The world has been moving towards everything digital for quite a while. Be that as it may, the year 2020 put into point of view the desperate need to adjust to digital innovation as quickly as time permits. This variation happened right away with the lockdown becoming effective, particularly for digital installments in India.

The Indian government has been advancing and proliferating on the web installments forcefully, beginning with demonetization back in 2016. ‘Digital India’ had been the directing power of numerous monetary and monetary choices that pushed Indians to change to online installments.

After the dispatch of Cashless India, we at present have ten techniques for digital installment accessible in India. A few techniques have been in need for over 10 years, some have gotten as of late famous, and others are generally new. There are different sorts and methods of digital installments. A portion of these incorporate the utilization of Banking cards, USSD, Aadhaar Enabled Payment System (AEPS), UPI, Mobile Wallets, Bank pre-loaded cards, Internet Banking, Mobile Banking, Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) application.


Preliminary inquiry before FIR?

In India, there is no law which gives the police power to conduct preliminary inquiry but there are certain judgements which have stated that in the case of matrimonial disharmony, police can prefer preliminary inquiry before filing FIR.

But let’s first start first definition of “inquiry”

Section 2(1)(g) of CrPC

” Inquiry” means every inquiry, other than a trial, conducted under this Code by a Magistrate or Court.

Now, whether investigation and inquiry the same?

Manubhai Ratilal Patel vs State of Gujarat:-

Investigation by police is neither inquiry nor trial

Section 157(1) in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973:-

Procedure for investigation preliminary inquiry.

(1) If, from information received or otherwise, an officer in charge of a police station has reason to suspect the commission of an offence which he is empowered under section 156 to investigate, he shall forthwith send a report of the same to a Magistrate empowered to take cognizance of such offence upon a police report and shall proceed in person, or shall depute one of his subordinate officers not being below such rank as the State Government may, by general or special order, prescribe in this behalf, to proceed, to the spot, to investigate the facts and circumstances of the case, and, if necessary, to take measures for the discovery and arrest of the offender; Provided that-

(a) when information as to the commission of any such offence is given against any person by name and the case is not of a serious nature, the officer in charge of a police station need not proceed in person or depute a subordinate officer to make an investigation on the spot;

(b) if it appears to the officer in charge of a police station that there is no sufficient ground for entering on an investigation, he shall not investigate the case.

Police have the authority to not investigate after filing the FIR if the matter is trivial but will have to send the report to the magistrate. Further, on receiving such report, Magistrate may direct an investigation, or, if he thinks fit, at once proceed, or depute any Magistrate according to Section 159 of CrPC.

State of Telengana vs Managipet Reddy

A preliminary enquiry may be conducted pertaining to matrimonial disputes, commercial offences, medical negligence cases, corruption cases etc. The judgement of the court and Lalita Kumari does not state that proceedings cannot be initiated against an accused without conducting a preliminary enquiry. There is no set format or manner in which a preliminary enquiry is to be conducted the objective of the same is only to ensure that a criminal investigation process was not initiated on a frivolous and untenable complaints.

Preeti gupta vs State of Jharkhand

It is a matter of common experience that most of these complaints under Section 498a IPC are filed in the heat of the moment over trivial issues without proper deliberation. A large number of such complaints which are not even bona fide and are filled with oblique motive at the same time Rapid increase in the number of judgement cases of dowry harassment are also a matter of serious concern and it is imperative for the legislature to take into consideration the informed public opinion and the pragmatic realities into consideration and make necessary changes in the relevant provisions of law.

273rd Law commission of India report

Misuse of Section 498-A in many cases has been judicially noticed by the apex court as well as various High Courts. This has also been taken note of by Parliamentary Committee on Petitions (Rajya Sabha). However, misuse (the extent of which is not established by any empirical study) by itself is not a ground to abolish S,498-A. The law on the question whether registration of FIR could be postponed for a reasonable time is in a state of uncertainty. Some High Courts have been directing that FIR shall not be registered under S, 498A (except in cases of visible violence, and the like) till the preliminary investigation is done and reconciliation process is completed. The issue has been referred to a larger Bench of Supreme Court recently. In this regard, the police have to follow the law laid down by the jurisdictional High Court until the Supreme Court decides the matter.

Lalita Kumari vs State of UP

If the inquiry discloses the commission of cognizable offence, FIR must be filed. Scope of preliminary enquiry is not to verify the veracity of or otherwise of the information received but only to a certain whether the information reveals any cognizable offence. A preliminary enquiry should be made time bound and, in any case, it should not exceed 7 days.

Therefore, police can conduct a preliminary inquiry before filing the FIR in matrimonial disharmony cases which relate to Section 498a of IPC as misuse of Section 498-A in many cases has been judicially noticed by the apex court as well as various High Courts. If the inquiry discloses the commission of cognizable offence, FIR must be filed.




Vegetables are an important element of the diet since they include a variety of essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, roughage, and so on. Microbial deterioration causes around 20% of vegetables produced for human use to be wasted.

Spoilage is defined as any alteration in food that renders it unfit for human consumption.


Vegetables, because of their high nutritional content, can promote the growth of moulds, yeasts, and bacteria, and thus can be ruined by any or all of these microorganisms. The presence of more water in vegetables encourages the growth of spoilage bacteria, and the low carbohydrate and fat content implies that much of this water is in useful form. Furthermore, vegetables’ tissues have a higher pH than fruits, making them more sensitive to bacterial invitation.

Vegetables’ relatively have strong oxidation-reduction potential and lack of significant poising capacity which indicates that aerobic and facultative anaerobic types are more essential than anaerobes.

In terms of frozen vegetable products, the total numbers of bacteria on frozen vegetables tend to be lower than on non- frozen products. This occurs primarily due to:

  • Blanching of products prior to freezing them.
  • Selection of higher quality products for freezing.
  • Some bacteria dying in the frozen state.


Vegetables being a part of fresh produce contain high moisture which makes them highly perishable and hence more prone to spoilage.

Microbes gain entry into vegetables from various sources. These include:

  1. Soil
  2. Water
  3. Diseased plant
  4. Harvesting and processing equipments
  5. Handlers
  6. Packaging and packing material
  7. Contact with spoiled vegetables
  8. Freshly picked vegetables contain a natural surface flora, which includes pectinolytic bacteria in low quantities. The plant’s intact healthy tissue may also include a small number of live bacteria. The interplay between physiological changes in the tissues after harvest and changes in microbial activity will determine the start and pace of deterioration. The act of harvesting causes physiological stress, mostly due to water loss and wilting, and damaged surfaces may release nutrients for microbial development. This stress may also allow the endophytic flora to flourish, which would otherwise be dormant.
  9. The softening of tissue caused by bacteria’ pectinolytic activity is the most common type of deterioration. Pectin, a key component of the intermediate lamella between the cells, is involved in the microorganisms’ breakdown process.


  1. Pectinolytic species of the Gram-negative genera-
  2. Pectinobacterium
  3. Pseudomonas
  4. Xanthomonas

These microbes are considered important in the spoilage of potatoes, under some circumstances.

  • Non- sporing Gram-positive organism Corynebacterium sepedonicum causes a ring rot of potatoes.

The bacteria most commonly associated with the soft rotting of carrots are Pectobaterium spp. Such as:

  • P.carotovorum subsp. carotovorum
  • P.carotovorum subsp. odoriferum


Spoilage conditions in vegetables are usually initiated pre-harvest and sometimes post-harvest.

Botrytis cinerea causes grey mould rot in a variety of vegetables such as:

  • Asparagus
  • Lettuce
  • Onions
  • Cabbage
  • Garlic
  • Celery

In this disease, the casual fungus grows on decayed areas in the form of prominent grey mould. Rhizopus soft rot, caused by the fungi Rhizopus stolonifer is responsible for turning vegetables soft and mushy. Among those affected are beans, carrots, sweet potatoes and tomatoes.

Blue mould rot is a post-harvest disease of apples and pears, caused by Penicillum enpansum.


Vegetables are not usually a cause of public health concern but transmission of enteric pathogens such as:

  • Salmonella
  • Shigella
  • VTEC

Direct contamination from farmworkers and animal excrement, the use of manure or sewage sludge as fertiliser, or the use of polluted irrigation water are all possibilities.

  1. Celery, watercress, lettuce, cabbage and beansprouts have all been associated with Salmonella infections, including typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. Moreover, an outbreak of Shigellosis gas has been traced to commercial shredded lettuce.
  2. Not all pathogens are necessarily transmitted to vegetables by direct or indirect fecal contamination. Organisms such as Clostridium botulinum have a natural reservoir in the soil and any products contaminated with soil can be assumed to be contaminated with soil can be assumed to be contaminated with spores possibly in very low numbers.
  3. Psychrotrophic species Listeria monocytogenes caused an outbreak of listeriosis in USA (1979) and can easily grow on shredded cabbage and salad vegetables at temperatures as low as 50C and modified- atmospheres have no effect on this organism.

How valuable you are?

Good evening people how are you all; I hope all are doing great. 🙂 So without wasting your precious time let me start my today’s content. Today’s content is all about to make you all understand about how valuable you are. So let’s begin it with a small story.

  • A man once called his son and told him that he would give him something extraordinary, something extremely valuable, from within a safety vault he pulled out a red velvet box and gently opened it. Inside the box was an old watch. As he handed the watch over to his son, the man said, “This watch is very special” it has come down to us over 3 generations and is at least over 200years old. “You can use it; you can keep it as a memoir or just sell it, and get money to buy whatever you like.” A little disappointed, the young son looked at his father and said, “Dad, this watch is so outdated. I don’t think I can wear it. And it is so old, I am not even sure if it could be sold.”  The man took his son to a watchmaker’s shop nearby to show him how valuable that watch was. The watchmaker examined the watch carefully and said, “Since the watch is so old, all I can give is for this is $5.” The young man turned to his father with an expression on his face which was like, I told you right? The father than took a son to pawn shop where they offer you a loan for personal items kept as collateral. The owner of the pawn shop looked at the watch for a while and turned to the man and said “you expect money for this piece of scrap? All we would do with this is we would throw it to the rubbish bin. Sorry, we cannot offer anything for this. ”Relentless, the man now took his son to a museum they went to see the chief of the museum who was an expert in finding the worth of the old things, when the chief saw the watch, he exclaimed, “Incredible, so well crafted! Such precision in its design! Look at the quality of the materials; a watch like this is priceless. But we can offer you a million dollars for it. “Thank you  for choosing to come to us with this watch,” The young man stood there gob smacked with eyes wide open, not even blinking at his father, the proud owner of the watch, very happily accepted the deal. And sold the antique piece for a million dollars. As they both walk back home the father said: “Always know this one thing son. Like the watch, “YOU WILL ONLY BE VALUED IF YOU ARE IN THE RIGHT PLACE” Watch makers repair watches, their eyes can see tiny screws in watch parts, but a wrong place for an antique piece like this, Pawn shops use them as collaterals, they can only see everything based on their current market value, Wrong place for an antique piece like this. But at a museum which displays ancient valuable, antiques, and experts can see beyond watch parts, beyond the current market rates of the watches. They can see the actual value of the object, absolutely the right place for an antique piece like this. So sons “if you find yourself not being valued, don’t get angry or frustrated! Know that you are probably in the wrong place” being judged by the people who see tiny parts of you, tiny parts of your life, not the whole you or being judged by people who see you for how much is your net worth, how much is your current market value. They see you for what you have not for who you are, “seek for those who can see your real value beyond all the externals” who have the expert vision to see the true you beyond all your short comings and all your faults. Those who can see your true value, your true potential, they will inspire you to do well. To live well, to love, to grow and to rise in life. Friends isn’t it true that “every individual has a special sense of worth” All we need is someone who can see that worth in us. And make us see that worth in our self as well. There is a beautiful Sanskrit verse which says,
  • “amantram aksharam naasti”: There is no akshar or letter that cannot be turned into a mantra.
  •  “naasti mulam anaushadham”: There’s no plant \root\herb that is not medicinal.
  • “ayogyam purusho naasti” There’s no person who is unworthy.

You know friends what’s lacking?

  • “yojakas tatra durlabha”: What’s lacking is an expert who can see the values, the worth in us and encourage us on our path!

So my lovely readers the moral of the story is know your worth, love yourself, endure yourself, and make yourself a better person everyday.

And here the story ends I hope, you all would have got a new thought and lesson from my today’s content

#inspiredbygaurgopaldas #spread positivity #keep smiling #stay safe.:)

Unicorn Startups – A goal or a mere status

Every founder while founding a startup has a dream in his mind that one day they think will be achieved. Most founders see this happen when their startups achieve the acclaimed unicorn status. What is a unicorn status you ask , well any startup whose valuation crosses the $1 billion mark is given unicorn status. But is just being a unicorn sufficient for a company to survive? Let’s find out.

By unicorn one is simply referring to the valuation of the company and nothing else – not the revenue , not the profits just the valuation. There are several instances where an extremely high loss making company can be a unicorn and profit making company is not but that’s just how it works. Now, don’t forget that these valuations don’t mean that your company is failure proof; a unicorn has just as high chance of failure than a non-unicorn company. Hence the question – is it a mere status?

Well we can’t just differentiate it as black and white, we have to look between the colors here. Let us start with an example – a case of a well funded startup which became a unicorn quickly and a bootstrapped startup.

Quibi a streaming startup founded in August 2018 by renowned Hollywood producers Jeffery Katzenberg and Meg Whitman as a platform to launch short-form content for mobile services. One of the fastest startups to become a unicorn, Quibi quickly generated a funding of $1.75 Billion and launched its streaming service by April 2020. Do you know what is the situation of Quibi right now – DEFUNCT. Yes, one of the fastest startups to become unicorn is now defunct and was shutdown within six months of its launch.

Now let’s talk about another startup, this time an Indian bootstrapped startup { bootstrapped – run by founders own money without any external funding} called Zerodha. Zerodha a stock broking company which was launched in 2010 by the then unknowns Nikhil and Nithin Kamath provided stock-broking services online anywhere in India. Situation of Zerodha you ask right now – It is one the most successful Indian startups and the most used stock-broker in India as of now with more than 5+ million users as of 2020. Although launched in 2010 Zerodha only became a unicorn in June 2020 with a self-assessed valuation of over $1 Billion.

The lesson from the above story – being a unicorn doesn’t guarantee success. If you have the right product and the right mindset you can bootstrap your way to success and if you don’t have the right idea you can receive all the funding in the world but still won’t be able to make it.


Hi all,
   Today I am going to share an interesting and useful information. Yes, today I am going to share some short forms that being used while texting.

1.RN – Right now.
2.LMK Let me know.
3.NVM – Never mind.
4.IMO – In my opinion.
5.TBF To be frank.
6.TBH – To be honest.
7.IDK – I don’t know.
8.TTYL Talk to you later.
9.?4U I have a question for you.
10.<3 – sideways heart.
11.2N8 – Tonight.
12.2M2H – Too much to handle.
13.^5 – High-five.
14.AFAP – As far as possible.
15.ASAP As soon as possible.
16.B4 – Before
17.BTW – By the way.
18.CYA See ya.
19.JK Just kidding.
20.OTOH – On the other hand.
21.OMW – On my way.
22.FYI – For you information.
23.POMS – parent over my shoulder.
24.PAW – parents are watching.
25.PBB – parent behind back.
26.WYWH – Wish you were here.
27.POV – Point of view.
28.SRSLY – Seriously.
29.WUZUP – What’s up.
30.W8 – Wait.
31.RUOK – Are you ok.
32.CYT – See you tomorrow.
33.TIA – Thanks in advance.
34.BRB – Be right back.
35.2MORO – Tomorrow.

Now, try to use these short forms and have fun.
Hope so it was useful.

Have a cool day

Keep smiling ❣️❣️❣️


There are a lot of painting by famous painters that were stolen and never found , till date . Here are a list of a few stolen paintings ,

HARLEQUIN HEAD – This abstract painting was made by the Spanish painter Pablo Picasso . The painting was stolen in the year 2012 from Kunsthal Museum in Rotterdam .

THE CONCERT – “The concert ” was painted by the famous Dutch Baroque painter Johannes Vermeer . It was stolen from Isabella Stewart Garner Museum located in Boston in 1990 .

POPPY FLOWERS – This magnificent painting was made by Vincent Van Gogh . It was stolen from the Cairo Mohamed Mahmoud Khalil Museum situated in Cairo , not once but twice . The painting was retrieved back , only to be stolen again in August of 2010.

LANDSCAPE WITH COTTAGES – This painting was made by the Dutch painter , Rembrandt Van Rijn . It was stolen from the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts in 1972.

Eating Disorders

Eating disorder are severe mental illness, not lifestyle choices.

DEmi lovato
See the source image


Eating disorder is a product of mental turbulence that manifests itself in the eating habits of people, affecting them negatively. It is a serious condition that can have a lasting impact in various spheres of a person’s life. Eating disorders usually sprout from body insecurities and an untameable urge to lose weight quickly.

According to Mayo Clinic, Most eating disorders involve focusing too much on your weight, body shape and food, leading to dangerous eating behaviours. These behaviours can significantly impact your body’s ability to get appropriate nutrition. Eating disorders can harm the heart, digestive system, bones, and teeth and mouth, and lead to other diseases.

See the source image

Although these disorders can take root at any age teenagers and adolescents might be more prone to such disorders.

Eating disorders can impact the body in a detrimental manner. Eating disorders, often obviously lead to lack of nutrition that becomes the underlying cause of a number of diseases, that eventually end up affecting all the functioning systems of the body.


Image result for eating disorder symptoms cartoon
  1. Drastic weight change
  2. Obsessive preoccupation with food
  3. Excessive exercise
  4. Binge eating or purging
  5. Vomiting
  6. Avoiding meals
  7. Binge eating
  8. Fear of fat
  9. Tooth decay
  10. Swollen glands, dry calluses on fingers
  11. Dry, yellowish skin
  12. Thinning bones
  13. Feeling tired
  14. Mild anaemia
  15. Depression
  16. Constipation
  17. Irregular menstrual cycles
  18. Low blood pressure
  19. Growth of hair on body
  20. Excessive mood swings
  21. Using laxatives etc

Types of Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are not just limited to less eating or not eating at all, several other type of disorders include binge eating as well. Listed below are three of the most common eating disorders.

Anorexia Nervosa:

One of the most commonly known disorder, anorexia is often characterised by low weight and a distorted body image. According to statistics;

  • Anorexia is the 3rd most common chronic illness among adolescents
  • 95% of those who have eating disorders are between the ages of 12 and 25
  • 50% of girls between the ages of 11 and 13 see themselves as overweight
  • 80% of 13-year-olds have attempted to lose weight

Patients with this disorder, often underweight limit their food intake to a dangerous extent. It involves a characteristic fear of eating, unhealthy desire for weight loss and often includes excessive exercise.

People with this disorder are severely malnourished and often never satisfied with their weight loss aiming for a ‘perfect’ size zero.

Bulimia Nervosa:

See the source image

This eating disorder is characterised by eating in large amounts (binge eating) and then purging or forcing vomit to rid of the excess calories and guilt of food. It is a potentially life threatening disorder.

To get rid of calories and prevent weight gain, people with bulimia may use different methods. For example, you may regularly self-induce vomiting or misuse laxatives, weight-loss supplements, diuretics or enemas after bingeing. Or you may use other ways to rid yourself of calories and prevent weight gain, such as fasting, strict dieting or excessive exercise.

Binge-eating Disorder:

Image result for binge eating disorder cartoon

Patients with this disorder eat unusually large amounts of food almost everyday compulsively. Patients may be embarrassed of their eating regimen and may decide to work on some change but the urge to eat overpowers all.

This binging is different from festive binging or one in a blue moon movie night binge eating.

People with this disorder may be obese or overweight.




Music is one of the most popular art forms of India. The earliest tradition of music is traced to Sama Veda. The six chapters on music are exclusively dealt with in Bharata’s Natyashastra which is compiled between the 2nd century BC and 2nd century AD. The ragas were first discussed in Brihaddesiwritten by Matanga compiled between the 8th and 9th century AD. 264 ragas were mentioned in the Sangeet Ratnakara written by Sarangadeva in the 13th century. Several musical instruments were introduced over some time. Music was patronized by many rulers such as Samudragupta, King Bhoja of Dhara, and King Someshavra of Kalyana, and Samudra Gupta, monarch of Gupta. Music has also been associated with the worship of gods and goddesses. Jayadeva of Orissa composed a raga named Gita Govinda which composed the love of Radha and Krishna. Abhinavabharati written by Abhinavagupta (993-1055) gives more insights into music. In Tamil, the Nyanmanrs and Alvars have composed several poems to the music. Kabir, Mirabai, Tulsidas, Vidyapati are those who are closely associated with music. Kitab-e-Navras was written by Adil Shah 2 in the 17th century in which he praised both the Hind gods and Muslim saints. Tansen and Baiju Bawa were two great musicians during the period of Akbar. Mirabai, Tulsidas, and Surdas sang various devotional songs of Hindustani music.


Indian classic music was broadly classified on two traditions during the medieval period. They are Hindustani Classical Music in North India and Carnatic music in South India,


Hindustani classical music is the classical music of Northern India. During this period, the musical performance was enriched with several instruments. Dhrupad, Dhamar, Thumri, Khayal, and Tappa were the different styles of Hindustani music. Tansen’s music had the effect of magic and with his ‘Megh Rag’, he even caused the rainfall. Even today, his melodious songs are sung in every part of India. Baiju Bawra, Surdas was the musicians patronized by Akbar. Bahar, , Darbari, Desh , Bhairavi, Sindhu Bhairavi, Bhim Palasi, Hamsadhwani, Jai Jayanti, Megha Malhar, Todi, Yaman, Pilu, were the most popular ragas.

India has a variety of musical instruments of different types. Sitar, sarod, santoor and sarangi. Pakhawaj, tabla, and Mridangam are the most famous stringed instruments. The chief wind instruments are shehnai, nadaswaram, and flute. Gharana, a particular style of music is mostly preferred in Hindustani classical music. The gharanas function in gurushishya parampara i.e, the guru will teach his musical knowledge and style to his disciples. Gwalior gharana, Kirana gharana, and Jaipur gharana were some famous gharanas.


The compositions in Carnatic music were mostly composed by three people namely Shyam Shastri, Thyagaraja, and Mutthuswami Dikshitar between AD 1700 AND 1850. Another important composer of Carnatic music was Purandardasa. Thyagaraja is a saint as well as an artist who plays an important role in the essence of classical music. The main composition of classical music is known as Kriti. They were devotional. Patnam Subrahmanya Ayyar (l854-1902), Ramnad Srinivasa Iyengar (1860-1919), and Maha Vaidyanath Ayyar (1844-1893) were the notable musicians of this period. Some of the instruments used to accompany Carnatic music were flute, veena, nadaswaram, mridangam, and ghatam. Although there are different features in Hindustani music and classical music, there are some similar features. For example, to Alap in Hindustani classical music is similar to the Carnatic alapanaTarana in Hindustani resembles the Tilana in Carnatic music. Both pieces of music have Thalam.


Western music has reached India through British rule. To meet the demand for Indian music, Indians have adopted some of their instruments such as violin and clarinet. Another important development in the music era was the Orchestration of music on stage. In the olden days, the performance of the orchestra was limited and can’t be heard by many people. But now, the orchestra has been recorded and posted to the public. Now, these orchestras were heard by people all over the world. Nowadays many musical institutions are established where we can learn music. . Baba Allauddin Khan, Pt. Ravi Shankar, Ustad Bismillah Khan, Ustad Alla Rakkha Khan, Ustad Zakir Hussain are some of the famous Musicians.


In today’s world, India has a rich legacy of folk music. Folk music represents the emotions of several groups of people. Many news songs are composed for celebrating the events. Some of the songs like Mand in Rajasthan and Bhatiali of Bengal were popular all over India. In Haryana, Ragini is a popular form of folk music. Folk songs have their way of conveying information. Muslims sing Sojkhwani (mournful songs) during Muharram. Christians sing some carols and choral music on festival occasions.


A forest is an area of land dominated by trees. Hundreds of definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function.The Food and Agriculture Organization defines a forest as land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 meters and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use.Using this definition FRA 2020 found that forests covered 4.06 billion hectares or approximately 31 percent of the global land area in 2020.

Forests are the predominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, and are distributed around the globe. More than half of the world’s forests are found in only five countries (Brazil, Canada, China, Russian Federation and United States of America). The largest part of the forest (45 percent) is found in the tropical domain (Tropical forests), followed by the boreal, temperate and subtropical domains.

Forests account for 75% of the gross primary production of the Earth’s biosphere, and contain 80% of the Earth’s plant biomass. Net primary production is estimated at 21.9 gigatonnes carbon per year for tropical forests, 8.1 for temperate forests, and 2.6 for boreal forests.


1.Equatorial Moist Evergreen or Rainforest:


This evergreen hardwood forest is the natural vegetation of low-latitude high precipitation zone. This vegetation generally occur in between 10° N. and S. of equator where annual rainfall is very high and distributed equitably throughout the year. The total extent of tropical rainforest was 714 million hectares in 1990, which is half of the world’s forest cover.

Spatially, this forest is distributed in three separate regions:

(a) South American Amazonia basin:

This region is confined between Amazon River in the east to the foothills of the Andes in the west and Orinoco river basin in the north to Mardira River in the south.

(b) Equatorial Africa:

Mostly occur in Equatorial Africa including Zaire and Congo.

(c) Asia:Some parts of Western India and Sri Lanka

(d) South-East Asia:

Found in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Philippines etc.

The uses of forest resources in different economic activities are:

A. Teak and Mahogany are widely used in furniture industry.

B. Wood collected from forest is used as fuel.

C. (a) Brazil nut is rich in protein.

(b) Tagua nut is used for button-making.

(c) Barasu is an important raw material to produce soap and margarin.

(d) The milky juice of zopota tree is chickle which is converted to chewing gum.

(e) Wild rubber can be collected from rubber trees.

(f) Balata gathered from this forest is used for cable-making and other industrial purpose.

(g) Babassu palm nut is used in paint industry.

(h) Cohune nuts for perfume manufacturing,

(i) Toquilla palm for hat making.

2.Tropical Deciduous Forest:


In tropical monsoon region where rainfall is seasonal and a definite dry season exists, this deciduous and semi-evergreen forests are prevalent. Unlike Equatorial region, here variation of trees in different regions are much more.

This type of vegetation occurs in:

(a) India, Myanmar (Burma), Indonesia, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, South China, Phil­ippines etc.

(b) Northern Australia.

(c) Margins of tropical rainforest in Africa.

(d) Central South America.

Characteristics of Vegetation:

(i) Most of the tress are broadleaved and provide hardwood variety.

(ii) Trees are so heavy that in most cases they do not float in water.

(iii) Several layers are visible in forest, according to height of the trees. Trees with height of 50 meters to 10 meters are common.

(iv) Wide variety of climbers, creepers, parasites, epiphytes and saprophytes are com­mon.

(v) No dominance of single species — as trees are intermingled with one another.

(vi) Thick undergrowth of shrubs, bushes and bamboos are common.

(vii) Swampy, marshy areas exhibit mangrove forests, e.g. Sundarban in West Bengal.

3.Mediterranean Forests:


Primarily found in the Mediterranean climate within 35°-45° North and South of the equator.

It is a peculiar climo-floral development found in several areas:

(a) Adjacent regions of Mediterranean coast, extending east-west over 2,500 kms cov­ering countries like Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Albania, Greece, Turkey etc.

(b) California in U.S.A. of N. America.

(c) Central Chile of S. America.

(d) S-E and southern parts of Australia.

(e) Cape region of South Africa.

Important among these are:

1. Trees are covered by hairs, e.g. Olive trees.

2. Leaves are very thick and skin-like, e.g. Bolen trees.

3. Some trees may adopt wax layers in the leaves.

4. Barks are very thick, e.g. cork and oak.

5. Roots are very long, e.g. grapes.

Beside these characteristics, some trees like lavender, rose-merry etc.. are orchids and dis­tinctly different from others.

Economic Importance:

1. Large trees are rare. Trees are isolated. So lumbering industry is limited.

2. The barks of cork and oak are used to produce caps of the bottles.

3. Lavender and rose-merry trees produce perfumes.

4. Olive oil is extracted from olive trees.

5. Wine is produced from grapes.

4.Temperate Broad-leaved Deciduous and Mixed Forest:


In the eastern side of the continents, in warm temperate region, this forest is located in:

(i) South China.

(ii) South Japan.

(iii) South Africa.

(iv) South-East Australia.

(v) South Brazil.

Climatic Characteristics:

1. Rainfall all the year, minimum annual temperature over 10°C.

2. Due to heavy rainfall, evenly distributed throughout the year, trees are evergreen, broad-leaved and hard-wood type.

Major Species:

1. Koebrack in South-East Brazil.

2. Deodar.

3. Eucalyptus.

5.Warm Temperate Broad-leaved Deciduous Forest:


In warm temperate region, where temperature remains above 6°C at least 6 months of the year. This forest developed in central and north-west China, Korea, Japan, New Zealand and Tasmania.


1. Trees shed their leaves during spring.

2. No layer in the leaves.

Major Species:

Elm, Beach, Maple, Walnut etc.


1. As same type of trees are concentrated in different regions, wood collection is easier.

2. Wood transportation is also easier.

3. As there is very little undergrowth, collection of forest product is much easier.


1.They let us breathe!

2.They cool the Earth

3.They keep people cool too

4.Forests can make it rain

5.They block wind

6.Forests clean the air

7.They fight erosion

8.They provide medicine

9.They provide food

10.Forests create jobs

World water week 2021.

● The World Water Week is an annual event organized by Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) since 1991 to address the global water issues and related concerns of international development.

● The World Water Week 2021 has been organised from 23-27 August, in entirely digital format.

● The theme for World Water Week 2021 is ‘Building Resilience Faster’.

The world is changing and so are we. World Water Week 2021 will have a new, digital format to meet people where they are – both physically and mentally – and find better ways to bring about the transformation we all know is desperately needed. “Given the ongoing global pandemic, this was a natural decision. No one knows what the world will look like in August 2021, but one thing you can count on – World Water Week is happening, no matter what. For us, it is important to be able to promise that,” says Torgny Holmgren, Executive Director of Stockholm International Water Institute.

Over 3300 participants attended the conference in 2017.The week feature experts and representatives from business, governments, water management and science sectors, intergovernmental and non governmental organisations, research and training organisations, and United Nations agencies. The conference features plenary sessions and panel debates, scientific workshops, poster exhibitions, side events and seminars. In 2017, 380 organisations from 138 countries all over the world participated in World Water Week.

Functioning as an open and dynamic platform, World Water Week aims to link practice, science, policy and decision-making. It enables participants to exchange views and experiences, form partnerships and shape joint solutions to global water challenges. During the week, the Stockholm Water Prize, the Stockholm Junior Water Prize, and the Stockholm Industry Water Award are given out at their respective award ceremonies.

Why is world water day celebrated?

The World Water Week in Stockholm originally began as the Stockholm Water Symposium in 1991 and has been convened annually ever since. In 2001, the official name became World Water Week in Stockholm. SIWI identifies a conference theme to place a specific focus on one aspect of the world’s escalating water crisis. Initially, one theme was promoted for 4–5 years. Since 2008, a different theme has been selected for each year.

Hosted and organized by SIWI, World Water Week is the leading annual global event for concretely addressing the planet’s major water issues. In 2021, World Water Week 2021 will be held entirely online, 23-27 August, with the theme Building Resilience Faster.

Volcanoes have kept Earth’s surface temperatures balanced out

The specialists, working alongside others at the University of Sydney, Australian National University (ANU), University of Ottawa and the University of Leeds, investigated the consolidated effect of cycles in the strong Earth, seas and air in the course of the last 400 million years.

The normal separate and disintegration of rocks at Earth’s surface is called substance enduring. It is basically significant on the grounds that the results of enduring (components like calcium and magnesium) are flushed by means of waterways to the seas, where they structure minerals that lock up CO2.

This input system controls barometrical CO2 levels, and thusly worldwide environment, throughout geographical time, a news discharge clarifies.

“In this regard, enduring of the Earth’s surface fills in as a geographical indoor regulator,” Tom Gernon, academic partner in geology at the University of Southampton, and an individual of the Turing Institute clarifies in the delivery.

“In any case, the hidden controls have demonstrated hard to decide because of the intricacy of the Earth framework,” added Gernon, who is additionally the lead creator of the investigation.

“Many Earth measures are interlinked, and there are some significant delays among measures and their belongings,” Eelco Rohling, teacher in sea and environmental change at ANU and the investigation’s co-creator clarifies. “Understanding the general impact of explicit cycles inside the Earth framework reaction has in this manner been a recalcitrant issue,” Rohling adds.

To comprehend the intricacy, the group developed a book “Earth organization”, fusing AI calculations and plate structural recreations. This empowered the specialists to distinguish the predominant communications inside the Earth framework, and how they advanced through time, the delivery clarifies.

The group tracked down that mainland volcanic bends were the main driver of enduring force in the course of the last 400 million years. Today, mainland circular segments involve chains of volcanoes in, for instance, the Andes in South America, and the Cascades in the US. These volcanoes are probably the most elevated and quickest dissolving highlights on Earth. Since the volcanic rocks are divided and artificially receptive, they are quickly endured and flushed into the seas.

Martin Palmer, educator of geochemistry at the University of Southampton and a co-creator of the examination said: “It’s a difficult exercise. On one hand, these volcanoes siphoned out a lot of CO2 that expanded barometrical CO2 levels. Then again, these equivalent volcanoes helped eliminate that carbon by means of fast enduring responses.”

The examination additionally provides reason to feel ambiguous about a since a long time ago held idea that Earth’s environment dependability more than tens to countless years mirrors a harmony between enduring of the ocean bottom and mainland insides. “The possibility of a particularly geographical back-and-forth between the landmasses and the ocean bottom as a prevailing driver of Earth surface enduring isn’t upheld by the information,” Gernon clarifies in the delivery. “Lamentably, the outcomes don’t imply that nature will save us from environmental change,” Gernon adds.

Today, air CO2 levels are higher than whenever in the previous 3 million years, and human-driven emanations are multiple times bigger than volcanic CO2 discharges,” clarifies Gernon. “The mainland circular segments that seem to have saved the planet in the profound past are just not present at the scale expected to assist with balancing present-day CO2 discharges.”

In any case, the group’s discoveries actually gave basic bits of knowledge into how society may deal with the current environment emergency.

Why India can’t have an Official Language

Our Home Minister Amit Shah mentioned about promoting one nation, one language in one of his tweets in 2019. He also added that it should not be done at the cost of other languages. Some of us might know that 14th September is celebrated as Hindi Diwas in our country. So why can’t we have Hindi as an official language?


After Amit Shah statement, critics said that if Hindi becomes the official language, then other languages like malayalam, tamil, telugu and more, will lost their importance. South Congress leader Jairam Ramesh also said “this one nation, one language will never be a reality” because it will never be easy to have a common language in India.

Also in the New Education Policy (NEP) draft in the year 2019, Hindi was asked to make mandatory in every state. This was also criticized by the South Indian governments and they refused to dilute the state’s two language formula. This resulted in changing the draft and not to have Hindi as an official language.

Steps taken

India is a big nation, so there should be a language that will represent India on world stage. Talking about Hindi, it is spoken in India, Fiji, Suriname, Mauritius, Trinidad, Tabogo and Guyana. So India is working actively to have Hindi recognised as an official language of the UN.

Advantage of having an official language

A Chinese research concluded that

  1. When we have an official language, it can even help to eliminating poverty. As China have experience in fight poverty so we can also learn the power of having an official language.
  2. China also mentioned that an official language also helps in having communicate without any language barrier.
  3. Official language also help to built unity among the citizens
  4. Also helps when people migrate from one city to another, as they can communicate in the same language.

Disadvantage of having an official language

According to the 2001 Census, 41% of India population are native speaker of Hindi dialect. But what about 59% of the population who are non – Hindi speakers? Politician Shashi Tharur said

India should not even try to add Hindi to the list of official language of UN because what if in future our PM is from South part of India and does not speak Hindi, then how will he give speech in Hindi on behalf of India.

But apart from all these we still agree that there should be an official language for a country to function.

As per as official language is concerned,

  1. English is also been promoted in India. Promoting English can result in heavy school fees, as we’ll have to teach the whole population to speak English.
  2. Enough English teacher will also be required and if not then it won’t be successfully become the official language.
  3. This will also result in neglecting the weaker section of the society who won’t be able to speak English and their career opportunity will get affected.

Eventually we need to figure out to take a right decision about official language and keeping in mind of the consequences that could possibly be in long terms situations.

Know Everything about the Intel Vpro Technology

What is VPro technology?

You can find the Intel VPro technology in many devices. VPro technology is a platform that has both the hardware and firmware. VPro can be found in laptops and mobile workstations. VPro is available in the CPU of a device or in its wireless chip. In April 2019, Intel launched the latest vPro which is the 8th Generation Intel Core series. The latest version is around 60 percent better than its previous counterparts. It has around ten to eleven hours of battery.

Also, it supports Wi-Fi that will allow fast internet connectivity. A vPro needs to have a Trusted Platform Module, cryptoprocessor and wireless/ wired internet speed. To most people still confused about what is vPro technology and the features it offers, Intel support will answer all your queries.

Contents of Intel VPro Technology

  1. They will include a multi core and multi thread XEON or Core processors
  2. Intel AMT which is a set of features that help remote access enabling for PCs
  3. Most people opt for VPro due to this AMT technology that help enterprises seek help remotely.
  4. Wired or a wireless internet connectivity.
  5. Intel TXT that will verify the launch environment. It  is a computer hardware technology whose primary goals are: Attestation of the authenticity of a platform and its operating system.
  6. Intel vPro provides support for IEEE 802.1X, Cisco Self Defending Network and Microsoft NAP(Network Access Protector).
  7. Intel VT-x for CPU and memory. The Intel VT-x extensions are probably the best recognized extensions, adding migration, priority and memory handling capabilities to a wide range of Intel processors.
  8. Intel VT-d for I/O to support remote environment.Intel VT-d is the latest part of the Intel Virtualization Technology hardware architecture. VT-d helps the VMM better utilize hardware by improving application compatibility and reliability, and providing additional levels of manageability, security, isolation, and I/O performance.
  9. Intel VT-x will help to accelerate hardware virtualization.The Intel VT-x extensions are probably the best recognized extensions, adding migration, priority and memory handling capabilities to a wide range of Intel processors.

VPro was initially installed to help IT departments streamline the procedure to turn on and off enterprise desktop computers.To remotely manage an AMT device, it has to be configured and communication needs to be established over the corporate network. It must have an AMT Master password for admin assigned and the local network connection information applied to the firmware. No matter what the AMT type is, it has to be configured and set up for use by following Intel’s setup and configuration manual. For all those who are still seeking answers to What is intel vPro technology and if their business needs one.

How does VPro Function?

A pre-existing software is used to manage all intel vPro technology features. Microsoft SCCM is a commonly used console client. 90 % of IT departments manage remote activities with SCCM

What are the Intel vPro technology advanced management features?

  1. VPro technology manages, scans and updates PC remotely
  2. VPro is a go to platform when a person who is away from the IT team required help in their device
  3. For eg. incase of a virus attack while working remotely, the IT professionals can update and reset your device using VPro instead of physically visiting the device location
  4. In cases of  mass updating or installation for the whole company, the IT team can easily access all the devices remotely. This includes updating OS, BIOS or any other software. This will ensure all are using the same software and updated version
  5. An Intel Pro SSD hard drive can be erased easily while using Intel’s VPro system.
  6. The remote erase helps a lot especially if a PC is stolen or when an employee leaves the organization.

VPro Secure?

With a large number of devices connected over a large network, managing and protecting data is a very crucial task. Intel Authenticate (IA) has helped Intel update the security for vPro. IA has helped secure devices by locking them for use by only one user . The authentication is done using fingerprint or password protected PIN.Intel vPro technology advanced management features also offers Intel’s Software Guard Extensions (SGX), which provide secure enclaves for application developers. Those enclaves are safe, protected spaces for programs to be developed without entailing security risks, including data loss or disclosure.

Who can use Intel vPro technology features?

VPro is not designed for common man’s use. Activating VPro requires one to use an enterprise OS and an administrator console. A user would need significant IT expertise to understand the terms, conditions and how it functions. Also, VPro is used to make the job easier for IT professionals functioning remotely. Businesses that have more than 1000 employees can use VPro.Also, for organizations with lesser employees VPro will help organize and manage access levels across different roles. Also, for those organizations that have a large number of employees working remotely; IT department can easily manage the software and IT processes using VPro.

Business Benefits of the Intel vPro Platform

  • Intel VPro Platform will ensure to provide highest performing Core i5 and i7 that can support and enhance employee’s productivity and performance
  • It has in built security features that will protect and keep OS secure
  • Virtual management of systems that are not present on the premise.
  • Verified platform that integrate latest technologies available for the PC

Intel VPro technology is mostly mistaken to be a tool used to enable remote access. However, apart from remote access that is enabled through AMT; vPro includes innumerable other security benefits. Intel is constantly upgrading its vPro version enhanced with more exciting features and safeguarded with more security.



Hi! If you have missed part 1 here is the link. CHECK IT OUT!



  • Published – 2016.
  • Genre – Science fiction.
  • Pages – 400.
  • Age – 10+
  • BUY NOW!

The concept of time travel is fascinating in itself. Right from the beginning, the novel hooks us up with the plot. On Al Chaudhury’s birthday, he receives a letter from his grandfather. The letter is from his late father. It has a mission to travel back to 1984 in a secret time machine to save his father’s life. The story uncovers the meaning of friendship and emotion. It is an unputdownable book.



  • Published – 2017
  • Genre – Memoir
  • Pages – 224
  • Age – 9+
  • BUY NOW!

Real friends is a middle-grade graphic novel about making friends. It is a memoir, following Shannon’s life from Kindergarten to Fifth grade. It is a roller coaster of emotions. The struggle of trying to stay in “the group” was portrayed without a filter. Who are real friends? Are they worth the journey? Do we need real friends? The book will answer such questions.



  • Published – 2017
  • Genre – Fantasy fiction
  • Pages – 416
  • Age – 9+
  • BUY NOW!

To forget about reality, this book is perfect for children and adults too. The people of the town leave a baby in the forest, as an offering to the witches. But the witch is a good one, who lives with a swamp monster. Luna is the baby, due to an accident she gets extraordinary magic. The Multiple points of view make the story intriguing. Children who love magic and witches must read this book. The cover looks so pretty, we can give it a read just for the cover.



  • Published – 2015
  • Genre – Children’s Literature
  • Pages – 256
  • Age – 8+
  • BUY NOW!

A beautifully written story about Ivan, a gorilla. He has spent his life in Exit 8 shopping mall. He rarely thinks about his life in the forest until Ruby, a baby elephant arrives which changes his perspective. A book that deals with kindness, friendship, freedom and humour. This book must be on your children’s bookshelf. The characters will stay in our heart.



  • Published – 2018
  • Genre – Fiction, Adventure
  • Pages – 288
  • Age – 9+
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Roz the robot finds itself on an isolated island. She has zero ideas about her purpose. To survive, she must adapt to her new environment. It is a unique, surprising read for young readers. The language is simple and easy to follow. A touching book with interesting plot.



  • Published – 2016
  • Genre – Adventure, Fantasy, Fiction
  • Pages – 240
  • Age – 8+
  • BUY NOW!

If your child likes Toy story movie, this is a must-read. The American-Indian toy in the cupboard gets life. It is a dream for Omri, he feels excited. He faces a life-changing decision. It is a gripping tale of a toy that has a life. As a kid, we all imagined a toy being alive and what it would be like?

Hope this helps, Thank you!

How To Prepare For “GPAT”?

Let’s talk about the GPAT exam that is given by most pharmacy students after their graduation. This entrance exam is for post-graduation courses.

Let’s talk in much more detail about the exam and how to do the preparation?

Preface :-

The full form of GPAT is, “Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test “. It is a National Level Entrance Examination for entry into M. Pharma Programme. The GPAT is an annual entrance exam conducted by “National Testing Agency”(NTA). It is a computer-based online exam. The syllabus and the pattern of the question paper remain the same under NTA. The syllabus of this comprises all of the subjects included in all years of the B. Pharm course.

The results are also used to determine the eligibility of students for scholarships.

When do we have to start our preparation for GPAT?

We all know that the GPAT entrance exam is very important for pharmacy students. To achieve a good score in GPAT, we have to start the preparation along with our daily college lectures. I think the best time to start our preparation is from the 3rd semester or 4th semester of B pharmacy.

How to start GPAT preparation along with college:-

we have to do a study of the regular semester plus the earlier semester, in this, we should have to cover hard subjects of the previous semester, note down the notes and solve the MCQ as much as possible.

The one essential thing I have to tell you is that, do a study from the best reference publications books📚 and then note down the notes, which will be very useful for us before the exam to revise the specific subject or topic. And the one important sign of this is, our preparation for the university theory exam is also done from this.

Make a study timetable to do the preparation, in which we should have to include the subject of the previous semester + regular semester, and give time to a specific subject as per your desire.

I think that we can use holidays to cover the hard subject or topics of the previous semester. The best will be to give Saturday and Sunday to prepare those subjects or topics along with the to make written notes and MCQ solving.

If you live in a metro city, then try to join the coaching centre for the preparation. If it is not possible then you can use various online platforms which give coaching on GPAT preparation. Use study materials provided by coaching classes and also you can search them online on various websites.

Set a target of daily work that we have to do, like take one subject give a specific time to that subject and makes notes & solve MCQ. Don’t take a break until our task is not finalized. If you set a daily target and can complete it, then you can move forward with the best strategy for GPAT preparation.

Do Group Study:- This is the most important strategy used by many of the toppers or good rank holders of GPAT. Compel the group of friends, that are interested to prepare for GPAT and do study together. Take small tasks customary group-wise, understand them, solve the MCQs and discuss the difficult questions or topics in the group. The most important vital sign of these is everyone will share the knowledge differently, some new points are also added to our understanding and we can understand that topic completely and perfectly.👍💯

The most important advantage of group study is we can distribute the topic among the group members, it will be helpful to cover our topic immediately or skillfully.

If any subjects have more than one standard book, then try to use a minimum of 2 standard books for that respective subject. Because the two standard books may differ in content for the various topics of that subject.

Clear the doubts:– During the study or MCQ solving various doubts are arises, so try to write that concept or doubt and ask teachers or you can find the correct answer by researching that particular topic. Try to make a notebook to write the answers to the doubts. And just revise it every day or just overlook it, this will help you to memorise the topic perfectly.

🌟The GPAT is not a much tough exam, the cutoff of this exam is around 40-45℅ marks. If you start preparation from semester 3 or 4, it will be much easier to qualify with a good score 👍

Try to cover core subjects:- Core subjects means important subjects which have high weightage in GPAT. Those subjects include, “Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy, Medicinal chemistry”. Around 70-80℅ questions are on these subjects and the remaining 20℅ questions are on other subjects.

Try to give test series:- If possible, then try to give various test series on GPAT. This will be helpful for the understanding of MCQ questions and simultaneously improve our confidence.

Reference Books for GPAT:-

Let’s talk about some subjects and their best standard reference books, which I know.

Subject NameTextbook Name
Anatomy & physiology GERARD J. TORTORA – PRINCIPLES OF








These are some references books for the above subject, other subjects are also present, but I share the reference books name for specific subjects which I know.

You can ask your teachers or go to the college library to find other subjects best references books📚 other than these. As per your specific semester subject, try to use a reference book to study that subject, which will be very useful for us.

Pattern Of GPAT Exam :-

Name of examinationGraduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test
popularly known as GPAT
FrequencyOnce a year
Examination Mode Online
Total number of questions 125
Type of questions Multiple Choice questions(MCQ)
Total Duration3 hours (180 min.)
Total Marks500

Marking Scheme:- Every correct answer is awarded 4 marks. Thus, the total maximum possible score in GPAT  is 500.

For every incorrect answer in GPAT, 1 mark is deducted.

An unanswered question or not attempting a question does not attract any negative marking in GPAT.

Importance Of Coaching Class In GPAT Preparation:-

Experience of Teachers:- The teachers of coaching classes have a lot of experience, which will give the best guidance of GPAT preparation. The teachers know which subjects have more weightage in exams, according to it they will provide notes, study material & tutoring to us.

🌟The question paper of GPAT is prepared from different universities every year like M.S.University, B.H.U. etc.

Benefits of Test series & DPP’s:- The coaching classes provide test series and take weekly tests. They give DPP’s (Daily Practice Paper) to us, which contains questions related to the topic that was covered on that day, which makes our topic perfect with MCQ practice.

From the above information, you understand all the knowledge about GPAT. In short, we can say that :-

GPAT Play a Very Important Role in our CARRIER and is Important For CARRIER GROWTH.

I am starting my preparation for the GPAT from the 3rd semester.

what about you? When you will start your preparation?

“My advice is, never do tomorrow what you can do today. Procrastination is the thief of time.”

!!Thank you!!

Investment model

Before we begin to describe the various types of investment models in existence, one must understand the basic definition of investment and the factors that govern it.

In simpler terms investment means exchange of money for a profit yielding asset. The same profit earned is used to invest in other assets as well. As far as the economic well being of the country is concerned, investment is important as it contributes to growth and development.

When the government invests in business, agriculture, manufacturing or supporting industries it can generate employment opportunities for its population. But a robust investment scenario is when the government and the private sector join hands to create investment opportunities.

Also keep in mind that the following factors come into play when making an investment and by proxy, choosing an investment model:

— Savings Rate.

— Tax Rate in the country. (Net income available after tax).

— Inflation.

— Rate of Interest in Banks.

— Possible Rate of Return on Capital.

— Availability of other factors of production – cheap land, labour etc and supporting infrastructure – transport, energy and communication.

— Market size and stability.

Three major investment model:

Public investment model : For a government to invest, it needs revenue (mainly tax revenue), but the present tax revenues of India are not sufficient enough to meet the budgetary expenditure of India. So India cannot move ahead in the path of growth without private individuals; even for government to have a share in the investment, they need tax revenue from the private investors.

Private investment model : The private investment can come from India or abroad. If it’s from abroad – they can be as FDI or FPI. (Details will be discussed later.) As India’s Current Account Deficit is widening due to increased Oil Import, in this age of globalization, we cannot say NO to FDI or FPI. Why private investment in India: For a country to grow and increase its income, the production has to be increased. More goods and services has to be produced. Infrastructure to support production – transport, energy and communication – should also be developed. But how can a nation with near 30% of population below poverty line, invest in production or infrastructure? Who has money to invest? Government?

Public private partnership model : PPP means combining the best benefit from both public and private investments. Some of the Project Finance Schemes are as below:1. BOT (build–operate–transfer).2. BOOT (build–own–operate–transfer).3. BOO (build–own–operate).4. BLT (build–lease–transfer).5. DBFO (design–build–finance–operate).6. DBOT (design–build–operate–transfer).7. DCMF (design–construct–manage–finance).

Investment Models in Relation With India

Hope it’s clear by now that capital formation is necessary for any country to grow. But the process is not easy. The savings rate in India is now near 30%. Percapita Income of Indians is very low and hence the capital available for investing too is low. Investments should be studied from three angles – Households, Corporates and Government. Investments expect a return – be it from Government side or Private side. Though the return on investment in terms of profit or margin is the main motive behind investments, its effect on the welfare side and development should not be neglected.


Yoga has a Sanskrit root, meaning ‘to unite.’ Yoga is a body and mind practise that includes yoga asanas, breathing exercises, and meditation. It is an ancient practice that originated in India. As per the scriptures, Lord Shiva is said to be the father of Yoga.



  • Improves flexibility.
  • Manage stress.
  • Helps to sleep better.
  • Mental health.
  • Refresh our minds.
  • Builds muscles strength.
  • Increases blood flow.
  • Boost Metabolism.
  • Unite mind and body.
  • Helps to relieve back pain.
  • Helps in digestion.

There can be another list for the use of yoga. Yoga won’t just help you lose fat but also builds flexibility and manage stress by refreshing your mind. After a hectic day, try practising yoga for an hour. You can notice changes.


When can kids start yoga? They could start if they can understand the instructions. Kids usually are active. They tend to do yoga in a hurry, it’s our responsibility to make sure they follow the instructions properly.

Kids of age 4 and above can start practising yoga. Do not introduce all yoga asanas to kids. Start with breathing, meditation, and simple asanas. Yoga improved balance, strength, concentration, memory, focus, self-esteem and it can help with anxiety for children.

Studies and research have found out that children who practice yoga can see various improvements. The instructions should be fun to follow to induce the interest of kids.


Almost anyone can do it regardless of age. It is powerful as it can unite body and mind. Yoga should not be done in rush. Consult a health expert before starting your practice.

  • It should be done slowly.
  • Try to do it early in the morning.
  • Try to do it in an open space, with fresh air and sunlight.
  • Sweating, urge to urinate is normal after doing yoga. Don’t suppress urine for a long time.
  • Try yoga on an empty stomach, if you feel dehydrated sip a little amount of water or drink lukewarm water with honey.
  • Breathing exercises are beneficial especially during covid period.
  • Do not do yoga in hurry.
  • Avoid yoga if you are sick.
  • Can avoid during periods.
  • Do not eat or drink for 30 mins after doing yoga.
  • Do not hold stiffen your body.
  • Don’t skip meditation and breathing exercises. Yoga sessions should end with those.

After having your meal wait for an hour to start your practice. After your yoga session wait for half an hour to shower, eat, and drink.

Yoga is vital for individuals addiction recovery. As meditation and yoga focus on uniting body and mind, they can help us focus on the addiction. However, for addiction recovery yoga is not the only solution.


Covid-19 was is a huge crisis. People lost their job, family, friends, and close ones. Livelihood is not the same anymore. It takes time for us to be stable again. One of the things that help us maintain our health can be yoga.

Yoga can be highly effective considering the advantages. Immunity is vital to fight covid. Yoga helps as an immunity booster, relatively better mental health and well-being. Since covid affects the lungs, breathing exercises are crucial to strengthen the lungs.

“Yoga is the journey of the self,

through the self, to the self.”

Let’s discuss the asanas in yoga and asanas for kids, in part 2.

Thank you!