– Aastha Joshi

The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt’s native inhabitants and outside influence. Much of Egypt’s ancient history was a mystery until Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta Stone. Among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is the Great Pyramid of Giza. There was seen political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first king of the First Dynasty, Narmer. Predominantly native Egyptian rule lasted until the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BC. In 332 BC, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered Egypt as he toppled the Achaemenids and established the Hellenistic Ptolemaic Kingdom, whose first ruler was one of Alexander’s former generals, Ptolemy I Soter The Ptolemies had to fight native rebellions and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its final annexation by Rome. The death of Cleopatra ended the nominal independence of Egypt resulting in Egypt’s becoming one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. Egypt remained entirely Ottoman until 1867, except during French occupation from 1798 to 1801. Starting in 1867, Egypt became a nominally autonomous tributary state called the Khedivate of Egypt. However, Khedivate Egypt fell under British control in 1882 following the Anglo Egyptian War. After the end of World War I and following the Egyptian revolution of 1919, the Kingdom of Egypt was established. While a de jure independent state, the United Kingdom retained control over foreign affairs, defense, and other matters. British occupation lasted until 1954, with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of 1954. The modern Republic of Egypt was founded in 1953, and with the complete withdrawal of British forces from the Suez Canal in 1956, it marked the first time in 2500 years that Egypt was both fully independent and ruled by native Egyptians.

President Gamal Abdel Nasser introduced many reforms and created the short lived United Arab Republic (with Syria). His terms also saw the Six-Day War and the creation of the international Non-Aligned Movement. His successor, Anwar Sadat changed Egypt’s trajectory, departing from many of the political, and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system and launching the Infitah economic policy. He led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regainEgypt’s Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967. This later led to the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty. The pharaoh’s role in Egypt was both political and religious pharaohs were generally thought to be imbued with divinity and were effectively regarded as intermediaries between the gods and people, the pharaohs were also responsible for the more earthly concerns of leadership, and each pharaoh had a unique legacy; some were architectural innovators or revered military leaders while others were brilliant diplomats. Djoser is perhaps the most famous Third Dynasty pharaoh he oversaw the construction of the famous step pyramid at Saqqara, a hugely significant milestone in ancient Egyptian architecture. This pyramid, in which Djoser was buried, was the first structure to realise the iconic step design. A Fourth Dynasty pharaoh, Khufu’s greatest legacy is undoubtedly the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The monumental structure is a testament to the bewildering sophistication of Egyptian architecture and, remarkably, remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for the best part of 4,000 years. Only the second woman to assume the role of pharaoh, Hatshepsut was the wife of Thutmose II and reigned in the Eighteenth Dynasty. Her step-son Thutmose III was just two years old when his father died in 1479 and so Hatshepsut soon took on the role of pharaoh. The son of Amenhotep III, Akhenaten was named Amenhotep IV at birth but changed his name in accordance with his radical monotheistic beliefs. Akhenaten’s wife, Nefertiti, was a strong presence during his reign and played a significant part in his religious revolution After Akhenaten’s death, Egypt rapidly returned to polytheism and the traditional gods he had disowned. The youngest pharaoh in Egyptian history when he ascended to the throne at just nine or 10 years old, Tutankhamun became the most famous pharaoh of all. The cause of his death remains a mystery to Egyptologists. Ramses II’s reign was undoubtedly the greatest of the 19th Dynasty Ramses II went on to declare himself a god, while earning a reputation as a great warrior, fathering 96 children and ruling for 67 years. The last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra presided over the dying days of the Egyptian empire, yet her fame has lived on through folklore, Shakespeare and Hollywood. It’s hard to disentangle the real Cleopatrafrom the legend but scholars suggest that her portrayal as a stunningly beautiful seductress undersells her brilliance as a leader. Egypt specially grabs attention of people because of its mysteries and Pharos.



It’s the year 1939 Germany during the Nazi era. The country is gasping for air. Death has never been busier, and it will continue to be so.

Marcus Zusak’s gripping debut novel tells the storey of Liesel, who sees her younger brother’s death while travelling through Germany on a locomotive. Liesel clutches a volume she finds concealed in the snow while standing at her brother’s grave, regardless of the fact that she has yet to learn to read. When Liesel is placed with a foster family on Himmel Street, she quickly settles into a happy but impoverished life. The risks, however, are raised tremendously when news of the inevitable war and Hitler’s impact on Germany and the Jewish race reaches Liesel and her foster family, posing a significant threat to the family because they take on a Jewish soldier and hide them in their home as an act of honour for an old friend. Soon, Liesel, her family, and her friends on Himmel Street are pushed into the adversities that only war can bring, experiencing devastation and misery but ultimately making memories that will help them survive Nazi Germany’s challenges.

The importance of the plot was one of the reasons why this work was able to accomplish all of the aforementioned goals. I discovered that allowing readers to explore Liesel’s romance through words provides a significant reprieve from the war-focused storey, giving us glimpses of the carnage while deflecting skillfully with other crucial plot points, such as the relationships between the children on Himmel Street, Liesel’s tense relationship with her foster mother, or Liesel’s infatuation with stories and words. Zusak achieves a nice medium in between dark, tortured horror thriller and the study of youth and Liesel’s coming-of-age storyline by doing so. Thereby, Zusack guarantees that ‘The Book Thief’ transcends a single genre, offering readers who enjoy a variety of reading styles a sample of a novel from every perspective.

I was taken aback when I first opened this book and saw that Liesel was not the narrator. I wasn’t sure how attached I would feel to the protagonist’s rise and fall in Nazi Germany without hearing it directly from her. I realized how important it was having Death as the narrator which only enhanced my love for the work tenfold. Death provided a genuine insight into the impact of war on society, giving readers a look into the tragedies that may rip men, women, and children apart. One of the hallmarks of a great novel is how it makes the reader think about a particular topic, and I can confidently say that not only did Zusak give an opinion on the insufficient disparity between social classes and demographics, but he also managed to give voice to something that–in our lives–will never be given a chance to speak, much like the oppressed people who were suppressed during Adolf Hitler’s reign.

This book was quite eye-opening for me. It is among the first novels about the war that I have read that is written from the perspective of someone who lives in Germany. It makes you realise that so many people in Germany suffered as a result of the war, and that they weren’t all as bad as they are frequently depicted.   The grief surrounding Liesel’s narrative sneaks up on you until you realise how common it was and continues to be for so many others.

Overall, I found this to be one of the most pleasant and powerful novels I have ever read. All authors aim to strike all of the correct notes in their novels, but it’s uncommon for an author to nail every single stride on the first try. The narrative gives the storey an unusual viewpoint. Death says a lot of things that are intellectual and even beautiful.

In some respects, The Book Thief leaves you with a feeling of guilt when you think about it. Because it is British bombs that fall on Germany, and it is British bombs that murder so many people in the narrative, leaving the reader’s cheeks wet in tears.

To Read List (Non-fiction)

The challenge of non-fiction is to marry art and truth.

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The biblical definition of non-fiction is prose writing that is based on facts, real events, and real people. Non fiction encompasses the factual and literal aspect of the literary canyon, which includes everything from biography, history, self-help, health and fitness, politics, religion, spirituality, business and money, parenting, relationships etc.

According to recent findings by several sources including Forbes, non-fiction literature is rising in ranks compared to its other fictional counterparts. “Revenues for adult non-fiction have rapidly risen every year since: $4.97 billion in 2014, $5.59 billion in 2015, $5.87 billion in 2016, and finally $6.18 billion last year.

Non- fiction helps its readers get in tandem with the real world and connect to the everyday happenings as fiction sweeps them through different realms. Reading non-fiction can help one acquire knowledge about subjects crucial to the capitalist world today.

Curated below is a list of 4 non-fiction books that you must check out!

1. The Secret


Rhonda Byrne’s, ‘The Secret’, is among one of the most celebrated and widely endorsed self help books ever. This book sets out to piece together a secret by sifting through age old oral traditions, religions, literature philosophy blending it with the acumen of modern day experts, ultimately giving rise to a secret like no other. This secret based on several simple factors, has perhaps what it might take to transform lives.

This book in a methodical manner unravels the secret and teaches its application in our everyday lives. This secret has the means to explore all that energy within you that you think is redundant and possibly channel it in a positive manner.

2.Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking

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Malcolm Gladwell’s ‘Blink’, is best described by its title itself. Based on psychological aspects of decisions made in the blink of an eye, this book might after all, give answers to some of questions that everyone has had at some point about intuitions, good decisions and bad decisions.

Blink gives us insight into the makings of quality decisions and the minds of quality decision-makers. It explores a vast world of thinking or perhaps not thinking sometimes and explains how those decisions come to play.

3. Tuesdays with Morrie


Mitch Albom’s, ‘Tuesdays with Morrie’, is an inspirational story of Mitch Albom’s reconciliation with Morrie Schwartz, his college professor from nearly twenty years ago who gave Mitch advice and understanding when he was lost and needed it the most. After Mitch meandered through life, after losing touch with his mentor, with several haunting questions of his.

As he meets his mentor, suffering from a fatal disease, almost two decades later, they get into a routine from the college days with Mitch visiting Morrie every Tuesday. Tuesdays with Morrie morph into insightful last lessons on life and living.

4. How to Win Friends and Influence People


Dale Carnegie’s masterpiece, ‘How to Win Friends and Influence People’, has influenced millions of people since getting published in 1936. This book contains solid and practical principles that can help one attain a steady footing on the ladder of success. This book focuses upon maximum discovery and use of one’s potential in the best ways possible.

One of the must reads in self help, this book preaches the principles to make people like you, to win people over by your way of thinking, to change people without arousing resentment.

Constitution of india

Rules are important whether in sports or life. A game of cricket or football can’t be played without rules.

A game with no rules in force will finally end in chaos and disturbance. So is true with the society and the country as well.

A country also needs to be governed by definite rules, that all of its citizens and government institutions must follow, to maintain order and discipline.

There has to be a definite way in which democratic elections are conducted; the powers of the judiciary, executive, and the legislative; powers vested in states and union; fundamental privileges are given to the citizens, etc all are defined in the constitution.

When the Indian Constitution did come into effect?

What had been the Dominion of India became the Republic of India after the constitution came into effect. It replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the principal governing document of the country.

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, the Chairman of the constitution drafting committee, presented the draft constitution to the then President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 25th November 1949, subsequently it was adopted by the constituent assembly on 26th November.

The constitution of India came into force on the day when the final session of the constituent assembly was held on 26th January 1950.

Salient Features of Indian Constitution

The constitution of India has several salient or distinguishing features that separate it from the leagues of other constitutions around the world. The most distinguished and significant salient features of the Indian constitution are defined as under.

Longest handwritten constitution

The constitution of India is one of the lengthiest and most detailed constitutions of the world. The English version of the constitution has 117,369 words contained in 444 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules, and 115 amendments as of 2020.

The lengthiness of the Indian constitution was necessitated by the diversity of India. The constitution became larger in order to accommodate several demographic differences of the state of India.

Parliamentary form of government

The constitution of India stipulates a bicameral legislature, that is, the power and authority are shared between two separate houses, in this case, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.Opposite of bicameral is a unicameral legislature where only one house is present. In a bicameral setup debates and discussions play an important role in the passage of a bill.

A rigid and flexible constitution

The constitution of India is neither completely rigid nor flexible. A constitution is said to be rigid when it is difficult to make amendments, like the constitution of the United States.On the contrary, the constitution of India has been amended 103 times since it came into force, but all the amendments have to pass through definite tests and mandatory requirements.

The constitution of India is therefore considered a perfect blend of rigidity and flexibility.

The preamble to the constitution.

The preamble of the Indian constitution is its introductory paragraph that declares the constitution’ss fundamental philosophy and purpose.

It declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. It also states some objectives like, securing justice, liberty, and equality to all the citizens and promoting fraternity in order to maintain national unity and integrity.

Quasi-federal constitution

The constitution of India is quasi-federal because it combines the features of both the federal government and the unitary government.

The Supreme Court of India has also stated that India has a federal structure with a strong bias towards the center.

Federal features of the constitution are – supreme law, a bicameral legislature, dual government policy, a written constitution, a rigid constitution, independent judiciary, and revenue sharing.

On the other hand, unitary features of the constitution are – single constitution applicable to the union and states, unequal representation of states in the Rajya Sabha, the unequal division of power between the center and states, states depend on center, non-rigid constitution, unified judicial system and proclamation of emergency.

Fundamental rights and duties

The constitution of India describes the fundamental rights and duties of all the citizens of India irrespective of the states, region, religion, or ethnicity.

The seven fundamental rights provided by the constitution to every citizen are – right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, and right to constitutional remedies.

Fundamental duties are enshrined in the constitution to promote integrity. Some of the important fundamental duties are to uphold the sovereignty and unity of India, to preserve rich heritage, to safeguard public property, etc.

Directive principles of state policy

The directive principles of state policy are contained in Part IV of the Indian constitution. These are the sets of instructions meant for the states.

Basically, they constitute the instructions to the legislature and the executive that are mandatory to be followed whenever the state frames new legislation.

Adult suffrage

Adult suffrage means that any Indian citizen irrespective of gender, caste, or any other difference, has a right to vote to elect the government, provided that he or she is above 18 years of age.

This right is guaranteed by Article 326 of the constitution. Initially, the age of voting was 21 years but after the 61st amendment also called the Constitution Act 1988, it was amended to 18 years. However, the right to vote doesn’t apply to non-citizens, persons with unsound minds, or criminals.

Independent judiciary

The constitution of India has several provisions to ensure that the judiciary remains unbiased and independent.The Supreme Court of India acts as the caretaker of the constitution and ensures that its provisions are followed.Also, the courts at the state and district levels are out of the influence of bureaucracy or political governments.High courts in states directly function under the Supreme Court.

Secular State

The term ‘Secular’ in the constitution was added by the 42nd amendment in the Preamble.It was included to promote peace and harmony among different religious groups of India. Every citizen of India is free to follow the religion of his/her choice and it is obligatory for the government to ensure that his/her rights and privileges are protected.

Single Citizenship

Part II of the constitution from Article 5 to Article 11 deals with citizenship. According to it, all the citizens of India enjoy equal rights and privileges across the complete territory of India.In whatever state or Union Territory of India you may travel, you will enjoy similar rights and privileges as enjoyed in your home state.

Importance of Indian Constitution

The constitution is the supreme law that governs the country. The three pillars of democracy – the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary, functions as per the provisions provided in the constitution.

It guarantees the fundamental rights and duties of the citizens and ensures that India remains a secular state, which is important considering its religious and cultural diversity.

Without the constitution, the whole democratic setup would just crumble and rights and privileges could not be exercised.India is one of the world’s most successful democracies today because its people and the government religiously follow every word of the constitution.


At the core of the constitution is an idea to generate an equal and civilized society that is governed by principles and definite rules.

Like every game has its rule book, similarly, the constitution of India is also the rule book that dictates all the rules, regulations, powers, and privileges to effectively govern the country.



History of Computers

The computer was born not for entertainment or email but out of a need to solve a serious number-crunching crisis. By 1880, the U.S. population had grown so large that it took more than seven years to tabulate the U.S. Census results. The government sought a faster way to get the job done, giving rise to punch-card based computers that took up entire rooms.

Today, we carry more computing power on our smartphones than was available in these early models. The following brief history of computing is a timeline of how computers evolved from their humble beginnings to the machines of today that surf the Internet, play games and stream multimedia in addition to crunching numbers.

Parts of computer

The computer is one of the most versatile and beneficial inventions for mankind. Its enormous capacity to process data makes it a fundamental part of the development of the world. There are some basic parts of computer that make it possible to process and complete the task at extraordinary speed.


The computer monitor is a significant part, without it the user cannot function the computer. The screen of the monitor allows the user to interact with the computer. The monitor screen is for visual display of all types of information provided by the computer.

The main function of the monitor is obviously visual. As it acts as an interface between the CPU and the user. It doesn’t matter how powerful or fast your computer is, without a monitor display, the computer is incomplete or even useless.

The monitor is designed to display all kinds of information like image, video, symbolic, graphical, etc, as Soft Copy on its screen. A cable is connected with a video adapter that is set up with the computer’s motherboard to display the given data.

Through computer monitors, we can carry out, or view all the important content, review stored information, and do a lot of tasks.


The keyboard is one of the most important parts of computer. The keyboard is designed to input the data by typing letters, symbols, numbers (ABC,123,!@#). The keyboard is used for writing work on the computer.

The shape of the keyboard is rectangular and the buttons are arranged horizontal contain about 108 Keys. These keys allowing us to the entry of information encoded into the computer system by pressing the keys.

The main function of the keyboard is to enter data and information into the computer. The keyboard is a means of communicating with the computer system by the user. By using Keyboard, we can make PPT, spreadsheets, use the Internet, calculations, sending mails, etc, on the monitor screen.


The mouse is an input device also known as a pointing device of a computer. Its main function is to facilitate user interaction with the monitor screen of the computer like the keyboard. A mouse is a device connected to a computer for controlling the cursor on the screen.

The control is detected by the mouse when it is moving it along on the flat surface on which it is located, as well as by pressing the buttons that located on the upper surface of the device and scrolling the wheel, which, as a rule, is located between the control buttons.

In this way, it issues various commands and information to the computer to perform certain actions, that it is interpreted by the CPU and, thus, the mouse pointer imitates the movement on the computer screen.

Some mice types have a Laser Light or some have a rubber ball attached below it. When the mouse moves on a surface, the rubber ball rotates or laser light also moves. The speed and direction of the mouse convert into the monitor’s screen cursor, this is how the mouse works.

The mouse is placed on the Mouse Pad, for controlling the cursor. By Right-Clicking, Left-Clicking, Dragging, scrolling, Double Clicking. By using the mouse, we can do basic tasks on the computer like selecting, opening, deleting the files and folders, etc.


A printer is a device whose main function is to print electronic information like text and images onto paper as a hard copy. In this way, the process of transferring data to hard paper is called printing, and the result is a printout.

The printer prints the files like images, and text stored in a computer, by converting the data from soft copy to hard copy. Printers are used to print signs, printing online images, Excel sheets, PPT, and office documents at offices.

Normally the printer is equipped with a computer with a USB port, LAN, Ethernet, or simply a wireless connection. At present, many printed devices are featured with technologies like Wi-Fi, Cloud, and Bluetooth. Due to this, it becomes easier to complete the printing task by computer. case

The computer case is a visible and most important part of computers also known as the computer tower and chassis. It is used to store the main components of a computer like a motherboard with a processor, power supply, a video card, and RAM, hard disks, CPU fans, optical disk drive, memory cards, etc.

A computer tower is not only a “packing box”, but also an important function that provides storage and rigid fixation of all its internal devices. As well as providing them with a power supply and a hard protective structure against internal damage from external influences like dust, liquid, etc.

There are a lot of sizes and models of computer cases, and each type of case is designed to occur storage and perform a specific task.


The computer motherboard is to acts as the main circuit that enables the integration of all components of a computer. Its main function is to connect the different devices, components, or peripherals to the systems to transport the information to the corresponding destination, through this, it facilitates communication between devices.

They are designed based on the type of CPU (central processing unit) in which they will be installed. The motherboard houses the connectors necessary for the processor, RAM, ports, and other devices like video cards, network cards, ROM, processors, power supply, etc.

The main function of the motherboard is communication between the devices that include, control and monitoring, administration, or management of electrical energy as well as its distribution throughout the computer.


The processor is the most important component placed on the motherboard, present in the computer case as a CPU (Central Processing Unit). The processor acts as the brain of the entire operation of the computer system and it is the 4th generation of computer.

The processor unit allows the computer to perform different tasks like processing the data, control the operation of all the computer’s devices, and most importantly performing logical and mathematical operations.

And other actions like controlling the flow of information within the PC, managing and controlling the RAM and ROM memory, and performing basic operations on the computer’s data.

In simple words, it is just processes everything that happens on the computer and executes all the actions. The faster the processor a computer has, the faster the computer will be work.


The hard drive or HDD is one of the computer storage devices that can store any kind of digital information based on magnetic technology. As well a Hard drive is a ROM Memory of computers.

They are used to store the information and data like photos, videos, text small or big files, computer programs storing backup copies of data, like file storage, etc. on our computer system.

The storage capacities of the hard drive disk have now reached 6TB. On such a 6TB hard drive computer is able to can store up to 1,600,000 photos or 615 hours of video and up to 2,000,000 songs.

In this way, it is possible to keep the information stored on such a medium permanently (hence it is not volatile memory). And one of the important parts of computer.

However, a computer user can use other latest storage devices like Pen drive, SSD, Memory card, etc.


The RAM’s full form is ‘Random Access Memory’. RAM is a type of operative memory of computer systems. The ROM memory is used to store data but in the case of RAM memory is used to run the whole computer system in real-time.

Like the processor, RAM is inserted into the motherboard for communication with various elements of the system. RAM runs the software like computer programs, games, software applications, and other information in (CPU) the central processing unit for direct and quick access when needed to perform tasks.

RAM is the fastest type of memory, and it has the ability to be read and write the data but temporarily until the Power Supply to the device. Because as the computer is turned off, all the processed data of RAM automatically goes to the trash.

Nowadays the maximum capacity of RAM is up to 32 GB that is specially made for gaming computers.


Computer speakers are a way that computers make sounds by means of digital or analog audio. In other terms, the speaker is also called the ‘dynamic head’. This speaker can now be found on many other devices, like, on a TV, radio, smartphone, telephone, children’s toys, and others.

The main function of speakers is a way for computers to interact with their users. These provide a means for the computer to produce audio. The sound produced by computer speakers is done by a hardware component whose name is a sound card that is pre-installed with the computer.

The speaker is important because for listening to the audios and sounds fo the videos and games which is significant for a computer user to perform all kinds of tasks on the computer.

However, in order to increase the sound of the computer in a louder way one may need external speakers. Alternatives to the speaker for computers are headphones, earphones, earbuds, etc.

Uses of computer


* Playing computer games
* Writing
* Solving math problems
* Watching videos
* Listening to music and audio
* Audio, Video and photo editing
* Creating sound or video
* Communicating with other people
* Using The Internet
* Online shopping
* Drawing
* Online bill payments
* online business


* Word processing
* Spreadsheets
* Presentations
* Photo Editing
* E-mail
* Video editing/rendering/encoding
* Audio recording
* System Management
* Website Development
* Software Development

Malaria: Signs and Symptoms, Tips to prevent the disease

Malaria is associated with a bite from the female Anopheles mosquito and in a few cases, can cause serious health complications. Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by protists (a type of microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium.

          The term malaria originates from Medieval Italian: mala aria — “bad air”; the disease was formerly called ague or marsh fever due to its association with swamps and marshland. Malaria was once common in most of Europe and North America, where it is no longer endemic, though imported cases do occur.

The disease is most common in tropical and subtropical climates (hot and humid) where the parasites can live and are generally active.

 Types of malaria:

Parasites of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria. There are many species of the malaria parasite Plasmodium. However, only five of them infect humans. These are:

– Plasmodium falciparum: Found in tropical and subtropical areas and is a major contributor to deaths from severe malaria.

– Plasmodium vivax: Mostly found in Asia and Latin America. It involves a dormant stage that can cause relapses.

– Plasmodium ovale: Found in Africa and the Pacific islands.

– Plasmodium malariae: Found worldwide and can cause a chronic infection.

– Plasmodium knowlesi: Found throughout Southeast Asia. It can rapidly progress from an uncomplicated case to severe malaria infection.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: Incubation period refers to how long it takes from initial infection to the appearance of symptoms.

This generally depends on the type of parasite:

 · P. falciparum – 9 to 14 days

· P. vivax – 12 to 18 days · P. ovale – 12 to 18 days

· P. malariae – 18 to 40 days However, incubation periods can vary from as little as 7 days, to several months for P. vivax and P. ovale. If you are taking medication to prevent infection (chemoprophylaxis) the incubation period is usually longer.

The signs and symptoms of malaria typically begin 8–25 days following infection; signs include:

· Decreased consciousness

· Significant weakness such that the person is unable to walk

· Inability to feed

· Two or more convulsions

 · Low blood pressure (less than 70 mmHg in adults or 50 mmHg in children)

 · Breathing problems

 · Circulatory shock

 · Kidney failure or hemoglobin in the urine

· Pulmonary edema


The best way to prevent malaria is to keep our home and surroundings clean. Having a strong civic sense is the best way to ensure safety from malaria.

1.Fog them out:

Get fogging in your neighborhood done before the rainy season starts as it helps to kill the mosquitoes that might be hiding at places.

2. Choose the right clothes:

Make sure you choose the right clothing to prevent malaria. Wear cover-alls, full-sleeved clothes, long pants that can help prevent mosquito bites.

3.Use mosquito repellent products:

You can use various over-the-counter mosquito repellant creams and bands. The same will help keep you safeguarded even when you are sitting in a garden or outside playing.

4.Use mosquito nets:

This is the simplest and ineffective way of keeping the mosquitoes away. A person is most vulnerable when they are sleeping. Using mosquito nets neither exposes you to harmful mosquito chemicals nor does it harm your body.

5.Use window nets:

Cover your windows well and keep them closed.

6. Keep your surroundings clean:

Keeping your surroundings clean is one of the best-recommended methods to prevent yourself from malaria. While travelling, make sure that you avoid loitering around.


Vectors: Plasmodium may exploit several genera of mosquitoes, as vectors and intermediate


· Culex

· Anopheles,

· Culiceta

· Mansonia and 

· Aedes

i. Bites of mosquitoes, 

ii. Mechanically by blood transfer as in mass vaccination,

iii. Caponization and injection. 

Malaria  parasites  are  transmitted  from  person  to  person  through  Anopheles  mosquitoes.

When a mosquito bites, blood containing the parasites is taken into the mosquito’s gut. Over a

period of 10 or more days, the parasites undergo a complex development, the mature parasite

eventually coming to reside in the mosquito’s salivary glands, ready for transmission to a new

person  when  it  bites  again.  In  the  next  human  host,  the  parasite  first  infects  the  liver,

undergoes rapid replication in this site for at least five days, and then infects red blood cells.

It is in the  blood  that the parasites causes  the  most serious symptoms of  malaria,  including

cerebral malaria initiated by parasitised blood cells blocking blood capillaries in the brain.

Human-to-human transmission of Malaria.

Social media marketing

-Aastha Joshi

The term social media marketing refers to the use of social media and social networks to market a company’s products and services. Social media marketing provides companies with a way to engage with existing customers and reach new ones while allowing them to promote their desired culture, mission, or tone. Social media marketing has purpose-built data analytics tools that allow marketers to track the success of their efforts. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram are commonly used to execute social media marketing. Social media has changed the way we function as a society, including the way we connect with one another. Social media websites allow marketers to employ a broad range of tactics and strategies to promote content and have people engage with it. Many social networks allow users to provide detailed geographical, demographic, and personal information, which enables marketers to tailor their messages to what is most likely to resonate with users. Social media marketing campaigns have the advantage of appealing to a broad audience at once. Viral marketing seeks to spread information about a product or service from person to person by word of mouth or sharing via the internet or email. The goal of viral marketing is to inspire individuals to share a marketing message to friends, family, and other individuals to create exponential growth in the number of its recipients. Today’s consumers rush to browse social media when they want to know more about an organization or product because that’s where they’ll find others talking about that business. Social media is an ideal place for brands looking to gain insights into their audience’s interests and tastes. The way experts see it, smart companies will continue to invest in social media to achieve sustainable business growth. Whether you want to launch a new product or a business, social media is the perfect launchpad to create a buzz around your initiatives. As we move further into the future of e-commerce, it’s clear that social media marketing isn’t just an option. In an increasingly competitive environment, your business can’t afford to miss out on social media. It’s especially competitive in the social media influencer space, where there are thousands of new influencers starting a brand every day. If you’re trying to build more of an online presence to become a social media influencer, make sure to read our comprehensive guide. A few years ago, the sole purpose of using social media channels was to generate website traffic. Today, it has developed into something more than just a place to broadcast content. Twitter allows companies to promote their products in short messages known as tweets limited to 280 characters which appear on followers Home timelines Tweets can contain text, Hashtag, photo, video, Animated, Emoji, or links to the product’s website and other social media profiles, etc. Twitter is also used by companies to provide customer service. Some companies make support available 24/7 and answer promptly, thus improving brand loyalty and appreciation.Facebook pages are far more detailed than Twitter accounts. They allow a product to provide videos, photos, longer descriptions, and testimonials where followers can comment on the product pages for others to see. Facebook can link back to the product’s Twitter page, as well as send out event reminders. As of May 2015, 93% of businesses marketers use Facebook to promote their brand A study from 2011 attributed 84% of “engagement” or clicks and likes that link back to Facebook advertising. By 2014, Facebook had restricted the content published from business and brand pages. LinkedIn, a professional business-related networking site, allows companies to create professional profiles for themselves as well as their business to network and meet others. Through the use of widgets, members can promote their various social networking activities, such as Twitter stream or blog entries of their product pages, onto their LinkedIn profile page. LinkedIn provides its members the opportunity to generate sales leads and business
partners. Ability WhatsApp was founded by Jan Koum and Brian Acton. Joining Facebook in 2014, WhatsApp continues to operate as a separate app with a laser focus on building a messaging service that works fast and reliably anywhere in the world. Started as an alternative to SMS, WhatsApp now supports sending and receiving a variety of media including text, photos, videos, documents, and location, as well as voice calls. WhatsApp messages and calls are secured with end-to-end encryption, meaning that no third party including WhatsApp can read or listen to them. WhatsApp has a customer base of 1 billion people in over 180 countries. It is used to send personalised promotional messages to individual customers. It has plenty of advantages over SMS that includes to track how Message Broadcast Performs using blue tick option in WhatsApp.Instagram has proven itself a powerful platform for marketers to reach their customers and prospects through sharing pictures and brief messages. According to a study by Simply Measured, 71% of the world’s largest brands are now using Instagram as a marketing channel For companies, Instagram can be used as a tool to connect and communicate with current and potential customers. The company can present a more personal picture of their brand, and by doing so the company conveys a better and true picture of itself. The idea of Instagram pictures lies on on-the-go, a sense that the event is happening right now, and that adds another layer to the personal and accurate picture of the company. In fact, Thomas Rankin, co-founder and CEO of the program Dash Hudson, stated that when he approves a blogger’s Instagram post before it is posted on the behalf of a brand his company represents, his only negative feedback is if it looks too posed. Social media is a reliable asset for the promotion of product.

Poverty In India

Poverty” is the worst form of violence”, said Mahatma Gandhi. Over the years, poverty has proved to be the biggest hurdle in the way of success of India’s development. Poverty is that condition in which a person fails to not only fulfil his basic physiological needs, but also fails to protect himself from diseases, get balanced nutrition, maintain good health etc.

In simple terms, a person in order to survive should have proper food, clothing, shelter, health care and education. Thus, poverty refers to a person failing to acquire these minimum levels of subsistence and in turn suffer from starvation, malnutrition, and diseases.

Poverty has been an inevitable problem since the time immemorial. From late 19th century through early 20th century, under British colonial rule, poverty in India intensified, peaking in 1920’s. Over this period, the colonial government, de-industrialised India by reducing garments and other finished products’ manufacturing by artisans in India.

They instead imported these from Britain. These colonial policies moved unemployed artisans into farming and transformed India as a region increasingly abundant in land, unskilled labour and low productivity, capital and knowledge. Moreover famines and diseases killed millions each time.

Recently, in 2013, the Indian Government stated 21.9% of its population is below official poverty limit. In other words, India with 17.5% of world’s total population, had 20.6% share of world’s poorest in 2013. A large proportion of poor people live in rural areas. Poverty is deepest among members of scheduled castes and tribes in the country’s rural areas.

On the map of India, the poorest areas are in parts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal. In fact, the story of our prolonged poverty and tyranny attached has got so much fame that a , foreign director (Danny Boyle) produced a whole movie on the issue. This movie is Slumdog Millionaire which got worldwide acclamation through Oscar Awards.

Statistics reveals that economic prosperity has indeed been very impressive in India, but it is the distribution of wealth that has been uneven and has caused the grave problem of poverty. Other major causes of poverty are illiteracy along with uncontrolled population growth, unemployment and under-employment, dependence on agriculture, caste system and corruption. The causes of rural poverty are manifold including inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes.

The over-dependence on monsoon with non-availability of irrigational facilities often results in crop-failure and low agricultural productivity forcing farmers in the debt-traps. The children of poor families are forced to take up jobs at a tender age to fend for their large families, thus are not only deprived of their childhood but education too adding to the illiterate bulk of the country.

Central grants for programmes like Indira Awas Yojana and others, which was aimed at providing housing to the poor, have been utter failures due to lack of proper implementation. Massive transfer of ‘Black Money’ overseas and under-utilisation of foreign aid have also contributed to the deepening of poverty in India. Nelson Mandela once quoted:

“Like Slavery and Apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings”.

Interestingly, the incidence of rural poverty has declined somewhat in the past years as a result of rural to urban migration. In order to combat the grave problem of poverty, first and foremost, there should be a strict check on population increase. Creation of employment opportunities, spread of education, elimination of black money, decentralisation of planning, helping women and youth to become self-reliant are some other ways to combat this problem. Empowering the weaker and backward section of society is also expected to contribute to the alleviation of poverty. It is not due to lack of resources or technical assistance that we are failing in achieving our goals but more so due to lack of execution of these plans and programmes.

Who comes in the category of the poorest class in India?

Tribal people, Dalits and labour class including farmworkers in villages and casual workers in cities are still very poor and make the poorest class in India.

Where do the majority of poor live in India?

60% of the poor still reside in the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. The reason for these states to be in the category of the poorest state is because 85% of tribal people live there. Also, most of these regions are either flood-prone or suffer from calamities. These conditions hamper agriculture to a great extent, on which the household income of these groups depends.

According to the Global Hunger Index Report 2018 by the International Food Research Institute, India ranks 103 in the Global Hunger Index (GHI). Though there is no shortage of food production in India, our nation still has 35.8% of children under five in the underweight category. India is working hard to become a superpower in 2020, but such statistics are worrisome, as our nation still lags behind in improving GHI. At the same time, India seems to have achieved commendable success towards poverty eradication, because it is no longer the country with the largest number of poor people.

In 2018, for the first time in decades, Nigeria pipped India to the top slot in terms of the total number of people living in extreme poverty. As per World Poverty Clock, India’s figure of 70.6 million was surpassed by Nigeria’s 87 million people living in extreme poverty.

Moreover, according to a Sustainable Development Goals Report of the United Nations Development Program released in 2018, India has made significant progress: “Between 2005-06 and 2015-16, the incidence of multidimensional poverty in India was almost halved, climbing down to 27.5 percent from 54.7 percent as per the 2018 global Multidimensional Poverty Index report. Within ten years, the number of poor people in India fell by more than 271 million (from 635 million to 364 million). This MPI index measures progress across 3 key dimensions of health, education and living standards, and uses 10 indicators – nutrition, child mortality, years of schooling, school attendance, sanitation, cooking fuel, drinking water, electricity, housing and assets. People who lag behind in at least a third of the MPI’s components are defined as multidimensionally poor.

Causes of Poverty in India

The high population growth rate is one of the major reasons of poverty in India. This further leads to a high level of illiteracy, poor health care facilities and lack of access to financial resources. Also, high population growth affects the per capita income and makes per capita income even lower. It is expected that the population in India will reach 1.5 billion by 2026 and then India will be the largest nation in the world. But India’s economy is not growing at the same pace. This means a shortage of jobs. For this much population, near about 20 million new jobs would be required. The number of poor will keep on increasing if such a big number of jobs won’t be created.

The ever-increasing prices of even basic commodities is another reason for poverty. A person below the poverty line finds it difficult to survive. The caste system and unequal distribution of income and resources is another reason for poverty in India.

Apart from all these, unskilled workers are paid very low in spite of the hard work they put in daily. The problem lies with the unorganized sector as owners do not bother with the way their workers live and the amount they earn. Their area of concern is just cost-cutting and more profit. Because of the number of workers looking for a job is higher than the jobs available, unskilled workers have no other option but to work for less money. The government should really find a way to impose minimum wage standards for these workers. At the same time, the government should ensure that this is implemented well.

Poverty must be eradicated from India as every person has the right to live a healthy life.

How You Can Improve or Solve Poverty in India?

Poverty can be solved by improving food security by providing three meals a day and making them healthy and providing houses for those people at low cost and giving them proper education and facilities so that they can earn well and take care of their family and leave peaceful life. Awareness on population so that once the population is under control, the economy of the country will improve and move towards developed and decrease in the poverty line. Poverty is becoming a complex problem for the peoples and for the government, how to overcome out from this, in India the poverty is high comparing other countries because the growth rate of per capita income per person is very low. With lack of job opportunities many people move as a rickshaw puller, construction workers, domestic servants etc, with irregular small incomes hence they live in slum areas. Also, lack of land resources has been one of the major causes of poverty in India, even the small farmers of our country leads to poverty because they cultivate but do not get proper money in terms of profit and leads to poverty.


5 Home Remedies To Get Rid Of Dark Circles

Yes, dark circles are stubborn. They do not go away easily. All they contribute to your beautiful face is to leave you looking like a panda. And don’t you just hate the fact that you have to hide them (and the bags that come with them) with an enormous amount of makeup and lots and lots of concealers. And well, the pandemic along with the ensuing lockdown made it worse by messing with our sleep schedules. 

Dark circles are caused due to a variety of reasons. The skin around our eyes is extremely thin and delicate which is why the changes that our body goes through begin to show right here. Ageing might be a common factor. Fatigue, lack of sleep, straining our eyes from increased screen time are also common causes of it. Some are also likely to get dark circles due to genetics. But that doesn’t entirely mean it isn’t curable. Scroll below to know the remedies.

1.Cold Compress:

Applying a cold compress twice a day can reduce dark circles. Or if you haven’t got the time to apply it once. Hold the compress for 10 minutes. That’s it. The safest and quickest way of not looking like a panda.

2.Cucumber :

Cucumbers have skin-lightening and cooling properties. It has astringent to help lighten up our under eyes. Cut the cucumber into slices and refrigerate for up to 30 minutes. Cleanse your eyes, lie down and place the slices over your eyes. Keep it for 15-20 minutes before washing it off with water.

3.Tea Bags:

Teabags are a great way to eliminate those dark circles without any side effects. The antioxidants in tea bags help fight fine lines, dark circles and puffy eyes. It can improve blood circulation also. Just take two used tea bags and chill them for about 15 minutes. Take it out and place them on your eyelids and dark circles for 10 minutes. Use it daily to see the difference. 

4.Aloe Vera

Aloe Vera is rich in anti-pigmentation properties and Vitamin E that helps fight dark circles. And being a tropical plant, it is present in every house. Take an aloe vera leaf and extract all the gel out of it, take equal amounts of honey and mix it well. Now clean your eyes and apply this mixture all around them. Leave it for 15 minutes. Now wash it off. Use it daily for best results.


Tomato, Yes, these red round fruits can work wonders. They have natural bleaching properties that lighten up the skin. It also has moisturizing and regenerating properties. Take a tomato and grind it into a paste. Apply it over the dark circles and rinse it off after a few minutes. You can also drink tomato juice first thing in the morning. It improves the skin color under our eyes. 



  The deadly coronavirus, which was first detected in Wuhan in China has almost affected every country in the world, infecting and killing millions of people everywhere around the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused bought dramatic loss of lives worldwide. It created challenges to public health, food systems, and the economy of the country. The impact of this pandemic is very big: tens and millions of people are falling at the risk of falling into poverty.


  Millions of enterprises face drastic damage and nearly half of the world’s 3.3 billion people are at the risk of losing their livelihoods. Due to the lockdown around the world, many companies have experienced a severe loss in the business. Without the means of income, many are unable to feed their families or themselves. In further, no income means no food or less nutritious food. Due to the lockdown, the transport system has stopped which caused a major impact on businesses.


The pandemic has caused several problems to agriculture. Border closures, trade restrictions, and other measures have been a barrier for farmers for buying their inputs as well as selling their inputs. It also delayed the process of harvesting crops due to insufficient labor and thus affecting the food supply chain across the world. The food security and nutrition of women and men are at risk especially in the low-income countries which include small-scale farmers with a big population. The migrant agricultural workers are the ones who got affected mostly. They weren’t able to get proper shelter to live in. They are struggling to access support measures announced by governments.


Colleges, Schools, and Universities are closed with no certainty as to when they will be open. The sources that are strictly prohibited in schools are now the only medium through which teachers can interact with the students. The classroom education system is replaced with an online mode of teaching. Applications such as zoom meet, Google meet, Webex, Microsoft teams are used to attend the online classes. Students are facing a lot of problems with this online mode of teaching. Eye problems will occur frequently in students. They are not able to understand the concepts clearly as compared to classroom education. Not all students have proper resources to attend online education.


  An individual’s savings account gets affected when there are big shifts in stock markets. The FTSE dropped 14.3% in 2020 which is the worst performance since 2008. The unemployment rate has increased across major economies. If the economy is good, that means that more wealth and more job opportunities. It is calculated by looking at the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimated that the global economy is shrunk by 4.4 % in 2020. The organization has announced the decline as the worst since the Great Depression of the 1930s.


COVID-19 pandemic has affected almost every country in the world. Thousands of people are dying each day. Social distancing and lockdowns have reduced the impact slightly. People with other diseases are not able to treat properly due to the immediate threat of COVID-19 consuming health systems. Scientific researches around the world also now focusing only on the COVID 19 which delays the research on other diseases. Due to the pandemic, the number of people seeking health care has increased. Health care systems have to become more accessible and prepared for future pandemic-like situations.

  In conclusion, the impact of the pandemic is more than we imagined. Many people across the world have lost their relatives, friends, and families. We are not able to do anything when our dearest one dies. The impact is high. To overcome this pandemic, we have to work together and follow the guidelines issued by the respective governments and be aware of the pandemic’s effects.

Natural Disaster Management

Disaster can be defined as an event which disrupts the functioning of the society wherein the event is of such magnitude that it cannot be coped up with the resources of the society on its own. During such times one requires a force which is specialized in rescuing, rehabilitating and bringing normalcy in the society after the natural disaster has struck. With disaster management force, they are trained, keeping in mind  three principles – how to prepare for future disasters, how to respond it when the society is in fear and what to learn from the shortcomings for future disaster management. The said disaster management force are tasked and deployed not only for naturally occurring disasters but also for disasters with man-made origins.


In 1999, the Government of India set up a High-powered committee while keeping in mind the need for a disaster management. Following this decision and the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, the Government of India introduced a national committee for the making and preparation of National Disaster Management plans. In December 2005, the Disaster Management act was enacted by the Government of India which lead to the creation of the Disaster management authority. The Disaster management authority was divided in three parts wherein the national disaster management authority was spearheaded by the Prime Minister, the state disaster management authority was headed by respective Chief Ministers of each state and the district disaster management authority would be headed by the district magistrate or Collector.


The National Disaster management authority is the apex body which lays down guidelines for disaster management. The guidelines which are laid down by the National disaster management authority have to be adopted and followed by the State disaster management authority under the supervision of Chief ministers of each state. For fulfilling the vision of building a safer and disaster resilient society, the national disaster management authority can recommend funds for mitigating. The national level disaster management authority helps in coordinating the enforcement as well as the implementation of policy for national as well as state level authority.

Disaster management authority

The National Disaster management authority has demonstrated excellent disaster planning during Cyclone Hudhud and Cyclone Fani. In both of these cyclones, the National disaster management authority evacuated thousands of people from the worst hit zone and moved them to cyclone shelters.  Due to this, the management authority helped in reducing the mortality rate due to Cyclones. Occasionally, the management authority runs intensive earthquake drills and mock exercises for crisis management. In order make everyone aware, the authority planned on implementing guidelines in schools regarding natural disaster management; prepared guidelines for hospital safety; provided the minimum standard which had to be maintained in shelters, etc.

Shortcomings and suggestion–

There are four phases in disaster management which go hand in hand and one cannot be removed or omitted in order to focus on one of the phases. Focus, funds and infrastructure has to be put in for all four phases or else it defeats the purpose for disaster management. The first phase is mitigation wherein the disaster management authority takes actions to eliminate or reduce the potential impact of a hazard. This phase helps in prepared for the hazard which would eliminate higher casualty rates. The second phase is preparedness which focuses on training the disaster management forces with exercises and drills which would lead to efficient evacuation and rehabilitation. Due to the drills and exercises, the forces would be well prepared and educated in terms of how to act and what to do in case a natural disaster strikes. The third phase is response wherein certain actions are taken by the authority towards responding to disaster emergencies. What needs to be done and how it will be done are a part of the third phase along with quick response in the disaster struck area. Once this is done, recovery of the area is the next step, which is the last phase as well. Once people have been evacuated from the danger area, then the authority can work upon recovering the services as well as bringing back the normalcy to the disaster struck area.

In the past decade, it has been observed that in times of a natural disaster, the national disaster management authority is quite late on the scene and in times when they are on time, the work provided is inefficient. Due to this, the Indian army is called for providing their services. During the Kedarnath cloud burst, Srinagar floods, roads collapsing in certain states – it was the Indian army who was called for the rescue and rehabilitation process as the National disaster management authority or the state disaster management authority seem to be inefficient. From this it can be concluded, that the national or state disaster management authority lacks in all four phases. Due to not being aware of what kind of impact a certain disaster can cause, there is lack in preparedness which results in inefficient evacuation and rehabilitation process.

The national disaster management authority should take some inspiration from the Japanese National disaster management who helps the affected area in recovering from the disaster effortlessly due to the knowledge that they possess regarding disasters, how to tackle them, what is needed to be done during the situation and after the storm has calmed down. The tsunami which had struck Japan had created a havoc in the affected areas, however, within a span of few weeks, the place was back to its original environment with people being rehabilitated to their houses. The National disaster management authority has to strive towards becoming more efficient then only will the forces be able to help out the victims of the disaster.

Covid-19 and Women

According to the world economic forum report the pandemic has delayed gender parity by a generation.

Pandemic delays gender parity by a generation: World Economic Forum

Having lost jobs at a higher rate than men, a range of studies have shown that the covid 19 pandemic had a more severe impact on women than men. Women had to take on much more of the extra childcare burden when schools closed.

With the goal of gender parity moving further away. The effects will be felt in long term according to the Global Gender Gap Report published by the world economic forum.

In their previous report which it published round December 2019, right before the pandemic hit, they found that gender parity would be reached within next 100 years. But this year’s report shows the world is not on track to close the gender gap for another 135.6 years.

“Another generation of women will have to wait for gender parity,” the WEF said in a statement.

The forum annual report tracks disparities between the genders across four areas: education, health, economics prowess and political power in 156 countries.

Workplace equality in 267 years

On the brighter side we can see that women have been closing gap in areas such as health and education. The most complex area where it has been most difficult for women is inequality in workplace. Inequality in the workplace — which has long appeared to be the stickiest area to fix — is still not expected to be erased for another 267.6 years.

And the pandemic has not helped.

A study by the UN’s International Labour Organization showed that women were most likely to lose jobs in times of crisis because of their disproportionate representation in sectors directly affected by lockdowns, pointed the WEF.

Other surveys have shown that women were carrying a greater share of the burden of increased housework and childcare during lockdowns, contributing to higher stress and lower productivity levels.

In another front men were hired back faster than women as work places opened, according to LinkedIn data referenced in the report.

“The pandemic has fundamentally impacted gender equality in both the workplace and the home, rolling back years of progress,” WEF managing director Saadia Zahidi said in the statement.

“If we want a dynamic future economy, it is vital for women to be represented in the jobs of tomorrow,” she said, stressing that “this is the moment to embed gender parity by design into the recovery.”

Political gender gap growing

It was in the political sphere that the march towards gender parity did the biggest about-face, with several large-population countries seeing the political gender gap widen, the WEF study found.

Only a quarter of parliamentary seats are held by women worldwide and only 22.6 percent of ministerial positions.

The political gender gap will not close for another 145.5 years if it continues in the same trajectory, the report found.

That marks a 50-percent hike from the estimated 95 years in the 2020 report, WEF pointed out.

Progress across the categories varies greatly in different countries and regions.

The report pointed out that while Western European countries could close their overall gender gap in 52.1 years, countries in the Middle East and North Africa will take nearly 142.4 years to do so.

Overall, the Nordic countries once again dominated the top of the table: the gap between men and women was narrowest in Iceland, for the 12th year running, followed by Finland and Norway. New Zealand took fourth place, ahead of Sweden.

Pollution causes blindness

Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.

The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.

There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.

Effect on eye sight

The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.

The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.