Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is a computer system able to perform tasks that ordinarily require human intelligence. It is the study of ideas that enables computers to do the things that make people seem intelligent.

The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people” – Kurzweil

Some examples of AI are self-driving cars, Netflix’s recommendations, conversational bots, smart assistances such as Siri and Alexa.

Basically, there are two types of AI – 

  • Artificial Narrow Intelligence

Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) also known as “Weak” AI, exists in our world today. Narrow AI is goal-oriented and programmed to perform a single task. i.e. facial recognition, google searching, smart assistance, being able to play games. For example, AI systems today are used in medicine to diagnose cancer and other diseases with extreme accuracy through replication of human cognition and reasoning.

Artificial intelligence is a set of algorithms and intelligence to try to mimic human intelligence. Machine learning is one of them, and deep learning is one of those machine learning techniques.”

  • Artificial General Intelligence

Artificial general intelligence (AGI), also known as strong AI, is the concept of a machine with general intelligence that mimics human intelligence and behaviors, with the ability to learn and apply its intelligence to solve any problem as humans do in any given situation. It is expected to be able to solve problems and be innovative, imaginative, and creative. 

Applications of AI –

  • Finance

AI has encompassed from chatbot assistants to fraud detection and task automation. Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organize operations, invest in stocks and manage properties. 

  • Social Sites

AI helps social sites to analyze data to find out what’s trending, different hashtags, and patterns. For example, Facebook uses machine learning and AI for serving you interesting content, recognizes your face, and many other tasks.

  • Healthcare

Doctors assess the patient’s health-related data and intimate the risk factors to the customers via the health care devices with the help of artificial machine intelligence. AI has also applications in fields of cardiology (CRG), neurology (MRI), embryology (sonography), complex operations of internal organs, etc.

  • Robotics

AI in robotics helps robots perform crucial tasks with a human-like vision to detect or recognize various objects. The AI in robotics not only helps to learn the model to perform certain tasks but also makes machines more intelligent to act in different scenarios. There are various functions integrated into robots like computer vision, motion control, grasping the objects, and training data to understand physical and logistical data patterns and act accordingly.

  • Heavy Industries

Huge machines involve risk in their manual maintenance and working. So it becomes a necessary part to have an automated AI agent in their operation. Robots have proven effective in jobs that are repetitive.

  • Gaming

AI has also been applied to video games, for example, video game bots, which are designed to stand in as opponents.

There are many applications of AI such as self-driving cars, smart assistance, google maps, and many more. Future applications are expected to bring about enormous changes.



Hi everyone,
        Today I am going to share about colours and their meanings.
Actually there are 11basic colours.
3 Red
4 Green
11 Purple
The rest are just combinations of these colours.

Now, let’s see what are the 3 categories that define colours.
       * Warm colors
       * cool colors
       * Neutral colors

     This includes red, yellow and orange, and variations like pink. These colors evoke warmth due to their brightness and link to the sun.

       These include green, blue, purple, and their variations like violet. These colors are considered cool as they are colors commonly found in nature and are known for their calming effect.

       These include brown, black and white, as well as variations like gray. They’re often paired with warm or cool colors but are sophisticated on their own.

Colors & their meaning:

       Black stands for power, strength, elegance, luxury, sophistication, and formality. It’s bold, classic, and serious. But it can also represent death, evil, and mystery.

       White represents purity, simplicity, innocence, and perfection.

      Red Symbolizes fire, heat, and passion. It can signify love but also anger.

         Green signifies growth, renewal, freshness, abundance, balance, harmony, and new beginnings. 

        Yellow signifies bright, vibrant, youthful, energetic, sunshine, hope, intellect, happiness.

       Blue, the color of the ocean and the sky, represents calm, peace, stability, and responsibility. It’s also associated with spirituality and religion.

      Pink represents feminine, Romance, sweet and happiness.

      Brown represents wholesomeness, reliability, and dependability.

      Orange conveys excitement and encouragement.

      Purple symbolizes royalty, nobility, luxury, magic, mystery, creativity, and spirituality.

       Gray is a cool, neutral, and balanced color. The color gray is an emotionless, moody color that is typically associated with meanings of dull, dirty, and dingy, as well as formal, conservative, and sophisticated.

Now, Know what your favorite color means.
Hope so it was useful.

Have a nice day.

Keep smiling ❣️❣️❣️


Here are a list of classic literature books that you will appreciate reading !!!!!

THE GREAT GATSBY – This novel was written by F.Scott Fitzgerald in 1952. It is a Tragic/historical novel that is worth reading .

THE PICTURE OF DORIAN GRAY – This novel was written by Oscar Wilde and was published in 1890 , however a longer version of the novel was published in 1891. It is basically a philosophical fiction.

LITTLE WOMEN – Little woman was written by Louisa May Alcott , and was published in 1896 . It is a fiction novel with. comical aspects .

NINETEEN EIGHTY FOUR – This novel was written by the English novelist George Orwell , and was published in 1949. Nineteen Eighty Four is an amalgamation of social science fiction and dystopia .

Must Reads (General Fiction)

“Fiction reveals truth that reality obscures.

– Ralph Waldo Emerson


According to the dictionary, fiction refers to a type of literature in the form of prose that describes imaginary events and people. Fiction is the genre, in which the author whips up imaginary characters and plot and weaves a tale around them. Though untrue and fabricated fiction might be used to relay information and express thoughts on a number of issues that are realistic and often worth highlighting.

Fiction is a very diverse genre of the equally diverse literary canyon. Fiction writing often requires ingenuity and thinking out of the box. Fiction is easily one of the highly read genera in the world. There is such incredible work in the fiction genre that it leaves a reader to browse through a plethora of amazing plots and characters. Several fictitious characters such as Jane Austen’s, ‘Mr. Darcy’ and ‘Elizabeth Bennet‘ or Bam Stoker’s, ‘Dracula‘ have gone down in history as some of the most cherished and timeless characters

Below is a list of four must read fiction books.

1. The Time Traveler’s Wife

Image result for The Time Traveler's Wife book

‘The Time Traveler’s Wife’, is American author Audrey Niffengger’s debut novel. This story revolves around Clare, an artist by profession, who meets her husband Henry under strange circumstances. Henry, afflicted by a genetic disorder is a time traveler of sorts with no control over it. Struggling to control his impromptu trips to strange places and times, naked as the day he was born, Henry finds acceptance and love in Clare. What follows is an enthralling journey full of time spins, confusions , heart-breaks, beginnings and endings.

Time Traveler’s Wife is an absolute must read, with its gripping plot and engaging romance. Full of love and longing, this book is bound to make you burst into guffaws and ugly cry.

2.The Silent Patient

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‘The Silent Patient’, by Alex Michaelides is a psychological thriller that tells the tale of Alicia Berenson, a successful painter, who leads a lavish life with her husband ,Gabriel, an extremely sought after fashion photographer. One evening Gabriel returns home only to be met with five bullets to the face by his wife. What follows is a tale filled with gripping mystery as Alicia refuses to utter even a word or offer something in order of explanation. Now, enshrouded in disrepute, Alicia initiates a cycle of speculations by the public that transmutes her into a public mystery.

Theo Faber, a criminal psychotherapist is obsessed with Alicia’s case and wants to get her talking. The quest to solve this mystery leads him down a risky path…

3.Beautiful Disaster

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Jamie McGuire’s, ‘ Beautiful Disaster’, is a new adult book sporting the cliched, good girl- bad boy plot. Abby Abernathy, the good girl. Travis Maddox, the absolute bad boy. As these two collide in college and interact over a bet that can make Maddox go abstinent for a month or can get Abby stuck in Maddox’s apartment for that equal period of time.

Abby might end up winning more than just the bet!

4. In an Instant

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Suzanne Redfearn’s, ‘In an Instant’, is a tale of hard life or death decisions made about in an instant. sixteen-year-old Finn Miller meets with a horrible car accident that causes her and ten others to fall off a mountain. It is a tale of love, family and guilt that makes us introspect over the humane in us and accentuates the ramifications of decisions.

Day Trading – How tough can it be?

When an outsider looks at the stocks and sees how different stocks move each day one would initially assess that making money through day trading should be easy , after all you have to do is follow the momentum – but is it really that easy? Let’s find out.

Day trading if done judiciously and with discipline can give a significant amount of income maybe even replace your job but if done carelessly can turn into a nightmare. Sometimes even professional traders get beaten by the market so for newcomers it is extremely hard to stay in the market because of one golden rule in the market – everyone loses money – there is not a single trader/investor who hasn’t lost money in the market. Many people who think that can make a quick buck in the market end up losing most of their money and end up leaving the market and professional traders profit most from these kind of traders.

When trading in the market there are some extremely important rules everyone needs to follow if they want to make money i.e. target and stop-loss. Trading without target and stop-loss is like driving a vehicle without brakes , an accident just waiting to happen. Target is the target price you want the stock to reach before exiting whether it is shorting or going long and stop-loss is the price at which you would exit the trade if you the stock has performed reverse of your expectations , either way both exit points should be clearly identified and practiced with discipline. What most traders who suffer loss do is let there losers run and give themselves a bigger loss or exit a winning too early again giving them a loss. Discipline in such cases is one of the trademarks of a good trader.

Now we talk about the strategy. A strategy is what one uses to execute his/her trade. By merely looking at the charts one cannot assume about the direction the stock will go in thus the requirement of a solid backtested strategy which would work in all kinds of market. Developing a strategy is one of the hardest tasks while dealing with the matters of day-trading – one that creating it is extremely difficult and sometimes even a good backtested strategy can fail.

Next thing is practice. They say when you start trading that the first five years are just trial and error. The real trading starts after five years when you are finally trained in the ways of trading , when you have seen and made every profit and loss . After such time it is crucial that one always remains humble about their strategies and keep back-testing them time and again so it gives you an edge in the market.

Lastly the non-technical part of trading – keep your emotions out of the room while trading. Greed and fear in such cases can lead to extreme losses and keep you away from making a good trade.


The term “air” refers generally to gas, but exactly which gas depends on the context in which the term is used. Let’s learn about the modern definition of air in scientific disciplines and the earlier definition of the term.


Air is the general name for the mixture of gases that makes up the Earth’s atmosphere. This gas is primarily nitrogen (78%), mixed with oxygen (21%), water vapor (variable), argon (0.9%), carbon dioxide (0.04%), and trace gases. Pure air has no discernible scent and no color. Air typically contains dust, pollen, and spores; other contaminants are referred to as “air pollution.” On another planet—Mars, for example—the so-called air would have a different composition since there is technically no air in space.


Air is also an early chemical term for a type of gas. In the older definition, many individual types of so-called air made up the air we breathe: Vital air was later determined to be oxygen; what was called phlogisticated air turned out to be nitrogen. An alchemist might refer to any gas released by a chemical reaction as its “air.”


Air masses are classified into groups depending on their basic temperature and humidity characteristics.

There are six main types of air masses that affect the British Isles. We classify these air masses primarily by the area in which they originate.

They are classified as continental or maritime – dependent on whether they originate over land or sea – and arctic or antarctic, equatorial, tropical, or polar, depending on the particular region in which they form.

There are a total of six air masses that affect the British Isles, they are classified as follows:

Tropical continental

This air mass originates over North Africa and the Sahara (a warm source region). It is most common during the summer months June, July and August, although it can occur at other times of the year.

Our highest temperatures usually occur under the influence of tropical continental air (over 30 °C by day and around 15 to 20 °C at night).

Visibility is usually moderate or poor due to the air picking up pollutants during its passage over Europe and from sand particles blown into the air from Saharan dust storms. Occasionally, the Saharan dust is washed out in showers producing coloured rain and leaving cars covered in a thin layer of orange dust.

Tropical maritime

The source region for this air mass is warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean between the Azores and Bermuda. The predominant wind direction across the British Isles, in a tropical maritime air mass, is south-westerly.

Tropical maritime air is warm and moist in its lowest layers and, although unstable over its source region, during its passage over cooler waters becomes stable and the air becomes saturated. Consequently when a tropical maritime air mass reaches the British Isles it brings with it low cloud and drizzle, perhaps also fog around windward coasts and across hills. To the lee of high ground though, the cloud my break up and here the weather, particularly in the summer months, can be fine and sunny.

This is a mild air stream and during the winter month in particular, can raise the air temperature several degrees above the average.

Polar continental

This air mass has its origins over the snow fields of Eastern Europe and Russia and is only considered a winter (November to April) phenomena.

The weather characteristics of this air mass depend on the length of the sea track during its passage from Europe to the British Isles: this air is inherently very cold and dry and if it reaches southern Britain with a short sea track over the English Channel, the weather is characterised by clear skies and severe frosts. With a longer sea track over the North Sea, the air becomes unstable and moisture is added giving rise to showers of rain or snow, especially near the east coast of Britain.

The lowest temperatures across the British Isles usually occur in this air mass, lower than -10 °C at night, and sometimes remaining below freezing all day.

Polar maritime

This air mass has its origins over northern Canada and Greenland and reaches the British Isles on a north-westerly air stream.

This air mass is characterised by frequent showers at any time of the year. In the winter months when instability (convection) is most vigorous over the sea, hail and thunder are common across much of the western and northern side of the British Isles. However, eastern Britain may see fewer showers as here the surface heating is reduced. During the summer, the reverse is true, land temperatures are higher than sea temperatures and the heaviest showers occur over eastern England.

Arctic maritime

An arctic maritime air mass has similar characteristics to a polar maritime air mass, but because of the shorter sea track the air is colder and less moist.

Arctic air is uncommon during the summer, but when it does occur it may bring heavy showers or thunderstorms and unseasonably low temperature.

An arctic maritime air mass has its origins over the North Pole and the Arctic Ocean.

Polar low-pressure systems forming in this air mass can sometimes lead to widespread and heavy snowfall, but otherwise inland areas remain free of cloud in the winter months. In northern Scotland, arctic maritime is usually the coldest air mass, but over the rest of Britain, this air mass is not as cold as polar continental.

Returning polar maritime

Returning polar maritime is another version of polar maritime, but this time with a longer sea track which takes the air first southwards over the North-Atlantic, the north-eastwards across the British isles.

During its passage south, the air becomes unstable and moist but on moving north-east it passes over cooler water making it stable in its lowest layers.

Although the weather across the British Isles in this air mass is largely dry, there can be extensive cloud cover.


Air is a natural resource and is available abundantly. It is an essential element of nature that support life on earth. Air is equally important for living organisms for their survival just like water. Air is very useful and has many applications. Uses of air are as follows:

* Sustain life and growth
* Combustion
* Maintaining Temperature
* Supplier of Energy
* Photosynthesis

Sustain Life and Growth

Oxygen present in the air is one of the main life-sustaining gas. All living things breathe in and breathe out the air in the form of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Nitrogen and Carbon dioxide are vital for plants and their growth.


Another use of air is that it supports burning or combustion. The oxygen present in air help in the burning of the fuels leads to carry out activities like cooking food, running industries, and vehicles as well as generating heat and electricity.

Temperature Control

Air helps in maintaining the temperature on the earth’s surface by circulating hot and cold air. Air acts as a conductor of heat. The phenomena of the water cycle are also dependent on air.

Supplier of Energy

Air which consists of energy is one of the main suppliers of energy. Living things are made up of cells and these cells extract oxygen within the blood to produce energy in the form of ATP. The generation of ATP which is biochemical in nature is essential to maintain life on the Earth.


Carbon dioxide which is also a component of air is used by plants during the process of photosynthesis and oxygen, water vapor is released by plants as a by-product.

Apart from these gases, other gases are also useful such as nitrogen is used in the production of ammonia.


The languages were evolved at two levels namely the spoken and the written language. The old Brahmi script of Ashoka has uneven letter size by the period of Harsha, the size of letters become even and regular. By comparing the scripts of Hindi, Gujarati, and Punjabi, we can easily discover the changes of how they slowly developed over a long period. About 200 languages are prevailing for spoken languages in India. But some of the languages are spoken in only particular regions. Out of these only 22 languages have been recognized by our constitution. Hindi is spoken by different people in different forms. Rajasthani, which is a language spoken in Rajasthan is another variant of Hindi. This classification is based on the literature written by several poets over years. The Hindi that is spoken now is called Khadi Boli. In the 13th century, Khusrau has used Khadi Bholi in his compositions. But the extensive use of Hindi has started in the 19th century and also it shows some influences of Urdu.


By the end of the 14th century AD, Urdu emerged as an independent language. By the existence of Turks and Mongols in India, Arabic and Persian were introduced. Urdu was served as an interaction between Hindi and Persian since Persian served as a court language for many centuries. After the conquest of Delhi (1192), the Turkish people acquired this region and slowly Urdu has become a formal language. As time passes, many people around Hindi started speaking Urdu. It became more popular in the early 18th century. Poetry in Urdu is also written by some Mughal emperors.

Khusrau(1253-325) is the earliest known Urdu poet. He was a follower of Nizam ud-din Auliya and he was a poet in the court of Sultan Balban. About 99 works have been completed by him. Laila Majnun and Ayina- I-Sikandari dedicated to Alau-din-Khalji was the most popular works written by him. Ghalib, Zauq, and Iqbal were the other well-known poets in that period. Iqbal’s “SareJahann se achcha Hindostan Hamara” is sung in many national celebrations of India. The Nawabs of Lucknow patronized the Urdu language and slowly it reached its height and now it has been adopted by the Pakistanis as their state language.

Most of the literature was written in Persian since Persian was the language of court during that period. Amir Khusrau and Amir Hasan Dehelvi wrote poetries in Persian. The account of kings, important political events, and incidents during that period was written in Persian by the historians like Minhas-us-Siraj and Zia Barani, and Ibn Batuta. The tuzuk(autobiography) of Babar is originally written in Turkish by him. But later it was translated to Persian by his grandson Akbar. He patronized many scholars and got Mahabharata translated to Persian. Another unique piece of literature in Persian is Jahangir’s autobiography (Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri). The history of Akbar is dealt in it. Abul Fazl’s Akbarnamah and Ain-e-Akbari. Another good piece of poetry was written by Faizi. The Shahjahan’s days were written by Chandra Bhan. By the 20th century, Iqbal wrote some good poetry. All of these have become a part of Indian culture.


During this time, there was growth in many regional languages like Hindi, Bengali, Assamese, Oriya, Marathi, and Gujarati. The 1st book in Hindi was Prithviraj Raso. It dealt with the exploits of Prithviraj Chauhan. The language has undergone several changes as the area where it was originally spoken expands. Many Hindi writers had looked to Sanskrit classics for guidance while writing literature. Due to the influence of the Bhakti movement in southern India, many poetries and prose written in Hindi were affected. Between the 7th and 8th centuries AD, the Hindi language has evolved during the Apabhramsa stage. This was characterized as Veergatha Kala (early period). Many Rajput rulers have patronized the poetry written in this period. Kabir and Tulsidas were the famous figures of this period. Surdas wrote Sur Sagar in which he talks about Lord Krishna as an infant. The festivals of Rama and Krishna are still celebrated grandly. Another important poet in this period was Nandadasa. Rahim and Bhushan wrote spiritual stories. In the 17th century, Bihari wrote Satsai which talks about shringar(love).   

Many writers have contributed to the development of modern Indian literature over the last 150 years. And in 1913, Rabindranath Tagore Tagore became the first Indian to win the Nobel Prize for literature (Geetanjali). Hindi prose came into its own during the 19th century. Bharatendu Harishchandra and Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi translated the works in Hindi from Sanskrit and other languages. Vande Mataram, a patriotic song in Sanskrit was composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterji (l 838-94). IT was later translated to Hindi and became very popular. Swami Dayananda has also contributed to the growth of the Hindi language. His SatyarthaPrakash was the important literature. Mahadevi Verma was awarded Padma Vibhushanis the first woman writer in Hindi to highlight issues related to women. Maithili Sharan Gupt is another important name. Jaishankar Prasad wrote beautiful dramas.


By the end of the 18th century, the development of modern language was started. The main writers of this period were Sadasukh Lal, Inshallah Khan, and Bhartendu Harishchandra. Shakuntala is translated to Hindi by Raja Lakshman Singh. Many proses of Hindi literature were written by Bhartendu Harish Chandra, Mahavira Prasad Dwivedi, Ramchandra Shukla, and Shyam Sunder Das. A great contribution to the development of Hindi poetry was given by many poets like Jai Shanker Prasad, Maithalisharan Gupta, Sumitranandan Pant, Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’, Mahadevi Verma, Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’ and Haribans Rai ‘Bacchan’ made a great contribution to the development of Hindi poetry. Prem Chand, Vrindavan Lal Verma, and Ellachandra Joshi were great novel writers of Hindi. 

Land reforms in India

Land reforms aim at redistributing ownership holding from the viewpoint of social justice, and reorganizing operational holdings from the view point of optimum utilisation of land. These aims at providing security of tenure, fixation of rents, conferment of ownership, etc..

The entire concept of land reforms aims at the abolition of intermediaries and bringing the actual cultivator in direct contact with the state. The scope of land reforms, therefore, includes: (i) abolition of intermediaries, (ii) tenancy reforms, i.e., regulation of rent, security of tenure for tenants and conferment of ownership on them; (iii) ceiling on land holdings and distribution of surplus land to landless agricultural labourers and small farmers; (iv) agrarian reorganisation including consolidation of holdings and prevention of sub-division and fragmentation; (v) organization of co-operative farms; and (vi) improvement in the system of record keeping.

Due to Zamindari Abolition, about 30 lakh tenants and share croppers acquired ownership rights over a total cultivated area of 25 lakh hectares throughout the country. Further, it led to the abolition of about 260,000 Zamindars and intermediaries and acquisition of large amount of forested, barren and waste land by the Government. It also led to the emergence of a middle class of peasantry which is playing a pivotal role in agricultural development.

Land reforms in India had envisaged that beyond a certain specified limit, all lands belonging to the landlords would be taken over by the State and allotted to small proprietors to make their holdings economic or to landless laborers to meet their demand for land. Ceiling on landholdings is, therefore, an effective measure for redistribution of land and achieving the goal of social justice.

Need of land reforms:

The land reforms were needed to change all the systems or institutional factors, which were responsible for the low productivity of agriculture and poverty among the rural poor. At the time of independence the agrarian society was divided into four classes landlords or big farmers, the intermediaries-cum- cultivating holders, the tenants the actual cultivators and agricultural labourers.

There was unjust and defective land tenure system which deprives a large number of cultivators the ownership rights and to make any decisions about the land they hold and cultivate. The system of land tenure is still oppressive.

Out of 100 people engaged in agriculture, only 10% are the big land owners who owns enough land, the rest 90% whether small cultivators, marginal cultivators or landless labourers have not all the facilities held by the big landowners and as a result they cannot do full just with the agricultural activities

Measures adopted under land reforms:

Under land reforms various institutional measures have been adopted to improve agricultural productivity and the status of the actual tillers by the central and state government from time to time. The government abolished the zamindari system. It was the curse of the Indian agriculture that those who cultivated land were not its owners. Land was owned by zamindars. They performed no economic activities but devoured large part of the production.

The tillers who cultivated the land were poorly paid. With the removal of zamindari system and intermediaries about 20 million tenants were given the occupancy rights. Tenancy reforms have provided security of the tenure to tenants, regulated rent and conferred ownership rights on tenants. This was the second steps taken by the government.

The third measure taken was the consolidation of scattered and small land holdings. Consolidation of holdings means allocation of compact plot of land in exchange for the several small plots held by the owner of the land to make them economically viable. The government of India has passed laws for compulsory consolidation of holdings. The step to solve the problem of fragmentation of land was co-operative farming.

Under this system, a large tract of land owned by different house-holds may be jointly cultivated by them. The constant updating and maintenance of land records was also undertaken. The chakbandi system was also one of the measures taken under land reforms.

Land ceiling was another steps taken under land reforms, ceiling on holding means a prescribed area of land left with the zamindars after the abolition of Zamindari System. The surplus land is taken from the zamindars and distributed among the tillers of land and weaker sections of society; Laws regarding ceiling limit which was 30 acres have been passed by the government and about 3 million hectare of land has been declared as surplus. But, it is not sufficient.

Success and failure of land reforms:

The objectives of land reforms were to bring about economic efficiency and social justice. Efforts have been made to improve the condition of labourers through the abolition of Zamindari system, ceiling acts, redistribution of land and minimum wages acts etc. still their condition is deplorable. The implementation of the land reforms programme in India failed in its endeavour.

A majority of the agricultural labourers continued to be confronted with socio-economic difficulties and could not benefit from the land reforms measures. The progress of consolidation of land holdings is not satisfactory only 1/4 of the land has been consolidated and this has been completed only in Punjab, Haryana and Western U.P. The distribution of surplus land is also not satisfactory.


In some of the states like Keraia, political will and intervention has led to the success of land reforms. All states except Nagaland and Meghalaya have passed ceiling acts. The five-year plans propose to lessen the sufferings of the landless people. With the removal of intermediaries, the cultivators came in direct contact with the government. A considerable area of cultivable waste land and private forest-land which came under the hand of the government was distributed among the landless and agricultural labourers.

In the ninth-five-year plan, it had been pointed out that rural poverty is largely among the landless and the marginal farmers. The plan proposed redistribution of surplus land, tenancy reforms for recording rights of tenants, consolidation of holdings etc. The tenth five-year plan also carries further the reforms in the agricultural sector which were earlier neglected.

It can be said that if land reform measures are effectively and whole-heartedly implemented it would be successful in lessening the problems of rural people. With the Green Revolution land reforms have been also contributed in increasing agricultural production and somewhat improving the condition of the rural people.

Places to visit in Kumaon region of Uttarakhand

Almora district is a district in the Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state, India. The town of Almora is surrounded by Pithoragarh district to the east, Garhwal region to the west, Bageshwar district to the north, and Nainital district to the south. The landscape of Almora attracts tourists each year for its views of the Himalayas, cultural heritage, handicrafts, and cuisine, and is a business hub for the Kumaon region. 

Almora has attracted several eminent people through the ages, including Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, Uday Shankar, and his troupe, and Ravi Shankar, who contributed to the cultural enrichment of the town. Govind Ballabh Pant noted freedom fighter was born in Almora. Former Indian Captain and ace cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni has ancestral roots in Lwali village in Almora. The town also serves as the starting point for many treks like Jageshwar, Pindari, Mornaula, Mukteshwar, Binsar, and Ranikhet among others.

The place owes its name to “Kilmore” a tiny plant found in the nearby regions, used for washing utensils of Katarmal sun temple. The people who used to bring the plant were referred to as Kilmore or Almora. Hence, the town came to be known as Almora or Almoda. 


Places to visit –

  1. Chitai Golu Devta Temple

Presided by the deity of Golu Ji, an incarnation of Lord Shiva in the form of Gaur Bhairav, the Chitai Temple is recognized by the number of copper bells hung in its premises. Although there are many temples of Golu Devta in Almora the Chitai Golu Devta Temple is the most sacred one.

Chitai Golu Devta Temple

  • Kasar Devi

Kasar Devi is a village near Almora, Uttarakhand. It is known for the Kasar Devi temple, a Devi temple, dedicated to Kasar Devi, after whom the place is also named. The Kasar Devi temple offers a pleasant view of the Almora city and Hawabagh Valley. In the 1890s Swami Vivekanand came to this temple for meditation.

Kasar Devi Temple

  • Dunagiri

Dunagiri temple is located 14 km far from Dwarahat. The temple is dedicated to the goddess Durga. It is believed that when Hanuman Ji was carrying the mountain with ‘Sanjiwani buti’ for Laxman, a piece of it fell here and since that day this place is known as ‘Doonagiri’ (‘giri’ meaning fell).

Dunagiri Temple

  • Jageshwar

One of the finest examples of architecture in Uttarakhand, Jageshwar Dham is a group of temples dedicated to Lord Shiva. The Jageshwar temple site attracts many pilgrims and visitors every day. Many complete a part of the post-cremation last rites after the death of a loved one at the Jageshwar temple site. 

Jageshwar Temple

  • Binsar

Binsar is a small town adorned on the hills of Kumaon. Binsar is known for offering spell-binding views of the majestic Himalayan peaks such as Chaukhamba, Nanda Devi, Nanda Kot, Panchauali, and Kedarnath. This compact hill town is encircled by the Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary which serves as a habitat for the rare animals, birds, and flower species. It is the best place for experiencing adventurous hiking and camping.


  • Katarmal Sun Temple

Katarmal Sun Temple is considered the second most important sun temple in India after Konark Sun Temple (Orissa). It is believed to be the only sun temple located in the hills. The Katarmal Sun temple is a unique cluster of temples that is the tallest temple in the Kumaon region. Inside the main temple along with the statue of Vraddhaditya, other deities are also present. The locals believe that this shrine is significant for two reasons. One, this is the only Sun temple in the hills, and second, in February and November, the sun rays fall directly on the deity making it an extraordinary sight.

Katarmal Sun Temple

The best solace food varieties you can eat, as indicated by specialists

There’s nothing more alleviating than your #1 solace allowing suppers when you feel somewhat low or simply sick. As the name proposes, solace food sources are intended to offer you that solace and warmth and you can simply go to them when you feel blue! For a few, it can likewise offer a little nostalgic benefit and cause you to feel at ease. Notwithstanding, as ameliorating as it appears, we as a whole realize that they aren’t actually the best contribution there. Be it a pack of chips, rice luxuries, desserts, moment noodles, a sandwich or pizzas, considered a mainstream decision around the world, solace food sources can be of any sort yet tragically, weighed down with a great deal of carbs, fat and sugar content, which isn’t actually a solid decision to be had.

Why are solace food varieties terrible?

Solace food sources are frequently connected with a nostalgic, alleviating esteem which regularly leaves us genuinely satisfied (otherwise known as, feeling full) whenever we are finished having them. Studies propose that solace food varieties really work to hoist mind-set levels by animating the cerebrum’s prize and joy focuses and can feel like a habit. Notwithstanding, as fulfilling and soothing as the food sources may feel in the midst of emergency, most solace food varieties are healthfully not unreasonably thick, and all things being equal, loaded up with calories. The issue deteriorates, in the event that you wind up having a lot of your solace food sources, and burden up on the abundance carbs and fats, or the undesirable additives in them, and end up in an awful pressure pigging out cycle.

Having said that, not all solace food is really downright terrible. While they do get a feeling of sentimentality and help you in general, for certain augmentations and careful trades, you can have your solace food varieties without an ounce of blame or stressing over exaggerating your calories! Here’s introducing the absolute most nutritious solace dinners to make you glad and sound simultaneously:

Cereal arrangements: Oatmeal is a morning meal staple for some, a confided in weight reduction helper, and, in the event that you ask us, an embrace in-a-bowl sort of planning! Not exclusively would oatmeal be able to be ready in an assortment of ways, it is wealthy in acceptable carbs, fiber and cell reinforcements which don’t digress you away from nourishment esteems. Oats are likewise bounty plentiful in B-Vitamins, which advance cerebrum wellbeing. Finish it off with nectar, nuts and seeds, foods grown from the ground have a feeding dinner worth partaking in any time.

Vegetable sandwiches and pasta: Pasta and sandwiches are appreciated by many are considered the go-to supper when abrupt food cravings and yearnings strike. While adding sauces and a lot of cheddar can positively make your supper a bit unfortunate, make a point to include a ton of brilliant veggies and a few flavors into your sandwiches, pastas to stack up on the wellbeing remainder! Cheddar as well, whenever added cautiously can be beneficial for you! Thus, ensure you make this careful trade to make your solace rich feast significantly more solid.

Heated potatoes: Potatoes are a favoured vegetable cherished by all. Nonetheless, it’s additionally something that is calorie-thick, and may not be really beneficial to be had in its singed, fresh structure that we like. Choosing heated potato dishes, finishing off with more veggies can be one trade that can cause you to have your potato, and eat it righteous!

Khichdi: When we discuss solace food varieties, how might we disregard our own special khichdi? The blended rice and lentil readiness is quite sustaining and thought about a mending feast in many pieces of the country. While certain increases to the dish (like the utilization of asafoetida, ghee or the humble tadka) make the dinner very nutritious, on the off chance that you truly depend on khichdi as your solace food, ensure you use protein-pressed lentils, (for example, moong daal), throw in veggies (any you like) and make it a satisfying supper without help from anyone else!

Curd rice: Just like khichdi, curd rice is an adored delicacy in many pieces of India. Indeed, it’s really a very solid planning. Specialists have since quite a while ago focused on that curd rice is gut-accommodating food since it can re-establish the microbial equilibrium in the body, help absorption. Curd, in the meantime, is a decent wellspring of dairy-rich calcium, which reinforces your bones and has heaps of cancer prevention agents.

Foxnuts and margarine less popcorn: Popcorn (made without spread) and foxnuts, otherwise called makhanas can likewise make for sound tidbits and solace food alternatives. While popcorn portions are supposed to be wealthy in cancer prevention agents and heart-solid polyphenols, wealthy in satiety and useful for assimilation, makhanas, as well, can be made contrastingly and gloat of a great deal of promising medical advantages from being wealthy in calcium, great carbs, iron, magnesium and phosphorus.

Yogurt finished off with organic products: The best (and the best) substitution to frozen yogurts are low-fat yogurt-based treats and yogurt bowls. While yogurt is an incredibly decent wellspring of good gut microbes, calcium, benefits weight reduction and insusceptibility, adding bright nuts and seeds to your yogurt planning serve in extra cancer prevention agents, nutrients and minerals and is beneficial to be had routinely.


Social Media is quite possibly the most quickly developing stages in our period. We can speak with others effectively by utilizing social media. Social media has empowered us to stay in contact with our companions who don’t live near us. We are additionally ready to know the news in different pieces of the world much effectively by utilizing social media. We can make a gathering of many individuals together in social media to examine about a specific issue. We can see the assortment of assessments which emerges by examining and bantering about a specific subject or episode.

Some little individuals whose voice was not heard before can voice their perspectives through social media. They can draw out reality to people in general. We are likewise ready to share recordings, pictures and so on with only a single navigate social media. We can assemble better associations with our companions. Subsequently, we can say social media is exceptionally valuable for a person from various perspectives. Social media likewise has a hurtful impact in case it isn’t utilized carefully or reasonably. A few group get dependent on social media like instagram, facebook, whatsapp and so on this prompts a lessening in their usefulness, in actuality. Individuals are snared on their telephones and up close and personal gatherings have become extremely unprecedented in light of social media.

Individuals are doing extremely less exercise nowadays and are fascinated in social media. It makes them unhealthy. Abusing of social media will prompt numerous eyeproblems for the client due to stressing their eyes on the contraption can prompt eye issue. Individuals are currently exceptionally enthusiastic just contemplating new posts, new warnings and so forth In this way, social media has an adverse consequence to on the existence of a person.

Gender Neutrality in Rape laws in India

In a society where patriarchy rules, men and women are differentiated on all levels of life. Men are allowed to study, go out of house, move to different cities looking for job, coming late at night, wearing any kind of clothing and many more. However, the same privileges are not granted to women. Men in our society have been groomed as strong and emotionless cause showing emotions would make them a “woman”. There have been many instances in all of our lives where someone told a boy not to cry by saying “are you a girl that you are crying?” Our society focuses too much on keeping women safe by keeping them locked at home rather than improving their physical strength and the environment in which they live.

Due to women not being physically stronger, they were suppressed by the society. History is our witness and evidence which shows different ways our society suppressed women. Amongst the various restrictions put on women, one of them was to be careful in regards with their womanhood. Women were and are still told to safeguard their womanhood until they get married, yet the same is not said to the men in the society. This in itself disturbs the balance between men and women and can be said to be discriminatory. When men weren’t stopped from exploring and satisfying their manhood and pleasure, the evil amongst them took advantage of it. Sexual assault and misconduct became a part of the society and the solution for it was to keep girls inside and to ask them to wear “proper clothing.” However, this did not stop those evil men from creating havoc to the body and mind of the woman.

Over the years, laws were introduced for safeguarding the rights of the citizens and amongst the plethora of laws, there was the rape law. It was channel of justice for women to throw the rapists behind the bars. The law should have been enough to scare the evil men of the consequences which would be brought upon them if they committed such heinous crime of women. However, the law also could not stop them. According to a survey conducted by the NCRB i.e., National Crime Records Bureau, on an average 88 women were raped daily in 2019. Apart from the daily rape cases, the spectrum of women is quite wide in terms of being a victim to the hands of these evil men. From a three-month-old baby to orphan girls to young girls being raped in the crematory to Nirbhaya, Hathras and many more. These are just the cases the few cases which were reported and highlighted in the media. There are so many unreported rape cases where a woman or a man has been raped and they could not come up and speak. Yes, men are also a victim to the evil hands of the society. The very same society would mock a man on being raped. The society would question a man’s character and his manliness because he was raped or was sexually assaulted.

We all know the heinous crimes committed on women in India, but are we aware of the atrocities which happen to men? P Jayaraj and J Fenix, a father-son duo in Tamil Nadu died due to police brutality which also included being sodomized. There were friends and families who reported that both the father and son were excessively bleeding from their rectum. Now in such a case, where can the man go and seek justice for himself? The man cannot do so as the society we live in, will belittle him for something so horrible. There have been research conducted wherein it was pointed out that a woman in very rare cases could be the perpetrator in terms of penetrative rape. Few instances where the woman can be the perpetrator are – using her power of position and coercing the man into having sexual intercourse with her without his consent or intoxicate the man without his knowledge and have sexual intercourse with him without consent. In both the instances, the man is being sexually assaulted yet he has no legal remedy for himself. According to a survey conducted by Centre for Civil society, 18 percent of men were forced or coerced into having sexual intercourse, yet those victims of rape could not seek justice as they were not protected under the rape law.

Countries such as Australia, United Kingdom and Denmark  have already accepted gender neutral laws. That’s a change which is required for our society to make it into a better living environment for all the citizens i.e., men, women, transgender, etc. The laws in India should be made gender neutral in order to preserve the true essence of Article 14 of Indian constitution i.e., Right to equality , Article 15 of Indian constitution I.e., prohibition discrimination on grounds of sex and Article 21 i.e., right to life where both the genders can live a life with dignity. The law is not the only thing which needs to be amended, but the mindset of the society also needs to be changed. The society should be made aware of the statistics of men being raped and sexually assaulted in India and why they also need to be protected by the law. Hence, the rape laws should be gender neutral.



Ways to Stop Procrastination

One of the common things human beings are suffering from is procrastination. It is the act of delaying or putting things off for a later time. Even a person who is well-organized and disciplined tends to fall into this well of procrastination. Believing that repeated minor delays will not hurt you in a long run is nothing but a form of procrastination. If you are delaying the task, having trouble acting on them, or are unable to manage distractions then you are procrastinating.

Procrastination can lead to –

  • Ruining your career
  • Wasting your precious time
  • Making poor decision
  • Ruining your relationships
  • Resentment from family and co-workers
  • Making poor decisions
  • Lower self-esteem
  • Stress on your health

“Success is not a place at which one arrives but rather the spirit with which one undertakes and continues the journey.”

– Alfred Nobel

But this needs to stop right now otherwise you will be in great trouble. Here are some ways that will help you to overcome procrastination

  • Manage your environment

Working in a space where you are surrounded by positive energy will enhance your ability to do the work efficiently.

  • Take baby steps

Break down the items on your list into small, manageable steps so that your tasks don’t seem so overwhelming.

  • Make a to-do list

This will help you to keep track of things you would be doing the following day. By this, you don’t have to waste time in the morning. You know what are your plans for the day and you will start your day with a clear picture.

  • Eliminate distractions

Eliminate the distractions that force you to procrastinate. If you are distracted by social media so deactivate it for a short period of time. Turn off your notifications and focus on what you are doing.

  • Start today

Once you’ve figured out what is the task for the day, you must take immediate action. Muster the courage and give it a start with a positive note of completing the task without any distraction.

  • Hang out with people who don’t procrastinate

Hang out with people who inspire you. They’ll infuse some of their drive and spirit into your work ethic.

  • Reward yourself

When we tell ourselves something like, “I’ll do it first thing tomorrow morning,” that provides another reward in the form of positive emotions. You see, when we imagine ourselves engaged in some future action that we perceive as beneficial, we feel good about ourselves.

  • Increase self confidence

Students who believe that they won’t be successful at the task at hand are more likely to procrastinate. One way to increase their confidence is to highlight how others who have been in a similar position have been successful.

  • Perfectionism

Don’t strive for perfectionism. It is better to do something 80% than having done nothing. As the saying goes “Well done is better than well said“.

  • When your plan is failing, RE-PLAN

Some goals weren’t meant to be achieved then take a step back and decide what it is exactly that you want to achieve and what steps you should take to get there.

Banned cartoons and their reasons

You may have came across the word “ban” Or “censored’ used in movies, but do you know these terms are also used for some cartoons in some countries which are liked by other countries. Let’s have a look at some popular cartoons which are banned in some countries and their reasons.

1. SpongeBob SquarePants

This is the longest running Nickelodeon show ever. It got banned because of violence and foul language which are used in this show. Countries like Russia, America and 120 others have banned this show from watching.

2. The Simpsons

This is America’s most popular cartoon show till now. This show had scenes where public figures like Donald Trump, were insulted. This show also promoted disorderly behavior which were totally misleading for kids. After sometime, the show is now available to watch, but there has been argument going on this show as countries like US have censored this cartoon show.

3. Mickey Mouse

This is world’s first cartoon show which had voice, and the first word that Mickey Mouse said was “Hot Dogs”. This cartoon show got banned in 1930s in the Romanian region because Romania government stated that big Mouse in this cartoon will scare the kids rather than making them laugh.

4. Doremon

This is a Japanese cartoon show which is ban in more than 50 countries because of the character Nobita. The Nobita character is a lazy character who always depends upon the character Doremon for helping gadgets. An argument concluded that the Nobita character was promoting laziness, procrastinating, etc, which resulted in banning.

Cartoon shows should be developed keeping kids as their main audience. It should have the simplicity and cleanness that attract audience and also focusing on the impact and effect that it’ll leave mainly on audience. That’s why shows that promotes foul language can always make a big effect on kids. This makes banning a healthy and better option.