To Read List (Romance)-2

 “The greatest thing you’ll ever learn is just to love and be loved in return.”

Nat King Cole, ‘Nature Boy’ lyrics

Today, we continue to meander through the spectral world of love.

1. I Owe You One

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Sophie Kinsella’s, ‘I Owe You One’ is a tale of self discovery, empowerment and love.

Fixie Farr’s father has always taught her to value family, above all else and that is what Fixie endeavours to upkeep after he passes away, leaving his business of housewares store to his wife and children. Since all her other siblings are out there doing something on their own, Fixie has no choice but seize the reins of her father’s store.

When one fateful day, a charming stranger asks her to watch his laptop for sometime, Fixie, being the person she is, not only watches it for a while but also manages to save it from some impending disaster. The computer’s owner, Sebastian turns out to be an investment manager and leaves an IOU with a business card for Fixie.

In a series of events, Fixie’s childhood crush, Ryan enters into the scene and his lack of work, compels Fixie to take up Sebastian’s, IOU to ask a job for Ryan. Sebastian agrees. What ensues is a tale filled with more IOUs, life altering favours and Fixie torn between her family and her life choices.

2. This Lullaby

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Sarah Dessen’s, ‘This Lullaby’, revolves around Remy, scared of commitments and known for breaking it off just as things start getting a bit serious after the initial romantic scurry. Remy seems to have inherited her dating skills from her mother who’s at husband number five at present. Remy has had a number of liaisons in the past and dumped her boyfriends with acute precision. This time, Remy just cannot bring herself to dump Dexter. She goes into wild speculations to ascertain why. This might just be the beginning of an epic love for Remy, granted she opens up her heart to an honest relationship without any inhibitions.

3. Catching Jordan

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Miranda Kenneally’s, ‘Catching Jordan’, revolves around Jordan Woods, the captain and quarterback of her high school football team. Jordan hangs around with the hot jocks of the team as one of them. She puts all her elbow grease into football and bears anything and anyone, as long as she gets her athletic scholarship to a powerhouse university.

When Ty Green, stunning and an amazing QB moves to Jordan’s school, all that Jordan has ever strived for is somehow put on the line. Her emotions are a wreck as she tries to give her all to her game without distraction from the heart.

4. The Edge of Never

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J.A. Redmerski’s’, ‘The Edge of Never’, tells the tale of  Camryn Bennett, a Twenty year old girl with an unmatched and out-of-the-box imagination. Following a series of setbacks, Camryn decides to push forth and not give up. After an unforgettable night at the hottest club in downtown North Carolina, Camryn decides to leave everything behind and pursue what she always wanted.

With a will of steel, a phone and a small bag and no sense of destination and direction, Camryn boards a Greyhound bus where she finds a guy named Andrew Parrish, someone she can relate to and who has several guarded secrets.

Although sworn to never fall in love, Camryn finds herself in the midst of a whirlwind called Andrew. Together, they do things that Camryn never thought she’d ever do. Their chemistry is fierce, the pull undeniable but the secrets threaten it all.

“your hand touching mine,

this is how galaxies collide.”

-Sanober Khan

Sustainable development

Sustainable development is the need of the present time not only for the survival of mankind but also for its future protection. Unlike the other great revolutions in human history the Green Revolution and the Industrial Revolution the ‘sustainable revolution’ will have to take place rapidly, consciously and on many different levels and in many different spheres, simulta­neously.

On the technical level, for example, it will involve the sustainable technologies based upon the use of non-renewable, fossil fuels for technologies that take advantage of renewable energies like the sun, wind and biomass, the adoption of conser­vation and recycling practices on a wider scale, and the transfer of f cleaner and more energy efficient technologies to countries in the developing world.

On the political and economic levels, it will involve, among other things, the overhauling of development and trade practices which tend to destroy the environment, and the improvement of indigenous peoples, a fairer distribution of wealth and resources within and between nations, the charging of true cost for products which exploit or pollute the environment, and the encouragement of sustainable practices through fiscal and legal controls and incen­tives.

On the social plane, it will involve a renewed thrust towards universal primary education and health care, with particular emphasis on the education and social liberation of women. On the environmental level, we are talking about massive afforestation projects, renewed research into and assistance for organic farming practices and biopest control, and the vigorous protection of biodiversity. On the informational level, the need is for data that will allow the development of accurate social and environmental accountancy systems.

The aim of ecologically sustainable development is to maximise human well-being or quality of life without jeopardising the life support system. The measures for sustainable development may be different in developed and developing countries according to their level of technological and economic development.

But developing countries, like India, can focus attention on the following measures:

1. ensure clean and hygienic living and working conditions for the people

2. sponsor research on environmental issues pertaining to the region.

3.ensure safety against known and proven industrial hazards

4. find economical methods for salvaging hazardous industrial wastes.

5.find out substitutes for proven hazardous materials based on local resources and needs instead of blindly depending on advanced nations to find solutions.

The prime need for sustainable development is the conser­vation of natural resources. For conservation, the development policy should follow the following norms:

(i) Make all attempts not to impair the natural regenerative capacity of renewable resources and simultaneously avoid excessive pollution hampering the biospherical capacity of waste assimilation and life support system.

(ii) All technological changes and planning strategy processes, as far as physically possible, must attempt switch from non-renewable to renewable resource uses.

(iii) Formulate a phase-out policy for the use of non-renewable resources in general.

Thus, for a worldwide sustainable growth, there is need for efficient and effective management of available resources. In this field, the production of “environment-friendly products” (EFP) is a positive step. With the industrialisation and technological devel­opment, markets are flooded with products of daily consumption. They could however be a source of danger to health and damage to our environment.

There is thus need to distinguish the more environmentally harmful consumer products from those which are less harmful, or have a more benign impact on the environment right from the stage of manufacture through packaging, distri­bution, use, disposal and reusability or recycling.

Throughout the world, emphasis is now being put on the production of EFP. In India, plans are afoot to market EFPs with combined efforts of Bureau of Indian Standards, Ministry of Environment and Forests and Central Pollution Control Board. Since 1990, a scheme of labelling ECOMARK has also been started. In its first phase, the items included in this are soaps, plastics, papers, cosmetics, colours, lubricating oil, pesticides, drugs and various edible items.

The objectives of the scheme are:

(i) to provide an incentive for manufactures and to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products,

(ii) to reward genuine initiatives by companies to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products,

(iii) to assist consumers to become responsible in their daily lives by providing them information to take account of environmental factors in their purchase decisions,

(iv) to encourage citizens to purchase products which have less harmful environ­mental impact, and

(v) to improve the quality of the environment and to encourage the sustainable management of resources.

Not only in consumer goods production but in the field of energy production also, environment-friendly techniques of power generation can be used. For example, in power production from coal, PFBC (Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combined Cycle) technique is useful in which coal is burnt efficiently and cleanly in combined cycle plants.

To cope with increased demand of the basic requirement of life and the limited supply of the natural resources, along with consid­eration of environmental degradation and ecological balance, we need to emphasise on optimal management of land, water, minerals and other natural resources. There is also need to utilize the native wisdom of those people, who live close to nature and earth, for eco-restoration along with development.

In order to apply the principle of sustainable management in reality, a highly complex way of looking at the problem is required, involving various disciplines. Sustainability is first and foremost a mental question. Without a grasp of the need or the will to change awareness, we will not succeed in realising the principle of sustainability in agriculture.

It is upon the decision-makers in politics to create the right framework and the pre-conditions for a sustainable development in agriculture. Global involvement, on the other hand, must not be left out of account. Sustainability reflects our understanding of necessity and responsibility on the question for whom, for what and how production can be guided into the future in a way that is efficient, environmentally sound and sparing on resources.

Global change is an ecological phenomenon, whereas globalisation is concerned with economic change. A recent analysis of sustainable agriculture in the context of trade liberalisation and globalisation raises equally significant concern for a more informed decision-making process at local, regional and international levels.

The emerging issues related to the impact of globalisation on sustainable agriculture are as follows:

1. There are explicit problems with the conventional theoretical economic conditions for agricultural sustainability, especially when applied at the global level.

2. The processes of trade liberalisation and globalisation will not be uniform given the ecological and institutional diversity of the nations of the world.

3. There will be disparities in globalised impacts between rich and poor countries for agriculture, industries, sustainability and environment as well as income and poverty.

4. There is need for serious analysis of problems and policy initia­tives, since the risk of disruption to agricultural systems and environmental deterioration, social disruption and dislocation in the poorer countries of the world is clearly very high.

5. The type of production technology research, facilitated by private research, will not address the significant public good and externality issues facing developing countries.

The pursuit of sustainability demands choices about the distri­bution of costs and benefits in space and time. There is also need to take advantage of the ‘traditional ecological knowledge’ (TEK), which encompasses all issues related to ecology and natural resource management, both at local and regional levels. Along with political dimensions of environment-society relations, the TEK can be used for both eco-restoration and sustainable development.

Environmental ecology

The problem of population is the main cause of ecological environment damage. As the population grows up and economic develops, the increasing demand of resources is becoming more and more severe. Because of deforestation, unreasonably overgrazing dykes to reclaim land from a lake, marsh reclamation, excessive usage of land and water resources, which leads to the destruction of biological environment or even disappearance, the normal survival of the species is affected a lot. There is a large number of species which have not yet been detected by human beings. They have quietly become extinct, thus leading to destruction of biodiversity.

Land is the material basis of human survival. In the demand of the food sources of the survival of human beings, crops cultivated land accounts for 88%, 10% of grasslands and pastoral areas and 2% counted for marine. With the development and utilization of ocean, energy applied by sea food for human beings will increase. At present, the cultivated land of the world is about 1.37 x 109 hm2, which shows per capital is about 0.26 hm2. But due to the increase of the non-agricultural land land desertification, soil erosion, soil pollution and so on, it prompts the contradiction between population increase and reduce land resources becoming more and more sharp. What’s more, the pressure of increase in population on land is becoming bigger and bigger. According to the United Nations food and agriculture organization, nowadays, about 500 million people around the world are in a state of super land bearing capacity.

So the fresh water is going to run out. To discover and to make use of new sources are necessary within two aspects. One is to find fresh water resource which hasn ‘t been found or used. The other way is to thoroughly look for fresh water from where other than the fresh water resource it self. This is mainly asked to turn which is not fresh water purification into fresh water. Since sea water accounts a lot of the total water resources of the earth. The key means to turn them into the water we can drink is to purify and desalinate. Although it is not because that there is no water desalination plant in the world, why we still worry about water resources drying up? That is mainly due to the desalination technology which is not very mature and completed. Not to mention, the cost is very high as well. Ordinary people can not afford such high price. That explains why this technique is not popularized worldwide, but most concentrated in the developed countries. That is to say, if we want to fade in seawater batches, the most important is to rely on science technology to improve the efficiency of desalination, reduce the desalination cost and let ordinary people be able to use the desalinate water under a proper price.

Organisms of this ecosystem may generally be divided into three categories:

1. Producers, 2. Consumers, 3. Decomposers.

Producers mostly belong, to the category of plants that make their food by the inorganic substances by themselves in the presence of light.Consumers particularly include animals including human being, that de­pend for their food on other organism including plants, and the decomposers come in the category of bacteria and fungus etc. that decompose the organic substances present in dead plants and animals.

The system is useful to man. A perfect ecological balance cannot be expected in the wake of growing industrialisation as owing to this, pollution of environment becomes inevitable.The environment has “carrying capacity”, or the amount of pollution or damage an environment can sustain without further degradation.

A lake that is 5 times larger than another one can carry roughly 5 times the pollution load. If the loads of pollution are not minimised or environment upgraded to an extent that it will be able to carry them, the environmental degradation will inevitably worsen.

By the misuse, abuse and uncontrolled use of resources both natural and otherwise have upset the equilibrium between human activity and nature.

Over-exploitation of natural resources in the name of industrialization is posing a great danger to the ecosystem. This danger may be understood in following two ways:

1. Physical Environment. 2. Human Environment.

Physical Environment consists of all constituents of natural origin like physiography-, climate, vegetation, soil, water bodies, wild animals and minerals.

Human Environment consists of all elements having a human touch in their origin. Such elements include all manifestations of human activities.

Of course natural resources cannot be confined to the physical mani­festation of nature, it also includes the entire environmental scenario-the carrying capacity of nature, the extent up to which the nature can accommo­date.

Can we predict the ecological effects of pollution and climate change?

Governments and citizens around the world are increasingly aware of the consequences of atmospheric pollution and climate change. In large-scale experiments, plants and animals are exposed to carefully controlled atmospheres and different ecological conditions. Scientists use this information to understand how they respond to pollution levels, and make predictions about future climate change.

Can we fish the ocean without depleting its riches?

It is possible, but does depend on where we are in the world. In the Antarctic, the marine ecosystem is currently managed as a whole under an international agreement to conserve living resources. This makes it easier to understand marine communities and their interactions, as well as help monitor threatened species more closely.

Can we conserve a habitat and its biodiversity?

Yes. Ecology provides the essential basis for nature conservation. Maintaining a mosaic of habitats ensures the survival of a rich variety of species. For instance, heathland is a valued landscape that is fast disappearing throughout much of Western Europe, but studies have helped identify how to preserve its ecological characteristic.

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NATIONAL SPORTS DAY- YOU MUST KNOW ABOUT FAMOUS SPORTS IN INDIA

There are different kind of games played in India, from popular sports such as football and Cricket to lesser known but most played local games Kho- kho. Here is the lit of top most popular sports in India with the special place and part of the physical culture in ancient India.

1.Cricket:

Cricket is not only the most popular sport in India but also an important part of the Indian culture,played almost everywhere. BCCI is body for cricket in India, Indian Premier League is the most watched sports leagues in the world.

Indian cricket team is the winner of all format of Cricket be it Twenty20 World Cup, 2011 Cricket World Cup, ICC Champions Trophy and ICC Test Championship.

2.Badminton:

Badminton is the second most played sports in India and the team is governed by the Badminton Association of India. The Indian team of Badminton players are taking the world in all kind of Championships, P.V. Sindhu, Saina Nehwal, Ashwini Ponnappa and Jwala Gutta.

3.Football:

Football as a sports is very popular in the state of Kerala, Goa, West Bengal and north-eastern India, From where professional players like Bhaichung Bhutia and Sunil Chhetri promote Indian football to the country.

4.Kabaddi:

Kabaddi is one of the most popular sports in India, popularized as a competitive sport and part in the Asian Games, international kabaddi competition – Kabaddi World Cup and Pro Kabaddi League based on Indian premier league.

Pro Kabaddi League is second most watched sports in India after IPL, also uses a franchise based model with rules same as indoor version of Kabaddi and 2019 season of Pro Kabaddi League features 12 teams.

5.Field Hockey:

Field Hockey is one of the oldest ancient games played in India, Considered as the unofficial National sport of India. Odisha field hockey has dominance in field hockey in India and a league called Premier Hockey League started like IPL.

6.Tennis:

Tennis in India is limited to urban areas but counted among the top ten most popular sports in India along with Badminton and Football, introduced in India in the 1880.

Sania Mirza is an Indian professional tennis player. A former doubles world No. 1, she has won six Grand Slam titles in her career. From 2003 until her retirement from singles in 2013, she was ranked by the Women’s Tennis Association as India’s No. 1 player.

7.Pehlwani:

Pehlwani from India is a form of wrestling and old Malla-yuddha game, originating from the Indian subcontinent and today known as Kusti. Wrestling is the form of modern Pehelwani and very popular in India since ancient times where it was famously known as Malla-yuddha.

Malla yuddha is the ancient Indian game of Pehlwani and the competitions known as kushti or dangal, place of practice Pehlwani is called Akhara.

8.Boxing:

Boxing combat sports game is getting popular in India after the Indian Olympic boxer like Mary Kom, Pinky Rani,Sarita Devi, Shashi Chopra and

Champion Vijender Singh are inspiration many boxers in India.

9.Mallakhamba:

Mallakhamba is another well known traditional sports of India which includes wrestling grips, aerial yoga postures on a vertical hanging wooden pole. The free standing pole usually made from Seesham wood Indian Rosewood tree and polished with castor oil, where a gymnast practiced and performs.

10.Basketball:

The game of basketball is not that much popular sports in the country like Cricket and Badminton but already make a significant mark in the list of sports played in India.

11.Kho Kho

Kho kho is an ancient sport from India and second most played traditional tag games of the Indian subcontinent, after Kabaddi. The traditional Indian sport also played in South Africa by the Indian community and one of the must play sports of India.

On National Sports Day 2021: You must know about Olympics 2021

National Sports Day is celebrated every year in India on 29 August. The day is celebrated to commemorate the birth anniversary of Indian hockey legend, Major Dhyan Chand.

Major Dhyan Chand was a legendary figure in Indian and world hockey. He played a very significant role in helping India complete their first hat-trick of Olympic gold medals with victories at the 1928, 1932 and 1936 Summer Olympics.

        Though Dhyan Chand himself led the Indian team (under British rule) to three consecutive Olympic gold medals (in 1928, 1932 and 1936), it was at the 1948 London Summer Games that Independent India defeated hosts Great Britain 4-0 to win their first Olympic gold post-Independence.

             The legendary Milkha Singh broke the 400m Olympic record but lost the bronze medal by just 0.1 second at 1960 Rome as ‘The Flying Sikh’ went on to win gold at the Asian Games in 1958 as well as 1962.

              Sushil Kumar won the bronze medal at the Beijing Olympics and went on to better this achievement four year later, when he settled for silver.

 

Significance:

National Spots Day is celebrated to honor the legacy of Major Dhyan Chand and acknowledge the importance of sports in our life. Various programs, events, seminars etc are organized by the government to raise awareness about the significance of physical activities and sports in life.

On this day, multiple awards like the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, Arjuna Award, Dhyan Chand Award and the Dronacharya Award are conferred to sporting heroes to honor their contribution to sports.

Tokyo Olympics (2021):

The Tokyo Olympics, which was supposed to be held in 2020 got postponed to 2021 and it perfectly worked out for India as the contingent returned with it best ever medals haul.

Mirabai Chanu won India’s first medal she became the first Indian woman wrestler to win an Olympic silver medal.

The second medal of the Tokyo Olympics was won by Lovlina Borgohain, a bronze in the women’s welterweight (64-69kg) category. It was also the India’s third ever Olympic medal in boxing.

PV Sindhu secured India’s third medal when she won a bronze in the women’s badminton singles. With that she became India’s only second double Olympic medalist.

The Indian men’s hockey team then ended a 41-year medal drought at the Olympics after defeating Germany 5-4 in a thrilling comeback victory in the bronze medal match.

Indian wrestler Ravi Dahiya then won a silver medal in the men’s freestyle 57kg category, which was soon followed by Bajrang Punia winning bronze medal in the 65kg freestyle category.

India’s Tokyo Olympics then came to a grand end with Neeraj Chopra winning a historic gold medal. With a throw of 87.58m he won independent India’s first-ever medal and gold medal in athletics.

” I dont play to prove a point to anyone. I play for my country and myself. If I feel I have the ability to achieve something, I’II keep trying to succeed.”

Sania Mirza

Winners at Olympics India 2021:

Mirabai Chana
Indian Hockey Team
PV Sindhu
Lovlina Borgohain
Ravi Kum Dahiya
Bajrang Punia
Neeraj Chopra

TIPS TO MANAGE YOUR TIME

TIME MANAGEMENT:

  The process of organizing and planning over the amount of time spent on specific activities is known as time management. Good time management will be useful for decreasing work pressure. Time is a special resource because you cannot store or save it for later use. Wise time management helps you to find time for what you desire to do. You can schedule your priorities by managing time. Time management will help you to make conscious choices so that you can spend your valuable time on important work. It keeps you healthy and free from stress. One has to maintain the right balance wheel of life. He/she should balance health, family, finance, and work to balance your life. So, time plays an important role in achieving this. It is a fact that time is a non-renewable resource. Once it is gone, we cannot get it back. You will never be able to see this moment again. Every second is important. We have to spend every second effectively and productively. 

TIME-SAVING TECHNIQUES:

  1. Write things down: Write down your important schedules and prioritize the events according to their importance. This will be more helpful than using your memory to keep track of too many things.
  2. Prioritize your lists: Prioritizing your to-do list will help you to spend more time on the important task. Rate your tasks according to their priority.
  3. Plan your week: Spend some time at the beginning of each week to plan the schedule for that week. This will help balance the time taken for long-term projects and urgent tasks. All you have to do is spend 15 to 30 minutes planning the week.
  4. Continuously improve yourself: While doing these tasks, try to improve your natural skills and abilities. For example, reading books. Continuously improving yourself will be a key factor to achieve financial independence.
  5. Use a time management system: By using a time management system, one can keep track of every work, organize them and efficiently complete the work.
  6. Identify bad habits: List the bad habits that are stealing your time, breaking your goals, and success. After doing this, try to eliminate these habits from your lifestyle. For eliminating bad habits, you can replace them with better habits.
  7. Don’t do other people’s work: Don’t try to do other’s work. This will take your precious time. Instead, you can teach them how to the work.
  8. Utilize productive procrastination: Procrastinating the less important tasks is not a bad thing. (Sometimes, there is no need for work). Wait until for the tasks to become important enough to deserve your attention.
  9. Ask yourself: Whenever you are confused about what to do next, just ask yourself by doing which things will be more useful in managing the time.
  10. Clean your desk: When you have so many things on your desk, you may get distracted. So, always clean the desk and only the necessary things.
  11. Learn to relax: Working hard is important but you also need time to enjoy and relax. This will help eliminate stress.
  12. Don’t overschedule: Scheduling too many things to complete is not a good way. Because, while seeing this, you may feel burdened. So, always schedule the things that you can be complete in time.

GET TO KNOW MORE ABOUT HONEY!

Honey is a sweet substance made by honey bees.

EXPIRY DATES FOR HONEY

Honey doesn’t have an expiry date, it goes through natural changes. Natural, properly stored honey won’t get expired. Honey may get dark and lose its aroma in the long run. The reason for the magical longevity of honey lies in its biological makeup. Organisms that spoils food won’t be able to do have fun when it comes to honey.

FACTS ABOUT HONEY

  1. Honey is 80% sugar and 20% water.
  2. It is the only food that includes all the substance necessary for life including water.
  3. There are different flavors and colors of honey.
  4. Not all bees makes honey.
  5. Not all honey are made by bees, some are made by wasps.
  6. Honey is a versatile food.

BENEFITS OF HONEY

Honey is used as medicine and food. It is healthy in many aspects.

  • Honey has antioxidants which is linked to reduce risk of heart attack.
  • Less bad than sugar for diabetes.
  • Lower blood pleasure.
  • Honey can help you improve colastrol level.
  • Honey is also an effective treatment for diabetic foot ulcers.
  • It can help in burn and wound healing.
  • Honey can help to suppress cough for children.
  • Honey is sometimes used to treat digestive issues.
  • Medicine for sour throat treatment.

Can honey be consumed daily? No. However beneficial it is. Too much of anything is good for nothing. As the tamil saying goes ‘அளவுக்கு மீறினால் அமிர்தமும் நஞ்சு.’

Phytonutrients are compounds found in plants that help protect the plant from harm. The phytonutrients in honey are responsible for its antioxidant properties, as well as thought to be the reason raw honey has shown immune-boosting and anticancer benefits.

TYPES OF HONEY

There are vast variety of honey with different flavor, taste and smell. There are more than 200 variety of honey it depends upon the flower source. Few of those are avocado, ironbark, jarrah, clover, linden, Heather, Basswood, Beechwood, Bluckwheat etc.

WHITE HONEY

White honey doesn’t have to be white. It generally have milder flavor compared to darker ones. Lighter honey gives light taste and sweetness. White honey also contains such antioxidants. Antioxidants help to protect your body from cell damage due to free radicals. Free radicals contribute to the aging process.

WHY WOODEN DIPPER HAVE GROOVES?

A honey dipper is an utensil, made of wood that consist of equally spaced groove(the spiral is called as groove). It is often made of turned wood. The tool is used by dipping the grooved end in honey, then slowly twirl. The tool is sometimes made of plastics and glass too.

The groove allows the honey to be pulled in while they are horizontal but flow out when vertical. Why wood? The metal and plastic degrade slightly while in honey. Wood lasts longer and will take on the flavor of honey.

It is also because it resembles beehive. The shape is to provide a larger surface area for the volume. This traps more of the liquid in the slow-flowing boundary layer.It holds more honey in one dip. Easy to drizzle over pancakes and bread.

OLYMPICS GAME

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (French: Jeux olympiques)are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world’s foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating.The Olympic Games are normally held every four years, alternating between the Summer and Winter Olympics every two years in the four-year period.



Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games (Ancient Greek: Ὀλυμπιακοί Ἀγῶνες), held in Olympia, Greece from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement,[definition needed] with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.

The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with disabilities, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games (Pan American, African, Asian, European, and Pacific), and the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games. The IOC also endorses the Deaflympics and the Special Olympics. The IOC has needed to adapt to a variety of economic, political, and technological advancements. The abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to the acceptance of professional athletes participating at the Games. The growing importance of mass media has created the issue of corporate sponsorship and general commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, and 1944 Olympics; large-scale boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Olympics; and the 2020 Olympics were postponed until 2021 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, and organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter. The IOC also determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 14,000 athletes competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics and 2018 Winter Olympics combined, in 35 different sports and over 400 events.The first, second, and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively.

The Games have grown so much that nearly every nation is now represented. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, doping, bribery, and a terrorist attack in 1972. Every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games also provide an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world

Symbols

The Olympic Movement uses symbols to represent the ideals embodied in the Olympic Charter. The Olympic symbol, better known as the Olympic rings, consists of five intertwined rings and represents the unity of the five inhabited continents (Africa, The Americas (is considered one continent), Asia, Europe, and Oceania). The coloured version of the rings—blue, yellow, black, green, and red—over a white field forms the Olympic flag. These colours were chosen because every nation had at least one of them on its national flag. The flag was adopted in 1914 but flown for the first time only at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. It has since been hoisted during each celebration of the Games.

The Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius, a Latin expression meaning “Faster, Higher, Stronger” was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 and has been official since 1924. The motto was coined by Coubertin’s friend, the Dominican priest Henri Didon OP, for a Paris youth gathering of 1891.[143]

Coubertin’s Olympic ideals are expressed in the Olympic creed:

The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.

Months before each Games, the Olympic Flame is lit at the Temple of Hera in Olympia in a ceremony that reflects ancient Greek rituals. A female performer, acting as a priestess joined by ten female performers as Vestal Virgins, ignites a torch by placing it inside a parabolic mirror which focuses the sun’s rays; she then lights the torch of the first relay bearer, thus initiating the Olympic torch relay that will carry the flame to the host city’s Olympic stadium, where it plays an important role in the opening ceremony.[144] Though the flame has been an Olympic symbol since 1928, the torch relay was only introduced at the 1936 Summer Games to promote the Third Reich.

The Olympic mascot, an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in 1968. It has played an important part of the Games’ identity promotion since the 1980 Summer Olympics, when the Soviet bear cub Misha reached international stardom. The mascot of the Summer Olympics in London was named Wenlock after the town of Much Wenlock in Shropshire. Much Wenlock still hosts the Wenlock Olympian Games, which were an inspiration to Pierre de Coubertin for the Olympic Games.

The Ancient Olympic Games

The history of the Olympics began some 2,300 years ago. Their origin lays in the Olympian Games, which were held in the Olympia area of ancient Greece. Although there are some theories on its initial purposes, the Games have been said to have started as a festival of art and sport, to worship gods. The ancient Olympic Games, however, ended in 393 because of the outbreaks of wars in the region in which they were held.

The Modern Olympic Games

After a 1,500 year absence of the ancient Olympic Games, the event was resumed in the late nineteenth century, thanks to the efforts of Baron Pierre de Coubertin, a French educator. In 1894, his proposal to revive the Olympic Games was unanimously approved at the International Congress in Paris, and the first Olympic Games were held in Athens, Greece, two years later. He also devised the five-ring emblem that is familiar to most people as the Games’ symbol, which represents the unity of the five continents.

The Olympic Games in Japan

The “Father of the Olympic Movement” in Japan is Jigoro Kano – a man who also contributed to the propagation of judo – who was the president of the Tokyo Higher Normal School (the present day University of Tsukuba). In 1909, he was appointed a member of the International Olympic Committee for the first time as an Asian and established the Japan Amateur Athletic Association (today’s Japan Sports Association) to realize the participation of Japanese athletes in the Olympics. The selection of athletes for the Olympics was carried out in 1911, when Yahiko Mishima, a track athlete, and Shiso Kanaguri, a marathon runner, were chosen to represent Japan. Japanese athletes participated in the Olympic Games (the V Olympic Games) for the first time in Stockholm, Sweden in 1912.

Things we shouldn’t do abroad!

Are you planning for an abroad trip? If yes, get to know things you shouldn’t do abroad. We travel to abroad for various reasons, to study, work, try new things, to disconnect and reconnect.

Travelling makes us happier. It can also boost your creativity. Creates a space for us to get to know and learn about new cultures. The feel of travelling to a new place and returning to your comfort zone is fascinating. Hodophile is the word for “one who loves to travel.”

TRAVELLING NEED OR WANT?

Travelling is not a need. It is just an option, few love to travel while others don’t. Travelling doesn’t necessarily mean luxurious and lavishly spending. It helps us to broaden our horizons. Being exposed to new people, environment, and forces us to get out of our comfort zone.

THINGS WE SHOULD KNOW

FOOD HABITS

In India, we believe in eating the food using hands as its part of our culture. Using your left hand to eat is not appreciated unless you are left-hander. It might sound bizarre for tourists. What is considered as a custom in a country need not be universal.

We use cutlery, such as fork, spoon, knife but in Thailand, it is rude to use a fork to eat. Do you find slurping annoying? Well, it is considered a good gesture in Japan. Making that sound while having noodles is not weird. It conveys that you are enjoying the food and complimenting the cook.

In some countries, leaving the plate empty is considered a good gesture but China thinks the opposite. People assume when the plate is empty you are hungry and in need of more food. In China, flipping the fish when served is assumed bad luck.

Italy is known for their love for food. There, adding cheese to seafood is not admired. In South Korea, the eldest at the table takes the first bite. Also leaving chopstick upright in the bowl and waving chopstick around considered rude in China.

British is known for their love for tea. While stirring the spoon shouldn’t touch the sides of the cup. Neither should we leave the spoon in cup. It must be placed on the saucer.

TRAFFIC RULES

In Thailand, even if it’s hot people have to keep their shirts on. Another strange traffic rule is, in Phillipine, people can’t drive in certain areas based upon what day of the week it is and the last digit on their license plate. The driver can be fined if found driving. New Jersey also has a strange law where residents are required by law to honk prior to passing, which will be so confusing.

In Russia, driving a dirty car would end up in fine. It doesn’t matter whether the car is dirty inside or outside. Anyone requiring vision-correcting glasses in order to drive the streets of Spain must keep a spare set in their car at all times

THINGS WE SHOULD AVOID

In Japan, don’t leave tips. They believe that you are already paying for a good service, so there is no need for extra. You can instead just thank the waiter and waitress. I find is reasonable and fascinating.

In Ukraine, avoid giving even number of flowers. Even number of flowers are given for funeral. In some countries, yellow flower is a sign of betrayal.

In China, avoid presenting umbrella and clock as gifts. It is considered bad omen, as it indicates attending a funeral ritual. The Chinese word for umbrella sounds like breaking up.

In Germany don’t congratulate before the birthday. Wishing someone early brings bad luck. It is strange to know that it also indicates arrogance as the person will live till the birthday. Life is uncertain! Yes. But thus is weird.

There are more such facts and beliefs. It is fascinating to know about countries and their culture.

Volcanic emissions may have made oxygen in climate

During a new investigation of 2.5-billion-year-old Australian rocks, scientists have tracked down those volcanic emissions may have animated populace floods of marine microorganisms, making the initial puffs of oxygen into the air.

This would change existing accounts of Earth’s initial environment, which expected that most changes in the early climate were constrained by geologic or substance measures. The discoveries of the investigation were distributed in the diary ‘Procedures of the National Academy of Sciences’

However, centered around Earth’s initial history, the exploration additionally has suggestions for extra-earthbound life and even environmental change. The investigation was driven by the University of Washington, the University of Michigan and different establishments.

“What has begun to end up being undeniable in the previous few decades is there really are a lot of associations between the strong, non-living Earth and the development of life,” said first creator Jana Meixnerova, a UW doctoral understudy in Earth and space sciences. “However, what are the particular associations that worked with the development of life on Earth as far as we might be concerned, addressed Meixnerova.

In its most punctual days, Earth had no oxygen in its air and scarcely any, oxygen breathing lifeforms. Earth’s air turned out to be for all time oxygen-rich with regards to 2.4 billion years prior, likely after a blast of lifeforms that photosynthesise, changing carbon dioxide and water into oxygen. In any case, in 2007, co-creator Ariel Anbar at Arizona State University dissected rocks from the

Mount McRae Shale in Western Australia, detailing a transient whiff of oxygen around 50 to 100 million years before it turned into a super durable installation in the climate. Later examination has affirmed other, prior, transient oxygen spikes, yet hasn’t clarified their ascent and fall.

In the new investigation, specialists at the University of Michigan, driven by co-relating creator Joel Blum, broke down similar old rocks for the focus and number of neutrons in the component mercury, radiated by volcanic ejections Large volcanic emissions impact mercury gas into the upper climate, where today it circles for a little while prior to pouring out onto Earth’s surface.

The new investigation showed a spike in mercury two or three million years before the brief ascent in oxygen “adequately sure, in the stone beneath the transient spike in oxygen, we discovered proof of mercury, both in its bounty and isotopes, that would most sensibly be clarified by volcanic ejections into the environment,” said co-creator Roger Buick, a UW teacher of Earth and Space Sciences.

Where there were volcanic outflows, the creators contemplated, there probably been Laval and volcanic debris fields. Also, those supplement rich rocks would have endured in the breeze and downpour, delivering phosphorus into streams that could treat close by seaside regions, permitting oxygen creating cyanobacteria and other single-celled lifeforms to prosper. “There are different supplements that tweak natural action on short timescales, however phosphorus is the one that is generally significant on long timescales, Meixnerova said. Today, phosphorus is abundant in natural materials and in horticultural manure. However, in extremely old occasions, enduring of volcanic rocks would have been the primary hotspot for this scant asset.

“During enduring under the Archaean air, the new basaltic stone would have gradually disintegrated, delivering the fundamental full scale supplement phosphorus into the streams, Meixnerova added.

“That would have taken care of organisms that were living in the shallow seaside zones and set off expanded natural usefulness that would have made, as a result, and oxygen spike, Meixnerova clarified.

The exact area of those volcanoes and magma fields is obscure, however huge magma fields of about the right age exist in cutting edge India, Canada and somewhere else, Buick said “Our examination proposes that for these transient whiffs of oxygen, the prompt trigger was an expansion in oxygen creation, as opposed to an abatement in oxygen utilization by rocks or other non-living cycles,” Buick said “It’s significant on the grounds that the presence of oxygen in the climate is key – it’s the greatest driver for the advancement of huge, complex life,” Buick added.

Eventually, analysts said the investigation proposes what a planet’s geography may mean for any life developing on its surface, an agreement that guides in recognizing liveable exoplanets, or planets outside our close planetary system, in the quest for life in the universe.

Cryptocurrency and India

Finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman recently asserted that the cryptocurrency bill is before the Union Cabinet and it is likely to take decision soon.

The bill was supposed to be presented in the parliament during monsoon session but did not happen due to varying circumstances. The bill proposed that all private crypto currencies except any and every digital currency issued by the state. But crypto experts are hoping for the best.

Edul Patel, CEO & Co-founder of crypto trading platform Mudrex, says, “We could expect an accommodative and progressive stance by the government towards cryptocurrencies. The government is expected to evaluate all possible aspects. All these events transpire to positive expectations from the cryptocurrency bill.”

In its report an inter-ministerial panel on cryptocurrency under secretary (economic affairs) had studies issues around virtual currencies and proposed specific actions.

Looking at the growing opportunities in this space, Siddharth Menon, COO of cryptocurrency exchange WazirX, says calibrated regulations that encourage the industry and safeguard consumers will help the ecosystem grow. “We don’t know the details but we expect it to be positive. Once we have more details, we will comment. Else it will be purely speculative,” Menon adds.

Looking at the growing opportunities in this space, Siddharth Menon, COO of cryptocurrency exchange WazirX, says calibrated regulations that encourage the industry and safeguard consumers will help the ecosystem grow. “We don’t know the details but we expect it to be positive. Once we have more details, we will comment. Else it will be purely speculative,” Menon adds.

Some experts say India cannot be as a laggard when the world is rapidly moving ahead with blockchain technology. This has led to reports that crypto as an asset class might be allowed in India but the government will not accept it as legal tender as yet.

Crypto enthusiasts are betting on analyst views that say there might not be a blanket ban on cryptocurrencies. Menon is among those who does not think a blanket ban is possible. The government has understood crypto assets are not a threat to national currency. “Also, this is a new and growing global fintech industry. India cannot stay behind,” he adds.

Banning cryptocurrency would severely affect a lot of people in India as there are several startups revolving around cryptocurrencies and more than 15 million people invest in crypto in India.

History of Dentistry

From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.

Ancient ways of cleaning teeth

Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.

Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.

In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.

Tooth Decay

Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.

Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.

First Toothbrush

Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.

The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.

Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.

New trend

In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.

The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.

Judy Garland

While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.

ZyCoV-D : India’s first and the world’s first DNA based covid vaccine

The Drug Controller General of India on 20th August gave approval to  Zydus Cadilla for Emergency Use Authorization for its covid vaccine ZyCoV-D, touted to be the world’s first and India’s first covid 19 vaccine which based on DNA and can be administered to all humans above 12 years of age.

The world’s first plasmid covid vaccine India’s second indigenous vaccine after Covaxin had earlier received recommendation by the Subjects Expert Committee (SEC) of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) which cleared a major hurdle in the vaccines’s emergency use.

Safety and efficacy

In the adaptive PhaseI/II clinical trials the ZyCoV—D demonstrated a robust immunogenicity and tolerance and safety profile said Zydus. The interim analysis of the symptomatic RT-PCR cases showed that ZyCoV-d had an efficacy of 66.6 percent for the three doses (2mg per dose).

No severe cases of Covid or deaths due to covid were found due to Covid-19 after the second dose was successfully administered said Zydus. After successfully administering the third dose no moderate case of covid-19 was observed in the covid arm implicating an efficacy of 100 percent in moderate cases.

If a rash appear after administering the vaccine then it s called a covid arm. More than 28000 volunteers volunteered to have phase -III trials conducted on them in more than 50clinical sites scattered across the country that too during the peak of the second wave of covid-19 in India which reassures the vaccine’s effectiveness against the new Delta variant – the new and the most dangerous strain of covid-19. Another big breakthrough of the company is that ZyCoV-D is safe for children that belong in the age group of 12-18 years. 

Needle-less vaccine

Another breakthrough of this vaccine is that it is needle-less and is transferres via an applicator called PharmaJet to ensure painless intradermal vaccine delivery. PharmaJet was also developed in India and in a record time.

Capacity

Zydus said it can produce 10-15 million doses of ZyCoV-D per month. The company said it can produce 3-5 crore vaccines by December. The capacity numbers suggest that Covishield and, to some extent, Covaxin will remain as the major workhorses for the government’s vaccination drive for some more time.

Evaluating two-dose regimen

Zydus said it has also submitted data for a two-dose regimen for ZyCoV-D, using a 3 mg dose per visit and the immunogenicity results had been found to be equivalent to the current three-dose regimen. The company said this would help in reducing the full-course duration of vaccination while maintaining a high safety profile in the future.

Children & adolescents

Zydus has submitted applications for EUA for children in the 12-18 year age group.

Novel approach

Zydus Cadilla has taken a novel approach for its potential COVID-19 vaccine. Called plasmid DNA, the vaccine consists of genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 proteins, which instruct human cells to make the SARS-CoV2 antigen, eliciting an immune response.

The company says that this approach is easily replicable and scalable, requiring just Biosafety Level (BSL)-1. The vaccine can be stored at 2-8 degrees temperature, making it conducive for Indian cold-chain conditions. The vaccine is delivered through the intradermal route (between the layers of the skin), which makes its administration much easier. DNA vaccines are also theoretically easy to redesign quickly against a mutating virus.

Challenges

Firstly, the platform is novel. Not a single human vaccine using this platform has been approved anywhere in the world. The other big challenge is that the vaccine has to be administered in three doses – the first dose, and the other doses after 28 and 56 days. Being a three-dose vaccine adds an additional layer of distribution and administration complexity, possibly raising the cost of the vaccine. While the company has promised to ensure that the vaccine is affordable, it has also sought approval for a two-dose vaccine.