there is no Xinjiang protection strategy for Beijing as well. Shia Iran will be protected till such time it makes a move with the Taliban and permits entry to Sunni jihadists as it did previously. As Islamic gatherings are known to go through transformation, it is very clear that new psychological militant gatherings, replacements of Harkat-ul-Ansar and HUJI during the 1990s, will bring forth from Afghanistan under the watch of the Taliban. India by its topographical area, territorial enemies, vote based nation, and culture will be the initial ones to get hit. The world has abruptly lost craving for Rambo and US Seal Hollywood films.


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Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.

– Buddha


Anger refers to a feeling of annoyance, vexation, or hostility that sprouts due to some apparent provocation. Anger is actually one of the elemental feelings that a human being experiences. According to Psychology Today, “Anger is one of the basic human emotions, as elemental as happiness, sadness, anxiety, or disgust.”

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Further,” Anger too easily or frequently mobilized can undermine relationships or damage physical health in the long term. Prolonged release of the stress hormones that accompany anger can destroy neurons in areas of the brain associated with judgment and short-term memory, and weaken the immune system.”

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Anger can obviously have series of serious ramifications. Uncontrolled outbursts can affect the overall well being of an individual seriously, including physically, mentally and socially.

Anger can be a serious character flaw on part an individual, reflecting upon a person’s personality.

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Anger may be chronic or fleeting. People with chronic anger obviously require thorough medical intervention but people who suffer anger outbursts in bouts also need proper consultation and treatment to overcome it.

Although, anger is an elemental emotion and very common in people, frequent and severe outbursts or chronic anger symptoms are obvious causes for concern.

Anger has various ramifications and effects on the body.

Health Effects of Anger

System/ FunctionResponse of the bodyLong term effects
Circulatory systemIncreases constriction rate and outputHardening of arteries, elevated blood pressure, heart damage
Digestive systemDecreases digestionUlcers and cancer
Endocrine systemRelease of norepinephrine, cortisol and adrenalineDamage to liver, kidneys, adrenal glands
Immune systemsuppressedLower protection from cancer and infections
EnergyIncreased release of glucose/ fat into the bloodDamage to artery walls, liver and kidneys
Nervous systemChanges in focus, attention Anxiety, depression

Causes of Anger

Anger can be triggered due to different causes in different individuals. Usually a series of internal and external factors play out together to cause an anger outburst. Provocations lead to angry thoughts and angry actions which burst forth in a fierce manner of ‘rage’.

Some common provocative triggers are:

Internal or External events (triggering):

Some events bring forth a huge outpour of anger. Such events are associated with some sort of trigger that provokes a person’s mind.

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These events could be simple everyday events and people in your life. You could be angry at a co- worker or miss a flight or a traffic jam can bring your blood to boil. These might even seem unreasonable or petty to other people but are a huge bottleneck towards your social well being.

Incomplete Goals:

Since humans have different and numerous goals, and desires and work in different capacities to fulfil them, prevention or incomplete attaining of goals can be a significant external trigger for some people. The anger and loathing borne of incomplete goals and desires could last a very very long period of time and can dampen an individual’s future accomplishments.

Past Hurts and Guilts:

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Overthinking over past heartaches and mistakes can be an active trigger for anxiety as well as anger. Traumatic events leave behind indelible scars that have to be tended throughout life. Anger, in such cases, is a means of expressing what breaks one on the inside.

Demands and Expectations:

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Unreasonable or sometimes even reasonable expectations leave our brain in a jumbled mess. Dealing with burdens of expectation can be hard. Sometimes, meeting even the everyday demands and expectations that are required of us leave us simmering, this may lead to an outburst.

Physical and Mental attacks:

Physical and mental derogatory jibes may one of the most common trigger for anger, Getting angry in face of such a situation, for once, is perhaps even justified. Humans are beings of sentiments, anger is one of the most pronounced sentiment. Undue hate or disrespect may lead to seething anger.

Anger Management

It is extremely important to seek professional help for uncontrolled anger. According to Mayo Clinic anger management involves:

1. Think before you speak

2. Once you’re calm, express your anger

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3. Get some exercise

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4. Take a timeout

5. Identify possible solutions

6. Stick with ‘I’ statements

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7. Don’t hold a grudge

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8. Use humor to release tension

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9. Practice relaxation skills

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10. Know when to seek help

citation(s): https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/anger-management/art-20045434

Don’t know what to gift your bookish friend?

Question of the Day – Are you ready for Monday? How was your week?

“Books are uniquely portable magic.”

Special occasions are named special as it means something to us, makes us happy, and feel blessed. On such special occasions, we gift our close ones to show our love. Who doesn’t love gifts!?

“There are exactly as many special occasions in life as we choose to celebrate.”

Gifts make us burst in joy. When gifted we feel important, valued, remembered and happy. It strengthens the bond between people. Here is a list of items that can make a bookworm the happiest

  • Books! Of course, you can gift books any day, anytime. Books are the top best gift for booklovers. You must know their favourite genre, author and their book collection. If not, I have a backup plan. You can gift them the below items.

Mason jars can be used for domestic purposes too. They are used to drink hot water, juices, smoothies, and milkshakes. If you feel the toxic elements in plastics are dangerous in the long run, you can choose mason jars.



Most readers love to have a hot beverage while reading. There are super cute, adorable mugs on various platforms. Mugs are affordable and often used.



I have posted an article about kindles, do check it out for more information. You can gift them either a kindle device or pay for a kindle unlimited subscription. Kindles are a travel-friendly e-reader.




The pencils are made of recycled paper. They are special as it contains seed to plant. The notepad is made of handmade paper. We can bring a smile to their face and protect our environment.



As per your friend’s book collection, you can get them a bookshelf. They are spacious and large. Most of the book lovers dreams are to get a huge bookshelf and turn our home into a library.



While travelling readers use to carry books with them. Just in case, we need an escape from reality. Book sleeves are used to avoid book damages. They protect the book’s edges from creasing. Book sleeves have pretty prints on them which makes them look elegant. Some sleeves are made of gorgeous printed cloths.





Why not make our books personalized? Book stamps are the best way to personalise books. They can be customised, affordable and adorable. Stamp studio. co is one of the Instagram pages which sells customizable stamps.



On Instagram, we can find plenty of pages that sell candles. One such page is Candlesindia.in, they are organic and exquisite.



How many of us have read a book just for the cover? There are stunning covers of books a reader would like to keep close. These cute little posters can be a great decor piece. Rad house posters is an Instagram page that helps us decorate our dream reading corner by selling these posters. They are customizable!


Now, go get your reader-friend a cute gift for their special days. I believe then they would love you a little extra. Let me know in the comments you’re favourite bookish merchandise.

Disclaimer – Picture credits go to the respective owners.

Source – Amazon and Instagram.

Thank you!

Things to do when you are bored

There are times when you feel like doing nothing. You just want to sit there and stare at the wall. It feels like the time stopped flying. When you encounter such situations where you literally have nothing to do but you want to actually do something, there are certain things you can try to pass the time. I will give some ideas on how you can utilize that time to spend it in a better way.


Journaling is the act of writing about you or anything you like. It is used to express your thoughts or get your negative thoughts out on a diary. Journaling is a habit that we will pick up at some point in our life. I would say it is a great practice that one should do whenever they get time. It helps you clear your mind, a piece of paper will act as your friend to whom you can express everything, pour everything and clear your mind. If you are stuck without knowing what to do, go and take a notebook or paper and start writing about your life or about how you feel at the moment. Writing organizes your thoughts and paves way to new thoughts in your mind.


You ever think that you don’t have time to organize your work or plan your schedule beforehand? This free time is what will help you with your plan. Whenever you find yourself bored, make a todo list and plan your schedule. Plan the next day and organize your work. This is a great use of time and you are also being ready for your upcoming works.

Learn something new

Learning or picking up a new habit when you are free is going to help you for a long time. It can be very small thing or it can be a long time thing to do whenever you are bored. Learning language will make you exercise your brain. Your knowledge in language expands, which will help you somewhere in future. Apps like Duolingo works best for learning short phrases and words. It will also help you pass time without getting bored.

One more tip I would give is that when you are busy and something pops in your head. Let’s say you are watching a series and you want to know the meaning of some word or phrase, quickly note it in a paper or mobile notes. You can utilize this free time to go through that work. It can be anything little that you postpone to do later, you simply note it down and do it when you are free.


What could be the best time to start working out than when you are extremely bored and looking for doing something interesting. Grab this time to start your workout and make it a habit. It is a really healthy habit and you are not wasting any time there.


Explore your hobbies. There may be hobbies that you left at some point of your life and you may want to pick it up. Start exploring your interests and start doing them when you are free. They are like helping hands when you are bored. Start exploring new things too and pick up new habits.


This is a simple article to give you ideas on the opportunities that are around you to learn because it is never over, we keep learning every single day. Using our time to do something useful gives immense happiness because of the fact that we are not simply sitting. Being productive every single day is a key to happiness and feeling good about yourself.

Future of EV in India

With the advent of Ola Electric scooter which has garnered over 1 lakh registrations in just one day ,makes us ponder upon of the most important questions – Has the change from fossil fuels to electric vehicles begun in India or is it just a fluke?

EV or electric vehicles are gaining popularity and market share everyday. Companies such as Tesla are now one of the largest automobile companies in the world. The west has started to shift to EV at a faster pace with some European countries having highest per capita EVs. But has the time come for India too? Granted EVs have their own set of problems which can be anything from range to charge time but with petrol prices touching Rs 110/L one can easily forgo the charge time.

EV industry is looking towards a brighter future in India as many Indian companies such as Tata Motors have launched their own vehicles and have received amazing sales. The global giant Tesla will soon be arriving in India as well with its most popular Model 3. But are only cars enough? India needs to do more. What India can triumph at is the electric two-wheeler industry as two-wheelers are still one the most popular means of travel in India and one of the major contributors to air pollution in our country.

India being one the most polluted countries need to change its outlook and start taking matters of vehicle pollution seriously. With 2/3rd of air pollution being done by two-wheelers , a shift in EVs can bring this down dramatically. This is when companies like Ather Energy ,Ola Electric ,Bajaj and TVS are coming into play with each company producing its own two-wheeler EV with Ola receiving more than 1 lakh registrations for its EV.

EV infrastructure- Infrastructure is one the most important aspects when we talk about growth of EVs as charging stations are not a common thing in India but are crucial to EVs. Without them one can say goodbye to long distance travels as EVs need to be charged before their battery runs out and you don’t want to be stuck in the middle of nowhere. We are making progress in this arena with govt. giving various incentives for charging stations and we are seeing emergence of various networks such as Ola Hypercharging stations for its two-wheeler market.

Last but not the least EVs are still very expensive even after being in the market for so many years. Just for instance the cheapest Tesla car , the Model 3 is expected to be priced around Rs 60 lakhs in India making it still unaffordable for most people. Same thing can be said about the two-wheelers with EVs being about twice as expensive as their gas counterparts.

But there is always a silver-lining that despite huge prices EVs are picking up in India , slowly but constantly and with more and more competition we can surely say that EVs have a bright future and we are on the right path.

Raksha Bandhan: The Power of a Thread.

by Yogiraj Sadaphal

“The best thing about having a sister was that I always had a friend”

– Cali Rae Turner.

Raksha Bandhan is not just a festival to tie a Rakhi on a brother’s hand, it is bond to show love between a Brother and a Sister & a Promise to be with her at any circumstances in life.


The history of Raksha Bandhan dates back to Hindu mythology. The origins of Raksha Bandhan can be traced back to the day Lord Krishna wounded his finger with the Sudarshan Chakra. Draupadi, the Pandavas’ wife, was in terrible pain when she saw him in distress, so she tore a piece of her vastra and tied it to Lord Krishna’s bleeding finger to relieve his pain and stop the blood from flowing. Lord Krishna was extremely touched by her gesture and promised to protect her from all the world’s evils in exchange. He called it the Raksha Sutra and, as we all know, when the Kauravas attempted to disrobe her in court, Lord Krishna blessed his sister and ensured that the sari she was wearing grew limitless in length. As he had promised, her brother saved her from the evils in this manner.


The festival’s significance can be understood from the fact that it deepens the bond between a brother and sister, which is a defining characteristic of Indian civilization. It is reported that queens used to gift Rakhi to their neighbors as a symbol of brotherhood in ancient times.

The significance of this event is so high that the postal service provides low-cost special envelopes in which Rakhis can be sent even farther brothers. Special trains are run by Indian Railways to commemorate the significance of this celebration.

Even though tying a Rakhi only takes a few minutes, the preparations are done weeks in advance. Sisters select unique Rakhis for their brothers well in advance of the event. In any case, a brother gets to reach his sister in time for the moment when his sister will tie the “holy thread” with an empty stomach.

Every member of the family gets up early to participate in the morning routines. For the pooja ritual, a special thali is prepared, which is elegantly decorated with ‘roli,’ rice grains, ‘diya,’ sweets, and rakhis. This festival also emphasizes the value of siblings growing up together.

Celebration in India:

A girl or a woman applies a tilak on her brother’s forehead and ties a rakhi around his wrist in a ritual that reaffirms her brother’s bond and support. She receives a present from her brother and entrusts them with the task of looking after her.

The roles can be reversed in a modern interpretation of this rite. For a day, the focus turns away from the religious side and toward a more playful sharing of presents as well as a mutual understanding of love!

If a child does not have an older brother, rakhis are occasionally attached to friends and distant relatives, especially in the case of single children. The essence of the rakhi remains the same, regardless of how it is carried out: it is related to someone who has been kind and nurturing towards you, constantly looking out for you; gender and relationships are secondary.


In folklore, a mermaid is an aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish. Mermaids appear in the folklore of many cultures worldwide, including Europe, Asia, and Africa.

In ancient Assyria, the goddess Atargatis transformed herself into a mermaid out of shame for accidentally killing her human lover. Mermaids are sometimes associated with perilous events such as floods, storms, shipwrecks, and drownings. In other folk traditions (or sometimes within the same traditions), they can be benevolent or beneficent, bestowing boons or falling in love with humans.

The male equivalent of the mermaid is the merman, also a familiar figure in folklore and heraldry. Although traditions about and sightings of mermen are less common than those of mermaids, they are generally assumed to co-exist with their female counterparts. The male and the female collectively are sometimes referred to as merfolk or merpeople.The conception of mermaids in the West may have been influenced by the Sirens of Greek mythology, which were originally half-birdlike, but came to be pictured as half-fishlike in the Christian era. Historical accounts of mermaids, such as those reported by Christopher Columbus during his exploration of the Caribbean, may have been sightings of manatees or similar aquatic mammals. While there is no evidence that mermaids exist outside folklore, reports of mermaid sightings continue to the present day.Mermaids have been a popular subject of art and literature in recent centuries, such as in Hans Christian Andersen’s literary fairy tale “The Little Mermaid” (1836). They have subsequently been depicted in operas, paintings, books, comics, animation, and live action films.

How are mermaids born..?

Mermaids would most likely have babies not by laying eggs, but by life-bearing them in the ocean similar to dolphins. This means mermaids would carry their babies in their wombs for 9-12 months and then give birth to them from the bottom side of their tails.

what is the legend of mermaids..?

Mermaids are mythological creatures, appearing in folklore across the globe for thousands of years. One of the oldest and most well-known myths comes from Ancient Greece. A popular legend claimed that Alexander the Great’s sister, Thessalonike, turned into a mermaid upon her death and lived in the

Who was the first person to see a mermaid..?

On this day in 1493, Italian explorer Christopher Columbus, sailing near the Dominican Republic, sees three “mermaids”–in reality manatees–and describes them as “not half as beautiful as they are painted.” Six months earlier, Columbus (1451-1506) set off from Spain across the Atlantic Ocean with the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria, hoping to find a western trade route to Asia. Instead, his voyage, the first of four he would make, led him to the Americas, or “New World.” Mermaids, mythical half-female, half-fish creatures, have existed in seafaring cultures at least since the time of the ancient Greeks. Typically depicted as having a woman’s head and torso, a fishtail instead of legs and holding a mirror and comb, mermaids live in the ocean and, according to some legends, can take on a human shape and marry mortal men. Mermaids are closely linked to sirens, another folkloric figure, part-woman, part-bird, who live on islands and sing seductive songs to lure sailors to their deaths. Mermaid sightings by sailors, when they weren’t made up, were most likely manatees, dugongs or Steller’s sea cows (which became extinct by the 1760s due to over-hunting). Manatees are slow-moving aquatic mammals with human-like eyes, bulbous faces and paddle-like tails. It is likely that manatees evolved from an ancestor they share with the elephant. The three species of manatee (West Indian, West African and Amazonian) and one species of dugong belong to the Sirenia order. As adults, they’re typically 10 to 12 feet long and weigh 800 to 1,200 pounds. They’re plant-eaters, have a slow metabolism and can only survive in warm water. Manatees live an average of 50 to 60 years in the wild and have no natural predators. However, they are an endangered species.


This is the last article in this series. This article is about another pre-trained CNN known as the ResNet along with an output visualization parameter known as the confusion matrix.


This is also known as a residual network. It has three variations 51,101,151. They used a simple technique to achieve this high number of layers.

Credit – Xiaozhu0429/ Wikimedia Commons / CC-BY-SA-4.0

The problem in using many layers is that the input information gets changed in accordance with each layer and subsequently, the information will become completely morphed. So to prevent this, the input information is sent in again like a recurrent for every two steps so that the layers don’t forget the original information. Using this simple technique they achieved about 100+ layers.

ResNet these are the three fundamentals used throughout the network.

  (conv1): Conv2d (3, 64, kernel_size= (7, 7), stride= (2, 2), padding= (3, 3))

  (relu): ReLU

  (maxpool): MaxPool2d(kernel_size=3, stride=2, padding=1)

These are the layers found within a single bottleneck of the ResNet.

    (0): Bottleneck

  1    (conv1): Conv2d(64, 64, kernel_size=(1, 1), stride=(1, 1))

  2    (conv2): Conv2d(64, 64, kernel_size=(3, 3), stride=(1, 1), padding=(1, 1))     

  3    (conv3): Conv2d(64, 256, kernel_size=(1, 1), stride=(1, 1))    

      (relu): ReLU(inplace=True)

   Down sampling   

   Conv2d(64, 256, kernel_size=(1, 1), stride=(1, 1))

    (1): Bottleneck

  4    (conv1): Conv2d(256, 64, kernel_size=(1, 1), stride=(1, 1))

  5    (conv2): Conv2d(64, 64, kernel_size=(3, 3), stride=(1, 1), padding=(1, 1))     

  6   (conv3): Conv2d(64, 256, kernel_size=(1, 1), stride=(1, 1))     

      (relu): ReLU(inplace=True)


    (2): Bottleneck

  7    (conv1): Conv2d(256, 64, kernel_size=(1, 1), stride=(1, 1))

  8    (conv2): Conv2d(64, 64, kernel_size=(3, 3), stride=(1, 1), padding=(1, 1))

  9   (conv3): Conv2d(64, 256, kernel_size=(1, 1), stride=(1, 1))

   (relu): ReLU

There are many bottlenecks like these throughout the network. Hence by this, the ResNet is able to perform well and produce good accuracy. As a matter of fact, the ResNet is the model which won the ImageNet task competition.

There are 4 layers in this architecture. Each layer has a bottleneck which comprises convolution followed by relu activation function. There are 46 convolutions, 2 pooling, 2 FC layers.

TypeNo of layers
7*7 convolution1
1*1, k=64 + 3*3, k=64+1*1, k=256 convolution9
1*1, k=128+ 3*3, k=128+1*1, k=512  convolution10
1*1, k=256+ 3*3, k=256 + 1*1, k=1024 convolution16
1 * 1, k=512+3 * 3, k=512+1 * 1, k=2048 convolution9
Pooling and FC4

There is a particular aspect apart from the accuracy which is used to evaluate the model, especially in research papers. That method is known as the confusion matrix. It is seen in a lot of places and in the medical field it can be seen in test results. The terms used in the confusion matrix have become popularized in the anti-PCR test for COVID.

The four terms used in a confusion matrix are True Positive, True Negative, and False positive, and false negative. This is known as the confusion matrix.

True positive- both the truth and prediction are positive

True negative- both the truth and prediction are negative

False-positive- the truth is negative but the prediction is positive

False-negative- the truth is positive but the prediction is false

Out of these the false positive is dangerous and has to be ensured that this value is minimal.

We have now come to the end of the series. Hope that you have got some knowledge in this field of science. Deep learning is a very interesting field since we can do a variety of projects using the artificial brain which we have with ourselves. Also, the technology present nowadays makes these implementations so easy. So I recommend all to study and do projects using these concepts. Till then,



This article is about one of the pre-trained CNN models known as the VGG-16. The process of using a pretrained CNN is known as transfer learning. In this case, we need not build a CNN instead we can use this with a modification. The modifications are:-

  • Removing the top (input) and bottom (output) layers
  • Adding input layer with size equal to the dimension of the image
  • Adding output layer with size equal to number of classes
  • Adding additional layers (if needed)

The pre-trained model explained in this article is called the VGGNet. This model was developed by the Oxford University researchers as a solution to the ImageNet task. The ImageNet data consists of 10 classes with 1000 images each leading to 10000 images in total.


I/p 1     2   3     4     5        6       7         8      9          10     11            12       13   o/p

Credit: – Nshafiei neural network in Machine learning  Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License.

This is the architecture for VGGNet. This has been found for the CIFAR-10 dataset, a standard dataset containing 1000 classes. This was used for multiclass classification. Some modifications are made before using it for detecting OA. The output dimension is changed into 1*1*2 and the given images must be reshaped to 224*224 since this dimension is compatible with VGGNet. The dimensions and other terms like padding, stride, number of filters, dimension of filter are chosen by researchers and found optimal. In general, any number can be used in this place.

The numbers given below the figure correspond to the layer number. So the VGGNet is 13 layered and is CNN till layer 10 and the rest are FNN.

Colour indexName

Computations and parameters for each layer


224*224 images are converted into a vector whose dimension is 224*224*3 based on the RGB value.

Layer 1-C1

This is the first convolutional layer. Here 64 filters are used.

Wi =224, P=1, S=1, K=64, f=3*3

Wo =224 (this is the input Wi for the next layer)

Dim= 224*224*64

Parameter= 64*3*3= 576

Layer 2-P1

This is the first pooling layer

 Wi =224, S=2, P=1, f=3

Wo=112 (this is the input Wi for the next layer)

Dim= 112*112*3

Parameter= 0

Layer 3-C2C3

Here two convolutions are applied. 128 filters are used.

Wi =112, P=1, S=1, K=64, f=3

Wo=112 (this is the input Wi for the next layer)

Dim= 112*112*128

Parameter= 128*3*3=1152

Layer 4- P2

Second pooling layer

Wi =112, P=1, S=2, f=3*3

Wo =56 (this is the input Wi for the next layer)

Dim= 56*56*3

Parameter= 0

Layer 5- C4C5C6

Combination of three convolutions

Wi =56, P=1, S=1, K=256, f=3*3

Wo = 56 (this is the input Wi for the next layer)

Dim= 224*224*64

Parameter= 64*3*3= 576

Layer 6-P3

Third pooling layer

Wi =56, P=1, S=2, f=3*3

Wo =28 (this is the input Wi for the next layer)

Dim= 28*28*3

Parameter= 0

Layer 7-C7C8C9

Combination of three convolutions

Wi =28, P=1, S=1, K=512, f=3*3

Wo =28 (this is the input Wi for the next layer)

Dim= 28*28*512

Parameter= 512*3*3= 4608

Layer 8-P4

Fourth pooling layer

Wi =28, P=1, S=2, f=3*3

Wo =14 (this is the input Wi for the next layer)

Dim= 14*14*3

Parameter= 0

Layer 9-C10C11C12

Last convolution layer, Combination of three convolutions

Wi =14, P=1, S=1, K=512, f=3*3

Wo =14 (this is the input Wi for the next layer)

Dim= 14*14*512

Parameter= 512*3*3= 4608

Layer 10-P5

Last pooling layer and last layer in CNN

Wi =14, P=1, S=2, f=3*3

Wo =7 (this is the input Wi for the next layer)

Dim= 7*7*3

Parameter= 512*3*3= 4608

With here the CNN gets over. So a complex 224*224*3 boil down to 7*7*3

Trends in CNN

As the layer number increases,

  1. The dimension decreases.
  2. The filter number increases.
  3. Filter dimension is constant.

In convolution

Padding of 1 and stride of 1 to transfer original dimensions to output

In pooling

Padding of 1 and stride of 2 are used in order to half the dimensions.

Layer 11- FF1

4096 neurons

Parameter= 512*7*7*4096=102M

Wo= 4096

Layer 12- FF2

4096 neurons

Wo= 4096

Parameter= 4096*4096= 16M

Output layer

2 classes

  • non-osteoarthritic
  • osteoarthritic

Parameter= 4096*2= 8192


LayerValue of parameters

It takes a very large amount of time nearly hours for a machine on CPU to learn all the parameters. Hence they came with speed enhancers like faster processors known as GPU Graphic Processing Unit which may finish the work up to 85% faster than CPU.