To Kill A Mocking Bird

To Kill a Mockingbird, novel by Harper Lee, published in 1960. Enormously popular, it was translated into some 40 languages and sold more than 30 million copies worldwide. In 1961 it won a Pulitzer Prize. The novel was praised for its sensitive treatment of a child’s awakening to racism and prejudice in the American South.

To Kill a mocking bird


To Kill a Mockingbird takes place in the fictional town of Maycomb, Alabama, during the Great Depression. The protagonist is Jean Louise (“Scout”) Finch, an intelligent though unconventional girl who ages from six to nine years old during the course of the novel. She is raised with her brother, Jeremy Atticus (“Jem”), by their widowed father, Atticus Finch. He is a prominent lawyer who encourages his children to be empathetic and just. He notably tells them that it is “a sin to kill a mockingbird,” alluding to the fact that the birds are innocent and harmless.

When Tom Robinson, one of the town’s Black residents, is falsely accused of raping Mayella Ewell, a white woman, Atticus agrees to defend him despite threats from the community. At one point he faces a mob intent on lynching his client but refuses to abandon him. Scout unwittingly diffuses the situation. Although Atticus presents a defense that gives a more plausible interpretation of the evidence—that Mayella was attacked by her father, Bob Ewell—Tom is convicted, and he is later killed while trying to escape custody. A character compares his death to “the senseless slaughter of songbirds.”

The trial

The children, meanwhile, play out their own miniaturized drama of prejudice and superstition as they become interested in Arthur (“Boo”) Radley, a reclusive neighbour who is a local legend. They have their own ideas about him and cannot resist the allure of trespassing on the Radley property. Their speculations thrive on the dehumanization perpetuated by their elders. Atticus, however, reprimands them and tries to encourage a more sensitive attitude. Boo makes his presence felt indirectly through a series of benevolent acts, finally intervening when Bob Ewell attacks Jem and Scout. Boo kills Ewell, but Heck Tate, the sheriff, believes it is better to say that Ewell’s death occurred when he fell on his own knife, sparing the shy Boo from unwanted attention. Scout agrees, noting that to do otherwise would be “sort of like shootin’ a mockingbird.”





Factors Affecting Microbial Growth in Food:

(a). Intrinsic Factor

These are factors that exist as part of the food product itself. For example, fish have certain characteristics that may promote the growth of microorganism. The common intrinsic factors that affect the growth and multiplication of microorganisms in foods are: pH, water activity, oxidation reduction potential, nutrient content, antimicrobial contents, biological structure.

(b). Extrinsic Factor

This are factors in the environment external to the food, which affect both the microorganisms and the food itself during processing and storage. Extrinsic factors include temperature, humidity and gases.

Extrinsic Factor


• The growth of microorganisms is affected by the environmental temperatures.

• Various microorganisms are able to grow at certain temperatures and not others.

• Bacteria can therefore be divided into the following groups depending upon their optimum temperature of growth includes: Psychrophilic, Mesophilic, Thermophilic bacteria.

1. Psychrophilic Bacteria

These are microorganisms that grow at low temperatures (0-20°C), 15°C optimum. Example; Bacillus Pschrophilus etc. psychrophiles are the major course of refrigerated food spoilage.

2. Mesophilic Bacteria

They grow best at room temperature. They have optima around 20- 45°C and often have a temperature minimum of 15 to 20°C and a maximum of about 45°C. Most human pathogens fall under this group because of the normal 37°C body temperature.

3. Thermophilic Bacteria

They grow at high temperatures (Between 55°C and 85°C), optima between 55°C and 66°C. Hyperthermophiles are those organisms that usually have optima between 85°C and about 113°C. Temperature is of paramount importance in food safety because if the growth temperature ranges for dangerous microorganisms are known, it helps in employing appropriate production temperature and time for foods that require heating. It also aids in selecting the proper temperature for food storage to make them less able to grow and reproduce.


Some microorganisms require oxygen in order to grow and multiply. Such organisms are called aerobic microorganisms. An example is Escherichia coli; On the other hand, there are some microorganisms that grow without oxygen, called anaerobic microorganisms. For example Clostridium botulinum, this bacterium causes botulism in very low oxygen environments as is in canned foods. Obligate aerobe: are those that completely depends on atmospheric oxygen for growth e.g. protists and fungi.

Organisms can be classified based on oxygen requirements as follows;

Facultative anaerobe: are those that do not require oxygen for growth but grows better in its presence e.g. Escherichia, Enterococcus.

Aerotolerant anaerobe: grow equally well in the presence of oxygen e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes.

Obligate anaerobe: does not tolerate oxygen and dies in its presence e.g. Clostridium, Bacteroides

Obligate aerobe: grow only in the presence of oxygen.

Microaerophile: requires oxygen level between 2 10% for growth and is damage by atmospheric oxygen levels (20%) e.g. Campylobacter, Spirillum volutans.


An important factor for the growth of microorganisms at the food surfaces is the humidity of the storage environment. Dry conditions are devoid of water for microbial activities referred to as water activity and thus better for food storage than moist conditions. Foods stored in a dry atmosphere, therefore, have a longer shelf life than foods stored in a humid environment. For example, dry grains stored in an environment with high humidity will take up water and undergo mould spoilage.


Hi beautiful’ s ,
Another day and another content. Today my day went well, hope so Yours too went well. If not,‘THAT’S OKAY’, today you did a great job and you gave your best. So, stop stressing yourself.
You know what, the word “that’s okay” Do have a great Power.

Whenever your mom feels down and depressed, just go to her and say “That’s okay mom, you are the best, you are doing great, you are really giving your best.” Cheerio!!. This word from you will definitely put a smile on her face and you are giving her the strength to face the tough.

Whenever your dad feels stressed with too many commitments just go to him and say “That’s okay dad, you are the best, you are doing great, you are really giving your best.” Cheerio!!. For sure, you will bring a smile on his face and you are automatically boosting his strength.

Whenever your sibling’s feels stressed or very low or lost just go to him/her and say “That’s okay, you are the best, you are doing great, you are really giving your best.” Cheerio!!. After all a supportive and sweet word from a sibling will give great comfort.

Whenever your friend is upset and broken just go to him/her and say “That’s okay, you are the best, you are doing great, you are really giving your best.” Cheerio!!. And we know how much a friend’s word can boost us. So, by saying this you can bring them back.

Not only to Known person, you can even say this word “that’s okay” To your neighbour, colleague, other family members too.

After all, don’t forget to say these words to your own self. As, not everyday goes well, you will be in need of these words, so keep on saying these words.

In life, some days may be difficult, hard to handle, even you might feel suffocated, but do remember one thing, so far you did great and you are doing good, for sure you can overcome this too. So, stop worrying and keep going.

Words can change a person’s life. So, try to pour sweet and tendering words.

Have a sweet day.

Keep smiling ❣️❣️❣️


Tea might be native to China , but the entire world relishes this beverage . Each country has its unique way of preparing and consuming tea. Here is how tea is consumed around the globe ,

CHINA – China is the country who introduced tea to the world . It is believed that Chinese emperor Shennong when consuming hot water noticed that dried leaf had fell from a plant and his water tasted really good , and that is how tea was discovered . China has a wide variety of tea leaves from which they make their tea.

TAIWAN – People in Taiwan enjoy bubble tea , which is a fairly modern innovation . It is an iced tea served with tapioca pearls . Bubble tea sure has a lot of calories , but it is worth the calorie gain.

JAPAN – Matcha tea is the most popular form of tea in Japan . This tea became very popular back in the 11th century when Zen buddhist monks had to stay awake all night .

MOROCCO – Touareg or mint tea is the most popular type of tea that is consumed in Morocco . It is made with steeping tea and spearmint leaves . Moroccan tea is served in a tall glass , usually over three servings .

Robots – Basic research

Robotics is a combination of the two academic disciplines which are computer science and engineering. Robotics field includes design, construction and operation of robots. Robots are designed for particular purposes and they are programmed with necessary requirements to do the given work. The ultimate motive of robotics is to create machines that can perform humanly activities and assist humans. Despite of these two academic disciplines, robotics combines many fields of engineering like computer engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, information engineering, software engineering mathematics etc.

They are mainly used in manufacturing industries to do repetitive activities. They are also used in dangerous environments nowadays such as bomb detection, bomb deactivation etc.


Initially robots were designed to do a particular work which was hard for humans to do. But as of now there are many industries that make use of robots for various types of work where one kind of robot is particularly designed do that particular work and not anything else. So this can be classified into many sectors. They are,

  • Military robots – These robots are used for many military applications. Some applications are detection of explosive materials, Sniper detection, surveillance etc.
  • Industrial robots – These robots are used in industries with manufacturing works where the machine would do repetitive human tasks. They also reduce the use of labors in the factory. Robots are increasingly used in this field.
  • Agricultural robots – These robots are deployed for the purpose of agriculture. In this field also, robots replace humans by doing their tasks like seeding, harvesting, soil analysis. Initially, agricultural robots were invented with the motive for deploying it in the harvesting stage.
  • Medical robots – It is a risky field to deploy robots to perform medical tasks.
    •  The da Vinci Surgical Robot – There has been many deaths in the US due to surgical errors. In order to avoid it, surgical robots are used. The da Vinci surgical robot is a multiarmed robot used during surgeries. The arms of the robot is nothing but various tiny, accurate precision instruments that can be used during surgeries in order to decrease surgical error deaths. Surgeons make use of this multiarmed robot, move the hands and perform surgery. It also has great range of motion.
    • The Xenex Germ-Zapping Robot – This is another robot that is used in hospitals. Hospital acquired infections has became a thing now, and it requires a proper solution to avoid it. This robot is used to clean and disinfect the hospital rooms by using pulsed, full spectrum UV rays. The Xenex germ-zapping robot is as important and useful as the da Vinci surgical robot. These are just two examples but there are many other robots that are used in the medical field.
  • Domestic robots – As the name suggests domestic robots are robots designed for domestic purposes to perform simple household activities. Some examples are ironing robots, robotic vacuum cleaner, robotic lawn mower. These are not those kind of robots used for sensitive and dangerous situations but simple robots that just replaces humans with household works.


  • Robots are meant to replace humans but it not just replace humans but does the work better and faster than humans.
  • They are predictable as they don’t have emotions. They are programmed to behave in a certain way so we know what we can expect while humans on the other hand are complex creatures.
  • They don’t take rest. As long as the power source for the robot is available, the robot can’t refuse to do a certain work.


  • The advantages may turn as a disadvantage at times, robots work without taking rest as long as it has it’s power source. But what if there is not power, that is when we become helpless, without it the robot is just a machine that does nothing.
  • They are programmed in a certain way and that is a disadvantage too. Because the robot can’t behave beyond what is programmed, it sticks to it’s job which may lead to failures when the situation becomes way different than what is programmed.
  • They are expensive. There is a lot of work done behind a robot and it is way more expensive than we think. If it was cheap we would be having robots all over the world.

What does billionaire space race tells us?

Richard Branson on July 11 , Jeff Bezos today , what do these 15 minutes trip to space tell us? Is it the of start space tourism which is anticipated to be worth more than $100 Billion?

The world’s richest are making rockets and flying on it to space for 10-15 minutes to establish global dominance in space tourism and making a live example out of themselves to further boost their companies position in the race – Virgin Galactic , Blue Origin to name a few. This can be marked as the start of space tourism with recent data suggesting that over 39% of the world rich would take a space flight and spend over $250,000 for a trip to space.

But this space race has one major problem – CLIMATE IMPACT. Let’s be serious , we all know that carbon emission nowadays are breaking records and major climate change impacts can be in various parts of the world which can be anything from heat wave in Canada killing more than 500 people or the floods in Germany displacing entire towns – you name it! Just as the world is trying to find ways to curb the emissions – literally finding any area that can be utilized to fight climate change do we really need rockets which produce more carbon-dioxide per capita than any other thing and/or product there is.

Look , I am not saying space travel is bad , it is literally one of the first thing most of us as kids imagine doing in the future and we should reach for the stars but let’s be realistic and face the reality – Earth is not getting better with average global temperatures rising , ice-sheets melting , oceans on fire due to oil leaks so it is about time global companies came up and started taking responsibilities for their actions and act in a manner that good for not just the society but also for the planet as well.

Wealthy showing off their wealth just to go 100 kilometers above the surface of the Earth is really the last thing we need right now if we are talking about saving the planet. It is anticipated that Virgin Galactic is planning more than 400 space flights each year , each of those flights will produce , more than 4-5 times nitrogen oxides than the largest thermal powerplant in UK – Drax and more than 50-100 CO2 emissions than an average long-haul flight. Multiply that with 400 and you will get yearly data for these emissions which needless to say is a lot , and that’s just one company. We already have three companies fighting for space tourism industry , 300-400 flights each year by all the companies , one can only imagine the impact on the climate and that too just for one year. Imagine 10 years of continuous flights – where would it lead us?

In the end I can only say that either we need find an alternate mode of fuel for these rockets – nuclear maybe or we need to ponder upon and think about our future course of action and where would it lead us and this planet as a whole.

Strengths and weaknesses.

Follow this To identify your strength and weakness.

  • listen to feedback.
  • Consider your passions.
  • Pay attention to when you are most productive.
  • Seek out new experiences.

Listen to Feedback

You can develop a more accurate self-perception by listening to what others have to say about you and your work. One of the most reliable sources for what you do best is the opinions of people who work with you regularly. Pay attention when coworkers mention your positive traits and give you feedback about your work performance. Think about what aspects of your work receive the most compliments and determine which personality traits or skills allow you to complete those tasks.

Seek out new experience

Fostering self-awareness is based heavily on your life experiences, so trying new skills, hobbies and activities is essential for identifying your strengths. Regularly seek out professional development opportunities and take risks by asking to collaborate on projects outside of your usual skill set. You can seek out new experiences by taking classes, asking coworkers if you can shadow them, learning new technical skills and taking on leadership roles in new areas. You may be surprised at what strengths you discover by taking the risk of trying something new in the workplace.

Consider your passion.

When you enjoy doing something, it is often easier to hone your skills in that area and develop them into some of your key strengths. Think about what you most enjoy doing and spend time practicing those activities, paying extra attention to the broad skills that you use during each activity. While some people are naturally talented in certain areas, anyone can grow their strengths with time. Understanding your natural talents and passions can help you determine where you are most willing to put in the work to become an expert.

Pay attention

While you may be able to get a good idea of your strengths by paying close attention to feedback, asking your friends or colleagues about your strengths can give you additional insights that you may not have noticed otherwise. Seek out opinions from a variety of different sources, such as a manager, a coworker or even someone you supervise. People who work with you in different capacities will be able to point out your strengths and give concrete examples with valuable context.Consider asking others to write a list of your key strengths in the workplace, then looking for commonalities on those lists to identify your most prominent workplace strengthself-perception by listening to what others have to say about you.

Throughout your day-to-day activities, make note of how long different tasks take and how productive you are during that time. If it feels like time is passing quickly and you accomplish a lot in a short period of time, you are likely using some of your biggest strengths. Make a list of when you feel the most focused, and consider what characteristics motivate you during those times. Conversely, if you notice that time drags on during certain tasks, think about what makes you feel less motivated so that you can either avoid those situations or actively try to grow those skills.


India is a country with an  ancient clothing design tradition, yet an rising fashion industry. Fashion are often stylish , trendy or classic but never stagnant. It’s ever evolving, ever changing to give us a glimpse of what’s occurring within the world in and around us.

Fashion doesn’t  exist independently. It’s history is entwined with art, culture, industrial and social modification  of that decade. Whether it’s a shift in social and political scenarios or emergence of art movements, pop-culture or technological innovations, fashion has continuously emerged as a storyteller of that time.

“India”, a land so known for amalgamation of cultures, has always been an inspiration to textile and fashion designers in our country. Right from the fascinating kanjeevaram silks from Kanchipuram, the brilliant brocades from Banaras, the intricately woven Patolas of Patan, the colourful tie-dyes and leheriyas of Rajasthan to the gorgeous Kalamkari paintings from Andhra Pradesh, designers have gone back to take inspiration from these ancient craft forms. India accounts for approximately 95%  of the world’s handmade textiles, heartening statistics indeed considering that our ancient heritage craft, weave and a textile particular to each region.


Archana Rao:

Archana Rao played with silhouettes, colours and embroideries in her collection ( The Wildflower). Featuring flirty and fun tulle ruffle skirts, edgy Khaki trench coats, dainty sarees and elegant tea-length dresses with a corset, the entire collection was handmade from recycled and upcycled fabrics.

Gauri and Nainika collection:

Free-spirited and utterly feminine, Gauri and Nainika collection included a wide range of wartime inspired demure pencil dresses, wrap dresses with polka dots and shirt dresses. Vintage colour palette of scarlet red, bottle green and classic black took centre-stage to build the visual narrative.


Anita Dongre is a well known indian fashion designer.Her signature style showed an affinity for indigenous craft tradition, coupled with a modern aesthetic that soon made Anita Dongre one of India’s leading fashion designers. Anita Dongre believes that fashion plays a defining role in enhancing a person’s confidence and sense of self.

This vibrant summer kurta with a delicate keyhole neckline is the ideal balance of style and comfort.

An alluring kurta set with bright color inspired by ornate floral inlays. A notched neckline, wrist-length sleeves, flowing pants and a light organza dupatta make the regal look complete. 


India is a land of festivities, weddings and celebrations, you would want to keep a close watch on the trends in the traditional Indian bridal wear.

Falguni and Shane Peacock:

Mermaid gowns featuring Indian chikankari and other embroideries done of delicate fabrics, in case you were looking for a dramatic gown for your wedding, Falguni and Shane Peacock is your label. And that’s not it, from rhinestones to feathers, there is nothing that is out of bounds for the duo.

Sabyasachi Mukherjee:

A global luxury designer label that seamlessly blends traditional techniques with modern designs.Bridal designer Sabyasachi Mukherjee celebrated plus – size fashion in his spring/summer 2020 collection campaign making it a part of the wider movement in Indian fashion in order to make it more inclusive in terms of size and skin tone.

Hot pink lehenga with all-over floral motif resham, sequin work. Comes with fabric  blouse  & embroidered dupatta.


For the  wedding, Mira Rajput wore a stunning purple lehenga that featured an intricate gold floral embroidery all over and a scalloped-edged blouse with a front tie-up detail. The heavy-duty wedding look by Jayanti Reddy is a masterpiece on its own.

Manish Malhotra:

is a former Indian fashion designer turned  costume designer and stylist, widely known for his works in BollywoodTelugu cinemaTamil cinemaHollywood, and television. In 1998, he ventured into modelling and runway fashion designing with his couture Reverie-Manish Malhotra.

Celebrating the occasion called “Life” Manish Malhotra’s latest collection “Ruhaniyat” was the designer’s tribute to artisans and craftsmen as his association with the Mijwan Foundation completed 10 years.

Inspired by the historical cultures of Punjab and Awadh, his collection showcased the opulence of Mughal Era through the vibrant hued kalidar kurtas, flared ghararas, diaphanous dupattas detailed with minute beaded motifs and decorative thread work. 

Masoom Minawala’s latest appearance at the 2021 Cannes Film Festival got everyone talking. The content creator made India proud when she walked the red carpet looking beautiful in a Manish Malhotra sari.

Ridhi Mehra:

Drawing inspiration from Kutch and its royal heritage, Ridhi Mehra’s latest collection ‘Reflection’ blends the traditional mirror work, bohemian embellishments along with a riot of colours. She has mixed elements of Gota Patti and zari on the silks as well as the prints that highlight the fabrics like chiffon and organza.

Must Reads (Mystery)

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Mystery creates wonder and wonder is the basis of man’s desire to understand.

-neil armstrong

Mystery literally refers to something, that is difficult or impossible to understand or explain. It is a fiction genre in which an event such as a crime or a murder keeps unfolding without much revelation till the end of the book. Mystery books are the kind of reads that keep readers hooked and on the edge of their seats. Mysteries are a joy to read with unanticipated plot twists and turn-outs that it blows ones mind. Mystery is one of the widely read genre with many prolific writers.

Below is a list of five must read mystery fictions.

1. And Then There Were None:

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One of the most prolific writers in the genre Agatha Christie, describes this book as one of the most difficult to write. Following a group of people onto Indian Island, this story explores crime and murder. The ten people on the island including a former governess, an adventurer, an ex-detective, each think they have been hired to do some particular job not knowing the mysterious labyrinth on the island that consequently traps all ten people on the island. With each death the story is thrown into a deeper mysterious aura, leaving the reader befuddled with thoughts and guesses.

A brilliant mystery and an absolute must read!

2. The Guest List

Lucy Foley’s, ‘The Guest List’ is a mystery set amidst a wedding. A happy couple joining in matrimony is faced with a gruesome wedding surprise- a dead body!

A wedding planned right down to the last detail of a T.V star and a magazine editor was bound to catch eyes and garner attention but it might all just shift focus.

A series of guests all dresses to the nines, a volley of drinking groomsmen, expensive champagne and awkward speeches later does a mystery unfold involving all the guests on the list. Loads of suspects with killer motives all enclosed in a big wedding.

3. The Last of the Moon Girls

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Barbara Davis’s ‘The Last of the Moon Girls’, revolves around Lizzy Moon, a girl who wants nothing to do with Moon Girl Farm, which is passed down in their family and has evoked questions and rumours about their strange legacy. Tragedy struck! Lizzy’s beloved Grandmother Althea dies, taking the severe accusation of killings to her grave, Lizzy must do everything to clear her Grandmother’s name and her family legacy. With Andrew Greyson, one of the few in town believing in Althea’s innocence, Lizzy is determined to et things right.

A gorgeously artful story-telling with tints of magic and craft.

4.The Secrets of Lost Stones

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Melissa Payne’s book, ‘ The Secrets of Lost Stones’ tells the story of a 32 year old woman  Jess Abbot who has loses everything from her home to her job and her eight year old son  Chance, to a tragic accident. Unable to cope with the humongous loss,  Jess bundles up what’s left and leaves for the small mountain town of Pine Lake, where she gets a place as caregiver to strange old woman.

Surrounded by numerous rumours, Lucy is a strange old woman who has taken in several other people besides Jess including a Star, a teenager on the run with a painful secret and a little boy with heart-shaped stones. Jess soon learns the extent of pain and loss in the world and discovers above her suffering, grief like no other. Perhaps it was fate.

5. Where the Forest Meets the Stars

Glendy Vanderah’s ‘Where the Forest Meets the Stars’, is a story of Joanna Teale, who, after overcoming her mother’s demise and battling breast cancer, determined to prove that she has not given up, throws herself into her work, researching on nesting birds in rural Illinois that is until a mysterious child shows up at her cabin door, barefoot and in a ragged condition. The girl, Ursa, claims to be sent from the stars to witness five miracles. Joanna concerned about the girls home, reluctantly takes her in. Jo seeks help from her aloof neighbour, Gabriel Nash, to find out more about Ursa.

What follows is a series of unexpected events and beautiful bonds.


Indian cuisine consists of a variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian landmass. Given the diversity in soil, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary considerably  and use domestically offered spices, herbs, vegetables and fruits.

Indian food is world renowned thanks to its simplicity, appetizing and mouth-watering dishes.

Indian cuisine is regularly placed on foodie lists over the globe.

Simple food that packs a tasteful punch is the defining feature of Indian cuisine from region to region. That theme is knowing by religion, population, and geography, though interpretations on the correct way to cook something varies wildly even between neighbors.

There is countless amount of Indian dishes available but a few of most popular are mentioned below

The best prime ten Indian food dishes are as follows:


A traditional southern Indian dish referred to as masala dosa is popular throughout the country, With its huge popularity, there are also some variations of the dish ,like  mysore masala dosa, rava masala dosa, onion masala dosa, and butter  masala dosa. It is usually consumed as a quick snack or as a part of any meal of the day.

It is usually made from a batter of soaked rice and lentils that’s baked into a thin pancake and frequently stuffed with potatoes, onions, and mustard seeds. The dish is often garnished with grated coconut and chopped coriander chutney.


Chaat is the commonest street food in New Delhi and Uttar Pradesh.

Chaat is a term signifying a variety of Indian street foods which usually combine salty, spicy, sweet, and sour flavors. The name chaat comes from a Hindi verb “chaatna” – meaning to lick, possibly concerning to the finger-licking good quality of the dishes.

chaat will be found at street vendors, serving numerous dishes, from stuffed bread to deep-fried pastries with accompanying dipping sauces.

3.Hyderabadi biryani:

Hyderabadi biryani is world famous because of its lip smacking taste and flavor.

Hyderabadi biryani is a South Indian dish consisting of basmati rice, goat, mutton, or chicken meat, lemon, yogurt, onions, and saffron. It is said that Hyderabadi biryani’s richness of flavor is due to the distinctive way of cooking raw rice and raw meat together with exotic spices, unlike other places where meat and rice are cooked separately.

4. Panipuri:

Panipuri is a street snack that is extremely popular in India. Little in size, it consists of a hollow puri that is fried until crispy, then stuffed with a combination of flavored water known as  pani, tamarind chutney, chaat masala, potatoes, onions, hot chilies, and chickpeas.

In North India, panipuri is known as golgappa, gol concerning the crispy shell, and gappa concerning the eating process, since these small snacks are typically eaten one at a time. It is believed that panipuri originated in Uttar Pradesh and gradually spread in popularity throughout the country and outside of it.

5. Samosa:

Due to their crips texture and a wide variety of flavors, samosas provide an ideal introduction to the world of Indian cuisine for newcomers. These deep-fried, triangular pastries are filled with a variety of ingredients ranging from vegetables to meat, such as onions, potatoes, peas, or ground meat.

These samosas are typically served hot with chopped onions, yogurt, or fresh homemade Indian chutneys made with a variety of ingredients such as mint, coriander or tamarind.

6. Gulab Jamun:

The name of the dish comes from two words: gulab, that means rose, and jamun, concerning the purple-colored jamun berry fruit. Gulab jamun is a dessert based on milk solids that are kneaded into a dough, shaped into balls, and deep-fried in ghee. The balls then get soaked in a sugared concoction seasoned with saffron, cardamom, and rose water. When served, gulab jamun is usually garnished with dried nuts to additionally enhance its flavors.

7. Palak Paneer (spinach and cottage cheese):

One of the foremost standard  paneer recipes at Indian restaurants is palak paneer, a mildly flavored dish made with spinach and cottage cheese (the paneer), along with the typical Indian spices. It is an extremely  nutritious meal which will be  consumed either for breakfast, lunch or  dinner accompanied by rice or Indian flatbreads such as naan and roti.

8. Butter Chicken (Murgh Makhani):

Butter chicken is one among the highest orders at any Indian restaurant in the West and for good reason—it is delicious. This sultry poultry dish tastes great with kaali daal (black lentils), naan, and a green salad. Butter chicken is mouth-watering, tender chicken, cooked in a spiced tomato sauce. Firstly make the gravy by first cooking fresh tomato, garlic, and cardamom down into a bright red pulp. This pulp is then pureed after cooling. Then, the chef adds butter, various spices, and Khoya (dried whole milk).

9. Dhokla:

Originating from the Indian state of Gujarat, dhokla is a snack consisting of soured chickpea batter and rice. Spices such as chili and ginger are added to the batter so as to enhance the flavor of the dish. Once baked, dhokla is usually garnished with coriander or coconut, and it is typically served with besan chutney.

         Because it is a popular dish and a favorite vegetarian snack, dhokla has many variations, such as semolina, rice powder, or cheese dhokla. Fluffy, low in calories, and full of protein.

10. Masala chai:

The beverage has gained worldwide popularity, becoming a feature in several coffee and teahouses.

            Indians create masala chai by brewing black tea with a combination of aromatic spices and herbs. Traditionally, the chai recipe involves  green cardamom pods, cinnamon sticks, ground cloves, ground ginger, black peppercorn, and black tea leaves. But once combined with steaming hot milk (or your favorite non-dairy milk!), it’s delicious all around.


water, a substance composed of the chemical elements hydrogen and oxygen and existing in gaseous, liquid, and solid states. It is one of the most plentiful and essential of compounds. A tasteless and odourless liquid at room temperature, it has the important ability to dissolve many other substances. Indeed, the versatility of water as a solvent is essential to living organisms. Life is believed to have originated in the aqueous solutions of the world’s oceans, and living organisms depend on aqueous solutions, such as blood and digestive juices, for biological processes. Water also exists on other planets and moons both within and beyond the solar system. In small quantities water appears colourless, but water actually has an intrinsic blue colour caused by slight absorption of light at red wavelengths.

Although the molecules of water are simple in structure (H2O), the physical and chemical properties of the compound are extraordinarily complicated, and they are not typical of most substances found on Earth. For example, although the sight of ice cubes floating in a glass of ice water is commonplace, such behaviour is unusual for chemical entities. For almost every other compound, the solid state is denser than the liquid state; thus, the solid would sink to the bottom of the liquid. The fact that ice floats on water is exceedingly important in the natural world, because the ice that forms on ponds and lakes in cold areas of the world acts as an insulating barrier that protects the aquatic life below. If ice were denser than liquid water, ice forming on a pond would sink, thereby exposing more water to the cold temperature. Thus, the pond would eventually freeze throughout, killing all the life-forms present.

Water occurs as a liquid on the surface of Earth under normal conditions, which makes it invaluable for transportation, for recreation, and as a habitat for a myriad of plants and animals. The fact that water is readily changed to a vapour (gas) allows it to be transported through the atmosphere from the oceans to inland areas where it condenses and, as rain, nourishes plant and animal life. (See hydrosphere: The hydrologic cycle for a description of the cycle by which water is transferred over Earth.)

The water on the surface of Earth is found mainly in its oceans (97.25 percent) and polar ice caps and glaciers (2.05 percent), with the balance in freshwater lakes, rivers, and groundwater. As Earth’s population grows and the demand for fresh water increases, water purification and recycling become increasingly important. Interestingly, the purity requirements of water for industrial use often exceed those for human consumption. For example, the water used in high-pressure boilers must be at least 99.999998 percent pure. Because seawater contains large quantities of dissolved salts, it must be desalinated for most uses, including human consumption.

This article describes the molecular structure of water as well as its physical and chemical properties. For other major treatments of water, see climate; environmental works; hydrosphere; ice; and pollution.


The water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms, each linked by a single chemical bond to an oxygen atom. Most hydrogen atoms have a nucleus consisting solely of a proton. Two isotopic forms, deuterium and tritium, in which the atomic nuclei also contain one and two neutrons, respectively, are found to a small degree in water. Deuterium oxide (D2O), called heavy water, is important in chemical research and is also used as a neutron moderator in some nuclear reactors.

Although its formula (H2O) seems simple, water exhibits very complex chemical and physical properties. For example, its melting point, 0 °C (32 °F), and boiling point, 100 °C (212 °F), are much higher than would be expected by comparison with analogous compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. In its solid form, ice, water is less dense than when it is liquid, another unusual property. The root of these anomalies lies in the electronic structure of the water molecule.

The water molecule is not linear but bent in a special way. The two hydrogen atoms are bound to the oxygen atom at an angle of 104.5°.
structure of the water molecule showing the two hydrogen atoms bound to the oxygen atom at an angle of 104.5 degrees.

The O―H distance (bond length) is 95.7 picometres (9.57 × 10−11 metres, or 3.77 × 10−9 inches). Because an oxygen atom has a greater electronegativity than a hydrogen atom, the O―H bonds in the water molecule are polar, with the oxygen bearing a partial negative charge (δ−) and the hydrogens having a partial positive charge (δ+).

The electron arrangement in the water molecule can be represented as follows.
structure of the water molecule showing the electron arrangement

Each pair of dots represents a pair of unshared electrons (i.e., the electrons reside on only the oxygen atom). This situation can also be depicted by placing the water molecule in a cube.

Each ↑↓ symbol represents a pair of unshared electrons. This electronic structure leads to hydrogen bonding.


The liquid state of water has a very complex structure, which undoubtedly involves considerable association of the molecules. The extensive hydrogen bonding among the molecules in liquid water produces much larger values for properties such as viscosity, surface tension, and boiling point than are expected for a typical liquid containing small molecules. For example, based on the size of its molecules, water would be expected to have a boiling point nearly 200 °C (360 °F) lower than its observed boiling point. In contrast to the condensed states (solid and liquid) of water, which exhibit extensive association among the water molecules, its gaseous (vapour) phase contains relatively independent water molecules at large distances from each other.

The polarity of the water molecule plays a major part in the dissolution of ionic compounds during the formation of aqueous solutions. Earth’s oceans contain vast amounts of dissolved salts, which provide a great natural resource. In addition, the hundreds of chemical reactions that occur every instant to keep organisms alive all take place in aqueous fluids. Also, the ability of foods to be flavoured as they are cooked is made possible by the solubility in water of such substances as sugar and salt. Although the solubility of substances in water is an extremely complex process, the interaction between the polar water molecules and the solute (i.e., the substance being dissolved) plays a major role. When an ionic solid dissolves in water, the positive ends of the water molecules are attracted to the anions, while their negative ends are attracted to the cations. This process is called hydration. The hydration of its ions tends to cause a salt to break apart (dissolve) in the water. In the dissolving process the strong forces present between the positive and negative ions of the solid are replaced by strong water-ion interactions.

When ionic substances dissolve in water, they break apart into individual cations and anions. For instance, when sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolves in water, the resulting solution contains separated Na+ and Cl− ions.

Generally speaking, the greater the charge density (the ratio of charge to surface area) of an ion, the larger the hydration number will be. As a rule, negative ions have smaller hydration numbers than positive ions because of the greater crowding that occurs when the hydrogen atoms of the water molecules are oriented toward the anion.

Many nonionic compounds are also soluble in water. For example, ethanol (C2H5OH), the alcoholic component of wine, beer, and distilled spirits, is highly soluble in water. These beverages contain varying percentages of ethanol in aqueous solution with other substances. Ethanol is so soluble in water because of the structure of the alcohol molecule. The molecule contains a polar O―H bond like those in water, which allows it to interact effectively with water.


Water has several important physical properties. Although these properties are familiar because of the omnipresence of water, most of the physical properties of water are quite atypical. Given the low molar mass of its constituent molecules, water has unusually large values of viscosity, surface tension, heat of vaporization, and entropy of vaporization, all of which can be ascribed to the extensive hydrogen bonding interactions present in liquid water. The open structure of ice that allows for maximum hydrogen bonding explains why solid water is less dense than liquid water—a highly unusual situation among common substances.


In our everyday life, we study and see that new innovation is arising step by step. The degree of reasoning had changed. Our researchers have made a few exceptional things. Not many of them are identified with our knowledge. Presently we see that programmed machines, robots, satellites and our cell phones all are instances of man-made brainpower.

At all intricate terms, Artificial Intelligence suggests developing the ability to think and grasp and make decisions in a machine. Man-made thinking is seen as the most reformist kind of programming, and it makes a mind where the PC frontal cortex can think like individuals.

What is Artificial Intelligence?

Man-made mental ability (AI) or “man-made thinking” is a piece of computer programming, which is making machines that can think and work like individuals.

Not many models for this are: acknowledgment of sound or voice, issue dealing with and settling, educating, learning and arranging. It is the information displayed by machines as opposed to the ordinary understanding displayed by individuals and animals.

It expects to make a PC controlled robot or programming that can think likewise as the human mind thinks. Electronic thinking is persistently being set up to make it extraordinary.

In its planning, it is shown understanding from machines, is set up to keep awake with new information sources and perform human-like tasks.

Thusly, by the use of Artificial Intelligence, such a machine is being made. This can team up with its condition and work cautiously on the data got.

In the event that the AI idea, later on, is more grounded, by then, it will take after our partner. In the event that you get an issue by then, you will educate yourself for it.

History of Artificial Intelligence

1950 was in like manner the year when fake knowledge research started. Assessment in AI began with the improvement of electronic PCs and set aside program PCs.

A lot after this, for quite a while, an association couldn’t interface a PC to think or behave like a human mind. Thereafter, an exposure that extraordinarily revived the early headway of AI was made by Norbert Wiener.

He has showed that all innovative lead of people is the outcome of the reaction segment. Another movement toward present-day AI was when Logic Theorist was made. Organized by Newell and Simon in 1955, it is seen as the chief AI program

Father of Artificial Intelligence

After numerous investigations, the person who set up the structure for counterfeit knowledge was the father of AI, John McCarthy, an American analyst. In 1956, he made a get-together “The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence” to furthermore develop the field of AI.

In which every last one of those people who were enthused about machine understanding could participate. The inspiration driving this social affair was to attract the capacity and authority of captivated people to help McCarthy in regards to this task.

In later years the AI Research Center was outlined at Carnegie Mellon University similarly as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Close by this, AI moreover went up against numerous hardships. The essential test they faced was to make a system that could deal with an issue gainfully with practically no investigation.

The ensuing test is building a structure that can get to know a task with nobody else. The chief forward jump in man-made cognizance came when a Novel program called General Problem Solver (G.P.S) was made by Newell and Simon in 1957.

Kinds of Artificial Intelligence

Man-made reasoning is assembled into four kinds, Arend Hintze thought about this course of action; the classes are according to the accompanying –

Responsive machines – These machines can react to conditions. A prominent model could be Deep Blue, the IBM chess program. Exceptional, the chess program was won against the notable chess legend Garry Kasparov.

Additionally, such machines need memory. These machines totally can’t use past experiences to teach future people. It separates every single under the sun decision and picks the best.

Confined Memory – These AI structures are good for using past experiences to enlighten future people. Rather than responsive machines, it can make future assumptions subject to encounter. Self-driving or programmed vehicles are an illustration of Artificial Intelligence.

The speculation of the cerebrum – You ought to be stunned to understand that it suggests getting others. It infers that others have their feelings, objectives, needs, and sentiments; this sort of AI doesn’t yet exist.

Care – This is the most raised and most complex level of Artificial Intelligence. Such systems have a sensation of self; likewise, they have care, mindfulness and sentiments. This strategy doesn’t exist yet. This Technique will be a commotion.

Benefits of Artificial Intelligence

Mechanized thinking benefits researchers in monetary angles and law, yet moreover in particular educating, for instance, validness, security, check, and control.

A couple of cases of development, for instance, organization assist with diminishing disease and hardship, making AI the most critical and most conspicuous creation in mankind’s set of experiences. Some critical benefits of AI are according to the accompanying –

Mechanized Assistance – Organizations with an impelled gathering use machines in light of a legitimate concern for individuals to connect with their customers as an assistance gathering or arrangements bunch.

Clinical Applications of AI – One of the main central marks of AI is that it is used in prescription, utilization of man-made cognizance called “radio a medical procedure”. It is correct now used by gigantic clinical relationship in the recuperating movement of “growths”.

Abatement of Errors – Another unbelievable bit of space of Artificial Intelligence is that it can reduce slip-ups and increase the probability of showing up at higher precision.


It is concluded that artificial intelligence is an essential invention of human development. It depends upon the correct usage.

If we use it rightfully for the sake of humanity and development, then it will be a boon for us. We should not use it for losing any other. Our motto should be clear in using artificial intelligence.

Must share your thoughts regarding artificial intelligence below in the comment section. Hope you liked this essay on artificial intelligence.

Generation gap between Parents and Children.

by Yogiraj Sadaphal.

“Each new generation born is in effect an invasion of civilization by little barbarians, who must be civilized before it is too late”.

– Thomas Sowell.

Definition of Generation Gaps.

The word “generation gap” refers to the age difference between two groups of people: young people and their seniors, particularly children and their parents. Everything changes with the flow of time, including age, culture, mannerism, and morality. This transformation has an impact on everyone. The generational divide is a never-ending social phenomena. Every generation lives at a specific period and in specific circumstances. As a result, each generation has its unique set of values and perspectives. Every generation aspires to uphold the values that they truly believe. This is an issue that has existed for a long time.

Past Generation Gaps:

The sociological hypothesis of a generation gap first surfaced in the 1960s, when the younger generation appeared to contradict everything their parents had previously thought in terms of music, values, governmental and political beliefs, and cultural interests.

The “generation gap” is now referred to as “institutional age segregation” by sociologists. Individual members of any of these age groups are usually physically isolated from persons of other generations when they are engaged in their primary activity, with little interaction across generational lines save at the nuclear family level.

What are the Cause of it?

No one is to blame for the generation gap. It’s a natural part of social change. Change is the ongoing disruption and resetting of the terms of everyone’s existence throughout their lives.

When parents identify with the old, similar, familiar, conventional, and known, their teenager (at a later period) becomes attracted and influenced by the new, different, unfamiliar, experimental, and unknown, cultural contrasts between generations are emphasized.

Obviously, there is little generation gap in socially uncomplicated, stable, low-change cultures where the children identify with parental positions they expect to copy and fill when they grow up. Consider growing up in a complex, fast changing culture where the parent’s old world and the adolescent’s world are vastly different.

What Impact does the Generation Gap have on Parent-Child Relationships?

To the extent that parents can bridge the generational gap by exhibiting an interest in the new, the gap’s potentially alienating influence can be reduced.

For example, if they approach their adolescent as a “expert” and themselves as “unknowing,” or if they treat their adolescent as a teacher and themselves as pupils, they might create a very strong and esteem-endowing power reversal in their connection.

What should a Teen do if they believe their Parents don’t get them?

Around the ages of 9 to 13, children begin to separate from childhood and begin redefining themselves on the path to young adulthood. The one detaches from childhood and family for greater action and independence, while the other distinguishes from childhood and parents for greater personal expression and individuality.

Young people might take the initiative when they believe their parents do not understand and would like them to. They can be brave and tell their parents, “There’s something about my upbringing that I believe you don’t understand, and I’d like you to appreciate.” Could you please just listen while I try to explain, and then we can talk about it?”

Is There a Way to Reduce the Impact of the Generation Gap?

1. Communicate:

Making time to connect with your parents on a daily basis is crucial. The simple act of asking each other about their day at the end of the day can help you get to know each other better and make it easier to speak freely around each other.

2. Compromise:

No matter how close two people are, they can differ on certain issues. Parents and children are no exception; but, rather than forcing them to accept your point of view or to do what you want them to do when they don’t want to, learn to compromise whenever feasible.

3. Love:

When love is acted upon, it has a way of crossing barriers and bringing people together. As a result, show your children how much you care about them. This unconditional love and support they receive from you is incredibly motivating, and it encourages youngsters to reciprocate with the same love and compassion.

4. Understand:

Listening leads to comprehension, which requires you to learn to put yourself in your child’s position and try to comprehend how they feel and what they want based on what they say. You will be able to close the generation gap to some extent if you can understand where your child is coming from.

Role of civil services in Indian democracy

India is a democratic country and in this system, power confers with the people. The power is exercised through its designated representatives who have the command to manage them for particular period. The civil services by quality of its knowledge, experience and understanding of public affairs support the chosen representatives to device effectual policy and have great responsibility to implement these policies for the welfare of society and enhancement of nation. Parliamentary democracies are generally pigeonholed by a permanent civil service which helps the political policymakers and political executives. India is a constitutional fairness and its operations are usually depends upon four supports that include Legislature, Executive, Judiciary, and Free Press. Each one of these has been assigned its role in democratic establishment. First pillar is associated with the governance of the State. Effective and efficient institutions form the strength of an efficacious development and governance process.

Democracy is an egalitarian principle in which the governed elect the people who govern over them. There are three pillars of modern democracy:




The civil services form a part of the executive. While the ministers, who are part of the executive, are temporary and are reelected or replaced by the people by their will (through elections), the civil servants are the permanent part of the executive.

–The civil servants are accountable to the political executive, the ministers. The civil services are thus, a subdivision under the government.

— The officers in the civil services form the permanent staff of the various governmental departments.

— are basically expert administrators.

They are sometimes referred to as the bureaucracy or also the public service

Importance of the Civil Services

1. The civil service is present all over India and it thus has a strong binding character.

2. It plays a vital role in effective policy-making and regulation.

3. It offers non-partisan advice to the political leadership of the country, even in the midst of political instability.

4. The service gives effective coordination between the various institutions of governance, and also between different departments, bodies, etc.

5. It offers service delivery and leadership at different levels of administration.

Functions of Civil Services

Basis of Government: There can be no government without administrative machinery.

Implementing Laws & Policies: Civil services are responsible for implementing laws and executing policies framed by the government .

Policy Formulation: The civil service is chiefly responsible for policy formulation as well. The civil service officers advise ministers in this regard and also provides them with facts and ideas.

Stabilising Force: Amidst political instability, the civil service offers stability and permanence. While governments and ministers can come and go, the civil services is a permanent fixture giving the administrative set up a sense of stability and continuity.

Instruments of Social Change & Economic Development: Successful policy implementation will lead to positive changes in the lives of ordinary people. It is only when the promised goods and services reach the intended beneficiaries, a government can call any scheme successful. The task of actualising schemes and policies fall with the officers of the civil services.

Welfare Services: The services offer a variety of welfare schemes such as providing social security, the welfare of weaker and vulnerable sections of society, old-age pensions, poverty alleviation, etc.

Developmental Functions: The services perform a variety of developmental functions like promoting modern techniques in agriculture, promoting the industry, trade, banking functions, bridging the digital divide etc.

Administrative Adjudication: The civil services also perform quasi-judicial services by settling disputes between the State and the citizens, in the form of tribunals, etc.

Problems Affecting Civil Services Today

— Lack of professionalism and poor capacity building.

— An ineffective incentive system that does not reward the meritorious and upright civil servants .

— Rigid and outmoded rules and procedures that do not allow civil servants to exercise individual judgement and perform efficiently.

— Lack of accountability and transparency procedure, with no adequate protection for whistle-blowers.

— Political interference causing arbitrary transfers, and insecurity in tenures.

— An erosion in ethics and values, which has caused rampant corruption and nepotism.

— Patrimonialism (a form of governance in which all power flows directly from the leader).

— Resistance to change from the civil servants themselves.

Key Facts about Democracy in India:

— Democracy in India federal republic.

— Democracy in India is headed by the President as the head of the state and Prime Minister as the head of the government.

— There is a parliamentary form of government at the central level.

— There is a universal adult franchise.



     Literatures is a piece of writings that are valued as a word of art. The literature works maybe novels, plays, or poems, fiction or non-fiction that have long-lasting importance. It is also known as the preserved writings of a certain language or people. It is used to describe anything from the creative works including any technical works, scientific works. Fictional literature includes plays, poems, short stories, and songs. The non-fictional literature includes biographies, autobiographies, essays, newspapers, journals, essays, and diaries. The four Dravidian languages in India had developed their works of literature. These Dravidian languages are Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada.


     Tamil, being the oldest language among these developed the Sangam literature. Sangama literature is the oldest literature in Tamil. Tamil as a written language came into light during the Christian era. The literature of the Tamil language was compiled together in 600 AD. The poets in the assemblies who helped in gathering the Sangam literature over 3 to 4 centuries were patronized by the kings and chieftains. Poets from various parts of south India gathered in Madurai and these assemblies are known as sangams and the literature produced in these assemblies is known as “Sangama literature”. The Sangam literature was the collection of poems and songs written by different poets praising the heroes and heroines. This literature was unique and high in quality. Three sangams were held. The literature collected in the first Sangam was lost. About 2000 poems with more than 30000 lines of poetry have been found in the second Sangam.

     There were two main groups. They are Pathinenkilkanaku and Pathinenmelkanaku. The eight anthologies named Ettuthogai and the ten songs named Patthupaatu come under Pathinenmelkanaku. Pathinenkilkanaku has eighteen works about ethics and morals. The most important work among these is Thirukural written by Tiruvalluvar. Thirukural is divided into three parts. The first part deals with epics, the second part deals with polity and government, and the last part deals with love. Besides this Sangam literature, there is a work named Tholkaapiam which deals with grammar and poetry. Around the 6th century, there were two famous epics namely Silapathikkaram and Manimegalai. During the 6th to 12th century, Tamil devotional poems written by Alwars and Nayanmaars impacts the Bhakti movement. Kambaramayanam and Periya puraanam were two literaaly classic works.


     The golden age of Telugu literature was the Vijayanagara period. Uttaraharivamsam, a literary work was produced by the court poet, Nachana Somanatha. Krishnadevaraya (1509-1529), wrote an excellent prabandha named Amukta Malyada. Ashtadiggajas, eight Telugu literature were popular works in his court. Among them, literature named Manucharitram, by Allasani Peddana was the greatest. He was known as Andhra kavitapitamaha. Some of the author’s and their literature in Telugu are listed below:

  • Dhurjati – Kalahasteeswara Mahatmayam and Kalahasteeswara Satakam
  • Pingali Surana – Raghavapandaviyam and Kalapuranodayam
  • Ramakrishna – Panduranga Mahatmayam
  • Ramarajabhushana – Vasucharitram, Narasabhupaliyam and Harishchandra Nalopakhyanam.
  • Madayagari Mallana – Rajashekharacharitra
  • Ayyalaraju Ramabhadra – Ramabhyudayam and Sakalakathasara Sangraham.


       Apart from Telugu, Vijayanagaras’s extended their patronage over Kannada and Sanskrit writers. Kannada literature was contributed by many Jain scholars. After the 10th century AD, the Kannada language was developed. The Kannada literatures in this period are Dharmanathapurana by Madhava, Dharma Parikshe by Uritta Vilasa, Kavirajamang by Rashtrakuta king, Nripatunga Amoghavarsha, Adi Purana and Vïkramarjiva Vijaya by Pampa, Shanti Purana by Ponna, and Ajitanatha Purano by Ranna. The title of Ratnatraya was given to Pampa, Ponna, and Ranna.

       During the 13th century, many literary works were developed in Kannada. Some of them are Harishchandra Kavya and Somanatha Charita by Harishvara, Harivamshabhyudaya and Jiva Sambodhana by Bandhuvarma, Jagannathavijaya by Rudra Bhata, Madana Vijaya by Andayya, and Suktisudharnava by Mallikarjuna. The first Rama Katha in Kannada composed based on Valmiki’s Ramayana named Tarave Ramayana was written by Narahari. Sarvajna’s aphoristic tripadi (three-lined) compositions serve as a source of wisdom and ethics. Honnamma was the first outstanding poetess in Kannada. She wrote Hadibadeya Dharma (Duty of a Devout Wife).


       The people of Kerala and the surrounded areas speak Malayalam. The language of Malayalam emerged in the 11th century AD and become an independent language in the 15th century. A commentary on Arthashastra and Kokasandisan are two great works written by Bhasa Kautilya. Rama Panikkar and Ramanuj were two great authors of Kannada literature. Malayalam has a powerful form of expression even though it has emerged lately. People always enjoy writing in their mother tongue. Nowadays, many newspapers and magazines are published in the magazine.

Organ Donation: Myths and facts

Every years, many thousands receives the gift of life, a life saving transplant of Heart, Kidney, Liver, Lungs, Pancreas and Interesting. And thousands more people receive Corneas and other tissues that restore sight and health. Organ transplantation is one of the medicals advances of our time.

How does it work?

It all starts when someone’s organ begins to fail and that person will need a transplant to survive. The steps are as folllow:-

  1. A through evaluation is conducted at a transplant centre and the person is a good candidate for transplant, he or she will be put into the National Transplant Waiting List.
  2. Once a person is on the waiting list, the wait for organ begins.
  3. A national system matches people on the waiting list with donors. That factors matching donors to recipient includes
    • Blood type
    • Body size
    • How sick the patient is
    • Distance from donor
    • Tissue type
    • Time on list

What isn’t taken into account, organs are never matched based on

  • Race
  • Gender
  • Income
  • Celebrity
  • Social status

There is no telling how long the wait will take. Infact, some people don’t receive an organ in time, because the Waiting List is really long and there aren’t enough donors available. That’s why an average of 20 people on the Waiting List died each day. Imagine how many could we save if we all were donors.

Becoming a donors

Most of organs transplant comes a deceived donors. For example, a person comes to the hospital with a life threatening brain injury, such as from an accident, stroke, our lack of oxygen. The doctors work hard to save them patients life but sometimes nothing can be done. There’s a complete, irreversible loss of brain function. The patient is clinically and legally dead.

Thats when being a donor can turn a time of loss into a time of hope. Because machines have blood containing and oxygen flowing into the organs, they can be passed along. One person can give life to as many as eight people through organ donation, and enhance the lives of fifty people or more with eye and tissue donation. But now minutes matter, matches must be found and transplants must happen quickly.

Organ Procurement organization

The hospital contracts an Organ Procurement Organization (OPO), it manages the recovery process. The OPO checks the state of organ donor registry, if the person is already registered as a donor they inform the family, if not they’ll ask the family to authorise donation.

A medical examination is taken place. They check the medical and social history and the person is eligible to be an organ donor, the computer begins to search on the National Waiting List for well matched patients The best matched patients are contracted by the transplant team. This is the call that every person on the Waiting List was waiting for.

The Transplant

A surgical team recovers the organs, then Corneas and other tissues. The organs are sent to the transplant hospital where patients and transplant teams are waiting and the life saving transplant takes place. It will take health living and medication to keep the organ working well in its new home.

You too could make the decision today, sign up on your state registry as an organ, eye and tissues donor, any age is the right age, Young or old, any day is the right day to sign up as a donor. You can register through your drivers license or you can register online. Remember to tell your family so that they can support your wishes. More than 1r5 million people have already registered, and we all need to save kore lives. So let’s share the gift of life.


An internship is important because it can present you with new skills and opportunities that you would not receive otherwise. Interns not only gain technical knowledge within the industry of their choice, but they also learn how to interact with professionals in a workplace setting, and develop essential soft skills like time management, organization, adaptability, problem-solving and teamwork.

The main reasons why Internship is important is Tests industry knowledge, Helps you figure out your interests, Creates new interests, Connects you to industry professionals, Allows you to learn in a safe environment, allows you to get paid to learn, Provides possible credit for your college degree, Allows you to potentially gain more internship opportunities, Creates a unique travel experience, Inspires you to learn more about an industry, Teaches you about the importance of work-life balance, Introduces you to office politics.