PENICILLIN PRODUCTION

BY DAKSHITA NAITHANI

Penicillin, which is now an essential element of our antibacterial arsenal had a huge influence on the twentieth century’s second half. Deep-fermentation techniques, which were established largely for the synthesis of Penicillin during WWII, paved the way for the creation of medications and aided the emergence of the young biotechnology sector in the 1970s. In the presence of blood, pus, and bodily fluids, it is effective against some gram-positive bacteria. It is soluble in water, acetone, ethyl alcohol, and ether, but less so in benzene, chloroform, and other organic solvents.

 It is a secondary metabolite, like other antimicrobials, and is only generated in the stationary phase. The industrial manufacturing may be divided into two processes: upstream and downstream.

When the development of the fungus is hindered by stress, it produces certain species of Penicillium. Penicillin production is likewise restricted by feedback in the synthesis process.

α-ketoglutarate + AcCoA → homocitrate → L-α-aminoadipic acid → L-lysine + β-lactam

Because the by-product L-lysine hinders homocitrate synthesis, exogenous lysine should be avoided in its manufacture.

The cells are cultivated using a process known as fed-batch culture, in which the cells are continually exposed to strain, which is necessary for inducing its synthesis. It’s also crucial to consider the carbon sources available: glucose inhibits its synthesis, but lactose does not. The pH of the phases, as well as the amounts of nitrogen, lysine, phosphate, and oxygen, must all be monitored closely.

THE FERMENTATION PROCESS

INOCULUM: The source of inoculum is master stock (spores). They are cultivated working samples are immersed in water and mixed with wheat bran and nutrition solution in a flask. A four-day-old shaking flask culture is inoculated into a seed tank for three days.

THE MEDIUM: In 1958, Jackson created a medium for the manufacture of penicillin. Fermentable carbohydrate (corn steep liquor (3.5%), organic nitrogen source, lactose (3.5%), glucose (1%), potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (0.4%), calcium carbonate (as a buffer) (1%),  phenyl acetic acid precursor, edible oil (0.25%), pH near 6.

As temperature is very important aspect during its production it should be around 280 degree Celsius and the supply of oxygen in the bioreactor acts as a limiting factor in its production the aeration speed should be between 3.0-1.5.

Fermentation is the method through which Penicillin is commercially produced. It’s a fed-batch technique performed in aseptic conditions in stainless steel tank reactors with capacities ranging from 30 to 100 thousand gallons. The fermentation process consists of two to three seed development phases, followed by a fermentation production phase that lasts 120 to 200 hours. For this procedure, a variety of carbon sources have been used. During the active Penicillin synthesis phase, sugar is also utilised to regulate the pH value.

During fermentation, mini-harvest techniques are commonly used. They entail removing 20-40 percent of the overall of the fermenter’s contents and replacing it with new sterile medium. This method can be done multiple times during the process without lowering the overall Penicillin yield per fermenter; in fact, it can increase it.

Penicillin is discharged into the fermentation medium and collected at the end. With a 2-5 percent increase in total extraction efficiency, whole broth extraction is best conducted at an acidic pH. Amyl, butyl, or isobutyl acetate is used to extract cooled acidified broth from a solvent.

These fermentations are extremely mechanised and computerised in today’s world. For optimum antibiotic synthesis, all essential precursors, such as ammonia, sugar, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, are carefully monitored, along with temperature and pH. During the active manufacturing phase, the pH should be between 6.4-6.8.

PURSUIT FOR A BETTER YIELD

Penicillin was first produced using the fungus Penicillium notatum toward the conclusion of World War II, yielding one milligramme per cubic decimeter. Today’s yield is 50 grammes per cubic decimeter, thanks to the use of a new species (Penicillium chrysogenum) and better extraction techniques.

These yields can be increased further by improving the medium’s composition, isolating the above- mentioned Penicillium chrysogenum, which grows better in large deep fermentation tanks, and developing a submerged culture technique for mould cultivation in large volumes of liquid medium through which sterile air is forced.

Its manufacturing has remained mostly reliant on traditional strain improvement. The most important occurrences in high-yielding Penicillium chrysogenum strains are the expansion of the Penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster between tandem repeats. There have also been created molecular methods that are not based on increasing biosynthetic gene dosages.

 THE EARLY PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN

The consortium of British and American experts came together to enhance manufacturing processes and their initial objective was to find the strains of Penicillium chrysogenum that generated the most penicillin. They quickly discovered that a Penicillium chrysogenum strain acquired from a mouldy cantaloupe at a Peoria local farmers market produced greater amounts of Penicillin than those recently tested. Scientists utilised x-rays and ultraviolet light to produce even more mutants from the farmer’s market strain.

Following those experiments, it was discovered that growing Penicillium in immersed culture media rather than on a plate surface enhanced growing efficiency, and that changing the nutrient base from sucrose to lactose or corn-steep liquor (a nutrient-rich by-product of corn processing) also increased yield. 

MODERN PRODUCTION METHODS

Major advances in contemporary manufacturing processes have improved output while lowering costs. Nowadays, commercial generating strains of Penicillium chrysogenum are produced utilising submerged culture in 50,000-gallon stainless steel tanks that are continually agitated and aerated. With a 90 percent recovery rate, these commercial strains can now produce 40-50 gram of Penicillin per litre of culture. This is a huge leap forward over the first Peoria farmer’s market strain, which only produced 0.15 grams per litre and had extremely low recovery rates.

Amplification of the biosynthesis gene cluster, an increasing amount of peroxisomes, and increased levels of transporter proteins that secrete newly production out of the peroxisomes and the cell are among the genetic and cellular modifications that result in increased production in modern Penicillium strains.

Penicillin related antibiotics now generate more than $15 billion in annual sales worldwide. Despite the fact that costs are at an all-time minimum, these sales figures exist. Penicillin currently costs $10 per kilogramme, compared to $300 in 1953. Though Europe is the world’s largest manufacturer of beta-lactam antibiotics, newer production facilities are moving to China and other Asian countries with reduced labour and energy prices.

Glow Up Tips

Old ways won’t open new doors.

-Anonymous
Image result for Neon Pink Hearts

There is so much more to a glow up than just physical transformations and alterations. While physical changes do play a significant role in bringing about that sublime transformation, a positive change in one’s personality and thought process can play a vital role in adding incredible results and it absolutely shows.

An overall change for overall development is better than just striving to change your body. An overall effort on one’s part can help one become the best possible version of themselves.

Glow up is a process that one should luxuriate in order to feel amazing and be amazing.

As mentioned, a glow up entails so much more than just dressing pretty, it is a kind of recuperation process that helps one improve their wellness and become the absolute best for themselves.

Here are certain things that you should start doing, if you are thinking of an epic glow up!

1. Drink lots of water

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This might just be the game changer in your quest for a heathy glow up. Drinking the right amount of water every day is absolutely imperative. Drinking water has so many positive effects on the body, that it is a therapy on its own. Water detoxes the body, helps with sunken eyes and dark circles, gives the skin a fresh, soft and plump finish. Since water helps flush out major toxins from the body, it makes you feel energized and well in general.

You can use other detoxes such as cucumber, lemon , mint with water to reap all those benefits and more.

If you are thinking of a glow up proper intake of water is an absolute must. Period.

2. Eat Healthy

Image result for healthy eating

Your body is what you eat. Eating healthy is vitally important to bring about any positive transformation in your life. Healthy eating is a habit that is a must for every person, more so for people looking to go further in terms of their health and wellness. Healthy eating has innumerable benefits; it can help you lose weight, increase productivity, help handle stress better, help you get beautiful and healthy skin, help get better rest and sleep, it enhances the overall fitness.

Inculcating a healthy eating regime in your life doesn’t have to be complicated, you do not go on to fancy or extreme diets, cutting off all the harmful sugar and soda would be the perfect first step towards a dazzling glow up.

3. Work out and Meditate

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Exercise and meditation always go in tandem for the body and soul. Exercising leads to great results in terms of health and meditating is an amazing time out for one’s mental health, daily. Exercising has so many health benefits that include; stress and anxiety relief, improved mobility, better sleep and energy levels, good health and higher self-esteem. Meditation helps physically, mentally and even spiritually. It helps feel a sense of tranquillity, peace and balance and sort through thoughts and emotions.

Working out and meditating is a leap towards overall fitness and that imminent glow up.

4. Set up a skin and hair care routine

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Skin care and hair care are important aspects of pampering oneself. Skin care modified according to your skin type will help enhance your beauty and reflect upon your self-care and wellness. Our skin needs nourishment which often times we have to provide via external sources, skin care therefore becomes a necessary step in a healthy glow up.

Hair care is important, as hair contributes to your personality greatly. A proper routine will not only ensure proper hair growth and give you luscious and beautiful hair, it may help you get more comfortable and confident and help you strive towards your glow up goal.

Again, you do not need to set in an extremely complicated routine for your hair and skin, cleansing, toning, moisturising would do for the skin and proper conditioning for hair along with hydrating masks for both face and hair would be perfect.

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Geography of India

Geography as a university discipline got recognition in the early decades of the 19th century in the German universities and subsequently in the French and British universities.

During the period of evolution, geography, like all other sister social science disciplines, faced many philosophical and methodological problems. Geography did not develop as a well-regulated

It followed a process of varying tensions in which tranquil periods, characterized by steady accretion of knowledge, are followed by crisis which can lead to upheaval within subject discipline and breaks in continuity. In each phase of tranquillity and crisis, geographical literature was and has been written with changing philosophies and methodologies; the philosophy and methodology being largely governed by the individual beliefs of the author, the political system, the social requirements of the people of the region and its economic institutions.

The last twenty-five years can be regarded as a period in which enormous geographical literature has been produced. This literature in the shape of books, research papers and monographs pertains to teaching, research, professional employment and pragmatic plans for the public and private bodies. Geography up to the Second World War, however, was regarded as a discipline providing general information about topography, relief features, weather, climate, mountains, rivers, routes, towns, cities and seaports.

Geography for most of the people was nothing but general knowledge. In the recent past, geographers have, however, adopted a new strategy in the restructuring of their courses and designed the syllabi around the theme of social welfare, making the subject the principal source of awareness of local surroundings, regional milieu, environmental pollution and world environment.

Geographers are venturing into the areas of environmental management and problems of pollution to make the social environment conducive for the proper development of individuals and societies. In order to achieve the welfare target, geographers are attacking social problems and exploring the causes of socio-economic backwardness, environmental pollution, and uneven levels of development in a given physical setting. Now, the main objective of geographical teaching and research is to train students in the analysis of phenomena, so that they can take up subsequently the problems of society as the fields of their research and investigation, thereby helping the local, state and national administration to overcome the regional and intra-regional problems.

The social problems are being tackled with approaches ranging from positive to normative, from radicalism to humanism, and from idealism to realism. In brief, geographers are increasingly concerning themselves with the problems of society, conditions of mankind, economic inequalities, social justice, and environmental pollution.

For the reduction of regional inequalities and for the improvement of the quality of life, the main concern of geographers is with what should be the spatial distribution of phenomena instead of with what it is. It is in this context that the spatial inequality in social amenities and living standards is investigated by geographers to trace the origin of disparity rather than to condemn injustice.

Historically, in the initial phases of its development, the main area of employment of geography students in the developed countries was teaching. In the Third World countries, geographers even today are not much actively involved in the process of planning and development. Regrettably, research had less important place in the geographical profession than in many of the social and physical sciences.

Moreover, the research done by individuals mainly remained confined to the libraries and has hardly been utilized for the purpose of planning. Unfortunately, the policy-makers in developing countries like India do not seem to be aware of the spatial dimensions of their problems of policies. Another reason is widespread ignorance of and even prejudice against geography particularly among the present generation of decision-makers whose opinions have been shaped by the experience of the previous generation school geography—when geography occupied a low place and was, as a subject, considered to be nothing more than general knowledge.

In fact, in most of the social fields, very little contribution had been made by geographers, and in the past they could not significantly suggest alternative strategies for the spatial organization of space. The last three decades have, however, seen some particularly important changes in the subject-matter, philosophy and methodology of geography. The major issues on which the geographers are concentrating include poverty, hunger, pollution, racial discrimination, social inequality or injustice, environmental pollution, and use and misuse of resources.

Some of the leading works which have been useful in the public policy making are: Geography of Crimes, Black-Ghetto, and Geography of Social Well-being. The quantitative revolution of the 1960s in geography gave to it some kind of intellectual vigour so essential for the rigorous analysis required in any public context and in the formulation of proposals for public policy.

It is an encouraging fact that now geographers all over the world are envisaging research on social problems with a welfare theme. They are working with a pragmatic approach to overcome the problems of inequalities. In fact, the objective of welfare geography is the evolution of the social desirability of alternative geographical state.

Scientific revolution entered in geography in the early 1970s. The pragmatists advocated the use of scientific methods (positivism) for finding solutions to human problems. It is with this intention that scholars like David M. Smith has adopted the welfare approach while discussing the problems and prospects of human geography.

The welfare geography has been defined differently by different scholars of geography. In the words of Mishan, “theoretical welfare geography is that branch of study which endeavours to formulate positions by which we may rank, on the scale of better or worse, alternative geographical situation open to society”. While Nath expressed ‘welfare geography’ is that part of geography where we study the possible effects of various geographical policies on the welfare of society. In the spatial context, Smith defined welfare geography as the study of “who gets what, where and how”.

The geographical ‘state’ or situation, in the sense used above, may refer to any aspect of the spatial arrangement of human existence. It may relate to the spatial allocation of resources, income, or any other source of human well-being. It may concern with the spatial incidence of poverty or any other social problem. The expression may also be used in desirable industrial location pattern, the distribution and concentration of population, the location of social services facilities

transportation network, patterns of movement of people or goods and any other spatial arrangement which has a bearing on the quality of life as a geographically variable condition. And beneath them all, in the type of society—the economic, social, political structures that generate the pattern.

The welfare approach, nevertheless, has had different meanings in the different periods of human history. The humanist endeavours in various periods of different nations and societies like Jewish, Christians, Muslims, Confucians, Hellenistic, Scientific, Realists, Marxist and Existentialists, and many other forms of humanism appeared on the map of intellectual history.

The geographers who are mainly concerned with the problems of society and trying to formulate pragmatic proposals for public policy clarify the description and explanation of the phenomena. On the basis of such analysis they evaluate their plans and prescribe suitable strategies for balanced development.

Description involves the empirical identification of territorial levels of human well-being—the human condition. This is a major and immediate research area in which surprisingly little work has been done in India and in other developing countries. Explanation covers the how…It involves identifying the cause and effect links among the various activities undertaken in society, as they contribute to determining who gets what and where. This is where the analysis of the kind of economic, demographic and social patterns mentioned above logically fits into the welfare structure.

Evaluation involves making judgement on the desirability of alternative geographical states and the societal structure from which they arise. To say that one spatial pattern of human well-being is preferable to another is to say that a higher level of welfare is attached to it. Such judgements must be made with reference to equity as well as the efficiency criteria with which the geographer is more familiar. Geographical patterns of all kinds can be judged with respect to their profit maximizing and cost minimizing criteria.

Prescription requires the specifications of alternative geographical state, and alternative societal structures designed to produce them. Prescription involves answering the ethical question: who should get what, where? Implementations is the final process replacing as a state deemed undesirable by something superior. It covers the question of how, once it has been decided who should get what, where. Just what role should be adopted by geographer qua geographer in a changing world.

In the contemporary world, there is a growing awareness among geographers that all physical development has a potential income redistributive impact. Any development proposed at any time in space has the capacity to benefit some people in some places more than others. It would be very difficult to construct anything anywhere which would be of equal benefit to every citizen. This is because of this situation that the benefits of government developmental policies in developing societies do not percolate down to the lowest strata of these societies.

Geographical distance and accessibility mean that some people will be better placed to enjoy the advantages or disadvantages, whether the structure is hospital, school, road, railway, community hall, cinema, theatre, park, recreational place or sewage works. Therefore, location decisions and plans for spatial allocation of resources must be made with utmost care, if the benefits and penalties are to be proportional among the population in a predictable and equitable manner. In such public policy decisions, geographers’ role becomes imperative as they have the basic training in the spatial and temporal analysis of phenomena.

Spatial allocation problems are associated with identification of priority areas, planning routes, location of factories or other sources of employment, spatial arrangement of facilities providing medical care, housing complexes, shopping centres and allocation of land for different urban and recreational uses. Each of these decisions can be made in a number of ways, and each decision can have a different impact. Geographers by their training can build up more sophisticated knowledge of the process of development. This involves disentangling complex networks of economic, social and cultural relationships and also the ecological relationships in a balance, so easily disturbed by ill-conceived ‘development’ projects. Geographers by allocation, analysis and synthesis of space can contribute, successfully, meaningfully and effectively to the formation of public policy.

In developing countries like India there is a high degree of internal inequality. In the Third World nations wealth and power are still largely in the hands of a small urban elite or big landlords. The most obvious example is South Africa. In India also, more than 50 per cent of the population is below the poverty line while over 50 per cent of the total national assets are in the hands of only two dozen families. Moreover, in India, most of the economic activity is concentrated in metropolitan cores, though still over 70 per cent of the total population is residing in the rural areas. The urban biased industrial and social infrastructural policy adopted by planners is widening the gap between the rich and the poor on the one hand and rural and urban population on the other.

The highly advanced countries like U.S.A., Canada and Australia also have spatial variations in levels of human well-being. In the United States, the general material standard of living is higher than anywhere else in the world. Yet, millions of Americans, especially Negroes, live in poverty and social deprivation in ghettos—city slums. In parts of the rural south of U.S.A. (Texas, Georgia, etc.) people can be found living in conditions as bad as anywhere in South Africa. In these urban slums, the rate of crimes and drug addiction is fairly high.

The persistence of widespread poverty in American slums—the most affluent society in the world—is a contradiction which underlines the failure of economic growth under a capitalist system to uplift the lives of all people to current standard of decency. In 1976, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 12 per cent (26 million) Americans have income below the officially recognized poverty line.

One of the arguments put forward by the capitalist for the existing regional and intra-regional inequalities is that peoples are not born equal and they cannot be equal in their societies owing to the unequal distribution of the means of production. In fact, the chance of birth into a particular family or group in a particular locality, immediately constrains a child’s opportunity.

This situation gets further aggravated if the socio-political and economic organization is planned with an urban-biased or rich people-oriented policy. The planners in consultation with geographers can construct general social amenities which can benefit all sections of the society. Geographers, however, cannot be a panacea to all the ills, inequalities and socio-economic imbalances.

They know it much better than any other experts that they cannot make all deserts fertile, eliminate drought and create mineral resources where none exist in nature. There are physical limitations in the development of societies living in harsh environment. Such people, however, can have better chances of development if their resource base and needs of society will help to highlight fundamental issues of choice, efficiency and equity. Moreover, it would be useful in the provision of public services and other aspects of local life quality.

Geographers have the ability to analyze the spatial dimension of environmental problems and more particularly, to handle, analyze and interpret spatially distributed data. This awareness of and facility of handling the spatial dimension, which is a major ingredient of all problems of environmental and resource management, is something not generally provided by those in other disciplines and tends to be overlooked if a geographer does not provide it.

A welfare society needs better allocation of commodities, better distribution of commodities and better allocation of means of production among individuals (groups or classes) and among places. All these things are more easily achievable if geographers who deal with the man-environment interaction and examine the spatial distribution of phenomena are actively involved in the process of planning and formulation of public policies at the local, regional, national and international levels.

In countries like Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, Israel, Denmark, U.S.S.R., France, New Zealand and Australia where geographers in collaboration with other scientists design public policies the use and beneficial effects of resources are reaching all sections of the societies. Geographers in India can provide pragmatic proposals for solving the various socio-economic and employment problems facing the rapidly increasing population.

By their efforts geographers can consider the causal relationships between inequity, the spatial organization of society and social structure. Public policies about reorganization and redistribution can be designed through planning by the experts who have expertise in man-environment interaction and spatial analysis of phenomena. For this purpose, geographers have to assert themselves through their applied and utilitarian researches.

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How to save money at home.

Record your expenses.

The first step to start saving money is to figure out how much you spend. Keep track of all your expenses—that means every coffee, household item and cash tip.Once you have your data, organize the numbers by categories, such as gas, groceries and mortgage, and total each amount. Use your credit card and bank statements to make sure you’re accurate—and don’t forget any.

The first step to start saving money is to figure out how much you spend.

Once you have an idea of what you spend in a month, you can begin to organize your recorded expenses into a workable budget. Your budget should outline how your expenses measure up to your income—so you can plan your spending and limit overspending. Be sure to factor in expenses that occur regularly but not every month, such as car maintenance.

Budget for savings.

as much as you’d like, it might be time to cut back. Identify non essentials that you can spend less on, such as entertainment and dining out. Look for ways to save on your fixed monthly expenses like television and your cell phone, too.Here are some ideas for trimming everyday expenses:Use resources such as community event listings to find free or low-cost events to reduce entertainment spending.Cancel subscriptions and memberships you don’t use—especially if they renew automatically.

Find ways you can cut your spending.

Commit to eating out only once a month and trying places that fall into the “cheap eats” category.Give yourself a “cooling off period”: When tempted by a nonessential purchase, wait a few days. You may be glad you passed—or ready to save up for it.

Decide on your priorities.

One of the best ways to save money is to set a goal. Start by thinking of what you might want to save for—perhaps you’re getting married, planning a vacation or saving for retirement. Then figure out how much money you’ll need and how long it might take you to save it.

Pick the right tools.

After your expenses and income, your goals are likely to have the biggest impact on how you allocate your savings. Be sure to remember long-term goals—it’s important that planning for retirement doesn’t take a back seat to shorter-term needs.

Indian political system

Politics in any country involves the ruling party and the opposition. Usually and ideally, political parties are formed based on the same line of thinking and ideology. The left and the right are the two terms usually used by media and political commentators to define the group of people with the same ideological bend of mind. The lefts are usually considered liberal, secular and pro-government ideologies while the right is considered majoritarian, pro-poor and rebellious in nature.

These definitions are not defined anywhere in the constitutions. of any governmental organisations, but are the terms coined by journalists, authors and commentators. For example, in the USA, the democrats are known to be left-leaning while the republicans are known to be right-leaning, in UK Labour party is seen to be right-leaning ideology and the conservative party having a left-leaning ideology. The case is similar in India as well, with Congress having left-leaning ideologies while BJP having right-leaning ideologies.

And for a perfect democracy to work, both the ideologies are necessary. A mature democracy is one where there is a fine demarcation between the two ideologies, but in countries like India, these demarcations are blurry and the left and right ideologies superimpose on each other often number of times.

The political system is built in such a way that, irrespective of what ideologies, policies, processes, institutions, strategy, behaviours, classes or diplomacy that a political party follows, the core vision and objective lie in the development of the country.

But, like always, not everything that glitters is gold, is it not?

Politics is called a dirty game and rightly so, especially in a country like India. Greed, corruption, injustice, bigotry and hatred are some of the very few terms that are usually associated with Indian politics. In this essay on Indian politics, we will not be able to talk about it all, but we will try to touch upon each of the issues.

Politicians usually choose their parties, not because they believe in the ideologies of the party, but because of the winnability quotient in the elections. Elections, unfortunately, is all about money power and muscle power. The ideologies and promises are just the sugar coating that politician do to get votes from people. But even if they follow the ideology of a party, the ideologies itself is flawed and broken from its core. Divide and rule policy followed by the British to rule India is followed by today’s politicians to get votes. Political parties, across the spectrum, try to divide people of India on the basis of religions and class. This is usually called by the term communal polarisation. The gullible voters play into the hands of these political parties and belive the fancy promises they show in the name of development. In a good democratic system, a common man should also be well aware of their rights and responsibilities as a law-abiding citizen.

A good politics consists of the government and its opposition, with both of them working for the development of the country, in their capacities. The opposition parties questions criticise and demands accountability from the ruling party so that the ruling regime is kept in check. The system works fine in its idealistic form. But political parties, with their greed for power, forget their true responsibilities and indulge in dirty games to grab power at any cost. That cost is borne by the common man of the country.

According to our Constitution, India is a “sovereign secular socialist democratic republic.” It has 28 states and seven Union Territories. With a population of approximately 112 crore, India happens to be the largest democracy in the world. Indian polity is a multi-party democracy, based on the adult franchise system of voting. That is any Indian citizen of 18 and above, who is not debarred by law, can vote in the Indian elections, at national, state and local levels.

India is a parliamentary democracy and a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, where the Prime Minister is the head of government. He or she should be chosen by the MPs (Member of Parliaments) of the ruling party or the coalition that comes to power. The Vice President has to temporarily assume the role of President in the event of the death, resignation, or removal of the President, until a new President is chosen by the electoral college. The Vice President of India may also act temporarily as President, during the absence or illness of the President. The Vice President of India is also the Ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. Mohammad Hamid Ansari is the present Vice President of India.

Executive, Legislature and Judiciary

With the Union Government and State Governments wrest the executive power, while the legislative power is vested on the Union Government and the two houses of Indian Parliament- the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha- and also the State Government and two state legislatures-Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad. However, here it deserves a mention that only five of India’s 28 states have Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council, which is also known as the upper house of state legislatures, along with the Vidhan Sabha. The rest of the states don’t have bicameral legislatures, and only have Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly. Each state also has a Governor, who is formally appointed by the President of India. The role of the Governor is somewhat similar to that of President in the national level; he is a titular head of the state in normal circumstances, but can exercise some powers when directed by the Union Government.

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Constitutionalism



Besides the concept of the Constitution, there is also the all-important concept of ‘Constitutionalism’. Modern political thought draws a distinction between ‘Constitutionalism’ and ‘Constitution’. A country may have the ‘Constitution’ but not necessarily ‘Constitutionalism’. For example, a country with a dictatorship, where the dictator’s word is law, can be said to have a ‘Constitution’ but not ‘Constitutionalism’. The underlying difference between the two concepts is that a Constitution ought not merely to confer powers on the various organs of the government, but also seek to restrain those powers. Constitutionalism recognizes the need for the government but insists upon limitations being placed upon governmental powers. Constitutionalism envisages checks and balances and putting the powers of the legislature and the executive under some restraints and not making them uncontrolled and arbitrary.


Unlimited powers jeopardize the freedom of the people. As has been well said:
power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. If the Constitution confers
unrestrained power on either the legislature or the executive, it might lead to
an authoritarian, oppressive government. Therefore, to preserve the basic freedoms
of the individual, and to maintain his dignity and personality, the Constitution
should be permeated with ‘Constitutionalism’; it should have some in-built
restrictions on the powers conferred by it on governmental organs.
‘Constitutionalism’ connotes in essence limited government or a limitation on
government. Constitutionalism is the antithesis of arbitrary powers. ‘Constitutionalism’
recognizes the need for a government with powers but at the same time
insists that limitations be placed on those powers. The antithesis of Constitutionalism
is despotism. Unlimited power may lead to an authoritarian, oppressive,
government that jeopardizes the freedoms of the people. Only when the Constitution
of a country seeks to decentralize power instead of concentrating it at
one point, and also imposes other restraints and limitations thereon, does a country
have not only ‘constitution’ but also ‘constitutionalism’.
‘Constitutions spring from a belief in limited government. According to
SCHWARTZ, in the U.S.A., the word Constitution means “a written organic instrument,
under which governmental powers are both conferred and circumscribed”.
He emphasizes that “this stress upon grant and limitation of authority is
fundamental”. As PROFESSOR VILE has remarked:
“Western institutional theorists have concerned themselves with the problems
of ensuring that the exercise of governmental power, which is essential to
the realization of the values of their societies should be controlled in order that
it should not itself be destructive of the values it was intended to promote.”
The idea of Constitutionalism is not new. It is embedded deeply in human
thought. Many natural law philosophers have promoted this idea through their writings.

Some of these philosophers are: ACQUINAS, PAINE, LOCKE, GROTIUS AND
ROUSSEAU. The Magna Carta (1215) strengthened the traditional view that law is
supreme. As observed by ARTHUR SUTHERLAND, “The Great Charter was obviously
a cherished standard, a welcome assurance that people could set some limitation on
the arbitrary power of the king.”
A written Constitution, an independent judiciary with powers of judicial review,
the doctrine of rule of law and separation of powers, free elections to legislature,
accountable and transparent democratic government, Fundamental Rights of the
people, federalism, decentralization of power are some of the principles and norms
which promote Constitutionalism in a country.

Is traditional schooling better than homeschooling?

Hi! For quite sometime, I wanted to discuss about homeschooling as one of my relative asked me whether homeschooling and online schooling are the same. No, they are not same, here’s how.

WHAT IS HOMESCHOOLING?

Homeschooling is Elective home education (EHE) is the education of school-aged children at their homes. It is teaching school subjects to one’s children at their own home instead of sending them to public and private schools. It is legal in a lot of countries.

Traditional school is the custom that our society follows. A student would be enrolled in a public or private school. The teachers allocated are the ones who take responsibility for teaching the syllabus.

REASON BEHIND HOMESCHOOLING

There are various reasons for the parents to consider homeschooling. It can be because they are not satisfied with the educational options available, children are not progressing in the traditional schooling, their belief, and they also might want their children to include religious texts.

It would be effective to teach them lessons that are not being taught in traditional schools. Not just that, homeschooling can strengthen the family, it would mean more family time. Homeschoolers have the advantage of blending lessons and values. It is a lot to consider and plan but at the end of the day, it is about education for your child. The efforts from you can take them a long way.

HOMESCHOOLING REQUIREMENTS

In most states, it is required that a child’s parent oversee homeschooling, which includes providing an equivalent education for their child. Check with your state law to know the requirements.

The parent should be taking full responsibility when it comes to homeschooling. Make sure your schedule and priorities are sorted. An understanding of your child’s learning pace, style and interest is vital for effective homeschooling.

Parents must decide on the homeschooling curriculum. Homeschooling space is a must! Create a space for your child to study. Get the space organized with a study table, lamp, calendar, clock and stationery items. The goals have to be set. A goal to accomplish can help us have a clear vision.

Don’t start without a plan, it need not be perfect buy it should be achievable and organized. A schedule is a must for homeschooling. The timetable has to be organized and neat. Engage your child with field trips, museum visits, take them to the library and such engaging activities. Try not to forget about sports and extracurricular activities.

PROS OF HOMESCHOOLING

  • Lack of peer pressure.
  • Emotional freedom.
  • Flexible schedule.
  • Learn at their own pace.
  • Special needs are taken care.
  • Happier at their own space.
  • Independent.
  • Educational freedom.
  • Parent’s satisfaction.

CONS OF HOMESCHOOLING

  • Huge responsibility as a teacher and a parent.
  • Dedicating time means loss of income and reduce in your work.
  • In few states, it is not allowed.
  • Smaller circle of friends for the children.
  • Spend time reviewing the curriculum.
  • Spending lot for home school supplies.

Homeschooling will not ruin your child. If done right, it won’t affect the social life of them.

Here are few articles and interviews; My child’s happiness was at stake. “School is oppressive”

Interview

8 APPS AND TOOLS THAT WILL MAKE YOUR LIFE SIMPLER

There’s an app for everything nowadays, from tracking steps to tracking calories.  A good app offers some level of added utility to your day-to-day life without intruding in on your real-world responsibilities. When looking to get the most use out of your smartphone, look for apps that can enhance your work, hobbies, and relaxation. Apps can help you to take charge of three of the most important aspects of your day-to-day life: your family, your health, and your time.

                   Technology is a godsend. From the idea of communicating a thought to another person within seconds to freezing a moment in time—technology has made life more memorable, productive, and helpful. One search can result in a multitude of pasta recipes and life advice. One swipe could you find you a potential partner. A few movements and you’ve reminded your sister to feed the dog.

                   As easy as technology is, my life experiences have driven me to always be in the pursuit of more and more life altering apps to step up my act in being spiritual, healthy, productive, and social. Below are just a few.

1.Inshorts:

Free

iOS and Android

The Inshorts app, developed by Ada News InShorts Pvt. Ltd, is designed to summarize every news piece in 60 words—yes, exact 60 words. The idea is to deliver the news at speed, complete with facts and what you really need to know. Laborious analysis is kept aside, so as to not slow you down while in the process of catching up with the happenings of the day. The app covers a wide range of genres. All stories are condensed manually by the in-house editorial team, and each news article also includes links to the larger story on the source website. This app was previously known as News In Shorts.

2.UrbanClap:

Free

iOS and Android

The UrbanClap app is perhaps the biggest indicator of a new trend of hiring professionals for executing various tasks and services. This includes repairs and maintenance tasks, including AC repairs, managing home care, plan events such as weddings and birthday parties as well as signing up for services such as tutors and for hobbies, among other things. Once a user puts in a specific request in the app, UrbanClap matches it with the registered professionals and assigns accordingly. UrbanClap says that they have more than 50,000 professionals registered to work on the platform and have more than 1 million users.

3.Swiggy:

Free

iOS and Android

The idea of opening an app on the smartphone, and depending on what catches your fancy that day, ordering food has caught on quite quickly. Indian app Swiggy is currently available in eight cities—Delhi, Gurgaon, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai. Users, depending on the city and the precise location, can order from restaurants in the vicinity. Swiggy currently does not have any minimum order criteria for delivery of the order.

4.Hike Messenger:

Free

iOS, Android, Windows Phone

Instant messenger apps are by far the most popular smartphone apps, simply because they have made communication with friends a lot faster and a lot less cluttered. The made-in-India Hike Messenger has 100 million users and the platform is used for exchanging as many as 40 billion messages every month. Over time, Hike Messenger has become more polished to use, and has added some rather cool features as well. The latest version of the app includes optimization for better connectivity when the 2G/3G/4G connection falters as well as a Hidden Mode for keeping chats private. Hike Messenger includes a Direct feature which lets you share files with friends, who are in close physical proximity at that time, without using the mobile data or Wi-Fi connection.

5.Fitso:

Free (in-app purchases)

iOS and Android

Once you are done with the food that you ordered using a food delivery app on your smartphone, it may be time to count the calories and pull out the fitness app on your phone. And the Fitso app for Apple iPhone and Android smartphones does just what is expected from it. Users can track their activities, set goals, manage workouts and also chat with a coach to get tips on how to improve your fitness routine.

6.Sleep cycle:

Free (in-app purchases)

iOS and Android

Sleep is one of the most often-overlooked aspects of a person’s health. The Sleep Cycle app helps users achieve optimal sleeping habits by waking them up at the best possible time each morning. Intelligent graphs and insights help the user to understand their sleeping habits and how to achieve a more restful sleep cycle.

7. Wattpad:

Free (in-app purchases)

iOS and Android

Make the most out of your free time. Wattpad is a popular app for reading enthusiasts as it provides a diverse library of materials that don’t require downloading huge PDFs or connecting to the internet. Liven up your commute or make better use of your downtime with a book, article, or short story.

8. Insight timer:

Free (in-app purchases)

iOS and Android

Mental health is every bit as important as physical health, and Insight Timer helps to improve your mental health through mindfulness and meditation. Give your mind a chance to relax from the stresses of a busy day at work.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder or NDP is a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity. You may see it in people who have an inflated ego, with little regards to others. It is important to note that NDP is a psychiatric condition, and it is more complex than simply being arrogant. It’s distressing for those who have it and for those who’re around them. Hoping to shed some light on the condition, and sign that a person should seek help. While much of T.V and movies portray narcissism as people who feel like they’re better than everyone else, it’s usually not just the case.

What is narcissism?

Narcissism is a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists. The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image. To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smart and more important than other people and that they deserve special treatment.

Psychologists recognize two form of narcissism as personality traits:

  • Grandiose
  • Vulnerable

What is NDP?

  • NPD is a personality disorder in which the person feels self-important and craves constant validation.
  • Their feelings of superiority often hint at a deeper problem.
  • As their need of validation often comes from a place of insecurity and instability rather than genuine self love which they may not be aware of.

What causes NPD?

  1. While the cause of NPD is unknown, researchers believe that it has to do with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  2. It’s believed that 6% of people have this disorder. Men have a higher chance of this disorder than women.
  3. Some believe that NPD is developed to cope with trauma and feelings of inadequacy. Others believe it may be learned in early childhood from dealing with anything, from abuse to excessive pampering.
  4. There is even a debate as to how much of the disorder is passed down from parents to children acquiring the disorder.

What are the signs and Symptoms?

The feeling of grandiosity where they feel that they’re superior to others and low empathy are often seen in those with NPD; they don’t care much for others expecting to receive constant validation.

  • People with NPD feel as though they’re entitled to whatever they want which can be dangerous as it can manifest into toxic relationships.
  • They may manipulate others to get what they want.
  • They brag and exaggerate their achievements or feel envious of anyone that outperforms them, but deep down the person with NPD may be really dealing with their own feeling of inadequacy.

How to get help?

  • People with NPD may not seek help for the disorder itself as they may not know that there’s an issue.
  • Usually, people are diagnosed because they seek treatment for other issues such as depression or addiction.

However people who feel that they may have the condition and urged to reach out for help. NPD and the underlying feelings of inadequacy can be treated. It not only benefits the individual, but also to people around them.

What treatment options are available?

People diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder will most likely work with a therapist using psychotherapy methods.

Other self-improving activities such as:-

  • Doing exercises and,
  • Hobbies may be used in conjunction with therapy.

Coming to a conclusion, we do live in a very materialistic and Consumersious society and as long as that’s the case, narcissism is going to win because it’s about putting yourself first and not caring as much about others. Not to mention people with NPD can be very generous when it’s going to get them what they need. They may buy everyone big dinners and take everyone on a big vacation so it creates this illusion that there’s lots of people all around them, because it’s all the stuff that they’re making possible for them. It’s important to know that treatment is available and that life can be made more manageable.

TYPES OF MALWARE

WHAT IS MALWARE?

  Malware is malicious software that is designed to affect computer operations or gaining access to the computer system without the user’s knowledge or permission. Computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, scareware are some of the malware. Malware is simple to identify. Most cybercriminals target the user’s end devices through the installation of malware.

VIRUSES:

  A malicious executable code attached to another executable file is known as a virus. Most of the viruses need the end user’s initiation and can activate at a specific time or date. Computer viruses are spread through removable media, downloads from the internet, and email attachments. The virus can be simple or destructive. They may delete or modify the user’s data. Opening a file may trigger a virus. The USB flash drives are infected by the virus and then spread to the system’s hard disk. A virus will also be activated by executing a specific program. Once the programs get infected by a virus, it will affect the other programs on the computer network. The Melissa virus was an example of a virus that has spread through email and affected thousands of end-users.

WORMS:

  Worms are malicious code that exploiting vulnerabilities in networks. Unlike a virus, they replicate independently. Viruses require a host program to run whereas worms can run by themselves. Worms are used to slow down the networks. Other than the initial infection, worms no longer need the user’s participation. Worms share similar patterns and once they affect the host they can spread fast through the network. Worms propagate themselves by carrying a payload. The code red worm in 2001 has affected nearly 658 servers.

TROJAN HORSES:

  A Trojan horse is a malware that carries out malicious operations. It is disguised under the desired operation such as playing an online game. Once the user runs the files with Trojan horse, the malicious code exploits the privileges of the user. The Trojan horse binds to the non-executable files. Some of such files are image files, audio files, or games.

LOGIC BOMBS:

   A logic bomb is a malicious program. It requires a trigger to work. It remains inactive until it is triggered by an external event. Once the bomb gets activated, it harms the user’s computer. A logic bomb can modify data records, or remove files or attack the operating system. The logic bomb overdrives the devices like cooling fans, CPU memory, hard drives until these devices get overheated or corrupts.

RANSOMWARE:

   Ransomware holds the files and devices until the target makes the payment. It works by encrypting the data with a key unknown to the user. To remove the restriction, the user may pay a ransom to the criminals. Some other versions of ransomware can take advantage of specific vulnerabilities to lock down the system. It may enter through the downloaded files or sometimes it may propagate as Trojan horses. Once the victims pay the ransom, the criminals will issue the key to unlock the code or the programs that decrypt the files. They receive the payment through the untraceable payment system.

BACKDOORS:

  A backdoor refers to the criminal introduces the malicious program or code by compromising the system. Netbus and Back office are some of the backdoors that allow remote access to unauthorized access. Even though the organization fixes the original vulnerability, the backdoor grants the cybercriminals future access to the system. Usually, criminals run a Trojan horse program to install the backdoor to the user’s system.

ROOTKITS:

  To introduce a backdoor in the system, the rootkits help to modify the operating system. The attackers use the backdoor to access the system. Most rootkits take advantage of software vulnerabilities to modify or delete the system files. Rootkits modify the system forensics and monitoring tools.

DEFENDING AGAINST MALWARE

  Some steps to follow that defends against all types of malware:

·        ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE: Most of the malware is caught by the antivirus suites. On the daily basis, cybercriminals develop and deploy new threats. Therefore the key to an effective antivirus solution is that keep the systems updated. A signature is like a fingerprint to identify malicious codes.

·        UP-TO-DATE SOFTWARE: Through the software vulnerabilities in software both in the OS and applications, malware can achieve its objectives. The application-level vulnerabilities also cause severe risks to the system. So always use the up-to-date software.

.

Story of Cellular Jail of India

You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?

Emergence

During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.

It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.

The Punishment

The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.

The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.

Britishers in their own jail

In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.

After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.

After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.

BRAIN DRAIN ?

Brain Drain in a nation happens when the country’s intense residents who have imagination and virtuoso withdraw for other better nations abroad to improve working freedoms. This relocation and take off of talented people are known as Brain Drain. Cerebrum Drain can be a crucial misfortune to a country since it loses a lot of proficient individuals, who might have in any case contributed altogether to the country’s monetary and logical accomplishments.

Brain Drain can reach out over different degrees dependent on their inclination. The normal sorts of cerebrum channel incorporate – Organizational Brain Drain, geological mind channel, and mechanical mind channel. Topographical cerebrum channel alludes to the definition given above; it is the displacement of splendid and gifted individuals starting with one geological zone then onto the next.

Authoritative cerebrum channel is the development of splendid brained and capable individuals starting with one association then onto the next. Because of such a mind channel, the mother association is set for a misfortune. The authoritative cerebrum channel happens because of better compensations and working conditions in different associations. Modern Brain Drain, then again, alludes to the moving of skilled and blessed individuals starting with one industry then onto the next; this happens because of possibilities of better work and better compensation in different areas. Whatever be the sort of cerebrum channel, it unavoidably brings about a financial and social misfortune.

the measure of cerebrum channel in India is gigantic. There can be a few factors that add to such a situation. First and foremost, India needs giving open positions. The pace of joblessness in the nation is extremely high. Accordingly, splendid understudies, in the wake of having finished their higher investigations, plan to move to another country to benefit better positions and profession openings.

Moreover, innovative progression in India is hopeless; the nation needs current logical gear. A particularly hopeless condition doesn’t give an ideal workplace. Individuals will in general move to other progressed nations.

Moving abroad to first world nations not just permits one to have better profession possibilities, yet they can likewise benefit of a superior way of life, a superior way of life, and better living offices. They feel that their ability is being perceived and recognized deservedly abroad. India can’t offer such steadiness to its residents. Thus, they move out.

In the event that the cerebrum channel is passed on open to occur with no limitations, India would be wrecked. In the event that every one of the brains in the nation go for different nations to benefit of better working conditions, there would be no ability left. Without mastery, talented individuals, and clever people, the areas like law, designing, clinical, the organization would set until the end of time. They would not progress.

The best way to confine mind channel is to better compared to expectations for everyday comforts in the actual nation. The work rate ought to be mitigated – a more noteworthy number of occupations ought to be given. More number of positions should open available. Every one of the areas in the nation ought to be modernized; logical and mechanical headway ought to be in help. Thusly, the possible gifted individuals in the nation will feel approved and needed.

INSTAGRAM

Instagram (commonly abbreviated to IG, Insta or the gram)[9] is an American photo and video sharing social networking service created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger. In April 2012, Facebook acquired the service for approximately US$1 billion in cash and stock. The app allows users to upload media that can be edited with filters and organized by hashtags and geographical tagging. Posts can be shared publicly or with pre-approved followers. Users can browse other users’ content by tags and locations and view trending content. Users can like photos and follow other users to add their content to a personal feed.

Original author(s) Kevin Systrom

Mike Krieger

Developer(s) Facebook, Inc.

Initial release October 6, 2010; 10 years

ago

Stable release(s)[±]

Android 198.0.0.32.120 / July 26, 2021; 36

days ago

iOS 198.0 / July 26, 2021; 36 days ago

Fire OS 198.0.0.32.120 / July 26, 2021; 36

days ago

Preview release(s)[±]

Android 199.0.0.0.116 / July 27, 2021; 35

(Alpha) days ago

Android 199.0.0.3.119 / July 27, 2021; 35

(Beta) days ago

Operating system iOS, Android, Fire OS,

Microsoft windows

Size 171.7 MB (iOS)
38.49 MB (Android)
42.6 MB (Fire OS)

Available in 32[8] languages

List of languages
Chinese (Simplified and Traditional),Croatian,Czech,Danish,Dutch,English,Finnish,French,German,Greek,Hindi,Hungarian,Indonesian,Italian,Japanese,Korean,Malay,Norwegian,Polish,Portuguese,Romanian,Russian,Slovak,Spanish,Swedish,Tagalog,Thai,Turkish,Ukrainian,Vietnamese,Persian.

License Proprietary software with

Teams of use

Website http://www.instagram.com

Instagram was originally distinguished by only allowing content to be framed in a square (1:1) aspect ratio with 640 pixels to match the display width of the iPhone at the time. In 2015, these restrictions were eased with an increase to 1080 pixels. The service also added messaging features, the ability to include multiple images or videos in a single post, and a ‘stories’ feature—similar to its main opposition Snapchat—which allows users to post photos and videos to a sequential feed, with each post accessible by others for 24 hours each. As of January 2019, the Stories feature is used by 500 million users daily.

Originally launched for iOS in October 2010, Instagram rapidly gained popularity, with one million registered users in two months, 10 million in a year, and 1 billion as of June 2018.The Android version was released in April 2012, followed by a feature-limited desktop interface in November 2012, a Fire OS app in June 2014, and an app for Windows 10 in October 2016. As of October 2015, over 40 billion photos had been uploaded. Although praised for its influence, Instagram has been the subject of criticism, most notably for policy and interface changes, allegations of censorship, and illegal or improper content uploaded by users.

As of June 2021, the most followed person is Portuguese professional footballer Cristiano Ronaldo with over 300 million followers.The most followed woman is American singer Ariana Grande. As of January 14, 2019, the most-liked photo on Instagram is a picture of an egg, posted by the account @world_record_egg, created with the sole purpose of surpassing the previous record of 18 million likes on a Kylie Jenner post. The picture currently has over 55 million likes.The second most-liked photo is a wedding photo of Ariana Grande and her husband Dalton Gomez.Instagram became the 4th most downloaded mobile app of the 2010s.

RECEPTION

In 2021, Washington Post reported that it has made an international black market for migrant workers, women in Africa and Asia, sold into servitude as maids in Persian Gulf countries.

Awards

Instagram was the runner-up for “Best Mobile App” at the 2010 TechCrunch Crunchies in January 2011. In May 2011, Fast Company listed CEO Kevin Systrom at number 66 in “The 100 Most Creative People in Business in 2011”. In June 2011, Inc. included co-founders Systrom and Krieger in its 2011 “30 Under 30” list.

Instagram won “Best Locally Made App” in the SF Weekly Web Awards in September 2011. 7x7Magazine’s September 2011 issue featured Systrom and Krieger on the cover of their “The Hot 20 2011” issue.In December 2011, Apple Inc. named Instagram the “App of the Year” for 2011.[326] In 2015, Instagram was named No. 1 by Mashable on its list of “The 100 best iPhone apps of all time,” noting Instagram as “one of the most influential social networks in the world.” Instagram was listed among Time’s “50 Best Android Applications for 2013” list

Mental health

In May 2017, a survey conducted by the United Kingdom’s Royal Society for Public Health, featuring 1,479 people aged 14–24, asking them to rate social media platforms depending on anxiety, depression, loneliness, bullying and body image, concluded that Instagram was the “worst for young mental health”. Some have suggested it may contribute to digital dependence, whist this same survey noticed its positive effects, including self-expression, self-identity, and community building. In response to the survey, Instagram stated that “Keeping Instagram a safe and supportive place for young people was a top priority”. The company filters out the reviews and accounts. If some of the accounts violate Instagram’s community guidelines, it will take action, which could include banning them.

In 2017, researchers from Harvard University and University of Vermont demonstrated a machine learning tool that successfully outperformed general practitioners’ diagnostic success rate for depression. The tool used color analysis, metadata components, and face detection of users’ feeds.

Throughout 2019, Instagram began to test the hiding of like counts for posts made by its users.

Correlations have been made between Instagram content and poor body dissatisfaction, as a result of body comparisons. In a recent survey half of the applicants admitted to photo editing behavior which has been linked with concerns over body image.

Negative comments

In response to abusive and negative comments on users’ photos, Instagram has made efforts to give users more control over their posts and accompanying comments field. In July 2016, it announced that users would be able to turn off comments for their posts, as well as control the language used in comments by inputting words they consider offensive, which will ban applicable comments from showing up.[334][335] After the July 2016 announcement, the ability to ban specific words began rolling out early August to celebrities, followed by regular users in September.In December, the company began rolling out the abilities for users to turn off the comments and, for private accounts, remove followers.

In September 2017, the company announced that public users would be able to limit who can comment on their content, such as only their followers or people they follow. At the same time, it updated its automated comment filter to support additional languages.

In June 2017, Instagram announced that it would automatically attempt to filter offensive, harassing, and “spammy” comments by default. The system is built using a Facebook-developed deep learning algorithm known as DeepText (first implemented on the social network to detect spam comments), which utilizes natural-language processing techniques, and can also filter by user-specified keywords.

In July 2019, the service announced that it would introduce a system to proactively detect problematic comments and encourage the user to reconsider their comment, as well as allowing users the ability to “restrict” others’ abilities to communicate with them, citing that younger users felt the existing block system was too much of an escalation.

Culture

On August 9, 2012, English musician Ellie Goulding released a new music video for her song “Anything Could Happen.” The video only contained fan-submitted Instagram photographs that used various filters to represent words or lyrics from the song, and over 1,200 different photographs were submitted.

Security

In August 2017, reports surfaced that a bug in Instagram’s developer tools had allowed “one or more individuals” to gain access to the contact information, specifically email addresses and phone numbers, of several high-profile verified accounts, including its most followed user, Selena Gomez. The company said in a statement that it had “fixed the bug swiftly” and was running an investigation.However, the following month, more details emerged, with a group of hackers selling contact information online, with the affected number of accounts in the “millions” rather than the previously-assumed limitation on verified accounts. Hours after the hack, a searchable database was posted online, charging $10 per search.The Daily Beast was provided with a sample of the affected accounts, and could confirm that, while many of the email addresses could be found with a Google search in public sources, some did not return relevant Google search results and thus were from private sources.The Verge wrote that cybersecurity firm RepKnight had found contact information for multiple actors, musicians, and athletes, and singer Selena Gomez’s account was used by the hackers to post naked photos of her ex-boyfriend Justin Bieber. The company admitted that “we cannot determine which specific accounts may have been impacted”, but believed that “it was a low percentage of Instagram accounts”, though TechCrunch stated in its report that six million accounts were affected by the hack, and that “Instagram services more than 700 million accounts; six million is not a small number”.



In 2019, Apple pulled an app that let users stalk people on Instagram by scraping accounts and collecting data.

Iran has DPI blocking for Instagram.

Content ownership

On December 17, 2012, Instagram announced a change to its Terms of Service policy, adding the following sentence:

To help us deliver interesting paid or sponsored content or promotions, you agree that a business or other entity may pay us to display your username, likeness, photos (along with any associated metadata), and/or actions you take, in connection with paid or sponsored content or promotions, without any compensation to you.

There was no option for users to opt out of the changed Terms of Service without deleting their accounts before the new policy went into effect on January 16, 2013.The move garnered severe criticism from users,prompting Instagram CEO Kevin Systrom to write a blog post one day later, announcing that they would “remove” the offending language from the policy. Citing misinterpretations about its intention to “communicate that we’d like to experiment with innovative advertising that feels appropriate on Instagram”, Systrom also stated that it was “our mistake that this language is confusing” and that “it is not our intention to sell your photos”. Furthermore, he wrote that they would work on “updated language in the terms to make sure this is clear”.

The policy change and its backlash caused competing photo services to use the opportunity to “try to lure users away” by promoting their privacy-friendly services,and some services experienced substantial gains in momentum and user growth following the news.On December 20, Instagram announced that the advertising section of the policy would be reverted to its original October 2010 version.The Verge wrote about that policy as well, however, noting that the original policy gives the company right to “place such advertising and promotions on the Instagram Services or on, about, or in conjunction with your Content”, meaning that “Instagram has always had the right to use your photos in ads, almost any way it wants. We could have had the exact same freakout last week, or a year ago, or the day Instagram launched”

The policy update also introduced an arbitration clause, which remained even after the language pertaining to advertising and user content had been modified.

Environmental pollution

– Aastha Joshi

Environmental pollution is an internationally viewed concern and its effects on ecosystems and human health are very evident. Sources and occurrences of pollutants that are clearly defined and measured in environmental compartments, food and food-related items, and human bodies. Activities urbanization, industrialization, mining, and exploration are at the forefront of global environmental pollution. Both developed and developing nations share this burden together, though awareness and stricter laws in developed countries have contributed to a larger extent in protecting their environment. Despite the global attention towards pollution, the impact is still being felt due to its severe long-term consequences. The decline in environmental quality as a consequence of pollution is evidenced by loss of vegetation, biological diversity, excessive amounts of harmful chemicals in the ambient atmosphere and in food grains, and growing risks of environmental accidents and threats to life support systems. A pollutant can be any chemical or geochemical substance, biological organism or product, or physical substance that is released intentionally or inadvertently by man into the environment with actual or potential adverse, harmful, unpleasant, or inconvenient effects. Pollution can be characterised Air Pollution Water Pollution, Soil/Land Pollution, Noise Pollution, Radioactive Pollution, Thermal Pollution. Which is threatening the environment, humans, plants, animals, and all living organisms.

Environmental pollution caused by the dumping of a wide range of industrial waste is now serious. Hazardous waste sites occur worldwide resulting in the deposition of xenobiotics in soil and water .Like all living creatures, microorganisms need carbon, nutrients, and energy to survive and replicate. Such organisms obtain nutrients and energy from the chemical degradation of contaminants into simple compounds, that is, water, carbon dioxide, salts, and other nontoxic substances. Major sources include the emission of pollutants from power stations, refineries, and petrochemicals, the chemical and fertilizer industries, metallurgical and other industrial plants, and, finally, municipal incineration. Climate is the other side of the same coin that reduces the quality of our Earth. Pollutants such as black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone, and aerosols affect the amount of incoming sunlight. As a result, the temperature of the Earth is increasing, resulting in the melting of ice, icebergs, and glaciers, ir pollution can have a disastrous effect on allcomponents of the environment, including groundwater, soil, and air. Additionally, it poses a serious threat to living organisms. In this vein, our interest is mainly to focus on these pollutants, as they are related to more extensive and severe problems in human health and environmental impact. Acid rain, global warming, the greenhouse effect, and climate changes have an important ecological impact on air pollution. Ozone is a gas formed from oxygen under high voltage electric discharge It is a strong oxidant, 52% stronger than chlorine. It arises in the stratosphere, but it could also arise following chain reactions of photochemical smog in the troposphere. Ozone can travel to distant areas from its initial source, moving with air masses It is surprising that ozone levels over cities are low in contrast to the increased amounts occuring in urban areas, which could become harmful for cultures, forests, and vegetation as it is reducing carbon assimilation. Ozone reduces growth and yield and affects the plant microflora due to its antimicrobial capacity In this regard, ozone acts upon other natural ecosystems, with microflora and animal species changing their species composition. Ozone increases DNA damage in epidermal keratinocytes and leads to impaired cellular function. Ground-level ozone is generated through a chemical reaction between oxides of nitrogen and VOCs emitted from natural sources and/or following anthropogenic activities. Ozone uptake usually occurs by inhalation. Ozone affects the upper layers of the skin and the tear ducts. A study of short-term exposure of mice to high levels of ozone showed malondialdehyde formation in the upper skin (epidermis) but also depletion in vitamins C and E. It is likely that ozone levels are not interfering with the skin barrier function and integrity to predispose to skin disease. Due to the low water-solubility of ozone, inhaled ozone has the capacity to penetrate deeply into the lungs. Toxic effects induced by ozone are registered in urban areas all over the world, causing biochemical, morphologic, functional, and immunological disorders Daily ozone concentrations compared to the daily number of deaths were reported from different European cities for a 3-year period. During the warm period of the year, an observed increase in ozone concentration was associated with an increase in the daily number of deaths. Environmental pollution is a concern in which all the countries have to come together at the global level and take initiatives.

Mass communication

-Aastha Joshi

Mass communication can be defined as the process of creating, sending, receiving, and analysing messages to large audiences via verbal and written media. These mediums are wide-ranging, and include print, digital media and the Internet, social media, radio, and television. Mass communication is a strategic process which includes integrated marketing communications, journalism, and more. Mass communication professionals use their knowledge of rhetorical principles and strategic media practices to develop, share, and evaluate effective messages targeting large audiences. Public relations specialists, journalists, broadcast professionals, advertisers and marketers, content writers, graphic designers and illustrators, public health educators, corporate media managers, and other media professionals use mass communication strategies on a daily basis to craft and launch strategic communication plans from broadcast news to online marketing campaigns and public health announcements across nearly every industry. The diversity of mass media and communication practices allows for creativity and flexibility in career selection. Individuals with an education in the field can pursue employment in a great number of areas, including marketing and advertising, entertainment, healthcare, journalism, public relations, non-profit and government, communications consulting, broadcast media, financial services, and foreign services etc.In media and mass communication is also a research area within academia.

Types of communication

1.

Advertising

Advertising, in relation to mass communication, is marketing a product or service in a persuasive manner that encourages the audience to buy the product or use the service. Because advertising generally takes place through some form of mass media, such as television, studying the effects and methods of advertising is relevant to the study of mass communication.

2.

Journalism

Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on events for presentation through the media. The study of journalism involves analyzing the dissemination of information to the public through media outlets such as newspapers, news channels, radio stations, television stations, and, more recently, e-readers and smartphones.

3 Public relations

Public relations is the process of providing information to the public in order to present a specific view of a product or organization. Public relations differs fromadvertising in that it is less obtrusive, and aimed at providing a more comprehensive opinion to a large audience in order to shape public opinion. Unlike advertising, public relations professionals only have control until the message is related to media gatekeepers who decide where to pass the information on to the audience


3. Social media

Social media, in its modern use, refers to platforms used on both mobile devices. and home computers that allow users to interact through the use of words, images, sounds, and video. Social media includes popular sites such as Facebook and Instagram, as well as sites that can aid in business networking such as LinkedIn. The use and importance of social media in communications and public relations has grown drastically throughout the years and is now a staple in advertisements to mass audiences. For many newer companies and businesses geared towards young people social media is a tool for advertising purposes and growing the brand. Social Media provides additional ways to connect and reach out to ones targeted audience.


4.Radio

Radio is considered the most widely accessible form of mass communication in the world and the medium used to the greatest degree in the United States Internet radio has now become increasingly more popular, as radio stations are streaming content through their websites and other applications. Music streaming services such as Apple Music and Spotify, have also integrated radio features onto the platform. Spotify Radio is a feature that allows Spotify to continuously create a playlist for its users with tracks and podcast segments based on any artist or playlist they wish.

5. Film and television.

The film industry began with the invention of the Kinetoscope by Thomas Edison. His failure to patent it resulted in two brothers, Louis and Auguste Lumiere creating a portable camera that could process film and project images. In the 1970s, television began to change to include more complicated and three dimensional characters and plots. PBS launched in 1970, and was the home for programming that would not be suitable for network television. It operates on donations and little government funding, rather than having commercials.

6.photography

Photography plays a role in the field of technology and mass communication by demonstrating facts or reinforcing ideas. Although the photos are altered digitally, it is still considered Photography plays a role in the field of technology and mass

Stress

-Aastha Joshi

Stress is something that every 3 people out of 4 are affected with Stress can be very harmful and or helpful Stress is the experience of a perceived threat to one’s mental, physical or spiritual well-being, resulting from a series of physiological responses and adaptations. It could help motivate you to meet a deadline and perform a task under pressure. Stress can also be very harmful, such as memory problems. moodiness, aches and pains, and eating more or less. There are two types of stress eustress and distress. Eustress is good stress that keeps us efficient and makes are performance better where as distress is bad stress which ultimately leads to the wear and tear of our body. Stress is a normal physical response that happens when one feels threatened or upset. When our feel that you are in danger whether it is real or imaged. Your body has a response when stress occurs and it is a way of actually protecting us. Stress can affect the mind, body, and behaviour. These affects could cause our relationships to hamper. Stress has many different symptoms the most often and most common is having a headache. On your body the effects of stress are muscle tension or pain, chest pain, and fatigue. The effects of stress on your mood is anxiety, restlessness, and lack of motivation or focus. Stress also shows symptoms like overeating or under eating, drug or alcohol abuse, and social withdraw. Adults and teenagers get stressed easily due to school, spots and or jobs. At times it may seem like stress is taking over your body leaving you physically, emotionally and mentally hurt but what you can do is learn how to manage your stress to have a healthier and happy lifestyle Stress management is learning to deal with your

stress and take charge. Stress management can be defined as a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies to control a person’s stress level: especially chronic stress Effective methods and techniques of stress management help an individual break the hold that stress has on their lives. This, in turn, helps. people in leading a productive lifestyle. Stress management includes preventing stress by practicing self-care and relaxation; also managing one’s response to stressful situations when they occur. Stress is a survival instinct or response when the body thinks that it is in danger. This is why one’s sympathetic nervous systemkicks in, increasing the heart rate with which there is a burst of the energy hormone adrenaline, which helps in dealing with any situation. This is also known as a flight or fight response. The problem starts when a person deals with constant stress and worry or unaware of ways to manage stressful situations. There are various stress management models, with each having distinctive explanations of mechanisms for dealing with or controlling stress. The first step of stress management is to identify the sources of stress in one’s life. Stress management serves as beneficial as it reduces heart diseases, digestive problems, blood pressure, and many more physical ailments. Stress management also helps in dealing with mental health issues such as anxiety or panic disorder. There are various techniques in reducing stress in one’s life, from meditation to exercising and even journaling. Yoga is a popular physical form of stress management technique. A morning or evening jog and other forms of cardiovascular exercises help release the happy hormones – endorphins-into the system that helps prevent stress throughout the day. Apart from these, making changes in everyday habits such as maintain a proper sleep schedule, avoiding cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs, making sure that one’s diet consists of proper nutrition; spending time doing things that bring them joy goes a long way in letting go of the stress that one comes across every day.