KALA AZAR (visceral leishmaniasis)

BY DAKSHITA NAITHANI

INTRODUCTION

After moving to internal organs such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, a parasite causes illness. If not treated, it nearly invariably leads to death.

People get this condition by sandfly bites, which contracted the parasite after consuming the blood of a parasite-infected person. There are more than 20 distinct Leishmania parasites that cause the illness around the globe, and 90 different sandfly species that carry the infection.

However, in India, there is just one parasitic species, Leishmania donovani, and only one sandfly species, Phlebotomus argentipes, that spreads the illness.

Visceral leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar, is marked by recurrent bouts of fever, significant weight loss, spleen and liver enlargement, and anaemia (which may be serious).

In underdeveloped nations, if the illness is not treated, the mortality rate can reach 100% in as little as two years.

SYMPTOMS

When people develop visceral leishmaniasis, the most typical symptoms are

 FEVER

 ENLARGEMENT OF SPLEEN AND LIVER

Misdiagnosis is critical, because kala-azar has a near-100 percent death rate if not treated properly. It does not always leave its hosts unmarked, even after restoration. A secondary form of the illness called post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, or PKDL, may develop after effective treatment—usually a few months after kala-azar, but as long as many years with the Indian strain. This illness begins with tiny, measles-like skin lesions on the face that grow in size and spread throughout the body.

In individuals who have recovered from the illness , it is characterised by a hypopigmented macular, maculopapular, and nodular rash and  generally emerges 6 months to a year or more after the disease appears to be cured, although it can happen sooner or even simultaneously.

It is thought to have a crucial role in the disease’s maintenance and transmission, notably by functioning as a parasite reservoir. The lesions may eventually consolidate into disfiguring, bloated formations that resemble leprosy, causing blindness in certain cases if they extend to the eyes.

The visceral type of Leishmania is caused by two different species of Leishmania. L. donovani is the species found in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent, whereas L. infantum, also known as L. chagasi, is found in Europe, North Africa, and Latin America.

LIFE CYCLE

 Life cycle is completed in two hosts: humans and sandflies. The adult female sandfly feeds at night and is a bloodsucker. When a Leishmania-infected person is bitten by a fly, the parasite is consumed along with the blood.

The protozoan is an amastigote, which is spherical, non-motile, and just 3–7 micrometres in diameter. The amastigotes inside the sandfly’s stomach soon change into the promastigotes, which are elongated and motile forms. It is spindle-shaped and thrice the size of the amastigote, and has a single flagellum that allows it to move. They live extra cellularly in the alimentary canal reproducing asexually and migrating to the proximal end of the gut where they become ready for a transmission.

The promastigotes are introduced after being released locally at the biting site as the fly bites. Promastigotes infect macrophages once inside the human host. They revert to their tiny amastigote form inside the cells.

In macrophage cells, amastigotes reproduce. They tear down their host cell by sheer mass pressure after repeated replication, although there is also new hypothesis that they are able to exit the cell via activating the macrophage’s exocytosis response.

The protozoans in the daughter cells then move to new hosts in fresh cells or through the circulation. The infection progresses and affects the spleen and liver in particular. Sandflies eat the liberated amastigotes in peripheral tissues, which starts a new phase.

TREATMENT

The traditional treatment is with

  • Sodium stibogluconate 
  • Meglumine antimoniate

Resilience is increasingly prevalent in India, with resistance rates as high as 60% in some regions of Bihar. Amphotericin B in its many liposomal formulations is now the treatment of choice for visceral leishmaniasis acquired in India. The first oral therapy for this illness was miltefosine. Miltefosine had a cure rate of 95% in Phase III clinical studies.

The medicine is typically well tolerated compared to other medications. Gastrointestinal disruption on the first or second day of therapy (a 28-day course of treatment) is the most common adverse effect, but it has no influence on effectiveness. Miltefosine is a medication of choice since it is accessible as an oral formulation, which eliminates the cost and inconvenience of hospitalisation and allows for outpatient delivery of the drug.

The drawbacks include that after a decade of usage, there is evidence of decreased effectiveness. It is teratogenic and should not be used by women who are planning to have children. Sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate have been used to treat kala-azar (Glucantime). Only injections can be used to deliver these medications. They are poisonous, have several adverse effects, and are administered over a 30-day period.

Do Vampires Exist?

Hey! Are you a Vampire Diaries fan? Well, I’m. After watching Vampire Diaries I became curious to know whether vampires exist. Vampires are said to be undead creatures from folklore. It is fascinating to discuss vampires.

VAMPIRE DIARIES

Vampire in popular legend is a creature, often fanged, that preys upon humans, generally by consuming their blood. Vampires have been featured in folklore and fiction of various cultures for hundreds of years, predominantly in Europe, although belief in them has waned in modern times.

The belief is that Vampires feed on blood. Almost every nation has a blood drinker in its mythology. Vetalas in India are beings that inhabit corpses. In Persian, Lilith was considered a demon who drinks the blood of babies.

WHERE IT ALL STARTED?

DRACULA

Vampires Legacy didn’t start with Dracula by Bram Stoker. In Eastern Europe, tales from the 17th and 18th centuries formed the basic vampire legacy. Later it got popularised. The exact way of origin of legacy is unclear.

MYTHS ABOUT VAMPIRES

Drinking blood is the most spoken myth about being a vampire. We have seen movies and series where vampires drink blood by biting the victim. Vampire bat is the only species of mammal that feeds exclusively on blood. They prey on warm-blooded animals.

Vampires are often considered immortal, there are few animals that possess the same quality. The immortal jellyfish is one of those species.

IMMORTAL JELLYFISH

Vampires are often depicted with heightened senses such as vision and hearing.

THEN WHO ARE VAMPIRES?

Vampires are just people who suffer from Porphyria. It is a disorder resulting from build-up of certain chemicals related to red blood cell, which means your skin is sensitive to the sun. That explains why the myth says vampires get burned in daylight. It is called as the vampire disease.

vampires drink blood. Because porphyria can result in brow urine, this may have led to the (false) belief that individuals who demonstrated this symptom had been drinking blood.

There are people out there who consume animal and human blood that doesn’t make them a vampire. Haematomania is the condition if craving blood. Even though we have scientific reasons behind these vampire myths. The question about vampires still goes around.

They exist. They are one of us. Vampires are not the same old mythical creatures. They are very much human, I would like to think they are not immortal. The real-life disease like Porphyria, Rabies, and Tuberculosis influenced vampire folklore. Maybe as there was a lack of awareness about the medical conditions.

In the 1800s, it wouldn’t have been too big a stretch of the imagination to think that people who were dying of tuberculosis were having the life sucked out of them by a supernatural creature. People suffering from (untreated) tuberculosis lose weight, become physically weak, have fevers, and cough up blood. In addition, tuberculosis spreads from person to person via the air.

With that said, I still feel like there might be chances of these folklores being real. Even with scientific evidence and research, we can’t erase the myth of vampires from our hearts. Let me know in the comments whether you believe in vampires.

Check out the Interview with a real-life vampire.

DBMS-AN OVERVIEW

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

   The collection of inter-related data and several programs that are used to handle the data is known as Database Management System (DBMS). The main aim of DBMS is to store and efficiently retrieve the data from the database. To manage the data in the database, define the structure for storage of information and provide a proper mechanism for manipulation of information. The database system must also ensure the safety of the information that is stored.

DATABASE SYSTEM APPLICATIONS

    Several applications use a database system. Some of the applications are listed below:

  • Accounting: To maintain the data of employees, salaries, and payroll taxes in the company, students in schools, patients in hospitals, database systems are used.
  • Manufacturing: In factories, database systems are used to manage the supply chain and tracking the production of items.
  • In shopping marts: For maintaining customer, product, and purchase information of items, databases are used.
  • Banking: The database systems are useful in maintaining the customer’s account information, loan details and for maintaining the transactions of credit card history.
  • Universities: DBMS is quite useful in maintaining the student details, course details, and accounting in universities.
  • Reservation systems: To maintain the reservation and schedule information, database systems are used in airways and railways reservation systems
  • Telecommunication: For maintaining the records of the call made and generating the bills, DBMS is useful.

PURPOSE OF DATABASE SYSTEMS

  Earlier database systems are created to manage the commercial data. Data are stored in files. For adding new data or updating the data or deleting the data, various programs are written. Separate applications have to be written for the addition of new data. As time evolves, more files and more applications are required by the system. This typical file processing system is supported by an Operating system. In this system, the data is permanently stored in files. It requires different application programs for extracting or adding new information. Before the introduction of the Database Management System (DBMS), the file processing system was in use.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DATABASE SYSTEMS

  • It represents the aspects of real-world applications.
  • For managing the information systematically.
  • Multiple views for representing the data.
  • Operations such as insertion, deletion, and updating can be done efficiently.
  • A logical relationship between records and data is maintained.

ADVANTAGES OF DATABASE SYSTEMS

  • The data redundancy is removed i.e, there is no duplication of data in DBMS.
  • DBMS allows you to retrieve the desired data in an efficient way.
  • Data isolation can be done in separate tables for convenient usage.
  • A simple query language can be used to access the data.
  • In DBMS, the data integrity is maintained.
  • If some operation is performed on the particular data in one table, then the changes will be reflected on the entire database. So, the atomicity of data is maintained in DBMS.
  • Concurrent access to multiple users is possible in database systems.
  • In DBMS, we can also make the user access only the desired part of the data by restricting the access.

DISADVANTAGES OF DATABASE SYSTEMS                              

  • The complexity of database design is high. And it is also time-consuming.
  • If some failure has occurred in either software or hardware, a large amount of investment is needed to repair it.
  • The entire database may get affected if one part of the database gets affected.
  • For converting the file from a conventional file system to a database system, a large investment is needed to buy the required tools and adopting different techniques.
  • More training is needed for the people who design and maintain the database system.

Disaster management

Disaster is a very common phenomenon to the human society. It has been experienced by them since time immemorial. Though its form may be varied, it has been a challenge for society across castes, creeds, communities and countries. The latest development which has been discovered in the World Disaster Reports recently is that the disasters have increased in frequency and intensity.

People are becoming more and more vulnerable to disasters of all types, including earthquake, flood, cyclones, landslides, droughts, accidents, plane crash, forests fire, etc. With the technological advancements and progress, the force of disasters is also changing. When they occur they surpass all preparedness and eagerness of society and pose bigger challenge to them. This is quite true in case of both developed and developing countries. The floods in UK, France, and heat wave in Europe, particularly in France in 2003, claimed more than 35000 lives. In the year 2006, America had to face bigger disaster in the form of tornadoes and other cyclones. They caused great loss of lives and property. All these are sufficient to prove that technological mechanisms are inadequate.

There is a direct correlation between higher human development and higher preparedness. The countries which have lesser human development are more vulnerable to risks of disasters and damage. Of all the disasters, floods are the most common followed by wind storms, droughts and earthquakes. But the drought is the deadliest disaster which accounts for 48 per cent of all deaths from natural disasters. The highest numbers of people die from disasters in Asia. India, China and Bangladesh are the worst affected countries by flood. Besides the natural disasters, transport accidents and technological disasters are also faced by the developing countries.

India, due to its geographical locations and geological formations, is a highly disaster prone country. Its long coastline, snowclad high peaks, high mountain ranges, the perennial rivers in the north all combine to add to this problem. India, which has only two per cent the total geographical area, has to support 16 per cent of total world population. Naturally, there is a tremendous pressure on the natural resources, which directly or indirectly lead to the occurrence of disasters, namely floods, droughts, landslides, earthquakes, etc.

Like human population, India has to support large cattle population, which also heavily depends on biomass and graze into forest area. The forest cover with more than 0.4 densities is 12 per cent of the land area, though forest, at present, is 23 per cent. Due to overgrazing the quality of soil is also degrading resulting in soil erosion, silting of rivers, and removal of fertile soil and heavy silting of cultivable land. We see heavy rainfall during the monsoon, sometimes 100 cm rain in 36 hours or getting the whole monsoon rain two to three days like the ones in Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Kolkata. From the region wise analysis, it is clear that northern region of India is faced with problems of avalanches, landslides, floods, drought and earthquakes because this region fall under the seismic zones III to V.

The Eastern region is confronted with the heavy floods in the perennial rivers of Brahmaputra, Ganga, etc. Drought, heat wave, hailstorm, cyclone, heavy wind and earthquake are also common in this region. The Northeastern region faces the natural disaster in the form of flood, landslides, wind outrage, earthquake as most of this part of the country comes under the seismic zones IV and V.

The Western region is widely known for severe drought, wind erosion of land and soil, flood and cyclone. This area is also prone to earthquakes. The Southern region, particularly the coastal region is vulnerable to cyclones, sea erosion, tsunami, landslides. The islands of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep are confronted with the problems of sea erosion and tsunami. Indian coastal areas faced some of the severest cyclones both in Eastern coast and Western coast. One of the natural disasters, namely the volcanoes is in the barren island in Andaman group of islands which periodically become active.

In recent times, it was active in 2005. Among all the disasters, tsunami is the latest phenomena, which was never seen or heard earlier. Due to having no adequate warning system, it devastated a large portion of coastal region of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh besides Andaman & Nicobar Islands and claimed a large number of innocent lives and destroyed property worth crores of rupees.

India has faced a number of disasters, ranging from flood, earthquakes, cyclones, tsunami, drought, landslides. A few recent disasters faced by India include Uttar Kasha earthquake in UP in 1991, Later earthquake in Maharashtra in 1993, Chama earthquake in Gujarat, super cyclone in Orissa in 1999, Buhl earthquake in Gujarat in 2001, Tsunami in 2004 and Mumbai-Gujarat flood in 2005. Besides, India has a bad experience of technology-related tragedy in the form of gas tragedy in Bhopal in 1984. India also faced the problem of Plague in Gujarat.

The direct or indirect impacts of disasters, either natural or technological, are always damage, destruction and death. They cause loss of life of both men and animals and properties as well. At the occurrence of disaster, everything goes haywire in view of the destruction of lifeline support systems, namely communication, power supply, water supply, drainage, etc. In this situation the health care and hospitals are also put under severe stress. Commercial and economic activities are badly affected. Life almost comes to a standstill.

The impact is almost same, in case of man-made disasters like riots. The worst affected group is the poor sections of society, who are daily wage-earner. They are the most vulnerable and they suffer the loss of their livelihood. The psychological traumas caused by the disasters are sometimes so severe that they span the whole of life of the victim. Besides other rehabilitation works, psychological rehabilitation is of great importance.In some natural disasters like cyclones, tsunami and earthquake, it is the building structure which becomes the cause of destruction and death. It is due to this fact that in building construction, building codes are not followed property. In developing countries only 30 per cent of built infrastructures are constructed as per the building codes, while semi-permanent and other buildings do not follow the plan. Besides, the low quality of building material, liberal flouting and lack of master plan are some of the major constraints in this regard.

Rehabilitation is an integral part of disaster management. When disasters occur administrative measures are terribly inadequate and perhaps this is the most difficult period for a victim. The role of administration does not end with end of disasters. In fact its effort and commitment get more complex. It requires proper coordination among various agencies. In this context it is very important to note that disasters are non-routine events that require non-routine response. Government cannot rely on normal procedures to implement appropriate responses- the rescue teams require learning special skills, technologies and attitudes in dealing with disasters.

Disaster Management has assumed great importance in recent times. To handle the situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avert the situation, but can mitigate its impacts.

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“Facts of india” part-1

1. Cows are considered sacred.

If hamburgers are a regular part of your diet, you’ll need to make some adjustments before visiting India! Cows are protected by their own set of rules in the Constitution, making killing a cow a crime. Even on crowded city streets, cows have the liberty to roam where they please without fear of being harassed by humans.

2. India is the wettest inhabited place on Earth.

Meghalaya village has won the Guinness world record title for the wettest place on Earth, with about 11,873 milli liter of rain annually. The monsoon season lasts six months, so make sure you pack an umbrella!

3. India has over 300,000 mosques and over 2 million Hindu temples.

Get ready to be awed and amazed by all the stunning architecture India has to offer. About 15% of India’s population is Muslim. The mosques across the country range from small village buildings to immense famous ones, like the Mecca Masjid in Hyderabad or the Jama Masjid in New Delhi.The same can be said about India’s Hindu temples, which surpass two million to serve the 79.8% of India’s Hindu population.

Just the holy city of Varanasi has over 23,000 temples. It is safe to say India is the land of temples!

4.Rajasthan has a Temple of RatsThe animal wonders of India continue.

Although rats might not be the first species you think of to worship, there is a temple in Rajasthan dedicated to rats.Thousands of rats call the temple home, making it one of the country’s most unique attractions. Many pilgrims visit the temple every year on their own religious journeys, so make sure to be respectful of local customs when visiting.

5.The popular game “Snakes and Ladders” originated in IndiaNow sold across the world (sometimes adapted to “shoots and ladders”), this board game traces its roots back to India. It was first created to teach morals and lessons about karma in a way that young children would understand and remember.

6.India has 22 recognized languagesThe numerous languages spoken across India include Santali, Kashmiri, Bengali, Tamil, and Urdu. However, the official languages are English and Hindi.India also has the world’s second-largest population of English speakers (first is the United States), since most Indians speak their own regional language as well as English for easier communication.Sanskrit is considered the oldest language in the world, the “mother of all languages.” Every Hindu book is written in Sanskrit, and it is said that Sanskrit is the language of the demi-Gods.India also has the world’s second-largest population of English speakers (first is the United States), since most Indians speak their own regional language as well as English for easier communication.Sanskrit is considered the oldest language in the world, the “mother of all languages.” Every Hindu book is written in Sanskrit, and it is said that Sanskrit is the language of the demi-Gods.

Economic and social development

Economic development

In the economic study of the public sector, economic and social development is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region, local community, or an individual are improved according to targeted goals and objectives.

The term has been used frequently in the 20th and 21st centuries, but the concept has existed in the West for far longer. “Modernization”, “Westernization”, and especially “industrialization” are other terms often used while discussing economic development. Historically, economic development policies focused on industrialization and infrastructure, but since the 1960s, it has increasingly focused on poverty reduction.

[1]Whereas economic development is a policy intervention aiming to improve the well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and increases in GDP; economist Amartya Sen describes economic growth as but “one aspect of the process of economic development”. Economists primarily focus on the growth aspect and the economy at large, whereas researchers of community economic development concern themselves with socioeconomic development as well.

Many institutions of higher education offer economic development as an area of study and research such as McGill University, London School of Economics, International Institute of Social Studies, Balsillie School of International Affairs, and the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs.

economic development goals

The development of a country has been associated with different concepts but generally encompasses economic growth through higher productivity, political systems that represent as accurately as possible the preferences of its citizens,the extension of rights to all social groups and the opportunities to get them and the proper functionality of institutions and organizations that are able to attend more technically and logistically complex tasks (i.e. raise taxes and deliver public services) These processes describe the State’s capabilities to manage its economy, polity, society and public administration. Generally, economic development policies attempt to solve issues in these topics.

With this in mind, economic development is typically associated with improvements in a variety of areas or indicators (such as literacy rates, life expectancy, and poverty rates), that may be causes of economic development rather than consequences of specific economic development programs. For example, health and education improvements have been closely related to economic growth, but the causality with economic development may not be obvious. In any case, it is important to not expect that particular economic development programs be able to fix many problems at once as that would be establishing unsurmountable goals for them that are highly unlikely they can achieve. Any development policy should set limited goals and a gradual approach to avoid falling victim to something Prittchet, Woolcock and Andrews call ‘premature load bearing’.

Many times the economic development goals of specific countries cannot be reached because they lack the State’s capabilities to do so. For example, if a nation has little capacity to carry out basic functions like security and policing or core service delivery it is unlikely that a program that wants to foster a free-trade zone (special economic zones) or distribute vaccinations to vulnerable populations can accomplish their goals. This has been something overlooked by multiple international organizations, aid programs and even participating governments who attempt to carry out ‘best practices’ from other places in a carbon-copy manner with little success. This isomorphic mimicry –adopting organizational forms that have been successful elsewhere but that only hide institutional dysfunction without solving it on the home country –can contribute to getting countries stuck in ‘capability traps’ where the country does not advance in its development goals.

social development

Social development is about improving the well-being of every individual in society so they can reach their full potential. The success of society is linked to the well-being of each and every citizen.Social development means investing in people. It requires the removal of barriers so that all citizens can journey toward their dreams with confidence and dignity. It is about refusing to accept that people who live in poverty will always be poor. It is about helping people so they can move forward on their path to self-sufficiency.

Every New Brunswicker must have the opportunity to grow, develop their own skills and contribute to their families and communities in a meaningful way. If they are healthy, well educated and trained to enter the workforce and are able to make a decent wage they are better equipped to meet their basic needs and be successful. Their families will also do well and the whole of society will benefit.

Learning must start early in life. By investing in early learning initiatives, we can ensure a greater degree of success amongst our citizens. Making sure that children get a good start in their education goes a long way to increasing their success later in life.

An affordable, high quality child care system is also needed for society to succeed. When people know that their children are being well taken care of, they can be more productive in their jobs. When employers have good employees their business is more likely to succeed. When businesses succeed, the economic situation of a community is improved. An investment today in good child care programs can provide many long term economic benefits for society.

In addition, a safe affordable place to live is very important in helping people achieve self-sufficiency. It is the focus of family life; where families can live safely, nurture their children, build community relationships and care for aging parents. Without a decent place to live, it is difficult to function as a productive member of society .Other investments in people that contribute to the economic prosperity of society include youth programs and services, post-secondary education, job creation, promotion of healthy, active living and safe and secure communities.

To reduce poverty we need to take a social development approach and invest in our people. By investing in people we can reduce poverty. We need to go beyond looking at government to find ways to develop our most valuable resources, our people. We need to share responsibility with community organizations, businesses, universities and municipalities in the task of improving the well-being of all New Brunswickers and preventing and reducing poverty.

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Inflation and its impact on different asset class.

Consumer or producers or policymakers or central banks have one characteristic feature common in them – They are all affected by inflation which is a critical and cyclical macro indicator. With repsect to change in different time periods the capital markets also have to be adjusted to the far reaching implications of inflation. Almost everything is affected by inflation even something as basic as investment returns. Putting forward the theory of real returns which is nominal return less inflation is important for all investors to succeed in real life.

For example, we can look for ourselves how inflation is a silent money killer – for normal savings bank account return of 4% the customer is actually making a loss if we factor in the 12 month inflation value of 6%.
With that understanding now in place, let us look at how inflation impacts multiple asset classes.

Fixed Income
Inflation having an inverse relationship with interest rates impacts fixed income investments the most. With each point increase in inflation each investor alson wants to increase their return on investment so that they could beat inflation. Investors will usually shift to high yielding products than current ,ower yielding ones as interest rates on debt instruments are fixed over term. Debt investments dut to their characteristic fixed rates tend to lose the most in a rising inflation environment.In such kind of situations, the central bank usually takes actions around monetary policy and systemic liquidityto manage interest rates or yield or debt products but fundamentals catch up ultimately. In such cases people look for Infaltion Prtected Securities – a bond that adjusts yield to inflation and floating rate bonds.

Equity
The case of inflation surrounding equities is a little volatile and could shift depending upon the level of inflation, nature – transient or persistent, the external macro environment, corporate sector exposure, balance sheet structure and pricing power. An inflation rate of around 2-6% is generally considered good for equities while a rate of 10-14% is considered extremely high and bad for equities. Corporates in such cases increase the price of the final product in accordance with the rate of inflation due to the rising prices of raw materials and at last the consumer has to suffer the wrath of inflation while the companies  maintains its tradebook. This generally leads to a better revenue for the company and the reults are reflected in the stock price of the company But if the demand is suppressed due to weaker consumer sentiments, high unemployment, sector disruption or any other reason, then corporates would find it difficult to pass on the raw material price rise to final product price hikes. This will again be reflected in the stock prices of the companies.

Commodities
The real, physical assets that act a hedge against inflation act and their prices define current inflation levels are called commodities. Inflation levels are indicated by their prices. Inflation is a weighted index of prices of different goods and services – raw materials (wholesale inflation) and final products (consumer inflation) – combined in a basket. Different government agencies determine the ratio of theses items in the basket. Naturally, commodities (metals, agricultural produce) tend to do extremely well in a scenario of rising inflation.

Gold
The same relationship will hold true for gold as well because at the end of the a commodity after all. For countries like India gold is a preffered choice of investment in times of inflation as it acts as a hedgeGnd hence it is also called a ‘premium store of value’. Unsuprisingly this is not always the case as and when central bank take inflationary measures and raise the interest rates, gold becomes the lesser option for investors. The reason people tend to prefer gold over other assets is due to its various underlying characteristics such as return generating ability over a oeriod of time which has been tried and tested and a significantly low correlation among other asset class in both expansionary and recession periods.Investors also look at gold as an ‘alternative currency’ or ‘currency of last resort’ especially in countries where local currency is  is losing value.

Real Estate
Inflation has a direct relation with property prices which tend to increase with rise in inflation rates as landlords and home-owners demand higher rent or home prices to offset high consumption costs. In such cases real state also becomes an asset with positively high correlation with inflation. Investors in such cases invest in exchange traded funds for real estate which give better return in this class rather than owning something physical such as real pieces of land or industrial property.

JELLYFISH

Jellyfish and sea jellies are the informal common names given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria. Jellyfish are mainly free-swimming marine animals with umbrella-shaped bells and trailing tentacles, although a few are anchored to the seabed by stalks rather than being mobile. The bell can pulsate to provide propulsion for highly efficient locomotion. The tentacles are armed with stinging cells and may be used to capture prey and defend against predators. Jellyfish have a complex life cycle; the medusa is normally the sexual phase, which produces planula larva that disperse widely and enter a sedentary polyp phase before reaching sexual maturity.

Scientific classification

Kingdom : Animalia
Phylum : Cnidaria
Subphylum : Medusozoa

Groups included

*Acraspeda
Cubozoa—box jellyfish
Scyphozoa—true jellyfish
Staurozoa—stalked jellyfish
*some Hydrozoa—small jellyfish

Cladistically included but traditionally excluded taxa

* some Hydrozoa, such as Hydra

Jellyfish are found all over the world, from surface waters to the deep sea. Scyphozoans (the “true jellyfish”) are exclusively marine, but some hydrozoans with a similar appearance live in freshwater. Large, often colorful, jellyfish are common in coastal zones worldwide. The medusae of most species are fast-growing, and mature within a few months then die soon after breeding, but the polyp stage, attached to the seabed, may be much more long-lived. Jellyfish have been in existence for at least 500 million years,and possibly 700 million years or more, making them the oldest multi-organ animal group.

Jellyfish are eaten by humans in certain cultures. They are considered a delicacy in some Asian countries, where species in the Rhizostomae order are pressed and salted to remove excess water. Australian researchers have described them as a “perfect food”, sustainable, and protein-rich but relatively low in food energy.

They are also used in research, where the green fluorescent protein used by some species to cause bioluminescence has been adapted as a fluorescent marker for genes inserted into other cells or organisms.

The stinging cells used by jellyfish to subdue their prey can injure humans. Many thousands of swimmers are stung every year, with effects ranging from mild discomfort to serious injury or even death; small box jellyfish are responsible for many of these deaths. When conditions are favourable, jellyfish can form vast swarms, which can be responsible for damage to fishing gear by filling fishing nets, and sometimes clog the cooling systems of power and desalination plants which draw their water from the sea.

Names

The name jellyfish, in use since 1796, has traditionally been applied to medusae and all similar animals including the comb jellies (ctenophores, another phylum).The term jellies or sea jellies is more recent, having been introduced by public aquaria in an effort to avoid use of the word “fish” with its modern connotation of an animal with a backbone, though shellfish, cuttlefish and starfish are not vertebrates either. In scientific literature, “jelly” and “jellyfish” have been used interchangeably.Many sources refer to only scyphozoans as “true jellyfish”.

A group of jellyfish is called a “smack”.

Facts

* Some jellyfish can glow in the dark.

* Jellyfish are the oldest multi-organ animal.

* Jellyfish don’t have brains.

* Jellyfish are found all over the world.

* Some jellyfish are immortal.

* Not all jellyfish have tentacles.

* There’s a giant jellyfish called the hair jelly.

* Jellyfish stings can be deadly.

* 150 million people are stung by jellyfish each year.

* Jellyfish have many predators.

TYPE OF JELLYFISHS

1.Crystal Jellyfish

Coming in at number one is the Crystal jellyfish. Located in the waters around North America’s coast, this jellyfish species is actually completely colorless, hence its name! This beautiful specimen has around 150 tentacles lining its glass-like bell and in the daylight looks crystal clear. Although, this transparency belies a brighter side.

2.Bloodybelly Comb Jellyfish

Ranking high in the charts for the coolest and beautiful jelly-fish, is our next contender, the Bloodybelly Comb jellies, which, technically speaking are comb jellies and are only very distantly related to the jellyfish. This one doesn’t have the famous jellyfish stinging tentacles that others possess, and it is actually a harmless Comb jelly to humans.

Red looks very much like black in the depths of the ocean and specifically, the red belly of this Bloodybelly comb also helps to mask the bioluminescence glow of its prey and keeps it extra safe from the attention of its predators.

3.Cauliflower Jellyfish

Getting its name from the wart-like projections this type has on its bell resembling that of a vegetable, we give you the Cauliflower jellyfish also referred to as the Crown jellyfish! While this jelly may not sound the prettiest of its species, it is still a truly beautiful species of jellyfish.

Very much like its vegetable nickname, this kind is often also found on dinner plates! Mostly in China and Japan where the species is considered to be a delicacy and is also known to be used for medicinal purposes within these locations.

4. White-spotted Jellyfish

At number four on, we have the White-spotted jellyfish. These jellies have very mild venom and therefore any jellyfish stings from its stinging cells are harmless to us humans. In fact, the white-spotted jelly doesn’t generally even use their venom to catch food at all!

5. Black Sea Nettle Jellyfish

Next, one of the largest jellyfish (the largest jellyfish is the Lion Mane jellyfish) is the Black Sea Nettles jellyfish! This particular species can be found in the deep sea Pacific waters around Southern California.

The bell of the Black Sea Nettles can reach up to three-foot across, its long tentacles reach up to 20 feet in length, and its stinging tentacles 25 feet long. Without saying, it would be pretty damn scary if you caught yourself in the middle of a bloom of these giants while in the water, but don’t worry too much as they are not that common to a lot of ocean waters.

To Read List (Romance)

“Love recognizes no barriers. It jumps hurdles, leaps fences, penetrates walls to arrive at its destination full of hope.”

Maya Angelou

Introduction

Romance is a widely celebrated literary genre that primarily revolves around the romantic aspects of relationship between two individuals. Romantic books are very popular among people of all ages. Romance is a genre that can be amalgamated with any other genre to add some spice to the tale. Romance genre incorporates everything from historical to contemporary love equations. Romance novels may be driven driven by cliché and far fetched tropes such as ‘love at first sight’ etc.

The romance industry is a big shot economically,  worth almost $1.08 billion dollars a year in the U.S alone.

Danielle Steel, Nora Roberts, Nicholas Sparks, and Robyn Carr are among some of the romance genre popular authors.

Today, we look at some of the romance must reads.

1. See Me

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Nicholas Spark is one of the most prolific authors of the romance genre. His novel ‘See Me’ tells the story of two people in constant battle with the demons of their past and trying against al odds to come together as one.

Colin Hancock has a history of violence and an ever looming threat of prison. Haven been given a second chance, he’s trying to make the most of it, putting everything he has in his teaching degree. With constant reminders of his past shortcomings, the last thing on Colin’s mi d is love.

Maria Sanchez, a hardworking professional at a prestigious firm in Wilmington. A dark-haired natural beauty with an impeccable work record, Maria has a dark past that forced her back home.

A chance encounter between these two lost souls leaves in its wake thousands of unanswered questions and a deep yearning to be together. As love takes root, the demons from their past threaten to surface, destroying almost about everything.

2. The Bride Test

Image result for the bride test

Helen Hoang’s, ‘The Bride Test’, tells the story of Khai Diep, an autistic person who thinks that he cannot ever feel anything. As he stays miles away from any potential relationship, his mother decides to take matters in her own hands and travels to Vietnam to find a perfect bride for him.

Esme Tran is a mixed- race girl living in the slums of Ho Chi Minh City. When she gets the opportunity to go to America for a potential marriage, she’s more than ready to do it to get out of her penury.

Esme had her mind made up about seducing Khai but ends up falling hopelessly in love with him, while Khai remain unfeeling and hard-hearted. As Esme gets close to leaving States, Khai gets closer to the answers he had always been seeking.

3. The Soulmate Equation

The Soulmate Equation

Christina Lauren’s, ‘The Soulmate Equation’, is a story of Jess Davis, a single mother and a statistics wiz who is trying hard to make ends meet while her grandparents, who raised her, help her raise her seven year old daughter, Juno.

Having been let down too many times in her past relationships- by her father, mother and her ex, Jess is extremely sceptical and absolutely unwilling to traipse back into the dating world.

Then, one fateful day, Jess comes across a matchmaking company, GeneticAlly that offers DNA-based matchmaking. When Jess’s tests show 98% compatibility with another person, Jess is astounded and the person is none other than Dr River Pena, GeneticAlly’s founder. Having known him earlier, Jess is certain about him not being he soulmate. But as the company offers to pay her for going out with Pena, Jess cannot refuse anymore.
As these two get swept in the genetic dating league, they discover things about each other that might just change their perspective about everything.

India Inc. back to pre-pandemic levels?

After the second wave India Inc. should be expecting a faster than expected recovery as the economic news coming out is encouraging. The pace of business resumption crossed a milestone in mid-august, tracked by Nomura India Business, rising above 100 – the pre-pandemic level for the first time since the covid struck last year. Although the news is encouraging we won’t be seeing swifter than expected rebound in jobs.

Pandemic affect on jobs?
There is an absence of timely jobs data due to which getting the exact scenario of the employment situation in India is difficult. But from an outside look one can give an analysis that workers in India have suffered an uneven hit because of covid.  

The covid 19 pandemic’s impact was disproportionate in jobs market just as it was on growth. The drastic shift to work-from-home depended upon sector-to-sector where shifting to wfh was easier in IT, software and finance related jobs it was difficult in more contact-intensive jobs and nigh impossible in jobs such as manufacturing, construction, restaurant etc.
Starting from informal sector the most adversely affected people are self-employed and daily wage workers and have been hit worst. Moving on to the the sector which employs the most the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) have been hit harder than big firms. Such kind of impact is called a K-shaped impact.
The slack in the labor market is often used to measure unemployment in the labor market. This is measured by the Centre for Monitoring Indian economy (CMIE). The rate which stood at 8% mid-August which was a slight bit higher than pre-pandemic level of 7.8% in February 2020. Although this may as well be an understatement .

A decrease of 6 million workers was seen, data reveals as total employment was 406 mn back in February 2020 which is currently down to 399.4 mn in July 2021.Data is much more saddening when we talk number of workers who dropped out of workforce a staggering 10.9 mn and are no longer actively seeking work and those who had jobs had to take wage cuts, work less hours or are on indefinite leave. Disguised unemployment has also risen with mostly migrant workers returning back to their villages and working on their farms.

Future of jobs in India.

One can take a breath of fresh air as data suggests that the imoact of second wave has declines and the economy has rebounded. As the rate of vaccination is progressing and people have started to adapt the most affected contact-intensive sectors such as resteraunts, construction etc.

Job market recovery will have to be a slow and a gradual process due to two underlying reasons.Vaccinating majority of population is going to take a lot of time and will not happen atleast till end of 2021 and second as when the market recovers the firms would want to analyse the strength of demand before hiring and starting full scale production .

Obviously the pace at which different sectors come back will differ drastically and will depend upon worker-to-worker. The formal sector will have an advantage in this case as it is expected to bounce back faster than the informal sector. Starting with formal sectors the sectors with great demand will bounce back faster such as IT, software and pharma whereas more traditional sectors such as infrastructure, hospitality, real estate, media and entertainment may be slower to recover.
As with informal sector workers, it will take much longer than anticipated due to worker hesitancy of leaving homes due to the whole migrant worker fiasco and although this may subside over time the small industry that shut down aren’t likely to open up making such kind of  jobs gone forever.

Long term affect

Looking beyond the here and now, the pandemic may leave behind other long-lasting effects, while presenting both challenges and opportunities.
For example, the pandemic has accelerated the pre-existing trend towards digitization and e-commerce. Video conferencing is now widely accepted. Telemedicine, delivery and fintech are a few examples of sectors that have witnessed fast-paced growth during the pandemic. Supply chain relocations as firms adopt a China plus one strategy have opened up a new vista of opportunities for India to integrate into global value chains and to create new manufacturing jobs.
In contrast, business travel will likely decrease in a post-pandemic world. Meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions (MICE) type of tourism will likely decline. Demand for commercial office space may be lower. Automation may reduce employment intensity of manufacturing, hurting low-skilled workers. The pandemic has resulted in more market concentration, as big firms become even bigger, while small firms are squeezed, which could hurt job creation.

In contrast, business travel will likely decrease in a post-pandemic world. Meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions (MICE) type of tourism will likely decline. Demand for commercial office space may be lower. Automation may reduce employment intensity of manufacturing, hurting low-skilled workers. The pandemic has resulted in more market concentration, as big firms become even bigger, while small firms are squeezed, which could hurt job creation.

Required policy toolkit
These longer-term shifts will require an active policy response. Workers will need both reskilling and upskilling. We need an ecosystem for MSMEs to thrive. This includes less regulatory compliance costs, lower funding costs and ability to scale. More jobs will need to be created in the infrastructure and construction sectors. An ecosystem for startups to gainfully employ India’s youth is needed. Many other such new sectors that can create jobs have to be explored.

In short, reversing the pandemic hit to jobs is only a first step. The real jobs challenge still lies ahead.

Best Camera and Gaming Phones under 20,000

Gaming Phone has been a dream for every teenager and chances are you’ve heard the shouts of “Revive me!” or “Flat spin!” consistently, especially in schools and colleges. With heavy games like PUBG Mobile, Asphalt 9, Garena, etc. carving a niche of relatability with the youth, rarely will you find someone’s phone with not even one such heavy game.

But then comes the problem gamers hate – lags and glitches. “I need gloves to play PUBG man!”, said one of my gamer friends. Confused, I enquired why. “Old phone, old processor, man! The phone’s heating will burn my hands one day!”, he replied. While his words were a definite exaggeration, it is a well-known fact that it’s not every other phone that will let you play heavy games – only a select few that will allow that.

The best one would clearly be – Samsung Galaxy S20 ultra. Go ahead, it costs only INR 92,999. For those of you who agree with that ‘only’, you can buy the phone. Those of you whose eyes – like mine – widened to the size of saucers, don’t worry. To make life easier for you, we’re here with a list of Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in India. You can find answers such as which is the Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in 2020 or Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 8gb RAM or Best Samsung Gaming Phone under 20,000 or Best Camera and Gaming Phone under 20,000 and more with the help of our carefully curated list of the Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in 2020.

Best Camera and Gaming Phone Under 20,000

Realme X2

The Realme X2 features a 6.4-inch Super AMOLED Full HD+ display with a 1080 x 2340 display resolution and a Snapdragon 730G SoC inside, making it a perfect device for gaming. It has small bezels, and a screen-to-body ratio of 91.9% and contains a 19.5:9 ratio.

It comes with Corning Gorilla Glass 5 protection and has an in-display fingerprint scanner.  It also has a sports a 64MP + 8MP + 2MP + 2MP quad rear camera setup and contains a 32MP selfie shooter. Moreover, it packs a 4000mAh battery that supports 30W fast charging. Realme X2 is obtainable with up to 8GB RAM. Games especially run quite well on this device and you’ll be able to expect high graphics from the smartphone. All these features make it arguably the Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in 2020.

Poco X2

The Poco X2 offers good value for money, with specifications and capabilities that few other companies can match within the sub-Rs. 20,000 market. The design, with its attention-grabbing circular patch on the rear and bright gradient finishes, maybe a touch polarizing but Poco have used Gorilla Glass 5 on the front and back for durability. You get an oversized 6.67-inch screen with dual front cameras embedded with a fine-finished cutout within the top-right corner. The display is bright and supports a 120Hz refresh rate.  

Performance is extremely good due to the Snapdragon 730G processor, and the phone is a steal under 20,000 with 8GB RAM and up to 256GB of storage. This phone also boasts of a 64-megapixel primary rear camera and it took superb daytime stills. The night mode also helped low-light photos look good. Daytime videos looked good, but quality suffered plenty at the hours of darkness, especially when recording at 4K. Battery life was also quite good, but not spectacular.

Redmi Note 9 Pro Max

The Redmi Note 9 Pro is now the starting variant of the Note series with the Note 9 Pro Max getting most of the eye. ‘Max’ variant has the extra horsepower to tide you through difficult times. The Note 9 Pro Max gets a bigger 64MP camera sensor at the rear, a bigger 32MP selfie camera, and a faster 33W out-of-the-box charger. Most other hardware specs are the same as the Note 9 pro.

The Note 9 Pro Max offers a 6.7-inch LCD display with a punch-hole camera. It’s powered by the Snapdragon 720G together with 6GB RAM and 64GB storage within the entry variant under Rs 15,000. The phone also offers a 64MP quad-camera setup. There’s also another 8MP ultrawide lens, a 5MP macro lens, and another 2MP depth sensor. On the front, you get a 16MP front camera. The Note 9 Pro also comes with a 5020mAh battery with 33W fast charging and Corning Gorilla Glass 5 covering the front.

Redmi Note 8 Pro

The Note 8 Pro is on the market well under Rs 20,000. The new MediaTek processor blows the Snapdragon 712 out of water in gaming and artificial benchmarks. And if you thought that the 48MP camera on the Note 7 Pro wasn’t good, Xiaomi has upped the sport with a stupendous 64MP camera now. Other specs like the large battery, enough RAM, and ample storage make it a perfect budget phone. The Redmi Note 8 Pro can support PUBG at Ultra-high graphics and could be a competent alternative to Snapdragon 730G. Other perks include HDR display, 4500mAh battery, and a capable set of quad-cameras.

Vivo U20

The Vivo U20 might not be the best in-range as per the market, but it is a consistent performer. The Snapdragon 675 could be a capable processor offering good gaming capabilities, while an enormous 5000mAh battery with 18W fast charging ensures you stay connected. There’s also an oversized IPS LCD display and a triple camera setup at the rear including a well-optimized 16MP primary camera, another 8MP wide-angle camera, and a 2MP macro lens. What more could you want, right?

Realme XT   

The Realme XT was the primary commercial launch with a 64MP sensor on the rear at the time of its launch. That, together with the opposite 3 cameras on the rear and that we can safely assume that the camera department is all covered up. Other specs are Snapdragon 712, octa-core up to 8GB RAM and 128 GB of storage, in-screen fingerprint sensor, fast charging, and a decently large battery. it’s fueled by a 4,000mAh battery. You can install as many games on a 64GB/128GB inbuilt storage (expandable up to 256GB).

The handset retails in 4GB, 6GB, and 8GB RAM options. The gaming experience with this phone is probably going to be enhanced by the Oppo’s Hyper Boost technology. Flip to the rear and you get a quad-camera setup including 64MP +8MP +2MP + 2 MP Dual camera arrangement.

Xiaomi Redmi K20

Xiaomi Redmi K20 is another exciting gaming phone under the 20K price range. It’s powered Snapdragon 730 which contains a 35% performance boost over Snapdragon 710. It features a 6.39-inch Super AMOLED display with a 1080 x 2340-pixel resolution at 403 PPI. It comes with up to 8GB RAM and up to 256GB of internal storage. The K20 looks stunning with a flaming gradient finish and a bezel-less edge-to-edge display. At the rear, you will find be a triple-camera setup which will take some sharp photos both during the day and night. After the recent price-cutting, the Redmi K20 is a great budget buy under Rs 20,000

Realme 6 Pro

The phone is based on the proven performer Qualcomm Snapdragon 720G. It features a 6.6-inch LCD display, which produces good colors and brightness. there is no in-display fingerprint sensor so Realme has used a capacitive one within the power button. There’s face unlock too, which works all right. Realme has used a modern-looking, punch-hole cutout within the display for the 2 front cameras. The phone is on the market with variants of 8GB of RAM and 128GB of storage.

The latter is expandable. App and gaming performances are extremely good and users reported no issue with heating either. The 4,300mAh battery easily lasts for a day and a half and there is 30W fast charging too. Due to the power-efficient chipset, the 4300mAh battery lasts really long and therefore the 25MP selfie camera is an additional bonus.

Samsung Galaxy M40

Inarguably the Best Samsung Gaming Phone under 20,000, this phone makes it to the list of the Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in India on the back of strong user reviews and product reliability. This is Samsung’s first Snapdragon 675 based phone in the market and the chipset is apt enough to handle every game out there. Although there could be slight heating issues, users noted its nothing extreme.

The phone features a 6.3-inch full HD+ well-calibrated screen with Corning Gorilla Glass on top. The phone is obtainable in 6GB RAM and 128GB storage option only. Samsung’s new OneUI also includes a stimulating game mode which will make it possible to avoid interruptions while gaming. It boasts of many segment-firsts like a hole-punch display and a vibrating screen for an earpiece.

It features a bright and vibrant 6.3-inch full-HD+PLS TFT LCD display, which has good viewing angles but there’s also a gentle vignette around the edges, which may be distracting. The body is slim and lightweight but the plastic back attracts scuff marks pretty easily. So like all Samsung products, use a tampered glass and cover – Samsung phones are seldom made for rough handling.  

There’s just one variant, which comes with 6GB of RAM and 128GB of storage. The latter is expandable but it is a hybrid slot so you cannot have two SIMs and a microSD card. OneUI runs well and is tested to run smoothly on Android 9 Pie.

Realme X

Realme X is another affordable phone that provides good value-for-money and interesting gaming features. It ticks the majority of boxes that a budget gamer requires. The performance part is handled by Snapdragon 710 CPU that integrates Adreno 616GPU. It comes with a 6.5-inch AMOLED display which also contributes to the immersive gaming experience. The FHD+ resolution screen is notch-free and is surrounded by really narrow bezels. It also includes 3,765mAh battery with 20W VOOC 3.0 fast charging – which is to mention that you just can engage in extended gaming sessions without fear about the battery.

That concludes our list of the Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in India. Do you think your favorite Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in 2020 is missing? Or one of the mentioned phones is not really the Best Camera and Gaming Phone under 20,000 and worth the money? Have reviews to give to our readers about any of these phones? Head down to the comments section and speak your mind!

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Why Take Health Insurance Plans in Difficult Times?

With all these healthy routines they are missing one of the most important steps that play a very important role in one’s health and treatment that is to secure their future health expenses by taking a liable health insurance plan. Health insurance equipped the person to take all the treatment and hospitalisation at a reasonable rate.

Currently, the world is dealing with the deadly coronavirus which was originated as the very new virus in late December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China. Even at the time, its name was not known than the situation gain international media’s coverage when virus cases started reporting from other countries as well along with a sharp increase in the death rate due to the coronavirus. The WHO declared it as the global pandemic in March 2020, with about 118,000 confirm cases with 4921 deaths in 114 countries.

The superpower of the world, the United States of America become the worst affected country in the world. Till now the USA has recorded 4.9 million confirmed cases with about 160 thousand deaths has been registered so far. In this dangerous and high-risk time of the pandemic, health-conscious Americans are taking all the necessary precautions to keep themselves fit and healthy. From following a healthy diet to regular exercising, they are doing almost everything to keep themselves away from the virus and other contagious diseases.

Importance of Health Insurance Plan

About 30 million workers living in America lost their jobs so does their health insurance plan during the outbreak of COVID 19 pandemic. Thus, along with the financial burden the Americans has to face the health crises and expenses also. As coronavirus treatment is the costliest so the necessity of a good health insurance plan for American citizens is enormous.

  • As the virus is new and unknown to scientists and doctors so the much study and research are not done on it as well as its vaccine formation time is still not confirmed so the treatment of virus is very expensive in different parts of the world. In America, thousands of dollars are required for the treatment of the corona patient. Because of these reasons, the need for good health insurance is essential.
  • As not only coronavirus but various other deadly viruses like Ebola, Zika and other dangerous diseases surrounds us and requires a lot of dollars for testing and treatment of the disease, so it is very beneficial to equip with the best health insurance policy to ensure the proper treatment and care by the health official at a very minimal rate which was already given to the health insurance company.
  • Health insurance also helps to maintain mental health along with the treatment of physical ailment. As the burden of disease and health problem is already on the mind of the patient so health insurance plan helps to detect financial burden from the mind and to maintain mental health.

As nothing is predictable in life, any unintended accidents can occur at any time of life. During these times health insurance plays a very vital role in saving our and our loves life. 

As corona is also one disease which can enter in our lives at any moment of our life, so advance maintenance and preparations are very essential especially in American cities like New York where there is a large spread of the disease. The first step in the preparation is to avail the honest and liable health insurance plan. 

Thus, along with following all the safety and hygiene protocols of Corona Virus, the person should also ensure the health insurance plan for themselves and their families. The Cities of New York and Boston are the worst affected so proper health insurance for its citizens is very essential.

Best Health Insurance Plan in New York

As the coronavirus claim a lot of deaths, some because of the lack of immunity while others due to the lack of money. The treatment and testing of Corona Virus are too expensive in New York city of America, the health insurance plays a vital role in ensuring treatment from the best doctors and the in the most renowned hospitals. The best insurance plans in New York health come under four categories.

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These are bronze plan, silver, gold and platinum health insurance plans, all vary in its prices. There is government sponsor health insurance plan Medicare that comes at $ 1,005 for the single person, and for married couples, it can be bought at $ 1,354 under its qualified beneficiary plan. Medicare provides four types of the best insurance plan in New York health.

There is also Medicaid health insurance plan for poor families that cannot afford other health insurance plans. About 6% of New York residents are uninsured that compels officials to make some more good policies.

Best Health Insurance Plans in Boston

The Boston city in the United States is also one of the worst affected city that provides some of the most renowned health insurance plans. The best health insurance plans in Boston includes a basic life insurance plan that can be brought at $ 5,000 but its amount may variant with the age of the person. The Medicare Retiree Health insurance plan allows the usage of coverage even after the retirement.

There are many more such health insurance schemes offers both by the government officials as well as the private insurance companies. The Obamacare Health plan that is giving benefits to many Americans, is providing a lot of health insurance plans in different parts of America. These are some of the best health insurance plans in Boston that are making the lives of many citizens easy.

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Conclusion

The Corona Virus Pandemic has put a halt to many things but it also brings the real condition of the health structure of many powerful countries. Even the most powerful and renowned country of the world, the United States of America is not able to control the virus initially that results in the thousands of deaths and millions of active cases. As well as millions of people lost their jobs and become unemployed.

In such a drastic and dangerous situation, the person’s health protector is a health insurance plan that protects the future of the person and makes it financially secured when such a disease or accident takes place. The Americans are looking for the best insurance plans that give them the most benefits of treatment and testing of the disease and by taking one of the health insurance plans our mind become peaceful without any worry of unpredictable tragedies of life.

It’s All About “NIPER”!

In this, we see the information about the NIPER JEE entrance exam. Please read my previous content i.e.on GPAT exam preparation, which helps you to understand it easily.

Prelude:-

National Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, conducts a joint entrance examination (NIPER JEE) every year for admission to doctoral and Masters level courses in the pharmacy field.

The Courses like M.Pharm, M.S.Pharm, M.Tech (Pharm.), MBA ( Pharm.) and PhD courses are open for admission through NIPER- JEE.

NIPER JEE examination pattern is designed and implemented by the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences or NIPER.

🌟Only “GPAT” qualified candidates can give NIPER JEE Exam.

Highlights:-

Name of Exam National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Joint Entrance Exam
Conducting Body National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Commonly Known as NIPER JEE
Mode of examination Online
Duration Of Exam 120 minutes(2hrs.)
Total no. of Questions 200 MCQs
Total Marks 200
Negative marking Yes, 0.25 for every wrong answer

Campus:-

we will talk about the different campuses or colleges of NIPER, based on their priorities.

No.NIPER INSTITUTE
1SAS NAGAR, MOHALI
2HYDERABAD
3Ahmedabad
4GUWAHATI
5RAEBARELI
6KOLKATA
7HAJIPUR

NIPER institute, Mohali is at the top position, because after graduation from this institute the students get the job with a high package. (Around 7-9 L.P.A.) Or we can say that placement in NIPER Mohali is greater as compared to other universities.

COURSES OFFERED BY NIPER INSTITUTE & THEIR BRANCHES:-

M.S. (Pharm.)Medicinal chemistry

Natural Products

Traditional Medicine

Pharmaceutical Analysis

Pharmacology & Toxicology

Regulatory Toxicology

Pharmaceutics

Pharmacoinformatics

Biotechnology
M.Pharm Pharmacy practice

Clinical Research

Pharmaceutical Technology (Formulation)
M.Tech (Pharm.)Pharmaceutical Technology (Process Chemistry)

Pharmaceutical Technology (Biotechnology)
M.B.A. (Pharm)Pharmaceutical Management

🌟The branches of these courses, vary as per the institute.

If you have to take admission for M.B.A. then you have to give a Group discussion.

🌟For the M.S., M.Pharm & M.Tech there will be a stipend or Scholarship for students but in the case of Pharm MBA, we don’t get any stipend or scholarship.

Eligibility Criteria for NIPER:-

Before filling the application form, all candidates are must be aware of the eligibility criteria for the NIPER entrance exam.

  1. GPAT Score:- Candidates must have a valid GPAT (Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test) Score.
  2. Qualifying Degree:- Candidates must possess a B.Pharm degree from a recognised university. Final year B. Pharm students are also eligible for the NIPER exam.
  3. Academic Qualification:– To apply for the NIPER JEE exam, candidates must have passed the qualifying degree with a minimum of 60℅ marks. The qualifying marks may vary with category.

Syllabus:-

There is no official syllabus prescribed for the NIPER JEE exam.

we have to understand the previous 10-15 years questions format and then study further.

The syllabus is just like the GPAT entrance exam but more specifically in basic chemistry instead of medical chemistry and many more subjects.

The syllabus of NIPER JEE is broadly based on the qualifying exam curriculum. The NIPER JEE syllabus includes questions mainly from the Core subject i.e. Chemistry, Pharmacology, Biotechnology & Pharmaceutical analysis and other subjects questions also asked.

Let’s have a look at the syllabus for various courses in NIPER JEE:-

  1. For PhD Courses:– Questions will be of M.S.Pharm, M.Pharm.
  2. For M.Pharm /M.S. Courses:– For admission to master level courses the question will be from B.Pharm.

How to do preparation:-

Till now we will talk about the general basic information related to NIPER JEE. Now, endures some tips about how to do preparation.

The preparation strategy is the same as that of GPAT Preparation.

Just focus on the core subjects, solve the previous year question papers and solve MCQs as much as possible.

Focus on the hard subject, try to clear doubt and do group studies, make study timetable etc.

This is all basic knowledge about the NIPER JEE entrance examination, all fresher students should know this basic knowledge.

!!Thank You!!