BLASTOMYCOSIS

BY DAKSHITA NAITHANI

INTRODUCTION

The fungus Blastomyces causes blastomycosis and the fungus can be found in nature, especially in damp soil and decomposing organic materials like wood and leaves. It is found mostly in the midwestern, south-central, and southern regions of the United States, notably in locations near the Ohio and Mississippi River basins, the Great Lakes, and the Saint Lawrence River. The fungus can also be found in Canada, and there have been a few instances of blastomycosis documented in Africa and India.

People can get blastomycosis by inhaling tiny fungus spores in the air, which frequently occurs after engaging in activities that disrupt the soil. Although the majority of individuals who inhale the spores do not become ill, some will have symptoms such as fever and cough. The infection can be serious in certain people, such as those with weaker immune systems, especially if it spreads from the lungs to other organs.

SYMPTOMS

Blastomycosis is characterised by a high fever.

About half of those infected with the fungus Blastomyces will have symptoms. Blastomycosis symptoms are frequently comparable to those of other lung infections, and include the following:

•             Fever

•             Cough

•             Night sweats

•             Muscle aches or joint pain

•             Weight loss

•             Chest pain

•             Fatigue (extreme tiredness)

Blastomycosis symptoms generally develop 3 weeks to 3 months after a person inhales the fungus spores.

Severe blastomycosis

Blastomycosis can spread from the lungs to other parts of the body, including the skin, bones and joints, and the central nervous system, in some people, especially those with weakened immune systems (the brain and spinal cord).

WHO IS AT RISK

Anyone who has been in an area where Blastomyces is present in the environment can acquire blastomycosis. People who engage in outdoor activities in these locations that expose them to forested areas (such as forestry labour, hunting, and camping) may be more susceptible. People with compromised immune systems are more prone than those who are otherwise healthy to acquire severe blastomycosis.

PREVENTION

There is no vaccination to prevent blastomycosis, and it may not be feasible to avoid being exposed to the fungus that causes the disease in regions where it is prevalent. People with weaker immune systems should avoid activities in these areas that require disturbing the soil.

LIFE CYCLE

Blastomyces is a mould that generates fungal spores that thrives in the environment. The spores are too tiny to see with naked eyes. People and animals who inhale the spores are at danger of contracting blastomycosis. The body temperature permits the spores to convert into yeast when they enter the lungs. The yeast can remain in the lungs or spread to other areas of the body via the circulation, including the skin, bones and joints, organs, and the central nervous system.

DIAGONOSIS

Blastomycosis is diagnosed using your medical and travel history, symptoms, physical examinations, and laboratory testing. A doctor will most likely test for blastomycosis by sending a sample of blood or urine to a laboratory.

Imaging studies, such as chest X-Rays or CT scans of your lungs may be performed by your healthcare practitioner. They may also take a sample of fluid from your lungs or perform a tissue biopsy, which involves taking a tiny sample of damaged tissue from your body and examining it under a microscope. Laboratories may also examine it may grow in bodily fluids or tissues (this is called a culture).

TREATMENT

The majority of patients with blastomycosis will require antifungal therapy. Itraconazole is an antifungal drug that is commonly used to treat blastomycosis in mild to moderate cases. For severe blastomycosis in the lungs or infections that have spread to other areas of the body, amphotericin B is generally used. Treatment might last anywhere from six months to a year, depending on the severity of the illness and the person’s immunological condition.

VIDEO MARKETING.

Hello everyone,
Just spare few minutes in reading this context, for sure you are going to take something with you.
Today I chose an interesting topic which is a growing trend in advertising method. Definitely today’s topic will help you, to get to know about  video marketing and why it is important.
As it is an era of digital marketing, every small to big business people are advertising their commodities through online, which became very common.
Generally online advertisements are done either by Posters or by videos. And most of the company will have their own websites.
Each and Everyone of us would have come across with various posters in Instagram, Facebook and in their websites.
For example:50%off on so and so products, combo offer etc.

Then, what is video marketing/ advertising?
In simple terms, video marketing is all about advertising a company’s product through an attractive and beautiful video.
Some of the examples are lactocalamine, purple (beauty products), lucious, Spotify, bitcoins etc..
We would have seen these companies, advertising their products through videos, which will pop-up in between the YouTube videos, hotstar and all other applications which are used for watching programs.
Video marketing is now even used by various gaming industries and also by matrimonies.
For example:Tamil matrimony and such other matrimonies and for games decorate your home, MPL, rummy circle. Com etc.
But have we ever thought, why they are advertising through videos.
what is the purpose/importance of Video marketing while advertising online ?

Here’s the reason, ‌
‌1. Videos and pictures are more attractive than words. Currently, most of the skills and lessons are learned by watching videos, because things which we see, will automatically get registered in our mind at times even it convinces us to go for it.

‌2.If that’s the case video advertisement will attract a huge group of people, irrespective of age difference.

‌3. Also It Breaks language barriers, as the video does have the capacity of explaining the details by itself .

‌4. Also, it is an easy way of approaching consumer.

‌5.Also, it act as a stimuli, it stimulates consumer to go for the product, whether they need that particular product or not, by continuous video advertisement a seller can convince a consumer , as the advertising video pops up nearly 3-4 times while watching a single video, whereas it is not possible with pamphlet, flex and other advertising methods.

‌6.Also,the seller can easily reach out consumer from all over the world, as the video is uploaded to most commonly used Portals/applications.

‌7.video marketing is considered as an effective way of advertising also it is a smart way of selling a commodity, as online. shopping becoming trend. 

Video marketing is generally done to make consumer to feel easier and comfortable because through videos consumer will come to know most of the availing features of the products, which will convince them for purchasing it.
The above points are the reason why video marketing is important in digital marketing.

So, all the budding business people and all growing business tycoons make use of this Video marketing in a beautiful and effective way were you can accomplish your target sooner. But don’t forget to add your own ideas and surprises.

My suggestion, if  a seller brings 3D effect in video advertising ,it will help him/her to attract much more consumer.
And I am pretty sure that each and every one of us would have purchased at least one product after watching the video Advertisement.

And yes, I am among them.

As everything is getting Digitalised, adopting to innovative digital marketing is necessary.

As we are getting adopted to it, we also want to use it properly and effectively .

Thanks for spending your time in reading this context, hope so it was useful.

Soon will catch you up with another interesting topic.

Have a nice day.

Keep smiling ❣️❣️❣️

SAY NO TO CHILD LABOUR

CHILD LABOUR

Child labor refers to the employment of a child in any work. This deprives the children of their childhood. It is physically, socially, mentally harmful to children. The education of children is drastically affected by child labor. Currently, the number of child labor has increased by 8.4 million in the last 4 years. There is a myth that most child laborers are orphans. But the truth is that only 3 out of 1000 are orphans. According to the International Labour Organization, currently, more than 168 million people between 5 and 14 are working. In India, according to the data collected from census 2011, it is estimated that there are about 10.1 million child laborers.

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR

PRIMARY CAUSES: The International Labour Organization suggests that poverty is the simplest reason behind child labor. For many poor families, the children have to work to fulfill their basic needs. Income from this child may be low but it contributes between 25  to 40% of the household income.

CULTURAL CAUSES: In European history, certain cultural beliefs have rationalized child labor and therefore encouraged child labor. Some people think that doing work is good for character building and skill development of children. In many cultures, children have to take over their parent’s businesses. Also, in many cultures, the education of girls is valued. They think that there is no need for educating the girl children. And these girls are pushed into child labor such as doing household services.

MACROECONOMIC CAUSES: The growth of poverty and unavailability of good schools lies on the supply side of child labor. The growth of low paying informal economy rather than the higher paying formal economy is the cause for the demand side of child labor. Other scholars suggest that the size of the informal economy, inflexible labor market, and lack of modern manufacturing techniques are some of the macroeconomic causes for child labor.

SOME ACTS THAT PROHIBITS THE CHILD LABOUR:

  • The Factories Act of 1984: This act prohibits the working of children below the age of 14 years in any factories. The law also includes rules that how long pre-adults aged 15 to 18 years to be employed in any factory.
  • The Mines Act of 1952: This act prohibits children under 18 years working in the mine.
  • The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986: This law prohibits the working of children (under 14 years) in hazardous places listed by the law.
  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) of Children Act of 2000: This law states that anyone who employs children in hazardous places will be punishable with prison term.
  • The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009: The law provides mandatory education to all children aged between 6 to 14 years. This law also states that 25% of seats in every primary school must be allocated to children from disadvantaged groups and physically challenged children.
  • In addition to this, many Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, CARE India, Child Rights, and You, RIDE India are working to eradicate child labor in India.

Despite these laws and prohibition acts in India, there are still millions of children are employed in homes, roadside restaurants, and factories across the country. Every year June 12 is observed as the anti-child labor day. As the citizens of India, we all should be united to eradicate child labor in our country. Donate funds to the NGOs and make awareness programs in rural areas. Start some small campaigns against child labor. Child labor can be eradicated if government performs effectively with public support.

To Read List (Sci-fi)

“Looking at these stars suddenly dwarfed my own troubles and all gravities of terrestrial life.”

-H.g Wells
See the source image

Introduction

Sci-fi is perhaps one of the coolest literary genre, that is widely read. Scientific fiction encompasses the vast abyss of human imagination that manifests itself in an astounding blend of creativity and literature. Sci-fi stories have a wide variety of themes, they can be based on absolute facts or be a figment of someone’s imagination as well. Fictitious sci-fi stories can include aliens, a world based in space, time travel, strange inventions and weird creatures as well.

Sci-fi might be hard or soft. Hard sci-fi is based on the real world with less novel elements. Soft sci-fi, however, includes far fetched scientific technology.

Sci-fi requires ingenuity on part of writers and proper assimilation of the readers part. Sci-fi is probably one of the most interesting of the genera of the great literary canyon.

Curated below is a list of 4 interesting Sci-fi books that you can check out.

1. The Time Machine

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H.G Wells, renowned as ‘The Father of Sci-fi’, wrote ‘The Time Machine’, in 1895. In this extremely enthralling book, the protagonist goes on a time safari 800,000 years beyond his time. He is transported to an era of devastation and utter destruction of Earth, there he discovers two strange races ,the ethereal Eloi and the subterranean Morlocks that manifest the terrifying future occupants of the planet and describe the dying humane in humanity.

An absolutely enthralling read, that has gripped readers throughout years.

2. Snow Crash

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Neal Stephenson’s, ‘Snow Crash’, is a riveting book that describes the parallel life of Hiro Protagonist in the real world and the Metaverse. Delivering pizzas for  Uncle Enzo’s CosoNostra Pizza Inc. in the ordinary world, a warrior prince in the Metaverse. The story takes pace as he crusades through a volley of mysterious computer viruses. He strives to prevent utter destruction by bringing down the ultimate virtual villains.

The story meanders through technical know how of computers and is an absolutely thrilling read.

3. To Sleep in a Sea of Stars

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Christopher Paolini’s, ‘ To Sleep in a Sea of Stars ‘, revolves around Kira Navárez, who dreams of life beyond the scape of Earth, in new unchartered worlds. When during a survey mission on a planet, Kira stumbles across an alien relic, although thrilled at first, Kira soon comes to dread her discovery as the ancient relic begins to move around her.

With Earth in great jeopardy and a war brimming amongst the stars, Kira experiences a life altering journey. With her being the ultimate hope, Kira must brave against all odds and delve into the expanse of the universe to bring about order.

4. Cinder

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Marissa Meyer’s, ‘Cinder’, is a riveting tale of a girl Lihn Cinder, a mechanic in New Beijing, the capital of the Eastern Commonwealth, s, who is a cyborg i.e. she is half mechanical, has prosthetic limbs and a complex wiring of internal organs. New Beijing is a place that faces consistent scourge of plagues. In this retelling of Cinderella, humans and androids coexist. When the heir to the throne of the Commonwealth, Prince Kai requires Kai’s help to fix his android, their lives take a thrilling turn. With her mysterious past and a strange Lunar people waiting for ambush from the space, Cinder must traverse through several trials to save the fate of her people and perhaps even the entire world.

A sci-fi twist to the classic Cinderella.

Climate change and biodiversity

In the atmosphere, gases such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, and methane act like the glass roof of a greenhouse by trapping heat and warming the planet. These gases are called greenhouse gases. The natural levels of these gases are being supplemented by emissions resulting from human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, farming activities and land-use changes. As a result, the Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere are warming, and this rise in temperature is accompanied by many other changes.Rising levels of greenhouse gases are already changing the climate.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group I (WGI) Fourth Assessment Report, from 1850 to 2005, the average global temperature increased by about 0.76ºC and global mean sea level rose by 12 to 22 cm during the last century. These changes are affecting the entire world, from low-lying islands in the tropics to the vast polar regions.Climate change predictions are not encouraging; according to the IPCC WGI Fourth Assessment Report, a further increase in temperatures of 1.4°C to 5.8°C by 2100 is projected. Predicted impacts associated with such temperature increase include: a further rise in global mean sea level, changes in precipitation patterns, and more people at risk from dangerous “vector-borne diseases” such as malaria.

Vulnerability of biodiversity to the impacts of climate change

The present global biota has been affected by fluctuating Pleistocene (last 1.8 million years) concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature, precipitation, and has coped through evolutionary changes, and the adoption of natural adaptive strategies. Such climate changes, however, occurred over an extended period of time in a landscape that was not as fragmented as it is today and with little or no additional pressure from human activities. Habitat fragmentation has confined many species to relatively small areas within their previous ranges, resulting in reduced genetic variability. Warming beyond the ceiling of temperatures reached during the Pleistocene will stress ecosystems and their biodiversity far beyond the levels imposed by the global climatic change that occurred in the recent evolutionary past.Current rates and magnitude of species extinction far exceed normal background rates. Human activities have already resulted in the loss of biodiversity and thus may have affected goods and services crucial for human well-being. The rate and magnitude of climate change induced by increased greenhouse gases emissions has and will continue to affect biodiversity either directly or in combination with other drivers of change.

Links between biodiversity and climate change

There is ample evidence that climate change affects biodiversity. According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, climate change is likely to become one of the most significant drivers of biodiversity loss by the end of the century. Climate change is already forcing biodiversity to adapt either through shifting habitat, changing life cycles, or the development of new physical traits.Conserving natural terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems and restoring degraded ecosystems (including their genetic and species diversity) is essential for the overall goals of both the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change because ecosystems play a key role in the global carbon cycle and in adapting to climate change, while also providing a wide range of ecosystem services that are essential for human well-being and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.Biodiversity can support efforts to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Conserved or restored habitats can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thus helping to address climate change by storing carbon (for example, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). Moreover, conserving in-tact ecosystems, such as mangroves, for example, can help reduce the disastrous impacts of climate change such as flooding and storm surges.

Ecosystem-based Adaptation

Ecosystem-based adaptation, which integrates the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services into an overall adaptation strategy, can be cost-effective and generate social, economic and cultural co-benefits and contribute to the conservation of biodiversity.Conservation and management strategies that maintain and restore biodiversity can be expected to reduce some of the negative impacts from climate change; however, there are rates and magnitude of climate change for which natural adaptation will become increasingly difficult. Options to increase the adaptive capacity of species and ecosystems in the face of accelerating climate change include:

  • Reducing non-climatic stresses, such as pollution, over-exploitation, habitat loss and fragmentation and invasive alien species.
  • Wider adoption of conservation and sustainable use practices including through the strengthening of protected area networks.
  • Facilitating adaptive management through strengthening monitoring and evaluation systems.

Ecosystem-based adaptation uses biodiversity and ecosystem services in an overall adaptation strategy. It includes the sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems to provide services that help people adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. Examples of ecosystem-based adaptation activities include:

  • Coastal defence through the maintenance and/or restoration of mangroves and other coastal wetlands to reduce coastal flooding and coastal erosion.
  • Sustainable management of upland wetlands and floodplains for maintenance of water flow and quality.
  • Conservation and restoration of forests to stabilize land slopes and regulate water flows.
  • Establishment of diverse agroforestry systems to cope with increased risk from changed climatic conditions.
  • Conservation of agrobiodiversity to provide specific gene pools for crop and livestock adaptation to climate change
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Billionaires Morning Habits

                                                                     

Habit makes a person perfect. We can distinguish a person from their habits. Good habits make a positive effect on life and bad habits developed negative thinking and many more. We have seen many examples in our surroundings that are always concerned about their habits.

A day starts with a good habit always boosts your productivity throughout the day and also leads to a better time management schedule. So it is important that what you will do after you get up in the morning. Now a day’s most students and young people are always dreamed about the luxurious lifestyle of billionaires. It is possible when they include some habits in their daily routine. We are discussing some of the billionaire’s morning habits.

Let’s scroll your mouse down to know the secret of these billionaires.

Jeff Bezos

We all know Amazon. Jeff is the founder of this big e-commerce company. He always cares about his sleep. Jeff does not set an alarm to get up in the morning. He solved his critical task and high IQ meetings before lunch, approx. 10 am.

Elon Musk

Mad genius Elon musk is a workaholic in nature. He always loves to work. He works like hell and works insanely to achieve the goal. He works up to 120 hours a week. But apart from this entire busy schedule, he always wakes up at 7 am. After that, he will be busy reading some critical emails and answering those emails. He loves to drink coffee while doing all this stuff. Breakfast time is too short for Elon. Then he drops his five sons at school and is ready to showers. After, he drives to work.

Jack Dorsey

Twitter is a popular social media platform introduced by this big man Jack Dorsey. It is a part of our daily life nowadays. Jack gets out of bed at 5 am. He loves to meditate for 30minutes and then worked out for half an hour. Next, he drinks coffee and prepared it for his office.

Warren Buffett

He got up at 6:45 am after 8 hours of sleep. He loves to read newspapers like Wall Street Journal and USA Today in the morning hours before his daily routine.

Oprah

Though she had a struggling career but never give up on anything, which she was passionate about. She is very punctual and starts her morning routine by taking her five dogs for a walk. Then she reads a card from her’365 Gathered Truths Box’. After, she checks her mobile to read her daily Bowl of Saki. She always worked out in her backyard for an hour and meditates for few minutes.

Mark Zuckerberg

The Facebook man always starts his morning by checking his mobile, browsing Facebook, and read messages in messenger and WhatsApp on the bed. He does not care about his daily dressing style. He never wastes his time on taking a small decision like what he will wear in the morning. So you will always see him in the same outfit.

Bill Gates

Microsoft founder Gates loves to cardio after he wakes up in the early morning. He is watching educational DVDs while on the treadmill for about an hour. He always skips his breakfast. He also enjoys Cocoa Puffs cereal.

Anastasia Soare

The famous makeup brand Anastasia Beverly Hills founder Soare wakes up at 7 am and first jumps into her phone to check Instagram. She loves to drink two cups of black coffee while answering her emails. She worked out for an hour and ate her breakfast before going outside.

Hope you will know some absorbing morning habits of some billionaires.

Read more about those above person’s life and apply some of the habits in your routine.

No doubt you will be there on the list within some years.

Introducing Skateboarding in Olympics

In recent history, skateboarding has become a pop culture phenomenon. We see it in everything, from T.V advertisements to fashion shows. And for the first time ever, skateboarding will be introduced in the 2020 summer Olympics. But, skateboarding hasn’t always had the mass appeal we see today.

Brief history

Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, skateboarding was born out of the boredom of surfers when the waves were no good. They would remove the wheels from the roller skates and attach them to a piece of wood to create a skateboard.

By the 1960s, skateboarding’s popularity has grown with rise of surf culture. Contest were held all over and the first sponsored skateboarders were beginning to emerge. However, the popularity of skating in the 60’s dropped just as fast as it rose.

The 1970’s brought along one with the most important changes to the skateboarding world, the advent of the Urethane wheel, which allows skaters to ride faster are over rougher types of ground than ever before.

In 1976, a horrible drought in southern California forced most homeowners with backyard swimming pools to drain them, giving way to birthplace of pool skating. This was the first major shift in how people rode there skateboards. No longer were they limited to the abysmal, flat grounds of parking lots and sidewalks.

The 1980s were a time of Renaissance in skateboarding. People were constantly inventing new tricks, pros were earning unheard of amounts if money, and skateboarder-own companies were thriving.

The vert

The favourable terrain for most of this era was vert. And even though there was a high level of progression occurring, to the untrained eye, skateboarding had gone stale and the popularity once again fell flat.

This lull in skateboarding led to the introduction of street skating which brings us into the 1990s. Skating during the era was at its most raw. Skaters took to the streets, to find new terrain, abandoning traditional skaters parks for something that felt more natural and could be done anywhere, by anyone.

Popularity

Skating things that occur almost anywhere, like sets of stairs, handrails, benches, curbs, and just about anywhere four wheels can roll. From there, skateboarding has been a nonstop, uphill climb to what it is today.

At its core, skateboarding has traditionally been for the underdogs, the outcasts, the misfits, and in result has been thought of negatively by a large major of its existence. But now, with generation of young adults who grew up with skateboarding and the exposure at an all-time high, the future of skateboarding is looking bright.

MOON

The Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia),[15] it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet,[f] the fifth largest satellite in the Solar System overall, and is larger than any known dwarf planet. Orbiting Earth at an average distance of 384,400 km (238,900 mi),[16] or about 30 times Earth’s diameter, its gravitational influence slightly lengthens Earth’s day and is the main driver of Earth’s tides. The Moon is classified as a planetary-mass object and a differentiated rocky body, and lacks any significant atmosphere, hydrosphere, or magnetic field. Its surface gravity is about one-sixth of Earth’s (0.1654 g); Jupiter’s moon Io is the only satellite in the Solar System known to have a higher surface gravity and density.

Designations

Designation – Earth I
Alternative names – LunaSelene (poetic)

Cynthia(poetic)

Adjectives – Lunar

Selenian (poetic)

Cynthian (poetic)

Moonly (poetic)

Orbital characteristics

Perigee 362600 km
(356400–370400 km)

Apogee 405400 km
(404000–406700 km)

Semi-major axis 384399 km (1.28 ls, 0.00257 AU)

Eccentricity 0.059

Orbital period 27.321661 d
(27 d 7 h 43 min 11.5 s[1])

Synodic period 29.530589 d
(29 d 12 h 44 min 2.9 s)

Average orbital speed 1.022 km/s

Longitude of Regressing by one revolution in

ascending node 18.61 years

Satellite of Earth

Physical characteristics

Mean radius 1737.4 km
(0.2727 of Earth’s)

Equatorial radius 1738.1 km
(0.2725 of Earth’s)

Polar radius 1736.0 km
(0.2731 of Earth’s)

Flattening 0.0012

Circumference 10921 km (equatorial)

Surface area 3.793×107 km2
(0.074 of Earth’s)

Volume 2.1958×1010 km3
(0.020 of Earth’s)

Mass 7.342×1022 kg
(0.012300 of Earth’s)

Surface gravity 1.62 m/s2

Atmosphere

Surface pressure 10−7 Pa (1 picobar) (day)
10−10 Pa (1 femtobar) (night)

Composition by volume He,Ar,Ne,Na,K,Hi,Rn

The Moon’s orbit around Earth has a sidereal period of 27.3 days. During each synodic period of 29.5 days, the amount of visible surface illuminated by the Sun varies from none up to 100%, resulting in lunar phases that form the basis for the months of a lunar calendar. The Moon is tidally locked to Earth, which means that the length of a full rotation of the Moon on its own axis causes its same side (the near side) to always face Earth, and the somewhat longer lunar day is the same as the synodic period. That said, 59% of the total lunar surface can be seen from Earth through shifts in perspective due to libration

The most widely accepted origin explanation posits that the Moon formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth, out of the debris from a giant impact between the planet and a hypothesized Mars-sized body called Theia. It then receded to a wider orbit because of tidal interaction with the Earth. The near side of the Moon is marked by dark volcanic maria (“seas”), which fill the spaces between bright ancient crustal highlands and prominent impact craters. Most of the large impact basins and mare surfaces were in place by the end of the Imbrian period, some three billion years ago. The lunar surface is relatively non-reflective, with a reflectance just slightly brighter than that of worn asphalt. However, because it has a large angular diameter, the full moon is the brightest celestial object in the night sky. The Moon’s apparent size is nearly the same as that of the Sun, allowing it to cover the Sun almost completely during a total solar eclipse.

Both the Moon’s prominence in the earthly sky and its regular cycle of phases have provided cultural references and influences for human societies throughout history. Such influences can be found in language, calendar systems, art, and mythology. The first artificial object to reach the Moon was the Soviet Union’s Luna 2 uncrewed spacecraft in 1959; this was followed by the first successful soft landing by Luna 9 in 1966. The only human lunar missions to date have been those of the United States’ Apollo program, which landed twelve men on the surface between 1969 and 1972. These and later uncrewed missions returned lunar rocks that have been used to develop a detailed geological understanding of the Moon’s origins, internal structure, and subsequent history.

FACTS

1. The Moon is Earth’s only permanent natural satellite

It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits.

2. The Moon is the second-densest satellite

Among those whose densities are known anyway. The first densest is Jupiter’s satellite Io.

3. The Moon always shows Earth the same face

The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth. Its near side is marked by large dark plains (volcanic ‘maria’) that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters.

4. The Moon’s surface is actually dark

Although compared to the night sky it appears very bright, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, and the slight lengthening of the day.

5. The Sun and the Moon are not the same size

From Earth, both the Sun and the Moon look about same size. This is because, the Moon is 400 times smaller than the Sun, but also 400 times closer to Earth.

6. The Moon is drifting away from the Earth

The Moon is moving approximately 3.8 cm away from our planet every year.

7. The Moon was made when a rock smashed into Earth

The most widely-accepted explanation is that the Moon was created when a rock the size of Mars slammed into Earth, shortly after the solar system began forming about 4.5 billion years ago.

8. The Moon makes the Earth move as well as the tides

Everyone knows that the Moon is partly responsible for causing the tides of our oceans and seas on Earth, with the Sun also having an effect. However, as the Moon orbits the Earth it also causes a tide of rock to rise and fall in the same way as it does with the water. The effect is not as dramatic as with the oceans but nevertheless, it is a measurable effect, with the solid surface of the Earth moving by several centimetres with each tide.

9. The Moon has quakes too

They’re not called earthquakes but moonquakes. They are caused by the gravitational influence of the Earth. Unlike quakes on Earth that last only a few minutes at most, moonquakes can last up to half an hour. They are much weaker than earthquakes though.

10. There is water on the Moon!

This is in the form of ice trapped within dust and minerals on and under the surface. It has been detected on areas of the lunar surface that are in permanent shadow and are therefore very cold, enabling the ice to survive. The water on the Moon was likely delivered to the surface by comets.

Do Hamsters live Together?

The most frequently and general questions asked by the owners/animal lover who raises Hamster in their household. Can hamster live together?

The answer is very simple. Most of hamsters breed can live together but important point is you must know that which bread of hamster is yours. There are two types of hamsters breed in general; Syrian hamsters and dwarf hamsters whether your hamster is Syrian breed or dwarf hamsters one or another one.

Syrian hamsters generally are very territorial of their space, they doesn’t share their space, they normally grows up to 8inches in length when they are fully grown whereas, the dwarf hamsters normally maximum growths hardly nearly 4inches; mostly are of 2 to 3inches. Syrian hamsters will be not familiar in sharing their space as they enjoy company of their family members not even from their same bread. Syrian hamsters are very active and curious in general. They enjoy interaction with their family only. Even though they look very similar as one but the Syrian hamster tends to have more rounder and larger eyes compare to dwarfs hamsters. Hence, questing still linger, Can hamster live together. Yes, Hamsters can live together but Syrian hamster doesn’t live together with another hamster.

It is known that Syrian hamsters normally can’t share their cage with other species of hamsters whereas; dwarf hamsters on the hand are fairly sociable pets. Dwarf hamsters are able to live in a cage with other hamsters without any circumstance. They are tending to be way more active, tiny and fast. Unlike Syrian hamsters dwarfs will run and hide when a human tries to handle or pet them in general. They rather prefer to enjoy company alone or with other dwarf hamsters. So, Can hamster live together. Yes, Dwarf hamsters are very much live together with other hamsters.

For the owners who want to keep two or more hamsters together, dwarf hamsters are recommended. They can live happily live together in pairs and groups as long as they are given their adequate space.

Even after that if you’re still planning to keep different breads of hamsters together. There are few general tricks through which you can try keeping multiple hamsters in one cage or their space.

  1. Provide big space

It is one of the foremost important tricks; first is to provide enough big space for them to have their own friendly open area instead of putting them together in a small cage. In big space, they will be able to play around separately. And gradually, will be able to play, interact and live together in one space.

  1. Introduce them.

Even though different bread of hamsters doesn’t get along at first, you (owner) must introduce them especially if they are bought in at same period of time, it will be a lot easier for them to share a space. Hamsters’ nature of territory is same as other animals. If another one is brought after period gap of first one, previous one tends to be very protective about their space which leads to un-healthy environment for the second hamsters and will lead to fights among them which is why it is very important to introduce them first thing after putting them in their space to live them together.

  1. Prepare separate feeding area

One most vital area to avoid fights is to provide each hamster with their own food bowl and water bottle. This will genuinely lead to reduction for causing fights as hamsters will always eat elsewhere if the dominant hamster is feeling protective of his or her food.

  1. Keep update on their behavior

Even if at first your hamsters have been getting well but suddenly hamsters starts attacking each other. To prevent you must monitor their behavior time to time. If one act violently towards other one. They must be separated for time being. After weeks, try to put the hamster in main cage and reintroduce them to have a neutral ground. If its work, its best hamster, they can live together again but if they start getting irritable with each other. It is best to separate them permanently as it is what’s best for your pets mentally and physically.

  1. Gender

Before adopting the hamster, you must have knowledge which gender that you want to pet because it is not reliable to put male and female hamsters in one space instead putting same gender of hamsters can live together.

Even after all mentioned method one might still wonder; can hamster live together. They can if you provide enough time and attention to opt the tricks handsomely. Hamsters in general are very territory species of pet. It is important to get them along in order to able live them together in one space.  

Additional vital point is that if can hamster live together. If you want your hamster to live together with another hamster, take the breads of hamster which can be able to share their space as dwarf hamsters or one must try four elements of tricks which can help in keeping different breads of hamster in one space.

Disaster and disaster management

If we look at the disasters that have taken place earlier, we can easily say that nature is not merely responsible for them to happen. They happen due to other reasons too. This is why we have classified them in different categories. First comes the natural disasters which are caused by natural processes. They are the most dangerous disaster to happen which causes loss of life and damage to the earth. Some of the deadliest natural disasters are earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, and more.

Furthermore, we have man-made disasters. They are the results of technological hazards or man’s carelessness. Some of the man-made disasters include fires, nuclear explosions or radiations, oil spills, transport accidents, terrorist attacks and more. Nature has little or no role to play in these types of disasters.

As no country is spared from any kind of disasters, India also falls in the same category. In fact, the geographical location of India makes it a very disaster-prone country. Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and more. When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat. To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage .

Disaster management:

Disaster management refers to the efficient management of resources and responsibilities that will help in lessening the impact of the disaster. It involves a well-planned plan of action so we can make effective efforts to reduce the dangers caused by the disaster to a minimum.

Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster. It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country. This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness.

Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations. For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing. If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation.

Let’s look at some of the major natural disasters of recent years in India. These natural disasters were so severe that they affected thousands of people.

1999 – Orissa CycloneIn

1999, a super cyclone struck the coast of the Indian state of Orissa, killing several people and leaving thousands homeless. The loss of public and private properties was in millions.

2001 – Bhuj Earthquake in Gujarat

A trembling earth hit the serious condition of the West on India in Gujarat, which was the one of the main quake land registered on the richter scale in the history of the country.

2004 – Tsunami

The states of southern India have faced waves of high-intensity tsunami sweeping the entire coastal region. The tsunami has also severely affected other South Asian countries, leaving thousands of people dead and billions of dollars worth of public and private property damaged and lost.

The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was created by the Indian National Government to respond quickly to disasters caused by nature or otherwise. The National Disaster Management Academy has been equipped with all the tools and training needed to provide disaster relief.

For many years, the National Disaster Management Authority has dealt with natural disasters, but it needs to be regularly updated with modern equipment to handle disaster situations much more effectively.

Yadadri Temple – More expensive than Ram Mandir

The centuries-old temple on Yadagirigutta, renamed now as Yadadri, was initially confined to just 2,500 square yards of area. Currently, the temple complex encompasses over 14.5 acres.

Telangana chief minister K Chandrasekhar Rao’s dream was to build a magnificent temple in the state that matches Tirumala, India’s richest temple in the neighbouring Andhra Pradesh, and it is now a realty.

The ancient cave shrine of Lord Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy on the picturesque hills of Yadagirigutta, about 70-km away from Hyderabad, is getting ready for inauguration with a complete makeover at cost of nearly ₹1,000 crore.

Hundreds of workers have sweated day and night to make this mission successful and gave final touches to the magnificient 1000 year old temple. Not single brick has been used while constructing the temple. The temple was built entirely using ‘Krishnasila’ or black granite. They were brought from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh. Civil engineers and civic officials have raced against the time to complete the necessary civic infrastructure to provide all amenities for the pilgrims.

The temple has more than 100 ‘Yali Pillars’ — as prominently seen in South India’s temples. According to Hindu mythology, Yali is a creature which is part lion, part elephant and part horse. It is sculpted on the pillars.A sprawling 14.5-acre temple complex consists of seven temple domes, including a 100-foot main dome. Chief Architect of the Temple (Sthapathy Advisor) Velu Anandachari said the special mortar and granite would maintain temperature inside the temple according to the seasons. In summers the temple would be cool, in winters warm.Architects said aloe vera was primarily used as an adhesive in the mortar mix, and the inknut would ward off insects — drawn because of the jaggery.At least 3,000 tonnes of mortar were used for the temple. The mix was set aside for a month before being applied. This gave a better finish, architects said.

Similarly, works on pushkarni (tank where devotees take a holy dip before having darshan), Kalyana Katta (tonsuring hall), circular road and queue lines, prasadam complex, works on various other developmental works in the pilgrim town including provision of tourist facilities comprising cottages, multilevel parking and housing for the temple priests in a total area of 1,400 acres have been completed have been completed by March end and temple has been inaugurated in May.

The total cost of the Yadadri project is around ₹1,800 crore

The centuries-old temple on Yadagirigutta, renamed now as Yadadri, was originally confined to just 2,500 square yards of area. Now, the temple complex is spread over 14.5 acres. The main hillock where the cave temple is located and eight other hills and lush green forests adjacent to it are being developed into a beautiful temple town.

The temple has been redeveloped according to the ancient Agama shastra (scriptures dealing with construction of temples) and other Vedic scriptures and is going to be the center of pilgrimage in Telangana.

International dogs day August 26.

● International Dog Day is observed every year on August 26 to raise awareness about dog adoption and the importance of providing rescue dogs with a safe and loving environment.

● The day was started as National Dog Day in the US in 2004 by pet & family lifestyle expert, animal rescue advocate, conservationist and dog trainer Colleen Paige.

● August 26 was chosen as on this day, Paige’s family had adopted their first dog ‘Sheltie’ from an animal shelter when she was just 10 years old.

Dogs are the most beautiful soul in this world,There are so much people spreading their love towards dog, even I too. Dogs are born to be affectionate and dogs knew how to care very well more than a person. Dogs are gifted souls from the Almighty, even it has only five senses, but dog know how to treat and behave with people’s. If we gave our love and affection towards dog then it will give us the happiness of life in double without any depression, distress and tensed. we can have a peaceful life by seeing dog face and their cute gestures.

There is no medicine to heel grief more than a dog🐶🐕.

And you know one thing dogs are the best one to show how to be perfect. Like we learn from people there are certain things to learn from dogs too. If we teach them to do their routine works in particular place itself…, then it will continue doing that everyday. That’s a great thing about pets ❤

Happy to have this international day to celebrate and embrace dog. As if you are a dog lover you doesn’t take only this day to recognise your loved pet. Because Dog lovers did not live without thinking, feeling, remembering about dog🐕.

This day is not only for the domestic pets but also for all the dogs in the world. So being remembering this day please have a look and takecare your street dogs as well. Because there is no difference between domestic dogs and Street dogs… Simply they are all dogs and has a feelings too ❤.

Don’t be crucial on pets…, if we show our love on them why would they change? All the changes is in our one step.

Believing you to be kindness…,

Can we really ignore climate change now?

When talking about climate change one would think that the end of the world would be enough to get us scared. We have always been an exceedingly risk-averse species—which is also one of the reasons we survived as a species. If there are lions on one part of the savannah, we go to another. If crocodiles keep coming out of the river, we fish somewhere else. So why is it that when it comes to take action to prevent the loss of life on the entire planet we don’t do anything at all.

This behaviour is on display again, in the wake of an announcement by United Nations Inter-governmental panel on climate change, that a catastrophe is near—and the distant future of an Earth ravaged by floods, droughts, wildfires, earthquakes and cyclones isn’t far anymore, but as close as mere 12 years away. According to the report if we don’t act fast the temperatures are expected to rise by a staggering 1.5 C above the average pre-industrial era – and has been touted as a tipping point for a calamity. Hearing this there has been a wide uproar amongst the members of the public and people have started to take action against climate change, big oil companies have started to commit to prevent climate change and….we wish all of it were true. As always the public reaction towards the climate change has been – meh.

Why are we like this? Research published over the decaes have shown us that we are masters at miscalculating risk – over prepare for things that are low in imminent danger and ignoring things that are. Climate change represents everything that is wrong with our thinking towards the planet and calls of environmental scientists and policy makers to wake people from the perils we are going to face are getting ignored. For starters, it lacks the absolutely critical component—the “me” component. “Nobody wakes up in the morning and looks at the longterm climate forecast,” says David Ropeik, an international consultant on risk perception and communication, formerly with the Harvard School of Public Health. “They ask what the weather is today, where I live, and how it’s going to affect me.”

That’s sensible as far as it goes. One of the main reasons behind this is the way humans think- immediate concerns will always trump eventual concerns. Even if try to think about climate change, we will not be able to see changes right away – not in a day, in a week, in a month or even a year. Change comes gradually and if one thing that past has shown us, is that humans lack one thing called as ‘patience’. Also to change the things in the future we would need to sacrifice a lot in the present which most countries aren’t willing to do so.

Advancements in technologies have become so fast that our comfort levels have risen dramatically and today comfort has become a paramount wall between us and a greener Earth. Paul Slovic, Psychologist – University of Oregon said, “When it comes to acting on problems, the lure of our current comforts and conveniences will often cause us to act contrary to our values. If we think the consequences are far in the future, we tend to discount the risk. People just aren’t going to inconvenience themselves unless they’re forced to.”

Indeed, even when the risk is not far in the future—when, say, a hurricane is cannonballing toward the coast and the government orders an evacuation—plenty of people still don’t budge. Here, what’s known as the optimism bias is at work. Other people may need to make tracks, but your storm windows are top-of-the-line or your house is on slightly higher ground, so why get off the couch? If we find it so easy to talk ourselves out of acting in the face of a storm that’s just days away, a disaster that’s many years away doesn’t stand a chance.

We establish that kind of distance from risk not just temporally but geographically and culturally. If you live in an inland region, well, the floods are going to inundate the suckers on the coast, not you. If you live on the coast, it’s the south coast that’s going to get hit and you live north. And developed nations like the U.S. are typically going to be able to deal with climate instability better than developing ones, which allows us to conclude that while disasters happen elsewhere they don’t happen here.

“The question is often, ‘Do I feel vulnerable?’” says Slovic. “For the most part we don’t and that shapes our behavior.”

Even when we do try to personalize things, we have a hard time doing it. We can picture what it would be like to get eaten by a shark, Ropeik says, or die in a mass shooting or an airplane crash. That leads us to over-prepare for those risks—arming teachers, avoiding the beach, driving instead of flying even though driving is manifestly more dangerous.

“But if you ask even the most devout climate change believers how they think it’s going to affect them, they often can’t quite describe it,” he says. If it’s hard to picture, it’s easy to ignore.

Finally, there’s a sense of futility—the inefficacy factor, as risk experts put it. Climate change is a huge problem—arguably the biggest of all problems—and that makes individual action seem awfully pointless. “We reason that we can curtail things we want to do—like driving or flying,” says Slovic, “but if other people aren’t going to do it, it’s not going to make any difference.”

Of course, every great human enterprise has called on people not to do things they want to do or to do things they don’t—paying taxes, volunteering for military service, tolerating rationing in time of war. None of it is fun, none of it is easy, but all of it has helped ensure the success of the larger human project and the survival of the next generations. If we can’t bestir ourselves now, in the face of yet another alarming report from the climate change scientists, we’re going to owe those generations an explanation—and an apology.