British rule produced radical and lasting changes in Indian society and culture. It was unlike any previous period in Indian history as the British brought with them new technology, institutions, knowledge, beliefs and values. The new technology, and the revolution in communications which this brought about, enabled the British to integrate the country as never before in its history. During the nineteenth century the British slowly laid the foundations of a modern state by surveying land, settling the revenue, creating a modern bureaucracy, army and police, instituting law courts, codifying the law, developing communications—railways, post and telegraph, roads and canals—establishing schools and colleges, and so on. The British also brought with them the printing press,and the profound and many-sided changes this brought about in Indian life and thought deserve a volume in itself. One obvious result was that books and journals, along with schools, made possible the transmission of modern as well as traditional knowledge to large numbers of Indians—knowledge which could no longer be the privilege of a few, hereditary groups—while the newspapers made people in different parts of the far-flung country realize they had common bonds, and that events happening in the world outside influenced their lives for good or ill, which eventually resulted in setting up of the removal of barriers.

It is necessary to distinguish conceptually between Westernization and two other processes usually concomitant with it—industrialization and urbanization. On the one hand, there were cities in the preindustrial world, though they differed significantly from the cities of the Industrial Revolution in the West. For one thing, they needed large rural populations for their support, so that ancient and medieval countries remained dominantly agricultural in spite of a few great cities. Again, while the Industrial Revolution resulted in an increase in the rate of urbanization and “highly urbanized areas are generally highly industrialized areas, urbanization is not a simple function of industrialization.”

Finally, while the most Westernized groups are generally found in the big cities, a caution must be uttered against equating Westernization with urbanization. Even in a country such as India, it is possible to come across groups inhabiting rural areas which are more Westernized in their style of life than many urban groups. The former are to be found in areas where plantation or commercial crops are grown, or which have a tradition of supplying recruits to the Indian army.

Westernization results not only in the introduction of new institutions (for example, newspapers, elections, Christian missions) but also in fundamental changes in the old institutions. Thus while India had schools long before the arrival of the British, they were different from British-introduced schools in that they had been restricted to upper-caste children, and transmitted mostly traditional knowledge—to mention only two of the most important differences. Other institutions such as the army, civil service and law courts were also similarly affected. As a result all this included in this as a major aspect for the westernization which took place.

Thank you


Government Budget (objectives)

Objectives of Government Budget

The government plays a very important role in increasing the welfare of
the people. In order to do that the government intervenes in the economy
in the following ways.
Allocation Function of Government Budget
Government provides certain goods and services which cannot be provided
by the market mechanism that is, by exchange between individual consumers
and producers. Examples of such goods are national defence, roads,
government administration etc. which are referred to as public goods.
To understand why public goods need to be provided by the government, we must understand the difference between private goods such as clothes, cars, food items etc. and public goods. There are two
major differences. One, the benefits of public goods are available to all
and are not only restricted to one particular consumer. For example, if
a person eats a chocolate or wears a shirt, these will not be available to others. It is said that this person’s consumption stands in rival relationship to the consumption of others. However, if we consider a public park or measures to reduce air pollution, the benefits will be
available to all. One person’s consumption of a good does not reduce the amount available for consumption for others and so several people can enjoy the benefits, that is, the consumption of many people is not‘rivalrous’.
Two, in case of private goods anyone who does not pay for the goods
can be excluded from enjoying its benefits. However, in case of public goods, there is no feasible way of excluding anyone
from enjoying the benefits of the good. That is why public goods are
called non-excludable. Even if some users do not pay, it is difficult and sometimes impossible to collect fees for the public good. These non- paying users are known as ‘free-riders’. Consumers will not voluntarily pay for what they can get for free and for which there is no exclusive
title to the property being enjoyed. The link between the producer and
consumer which occurs through the payment process is broken and the
government must step in to provide for such goods.
There is, however, a difference between public provision and public production. Public provision means that they are financed through the budget and can be used without any direct payment. Public goods may be produced by the government or the private sector. When goods are produced directly by the government it is called public production.

Redistribution Function of Government Budget.

The total national income of the country goes to either the private sector, that is, firms and households (known
as private income) or the government (known as public income). Out of
private income, what finally reaches the households is known as personal
income and the amount that can be spent is the personal disposable income. The government sector affects the personal disposable income of households by making transfers and collecting taxes. It is through this that the government can change the distribution of income and
bring about a distribution that is considered ‘fair’ by society. This is the
redistribution function.

Stabilisation Function of Government Budget

The government may need to correct fluctuations in income and employment.
The overall level of employment and prices in the economy depends upon the
level of aggregate demand which depends on the spending decisions of millions
of private economic agents apart from the government. These decisions, in turn,
depend on many factors such as income and credit availability. In any period,
the level of demand may not be sufficient for full utilisation of labour and other
resources of the economy. Since wages and prices do not fall below a level,
employment cannot be brought back to the earlier level automatically. The
government needs to intervene to raise the aggregate demand.
On the other hand, there may be times when demand exceeds available output
under conditions of high employment and thus may give rise to inflation. In
such situations, restrictive conditions may be needed to reduce demand.
The intervention of the government whether to expand demand or reduce it
constitutes the stabilisation function.

It all serves the purpose directly in this field.

Thank you

The Stranger by Albert Camus – A critical commentary

“My mother died today. Or maybe yesterday, I don’t know.”

The Stranger , Albert Camus

Albert Camus lures his readers in like a moth to a flame with his powerful diction, giving the reader a fair idea of the whirlwind of emotions they will be descending into. In this masterpiece, Camus puts forth the absurdity of life through the eyes of Meursault, a peculiar shipping clerk residing in French Algiers. It doesn’t shy away from exploring difficult themes of death, dissociation, and sociopathy 

Part 1 

L’Étranger introduces us to Meursault, a man bearing an astonishingly apathetic worldview that is completely detached from society. We witness this when the protagonist doesn’t display any signs of mourning throughout his mother’s funeral instead, maintaining a stolidly indifferent demeanour while smoking a cigarette. This outlandish attitude is met with contempt and hatred from others.

Meursault is merely a spectator of the events around him, leading a life devoid of meaning and emotions. Through this narrative we examine his perceived alienation, relating it with how he is a stranger to the norms of society. 

Throughout this narrative, Meursault conducts himself absurdly and often immorally, not putting much effort to assimilate into the world around him. His indifference is mainly pointed towards women which are affirmed through many instances. He comfortably turns a blind eye to his friend’s ex-girlfriend who was brutally beaten, his loveless relationship with his girlfriend which he pursued mainly for physical gratification and finally his refusal to mourn over his mother. 

The scorching Algerian sun is revealed to have some form of unusual hold over the protagonist that brings to the surface his irrationality.

Often calling the sun ‘oppressive’ and ‘inhuman’, it can be seen how the heat disorients him. The force of the sun eventually makes him commit murder. 

Part 2 

As the murder trial proceeded, the jury was aghast seeing Meursault’s utter lack of remorse for his actions and his disregard for human life. He talked about death in a frigid manner with his jailer, emphasising that death is an inevitable phenomenon. In his words, “I wasn’t unaware of the fact that it doesn’t matter very much whether you die at thirty or at seventy since, in case, other men and women will naturally go on living, for thousands of years even. Nothing was plainer, in fact. It was still only me who was dying, whether it was now or in twenty years’ time. “

Although after he is sentenced to death we see a paradigm shift in this attitude. The readers witness his cold exterior shattering when he realises that his time had come to an end. He is angry at the unfairness of the world, reproaching how he, a simplistic man with such little needs, is unfairly condemned to death. This rage-filled outburst is followed by passivity. While being isolated in a jail cell he is made aware of how he had isolated himself from the world. Upon a priest’s visit before his execution, Meursault’s aversion to religion is disclosed. He found no sense in religion but didn’t outrightly reject it either, believing that the world would descend into chaos without the principles of religion. After letting the priest know that he would rather not waste his last moments praying, he spent his time reflecting on his actions instead and contemplating the worthlessness of life. A newer, more intellectual Meursault was born, quite ironically, only mere moments before his death. He wished to break free from the alienation and hoped that his execution would attract a huge crowd.

Eventually coming to terms with his impending death, he concluded that he doesn’t regret anything and is ready to live his life all over again. 


Leading a life sans personal values, morals kept Meursault satisfied. He went through his life without truly living. He questioned the purpose of life, declined the societal conventions and still managed to emerge happy, proving himself to the readers as an existentialist anti-hero.

Sustainable development and climate change



At present, a few new terminologies are also being used for economies such as ‘sustainable development’ and ‘green GDP’. ‘Sustainable development’ is a global terminology which is being used to address the global issues of global warming, environmental aspects increased global pollution and ecological imbalances, which are critical for survival of planet earth and is thus a broader concept not relating to any one country but for the world as a whole. It is neither the problem of one country nor can it be solved by one country. It is more macro in nature, which requires to be addressed by countries collectively through a dialogue and a consensus building at a global platform. This is about the present generation’s ability  to meet ‘its’ own needs but without compromising on the ability of the future generation to meet ‘its’ needs. It is about a better environment for the future generation rather than. what the present generation has inherited, to say the least not a worse than that inherited Even though there has been a consciousness on the issue of sustainable development, the real thrust was provided with the Earth Summit during 1992 and then through various international conventions.

All the conventions mentioned so far have flagged the underlying issues especially that of reduction in greenhouse gases emission, which is critical for sustainable development. It also addresses areas of cleaner energy, reduction in biodiversity losses, tree plantation, solar/wind energy and other such global issues in sustainable development.

India has announced its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) With respect of climate change inclusive of following aspects:

• To put forth and further propagate a healthy and sustainable way of living, based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation.

• To adopt a climate-friendly and cleaner path than the one hitherto followed by others at a corresponding level of economic development.

• To achieve about 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non- fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance including from the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

• To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO, equivalent (CO.eq.) through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

• To better adapt to climate change by enhancing investments in development programmes in sectors vulnerable to climate change , particularly agriculture , water resources, the Himalayan region, coastal regions, health and disaster management.

• To mobilize domestic , new and additional funds from developed countries for implementing these mitigation and adaptation actions in view of the resources required and the resource gap.

• To build capacities, create domestic framework and an international architecture for the quick diffusion of cutting-edge climate technology in India and joint collaborative R&D for such future technologies.


Climate finance means local, national or international financing through public, private and alternative sources of financing. It is critical to addressing climate change as large-scale investments are required to reduce climate change induced adversities. Climate finance is equally important for adaptation strategies as there are requirements for significant financial resources to allow countries to adapt to the adverse effects and reduce the impacts of climate change.

Thank you.

Our country INDIA.

India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend and the great grandmother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only. “Mark Twain

India has a unique culture and is one of the oldest and greatest civilizations of the world. It stretches from the snow-capped Himalayas in the north to sun drenched coastal villages of the south and the humid tropical forests on the south-west coast, from the fertile Brahmaputra valley on its east to the Thar desert in the west. It covers an area of 32,87,263 sq. km. lt has achieved all-round socio-economic progress during the last so many years or its Independence. lndia is the seventh largest country in the world and ranks second in population. The country stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give her a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.

Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. The total length of the coastine of the mainland, Lakshadweep islands and Andaman and Nicobar lslands is 7516.6 km.

Geographical Background

Countries having a common border with India are Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west, China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north, Myanmar to the far east and Bangladesh to the east. sri Lanka is separated from India By a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.  The country can be divided into SIX Zones mainly north, south, east, west,Central and north-east zone. It has 29 states and seven union territories.

Physical Features

The mainland comprises four regions, namely, the great mountain zone,plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region and the southern peninsula.


India is rich in flora. Available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area Surveyed so far, over 46,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of india (BSI), Kolkata. The vascular flora, which forms the conspicuous vegetation cover, comprises 15,000 species.

With a wide range of climatic conditions from the torrid to the arctic, India has a rich and varied vegetation, which only a few countries of comparable size possess. India can be divided into eight distinct floristic regions, namely, the western Himalayas, the eastern Himalayas, Assam, the Indus plain, the Ganga plain, the Deccan, the Malabar and the Andamans.

TheThe western Himalayan region extends from Kashmir to Kumaon. Its temperate zone is rich in forests of , pine, other conifers and broad-leaved temperate trees. The eastern Himalayan region extends from Sikkim eastwards and embraces Darjeeling, Kurseong and the adjacent tracts.

Faunal Resources

India is very  in terms of biological diversity due to its unique biogeographical location, diversified climate conditions and enormous Eco diversity and geodiversity. India’s immense biological diversity encompasses ecosystems, populations, species and their genetic make-up. This diversity can be attributed to the vast variety in physiography and climatic situations resulting in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from tropical , sub-tropical, temperate, alpine to desert.

India is not only rich in its physical dimensions but even in its cultural aspect .

Thank you.

Education (government initiatives).

Education , is the basic necessity for an individual .The essence of human resource development is education, which plays a significant and remedial role in balancing the socio-economic fabric of the country . Since citizens of India are its most valuable resource, the billon-strong nation needs the  care in the form of basic education to achieve a better quality of life. This warrants an all round development of the citizens, which can be achieved by building strong foundations in education. Good quality education is the foundation of new discoveries, new knowledge, innovation and entrepreneurship that trigger growth and prosperity of an individual as well as that of a nation.

To lay emphasis on the educational development of students of weaker section of the society, A number of innovative initiatives have been taken by the ministry.

Among which two are given below:

Adult Education

At the time of independence, 86 per cent of India’s population was illiterate and as such the main focus or adult education had been on its very bottom tier that is, impairing of Basic literacy. For accomplishment of this objective, a series of programmes were introduced since the First Plan period, the most prominent, being the National Literacy Mission (NLM), launched in 1988 for the adults in the age group of l5+. The programme of National Literacy Mission was revamped in 2009 in alignment with new paradigms of lifelong learning as Saakshar Bharat. Considerable progress has been made in raising the Literacy rate of the country but still the levels remain uneven across different states, districts, social groups and minorities. The overall goal of adult education is to establish a fully literate society through improved quality and standard of adult education and literacy.

The National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA) is the operating and Implementing organization at national level for all the activities envisaged in Adult Education and Skill Development. During the 12th Five Year Plan, NLMA has been striving to raise the literacy rate to 80 per cent and to reduce the gender gap to less than 10 per cent.

Of 410 districts which quality for coverage under Saakshar Bharat program, the Programme has been sectioned in 04 districts , in which many learners have been enrolled under basic Literacy.

National Council of Educational Research and Training

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) provides academic and technical supports for qualitative improvement of school education. The NCERT was established in 1961 as an apex national body to lead qualitative changes in school education. NCERT has been playing an advisory role guiding central and state governments in formulating policies, acts and government programmes. It has played a crucial role in the development of national policies on education (1968-1986) and national curriculum frameworks. The researches undertaken by the Council have led to building new perspective of schooling and also provided inputs for formulation of policies and programmes. NCERT has been designing and offering innovative and need-Based courses for teachers, teacher educators and counsellors. The curricular and other learning materials developed by the Council have helped in bringing about quality schooling. NCERT has received recognition both at national and International levels in the area of school education owing to its work done in 50 years. It is a unique institution in the country, conducting researches, preparing skilled educational professionals and developing Curriculum and curriculum materials.

Both of the initiatives have given a major impact on the Educational sector .

Thank you.

Continental Drift Theory.

Observing the shape of the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. The symmetry matches
of the coastlines on either side of the ocean. No wonder, many scientists thought of this similarity and considered the possibility of the two Americas, Europe and Africa, to be once joined together. From the known records of the
history of science, it was Abraham Ortelius, a Dutch map maker, who first proposed such a possibility as early as 1596.
However, it was Alfred Wegener—a German
meteorologist who put forth a comprehensive argument in the form of “the continental drift theory” in 1912. This was regarding the distribution of the oceans and the continents.
According to Wegener, all the continents
formed a single continental mass and mega ocean surrounded the same. The super continent was named PANGAEA, which meant all earth. The mega-ocean was called PANTHALASSA, meaning all water. He argued that, around 200 million years ago, the super continent, Pangaea, began to split. Pangaea first broke into two large continental masses as Laurasia and Gondwanaland forming the
northern and southern components
respectively. Subsequently, Laurasia and
Gondwanaland continued to break into various smaller continents that exist today.

A variety of evidence was offered in support of the continental drift are mentioned below:

The Matching of Continents (Jig-Saw-Fit)
The shorelines of Africa and South America facing each other have a remarkable and unmistakable match.

Rocks of Same Age Across the Oceans were found.

The belt of ancient rocks of 2,000 million years from Brazil coast matches
with those from western Africa. The earliest marine deposits along the coastline of South America and Africa are of the Jurassic age.


It is the sedimentary rock formed out of
deposits of glaciers. The Gondawana system of sediments from India is known to have its counterparts in six different landmasses of the Southern Hemisphere. At the base, the system has thick tillite indicating extensive and
prolonged glaciation. Counterparts of this
succession are found in Africa, Falkland Island, Madagascar, Antarctica and Australia. Overall resemblance of the Gondawana-type sediments clearly demonstrates that these landmasses
had remarkably similar histories.

Placer Deposits
The occurrence of rich placer deposits of gold in the Ghana coast and the absolute absence of source rock in the region is an amazing fact. The gold bearing veins are in Brazil and it is obvious that the gold deposits of the Ghana are derived from the Brazil plateau when the two continents lay side by side.

Distribution of Fossils
When identical species of plants and animals adapted to living on land or in fresh water are found on either side of the marine barriers, a problem arises regarding accounting for such distribution. The observations that Lemurs
occur in India, Madagascar and Africa led some to consider a contiguous landmass ‘Lemuria’ linking these three landmasses.

All this provided evidences of this theory.

Thank you.


Infosys Limited is an Indian multinational information technology company that provides business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services. The company was founded in Pune and is headquartered in Bangalore.Infosys is the second-largest Indian IT company after Tata Consultancy Services by 2020 revenue figures and the 602nd largest public company in the world

On 24th August 2021, Infosys became the 4th Indian company to cross $100 billion in market capitalization.

Infosys provides software development, maintenance and independent validation services to companies in finance, insurance, manufacturing and other domains.

One of its known products is Finacle which is a universal banking solution with various modules for retail and corporate banking.

Glass building in Pune campus

Its key products and services are:

NIA – Next Generation Integrated AI Platform (formerly known as Mana)

•Infosys Consulting – a global management consulting service

•Cloud-based enterprise transformation services •Infosys Information Platform (IIP) – Analytics platform

•EdgeVerve Systems which includes Finacle, a global banking platform

•Engineering Services Digital Marketing

Organizational structure followed in Infosys is a Functional Structure.

Under this structure, company will be organized into three main functions (Global sales function, Global delivery function and business enabling functions). In Infosys divides the industry verticals into following five segments •Financial Services Segment •Manufacturing Segment •Retail Segment •Energy, Utilities, Communications & Services Segment •Life Sciences, Healthcare & Insurance Segment

Functional structures are proved to operate well in stable environments where business strategies are less inclined to changes or dynamism, the amount of bureaucracy makes it tough for organizations to respond to changes in the market quickly . It also conducts Career development practice to help employees to showcase their skills, providing career guidance and career development activities. Infosys provides strong property rights to its employees by providing employee stock option plans. Infosys also provides health and pension benefits, but not at a very lucrative scale. It is in line with the government policies.

For its employees, Long term employment recognition and benefits like Pension Plans, Group Medical Policy, Accident Policy, Bonus, Annual Medical Check-ups, Budgets for quarterly team lunch, Annual outings as part of team building activities and flexible work hours.

Success of the organization :

Digital technology is transforming services and businesses in today’s world. It is fundamentally changing operations and delivering value to consumers. It is also a cultural modification which wants organisations to experiment with various things and get comfortable with downfalls.

Infosys is an information technology consulting company. It is an Indian multinational company that provides information technology, business consulting and outsourcing assistance. It considers itself to be a global leader in next-gen digital consulting. It is the 2nd largest IT company after TCS (Tata Consultancy Services). It is also the 596th biggest company in the entire world based on the terms of revenue.

Infosys is a provider of next-gen services. The company enables clients in more than 50+ countries to stay ahead of the innovation curve and outperform in the game. It has more than 187,000 employees working within it. 

Steps for betterment involved :

Investment Thesis

Infosys is one of India’s most pre-eminent providers of IT services. However, the company has suffered from its slow-moving legacy past (smaller, more discretionary projects) and out-of-date go-to-market strategy, resulting in low revenue growth relative to peers, margin compression, leadership churn, and high employee attrition. In light of these issues, Infosys has launched a number of initiatives to improve its performance. The company has some way to go before rectifying its position, but a number of signs are promising, with revenue growth, margins, client mining, and employee attrition improving. Ø ØEconomic Moat

Infosys’ narrow economic moat results from high switching costs (roughly 96%-98% of revenue is from repeat business and has been around these levels for many years). The company’s commitment to building lasting relationships, embedded systems and processes, and intimate knowledge of clients’ IT infrastructure means customers are averse to switching between vendors. On a gross basis, Infosys continually adds over 200 clients per year, which is an encouraging sign and cements further long-dated business given switching costs. Such switching costs ensure a certain level of operational consistency and the company’s exemplary financial health reflects this. We forecast Infosys to easily generate a return on invested capital in excess of its cost of capital for the foreseeable future, and we believe its lower-cost offshore delivery model allows for this assumption.

Risk Infosys has highlighted issues regarding relatively low revenue growth, margin compression, leadership churn, and high employee attrition. Management has taken steps to remedy this, but it is still early and there is the risk that these problems become inflated.Poor macroeconomic conditions, management turnover, founder disruption, visa restrictions, competitive threats, and foreign exchange movements are also external risks that could generate further downside for the company.

all the way it set out to be in this competitive world.

Thank you .

Rule of Thirds

Rule of Thirds

In photography, the rule of thirds is a type of composition in which an image is divided evenly into thirds, both horizontally and vertically, and the subject of the image is placed at the intersection of those dividing lines, or along one of the lines itself.

What is the Rule of Thirds in Photography

The rule of thirds is one of the most common rules in photography, and one of the easiest to learn and to use successfully. To understand and use the rule of thirds, simply break up an image into thirds both horizontally and vertically, as seen here. The four intersection points of these lines, and the four lines themselves, are where subjects, or strong compositional lines of a photograph, can be placed to create a strong, balanced image.

How to break the rule of thirds

Of all the “rules” in photography, the rule of thirds is one of the easiest to successfully break. Framing an image so that subjects or lines don’t fall on the rule of thirds areas can still create a successful image, as long as the lines and other elements in the image do create a strong overall image, and capture the viewer’s eye using other methods such as leading lines, contrast, color, symmetry, etc.


In our biosphere immense diversity (or heterogeneity)exists not only at the species level but at all levels of biological organisation ranging from macromolecules within cells to biomes. Biodiversity is the term popularised by the sociologist Edward Wilson to describe the

combined diversity at all the levels of biological organisation.

The most important of them are–

(i) Genetic diversity: A single species might show high diversity at the genetic level over its distributional range. The genetic variation shown by the medicinal plant Rauwolfia vomitoria growing in different Himalayan ranges might be in terms of the potency and concentration of the active chemical (reserpine) that the plant produces. India has more than 50,000 genetically different strains of rice, and 1,000 varieties of mango.

(ii) Species diversity: The diversity at the species level. For example, the Western Ghats have a greater amphibian species diversity than the Eastern Ghats.

(iii) Ecological diversity: At the ecosystem level, India, for instance,with its deserts, rain forests, mangroves, coral reefs, wetlands, estuaries, and alpine meadows has a greater ecosystem diversity than a Scandinavian country like Norway.

It has taken millions of years of evolution, to accumulate this richdiversity in nature, but one could lose all that wealth in less than two centuries if the present rates of species losses continue. Biodiversity and its conservation are now vital environmental issues of international concern as more and more people around the world begin to realise the critical importance of biodiversity for our survival and well- being on this planet.

How Many Species are there on Earth and How Many in India?

Since there are published records of all the species discovered and named, As how many species in all have been recorded so far, but it is not easy to answer the question of how many species there are on earth. According to the IUCN (2004), the total number of plant and animal species described so far is slightly more than 1.5 million, but we have no clear idea of how many species are yet to be discovered and described. Estimates vary widely and many of them are only educated guesses. For many taxonomic groups, species inventories are more complete in temperate than in tropical countries. Considering that an overwhelmingly large proportion of the species waiting to be discovered are in the tropics, biologists make a statistical comparison of the temperate-tropical species richness of an exhaustively studied group of insects and extrapolate thisratio to other groups of animals and plants to come up with a gross estimate of the total number of species on earth. Some extreme estimates range from 20 to 50 million, but a more conservative and scientifically sound estimate made by Robert May places the global species diversity at about 7 million.

Since life originated on earth nearly 3.8 billion years ago, there had species been enormous diversification of life forms on earth. Biodiversity to the sum total of diversity that exists at all levels of biological organisation. Of particular importance is the diversity at ecosystem levels and conservation efforts are aimed at protecting diversity.  More than 1.5 million species have been recorded in the world, but there might still be nearly 6 million species on earth waiting to be discovered and named. Of the named species, > 70 per cent are animals, of which 70 per cent are insects. The group Fungi has more species than all the vertebrate species combined. India, with about 45,000 species of plants and twice as many species of animals, is one of the 12 mega diversity countries of the world.

Various steps and initiatives have been taken by government to conserve it and still contributing towards it.

Thank you.

Juice market segmentation.

Most sold product – fruit juice (Tropicana)
Tropicana Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing fruit or
vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents.


The segmentation strategy used by Tropicana is very smart as it tries to
reach the highest profit levels for the company.
Under psychographic segmentation, it targets those health conscious and
those who prefer to drink juice instead of coffee or soda.
The main target customers are the adults who are between the ages 21-30
and are more concerned about their health and who choose a nutritious
diet Mainly in this pandemic.
Tropicana has a global strategy to focus on healthier and nutritious
• Strong credibility: this business involves strong credibility.

Customer analysis
The main consumers of these business are the health conscious youth who
would choose to drink Tropicana instead of unhealthier options like Coke
or Pepsi
Promotion Strategy
Tropicana promotes itself based on two facts, first that it is 100% pure
drink and second is that it contains a large amount of fruit in each bottle.

Least sold product – soft drink Pepsi,

In India Pepsi was introduced into the market before few months of
Cricket world cup.

Consumer analysis
It revealed they are well known about the pepsi but majority of the
people didn’t like Pepsi and for many people the color of pepsi
reflected the color of Kerosene.
More over packaging of the drink also plays a important role in its
sale and promotion and from the findings it is clearly noticed that
the availability is in urban areas only.
• Moreover color is a sensitive matter changing it suddenly and
drastically reflects the sales of the product .
Pepsi failed in the market due to lack of proper advertisement and
it’s colour .

Turnover :
This organisation selling juice direct to consumer can expect about a 50%
– 70% gross margin for a month.
The main thing to increase the turnover depend upon the following:
• Financial Projections
• Customer Demographics

Pricing Strategy:
Its products are manufactured with high quality juices with innovative
they can be consumed by middle-income group families .
The 200 ml tetra pack is priced at Rs.30 whereas the 1000 ml tetra pack
is priced at Rs. 120. In the recent years, Tropicana sales have been
increasing, as more and more people have become health conscious.

Market Structure
Monopolistic competition is a type of imperfect competition such
that one or two producers sell products that are differentiated
from one another as goods but not perfect substitutes (such as
from branding, quality, or location)
As a monopolistic competitor this rm takes the prices charged by its
rivals as given and ignores the impact of its own prices on the
prices of other firms.

Thank you .

(News) Empowerment Conclave by Y4D Foundation paves the way for sustainable development of India by empowering the underprivileged.

Life becomes utterly insipid and loses its charm and meaning when the worth of an individual is not valued. Having to face a raw deal every day would mean as one is running the risk of living a monotonous life. Every day is the new beginning for something.

We live in a society that sets demands without a frontier. One would evenly poise us between cherishing the outcome and in front of another skyrocketing dream. The urge to go after the best of the best overshadows the sweetness of fruit to be achieved. With the spark of little thought in the mind which leads to open up the heart for the goal striking in life,  gives one opportunity to change the lives of many. We live in a world that sets demands without the frontier, out of which work hard for an opportunity goes beyond the scope which is important for building the youth of the nation.

Y4D is working towards shaping up a society which is sustainable for future generations by working on environment conservation and introducing values in society. It have even committed to empower the underprivileged section of our society by creating an enabling environment through Encouragement, Education and Employment so that citizens can harness their full potential and live happy and healthy lives with dignity and contribute positively to society.

In this world, where obstacle strikes back of opportunities, one has to make there own path towards the destination which is to be decided in present for the future. Development of any nation directly depends upon the youth of the nation, and the works go beyond one scope to encourage them by motivating and empowering them to ultimately prepare themselves for future goals by their full potential.

Starting with just one spark of the glint where one is capable of self-renewal,  life is worthwhile. Education is the basic necessity of an individual, which eventually leads an individual to reach the path of the desired destination.

The same happens as we go ahead without knowing the fact that whatever is going to happen next directly can be expected which is provided by Y4D Foundation which envisions the nation where each of its citizens lives a happy and content life and provides a platform for building children and youth for nation-building. Even, it emphasis on to educate the youth about financial skills and knowledge at an early stage to help them to make informed financial decisions. 

  In today’s world where more and more people are engaged in their respective works. The desired to change the requirements and going out of their goal and improvement for the same needs drastic steps.

Y4D Foundation provides an opportunity for all this, going out of the box and striking for the success and achievement of the desired goal.

Thank you.

Healthy lifestyle .

Life is what you make it . It is said that a human being with a purpose is most powerful than any other ordinary person . In this world , where obstacle strikes back of opportunities , one have to make there own path towards the destination which is to be decided in present for the future .

In today’s world were more and more people are engaged in their respective works . The desired to change the way of living just go out of their limitations and the improvement in the same seeks the time and discipline at the same time .

Happiness of an immense satisfaction of living a desired life just cannot be expressed in thoughts and words . The way of living depends on the lifestyle they have and maintain it as per the requirements. Living a life includes being happy, energised, as well as facing any situation with strong will.

In the matter of time the most important aspect of an individual’s life is going towards a goal set out . It is always said that a good health is the greatest wealth for an individual more than any thing . So , it’s totally depends on the individual to move towards the path of an successful  healthy lifestyle .

Contributions required :

The investment to our healthy lifestyle we make today will eventually be outsourced in our  future . A healthy lifestyle gives a boost to an individual and to improve their overall health . It includes everything starting from a nutritious healthy diet to adequate sleep with regular exercise .

Even doing the things one is passionate about to avoid stress and anxiety leads to surround  us with a positive energy , maintaining all this is just not difficult nor does it require a lot of work , just the utilisation of some time effectively and efficiently goes important . With the help of daily schedule one can go ahead with this .

With regards to the efforts made by an individual leads an overall development leading to prosperous growth an  individual . Being mentally and emotionally fit is both is part physical fitness . Doing exercise is just not the sole reason for being living a life as an attachment towards the need and desire .

Healthy lifestyle is really important as it not only leads an individual to lead a positive attitude towards everything but even lead an overall positive Improvement and development in their personality  .

Last but not least, have a positive attitude. Do your best to look at life as if “the glass is half full.” One must believe in themselves, have good support systems, and think positively (“I think I can, I think I can…”) to succeed.

Thank you.

How to Launch a Marketing Campaign for Your Small Business.

When one starts a business with getting the most out of whatever they plan to work out ,only when all the decision regarding the assessment is taken with full potential and with the smart work .

When running a small business or startup its just common for any business to get a most out the the work handling , but it’s for the time being and one have to make plans . Plans are just must . It’s as important for one as the backup , as no profit so , even no loss and at some  space it’s just get into the minds of many .

So , when it comes to run a small business marketing campaign that should not only work out but even  succeed , its come to the effort of an individual which will not only attract them but even make them indulge in it goes with the initiative that exists outside of your ongoing marketing tasks will include the following :

To short out the end goal :

The end should always be assured before starting , as it will not only saves one’s time but even makes anyone to plan things according and increase the success rate .

•     The goal should be decided :

Before going ahead to start a campaign , the aim of the campaign should be decided as what is actually the motive behind the compaign , weather its for the promotion of new product  or to increase the sales or just rasing awareness about the product and brand , . The goal should be decided .

The budget of the campaign should be decided :

As it will not only plan the things according but even reduce the pressure in the spot , .

Why can one afford could be easily be done by setting up the budget .

•  The identification of the audience :

To target the audience came to be an important aspect , not it now depend on the campaign which is actually about , .

So the targeted audience could be child or adult .

•       The channel of conversation :

The channel of conversation goes important as it’s the medium through one can lay out the message to the targeted audience . It can be TV, radio , or just a stage campaign .

•    The result should always be Analysed :

The result from the starting till the end should be analysed and measures could be taken within time for any of the issues .And analysing should the whole campaign , As what was exciting part and what problems did one faced . Than how many customers attracted Should one will be organising it again ,

Well  marketing campaign seems to be easy , but it takes a lot from not only the organiser but from every people involved in this and After a phase it will be successful

Thank you.

What is Sports betting ?

It all starts with an attempt to go ahead in the path decided with the purpose present with perseverance and striking tough for it . It can be as effective that one can build an empire by its saying whereas one can eventually lead the breakdown when it just come up with not a wining situation .

Whether one is waging out of the cash from their pockets or hundreds of thousands on the single stand for a timeframe . Sports betting is the largest industry which attracts people worldwide .

It’s just a chance of scope of an individual . So sports betting is all about placing the wager on the outcome by predicting the sports results . It’s not only about betting on limited source but it covers a vast culture which includes from polo , hockey , football , baseball , to mixed arts , races and even more . Every year more than anything is staked out of in this field , in golf courses from around the world .

Almost most of the sports betting being deprived of a history creation .

The frequency of sports bet upon varies by culture, with the vast majority of bets being placed on association football, American football, basketball, baseball, hockey, track cycling, auto racing, mixed martial arts, and boxing at both the amateur and professional levels. 

All about it ( how it works )  :

People were more prone to this just crossing their fingers expecting of the results .

It can be both practiced legally and illegally.  For many of the business , the global sports betting business is booming

With its starting , it was appearing just as confusing but let it be and staring from wherever one is goes to be more important way to learn things .It’s just the practice for betting in the same but if one is new to betting , learning and understanding odds goes important , and once one understands of the event likely to happen will able to out with their full potential .

Many of the business revolve around the sports betting as to encourage this to go at a higher position with respect to heading the way towards it , making them to gamble . It’s just the way one starts their business in this field .

For many , it’s more or less about enjoyment , as it’s just not about the bet . They enjoy it and just go ahead with another betting even they go out of failure .

Sports betting reflects out one’s capacity and capabilities to strive hard to reach out to the inclined force.

Thank you.

SWOC Analysis (Tropicana and maaza)


Tropicana Products, Is an American multinational company which makes fruit-based beverages and specializes in the production of orange juice.

Swoc analysis:

Strength :

• Strong brand image: Tropicana has created a strong brand image for itself and has positioned itself as a substitute for fresh juice.

• Global Presence: as ,it’s a PepsiCo product.

• Healthy option

• Strong distribution: Tropicana, as a product requires special attention during distribution. This is where PepsiCo helps Tropicana tremendously.

Weakness :

• Considered Costly: Tropicana is considered to be costly as compared to local products in the same quantity.

• Reduced Quantity: Instead of increasing price of products, Tropicana resorted to reducing quantity of product to about 8-10%.

• Low Rural Penetration: Packaged Juices are difficult to distribute and are more dependent on higher margins .


• Increasing Health Consciousness: Health awareness around the world is increasing.

• Focus on low-calorie drinks: . Tropicana should focus more on low-calorie products by including flavours .

• Tie-ups with restaurants, hotels : Tropicana can look for tying up with large chains of hotels that lead to increase in revenues.


• Presence of Fresh Juice Joints: Fresh juice is still more preferred than packaged juice.

• Promotion of healthy products may affect PepsiCo’s other products: promoting consumption of healthy products may backfire in the sales PepsiCo’s aerated drinks example Pepsi etc.

• Intense competition: Tropicana faces intense competition from many competitors around the world.


Maaza is a Coca-Cola fruit drink brand from India . Its most popular drink is its mango fruit drink.


• Presence across the world: Maaza has a market in most parts of the world.

• Customer recognition: Maaza through the characteristics taste difference from competitors has been able to secure a fan following in India.

• Powerful branding: The Company has used a variety of tools and channels for branding.


•. Monotonous advertising pitch: Both Frooti and Slice have changed their advertisements and given themselves a much-needed makeover .

•. Single Flavour: Maaza though it tried to launch other flavoured drinks like pineapple and orange eventually withdrew those drinks since they were unable to gain a significant

market share.

• Coco Cola is riding on the success story of Maaza and is overconfident of it is unbeatable. Leads to loss to invest in maaza.


• shift of preference: Across the world consumers are shifting from aerated drinks to fruit juices.

• unexploited market: unexploited resources should be efficiently utilized .

• Health consciousness


•. Competition: The Company faces a lot of competition from brands such as Slice and Frooti who are in a constant struggle to become market leaders…

• The threat of substitution: There is a lot of negative marketing on how flavours used in fruit drinks are toxic to the body. This makes people substitute these drinks with juices made from ,Challenge sudden spurt of growth: Frooti which was number three in the Indian market overtook its nearest rival Slice in 2016 through a new logo and a change of strategy.

Thank you.

Historical background and origin of 3 nursery rhymes.

A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century. Rhymes were written for many different reasons. Some rhymes were written to honour a particular local event that has since been forgotten, while others were written to express feelings of love. Rhymes were also used to hide real meanings, such as when someone wanted to express displeasure toward the government or the sovereign without being executed! Another reason for rhymes is that they’re easy to remember, and therefore could be spread by word-of-mouth—an essential feature for a large population of people who could not read or write

Some of the rhymes includes:

  • Old Mother Hubbard –

The Old Mother Hubbard rhyme allegedly refers to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey and his unsuccessful attempt to get an annulment for King Henry VIII. Old Mother Hubbard is Cardinal Wolsey. The cupboard is the Catholic Church. The doggie is Henry VIII. The bone is the annulment Henry wanted in order to end his marriage to Katherine of Aragon.

  • Mary, Mary Quite Contrary

“Mary” is referring to Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII. The Catholic queen received quite a bad reputation during her short reign for executing Protestant loyalists. The garden in the rhyme is referring to the growth of a graveyard. Silver bells and cockleshells are believed to be euphemisms for instruments of torture. The “maids” is slang for a beheading instrument called “The Maiden” that came into common use before the guillotine.

  • Three Blind Mice –

The first written variation of Three Blind Mice dates from 1609. The three blind mice were three Protestant loyalists who were accused of plotting against Queen Mary I. The farmer’s wife refers to the queen who with her husband, King Philip of Spain, owned large estates. The three men were burned at the stake.

  • Ring Around A Rosy –

 Ring Around A Rosy is said to refer to the Great Plague of 1665. The plague caused a high fever and a rash in the form of a ring hence the name, Ring Around A Rosy. Putting herbs and spices in the pocket of an ailing person in an attempt to freshen up the stale air was a common practice, thus the “pocket full of posies”. “Ashes, Ashes” is an American variation of the English version which is “A-tishoo, A-tishoo” or someone sneezing. Plague sufferers had a fit of sneezing before they passed away or when “we all fall down”.While the alleged meanings of some of these rhymes may or may not be true, it sure is a fun way to remember events in British history.

While the alleged meanings of some of these rhymes may or may not be true, it sure is a fun way to remember events in British history.

Thank you



Vodafone Idea Limited is an Aditya Birla Group and Vodafone Group partnership. The Company provides pan India Voice and Data services across 2G, 3G and 4G platform. With the large spectrum portfolio to support the growing demand for data and voice, the company is committed to deliver delightful customer experiences and contribute towards creating a truly ‘Digital India’ by enabling millions of citizens to connect and build a better tomorrow. They use the power of technology to enhance our customer’s lives – through ubiquitous presence and connectivity through our PAN India urban and rural coverage, a continuously expanding 4G LTE network, integrated worry free propositions and some of the best entertainment on mobile – all packaged into a completely unmatched customer experience.

There innovative and truly differentiated offerings – be it our Prepaid Unlimited propositions, RED Postpaid plans, Truly Unlimited International Roaming products and many others – reflect the passion with which we aim to serve our customers, always!

Company analysis :

1. With a subscriber base of nearly 1058.86 million, as of March 2016, India accounted for the second – largest telecom network in the world. The subscriber base has expanded at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.96% during FY 07–16.

2. With 462.12 million internet subscriptions, as of July 2016, India stood third-highest in terms of total internet users in 2016.

3. Since 2012, the share of time spent on watching videos on mobile devices has grown by 200 hours a year.

4. As of March 2016, urban tele-density stood at 154.01% and rural tele-density at 51.37%.As of March 2016, Bharti Airtel was the market leader, with a 24.31% share in the total subscription, followed by Vodafone (19.15% share).

6. The top five players in the sector include – Bharti Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Reliance, and BSNL – accounting for 78.74% of the total subscribers in the country.

7. BSNL is the market leader with a 60.28% share, followed by MTNL (13.60%); BSNL, MTNL, and Bharti together account for 87.46% of the total fixed-line market.

Vodafone Idea ( Professionally Managed)


1. To Handle the Rising Dominance of Reliance Jio in the Telecom Industry:

 The main reason for the Vodafone-Idea merger is to Handel the rising dominance of Reliance Jio in the Telecom industry. As Jio announced to provide free services in the first 6 months. As a result, it started to capture the maximum part of the market.

2. Price War:

 The free services from the Jio started the price war between the companies in the telecom sector.

3. . Merger Brings Confidence:

 As a result in case of a price war merger brings confidence in companies with synergy benefits. Shareholders will benefit if a company’s post-merger share price increases due to the synergistic effect of the deal. The expected synergy achieved through the merger can be attributed to various factors, such as increased revenues, combined talent and technology, and cost reduction.

4. Expected To Hold A Strong Position In The Industry: Such as in some circles it became the largest cellular service provider and in some circle, it was the second-largest after Bharti Airtel. So, a joined company can focus on being the service provider.

Functioning and working Of Top-level Management:

1. Managing Director & Chief Executive Officer – Ravindra Takkar

 i) He has been closely associated with the growth and evolution of Indian telecom since Vodafone Group‘s entry in 2007. He held a number of senior roles in Strategy and Business Development and was also the CEO of Vodafone Enterprise business in India.

 ii) In addition to his responsibilities at Vodafone Idea, Ravinder also serves as Director on the boards of Indus Towers Limited, Cable & Wireless Global (India) Private Limited and Vodafone India Services Private Limited.

2. Chief Financial officer – Akshaya Moondra

 i) A member of the National Leadership Team, he is responsible for arranging and managing company finances, capital allocation, statutory and management reporting, budgetary and internal controls, revenue assurance, strategic business finance, investor relations, secretarial and other compliances

 ii) Ranked as the Top CFO in Indian listed companies across sectors for 2016 by Finance Asia and amongst Top 3 CFOs in Asia in Telecom Sector by Institutional Investor for 3-years, Akshaya joined telecom after spending over two decades in various Aditya Birla Group companies – Grasim Industries, South East Pulp, Thai Rayon, Thai Epoxy and Allied Products and Thai Acrylic Fibre.

3. Chief Operating Officer – Ambrish Jain

 i) Ambrish Jain is the Chief Operations Officer of Vodafone Idea Limited, India’s largest telecom service provider, effective 31st August 2018.

ii) A member of the National Leadership Team, he drives pan-India circle Operations and Service Delivery.

4. Chief Regulatory & Corporate Affairs Officer – P. Balaji

i) A member of the National Leadership Team, Balaji leads the company’s Regulatory, Public Policy and Government

Relations activities along with Industry advocacy, Corporate Communications, Reputation Management and CSR.

ii) Prior to his present role, Balaji was the Director –Regulatory, External Affairs and CSR at Vodafone India. He was responsible for leading the company’s Regulatory, Public Policy & Government Relations activities and also the External Affairs function overseeing Corporate Communications, Reputation Management and administering Corporate Social Responsibility and the Vodafone Foundation in India.

5. Chief Commercial Officer – Rajesh Shrivastav

i) A member of the National Leadership Team, Rajesh leads all activities related to the company’s Capex and Opex spends, and all Supply Chain aspects including Procurement, Contracting, Warehousing/Logistics, Inventory Management etc.

ii) Prior to his present role, Rajesh was the Chief Commercial Officer at Idea Cellular where he was instrumental in procuring world class equipment for Network, IT and Services including Towers, Sales/Marketing and Service Delivery requirements.

6. Chief Marketing Officer – Avneesh Khosla

i) As the CMO, he spearheads the company’s consumer initiatives and is focussed on building a strong franchise for Brand Vi – India’s newest telecom brand, born out of the world’s largest network integration.

ii) At Vodafone Idea, Avneesh is spearheading key strategic agendas around driving a strong business transformation through a digital first approach.

What Can Be Done To Fix The striking problems, some of the steps are mentioned below:

Payment of Debt:

● vodafone idea owes a huge amount of debt to the government in form of spectrum payment the only way out for it from this crisis is to pay the huge sums of money they owe. Not only is it hindering its ability to invest in new projects but it also reducing its credibility because of which firms and public are afraid of wasting money in their company.

● There could be some relief if the government decides to save the distressed telco by extending the moratorium on spectrum-related payments. After all, a majority of the company’s debt is owed to the government for spectrum.

Raising Funds From Reliable Sources:

● Vodafone idea is in dire need of funds to boost their sluggish operations and to invest in new infrastructure. Investing in new infrastructure would help Vi to compete with its competitors Bharti Airtel and Jio who has been investing intensely in new infrastructure to gain more subscribers. Recently there were news about Vi planning to raise 6000 crores but failed to do it. Now it need to raise huge amounts of funds from both internal and foreign sources so that it repays its debt and invest in new infrastructure.

Providing New Services:

● Vodafone Idea should look at new possible ways to gain lost market share they should try to introduce new services like Tele media services and digital TV services. They can also provide services which their competitors are providing at a much cheaper rate to attract customers. They should try to create an integrated ecosystem by giving discounts on other products after purchase of one of their key products or services.

Thank you.

Things Every HR Professional Needs to Do to Succeed

Some of the functions that an individual as an HR professional should perform to make the organization more successful, if staffed with an HR department are mentioned below:

• Employee Training and Development:

 Enabling employees to develop the skills they need for the future is an essential responsibility for HR. Most employers understand the value of investing in the (future) skills of their employees. After all, the success of the organization depends on how well the employees are trained for the job and what are their growth and development opportunities within the organization. It’s the responsibility of the HR department to lead these efforts in the right direction. The role of HR should be to ensure that the employees acquire the company-specific knowledge and skills to perform their tasks efficiently. It boosts the overall efficiency and productivity of the workforce, which ultimately results in better business for the company. HRM plays a very crucial role in preparing employees for bigger tasks and responsibilities, which leads to the holistic development of employees at work. And an organization that provides ample growth and development opportunities to its employees is considered to be a healthy organization.

• Building a better communication system:

The company can also focus on building a better communication system with the recruited employees. There are several types of communications, that happen in various ways like there is a grapevine for informal groups and there is chain network and wheel network for the formal groups. The appropriate network should be encouraged, according to the requirements. A company should also focus on the informal groups, as it helps them to understand the employees on a deeper level.

• Performance management: Performance management is a continual process of evaluating how employees are performing and recognizing achievement. Many organizations conduct performance reviews on a regular schedule, often regularly, with additional reviews as desired by the employees. If an employee is underperforming the employers may impose discipline or create a performance improvement plan with goals to achieve within the specific time period. For serious matters employees may be fired. All disciplinary policies should be written out in the handbook, and managers should be trained to implement them accordingly.

• Hr professionals should create a dynamic environment for an organization:

Organizations have to survive in a dynamic environment so managers should keep making changes in the organization to match the environmental changes. The employees in the organization are generally resistant to change. Efficient hr motivates employees to adopt the changes willingly by convincing them that change is not only beneficial for the organization but it improves the employee’s work also in the competitive world.

• Research and development:

The company should allocate some members for research and development which will include activities that our company undertakes to Innovate and introduce new product services. The goal should typically be to take new products and services to market and add to the company’s bottom line which allows a company to stay ahead of its competition. Through research and development companies can design new products and improve their existing offering.

• Feedback:

The company should take feedback from their employees about the work. For example – Do you have any suggestions on how to make the work environment more fun. Or, Are you having issues with your job in your current position? Or, is there a work style or culture you don’t like in the company.

• Human Resource Planning:

This HR function is all about knowing the future needs of the organisation. What kind of people does the organisation need, and how many? Knowing this will shape recruitment, selection, performance management, learning and development, and all other human resources functions.

• Job Design and analysis:

One of the foremost functions of HRM is job design. Job design involves the process of describing duties, responsibilities and operations of the job. To hire the right employees, it is imperative to identify the traits of an ideal candidate who would be suitable for the job. This can be accomplished by describing the skills and character traits of the top-performing employee. Doing so will help one to determine the kind of candidate you want for the job.one will be able to identify their key minimum requirements in the candidate to qualify for the job. Job analysis involves describing the job requirements, such as skills, qualification and work experience. The vital day-to-day functions need to be identified and described in detail, as they will decide the future course of action while recruiting.

• Employee Hiring:

Recruitment is one of the primary functions of human resource management. HRM aims to hire efficient employees to achieve the goals and objectives of the company. All this starts with hiring the right employees out of the list of applicants and favourable candidates. An HRM helps to source and identify the ideal candidates for interview and selection. The candidates are then subjected to a comprehensive screening process to filter out the most suitable candidates from the pool of applicants. The screened candidates are then taken through different interview rounds to test and analyse their skills, knowledge and work experience required for the job position. Once the primary functions of HRM in recruitment are completed, and the candidate gets selected after rounds of interviews, they are then provided with the job offer .

• Recruitment of employees to maintain international relations:

As an HR manager, one would recommend hiring some professionally trained personal who are proficient at maintaining international relations as the business wants to bring their communication products to a new international market this year. This will ensure that there is no misunderstanding between them and their foreign counterparts . Also they will make it easy to communicate with business partners . They can also make it easy for businesses to comply with all the paperwork needed to start an international business.

• Creating an employee grievance system:

As the organisation is going to recruit more employees there may be chances that new employees are not happy with their working conditions or the new and old employees are not getting along that well so to solve every problems of the employees the HRM department should create an grievance system through which employees can file their complaints . Also every HR department member would be asked to give their best to solve problems of all employees in every possible manner .

• Providing family benefits:

As an HR manager, one would recommend the management to provide incentives to not only employees but to their families also. Incentives like family vacations and full family insurance should be given to employees so that they feel more content and satisfied with their work . Organising guest lectures for family planning would also help to improve employee satisfaction and knowledge so that they can lead a better and meaningful life.

Thank you

Challenges faced by a school student when it comes to choosing a career

A rock star. An astronaut. A professional athlete. These are some of the answers that one gets to hear when they ask a child what they want to become when they grow up. When you’re a child, your career aspirations are filled with fantastical expectations stuff dreams are made of. But sooner or later a child realizes that life is a harsh reality and the world ain’t all sunshine and rainbows and that they might not become the next Cristiano Ronaldo, Shawn Mendes, or Angelina Jolie. As they grow up there focus shifts to (frankly less glamorous) careers.

One of the biggest milestones in a person’s life is choosing a career. For many people, career selection is a harrowing task while for some it’s a smooth ride. At the tender age of 16 or 17 one doesn’t know what they want to do in life. Our young and impressionable minds are swayed by attractive yet empty promises such as big packages and secure employment. Teenagers see the world as they know, not as how the world is. It is difficult to peep into the reality of every profession at such a young age.

Parents want the best for their children and with these intentions often impose their career choices on their children. At the same time, children should respect their parents for their intentions.

This additional pressure from parents to choose the right career path makes matters worse. Many a time students succumb to this pressure and get stuck doing something that they never wanted to do. In a rush to choose their future, students often blindly follow someone else’s life choices. Thus, entering into what we call a ‘rat race’. When these teens are all grown up and have become mature enough to make informed choices they start second-guessing their former decisions. But by then it’s too late to make things right. What follows is a vicious cycle of hopelessness, dejection, and repentance.

Every school student has to go through these circumstances. They have to overcome their indecisiveness, emotional and intellectual immaturity, and also parental pressure. All children have a personality and diverse interests. The interest does not necessarily lead to a very specific career path but the choice of career should be based on trying to maximize the utilization of the skills and capabilities of the child. The entry of career counselors and psychologists into the scene and the inclusion of various psychometric tests has immensely helped young kids navigate these difficult waters, providing them with the necessary information regarding diverse professional paths. This helps them reach an informed conclusion.

 Parental pressure should not deter a student to not pursue their passions. But at the same time, one should have a structured plan to achieve their goals. In the end, every student must remember that their future is in their hands and they have to live with the outcome of their choices, not their parents, friends, relatives, or anyone else for that matter and if they don’t take control of where they are headed in life then life will take control of them.

 A Retrieved Reformation Short story by O. Henry .                                



 “A Retrieved Reformation” concerns the surprising fate of Jimmy Valentine, a skilled safecracker who returns to society after he is paroled from prison. Major characters include Jimmy Valentine; Mike Dolan, his partner in crime; detective Ben Price and Annabel Adams, the girl with whom Jimmy falls in love.

As the story begins, Jimmy is called to the warden’s office. The warden hands Jimmy his pardon from the governor and advises him to stay out of trouble: “You’re not a bad fellow at heart,” he says. “Stop cracking safes, and live straight.” Jimmy laughs, feigning surprise, denying he had ever committed the bank robbery that had sent him to prison.

 Jimmy leaves prison  and takes a train to another town where he meets up with Mike Dolan, a friend . After picking up his key from Mike, Jimmy returns to his room above Mike’s restaurant where he had lived before detective Ben Price arrested him. Jimmy finds his safe cracking tools still hidden in the wall where he had left them. A week later, a string of bank safe burglaries in the Midwest comes to Ben Price’s attention; he knows Jimmy Valentine is back in business and sets out to catch him again.

Meanwhile, carrying his burglar tools in a suitcase, Jimmy arrives in small, remote Elmore, Arkansas, where he plans to rob the bank. Walking toward the hotel, he encounters a beautiful young woman. Their eyes meet, and in that instant, Jimmy undergoes a complete reformation: “Jimmy Valentine looked into her eyes, forgot what he was, and became another man.” After talking to a boy on the street, Jimmy learns she is Annabel Adams, whose father owns the bank. Jimmy continues on to the hotel, where he registers as “Ralph D. Spencer.” In a conversation with the hotel clerk,

Jimmy learns that Elmore does not have a shoe store and that business is good in the town. He does not rob the bank; instead, “Ralph Spencer” settles in Elmore, opens a profitable shoe store, becomes a social success, and makes the acquaintance of Annabel Adams. A year elapses. Still using his “Ralph Spencer” alias, Jimmy enjoys great success. His business is growing, he and Annabel are soon to be married, and Annabel’s father and sister have accepted him as one of the family. To cut completely the ties with his past, Jimmy writes a letter to one of his former friends, asking the man to meet him in Little Rock. Jimmy plans to give the man his set of safe cracking tools. The day before Jimmy is to leave for Little Rock, Ben Price arrives in Elmore, spots Jimmy Valentine, and learns he is about to marry the banker’s daughter. Ben Price has other ideas.

The next day before leaving town, with his burglar tools in his suitcase, Jimmy goes to the bank with Annabel, Annabel’s sister, and the sister’s two little girls, May and Agatha. Annabel’s father wants to show off the new burglar-proof safe he has recently installed. While all are admiring the safe, Ben Price comes into the bank and watches the scene; he tells a bank teller “he was just waiting for a man he knew.” Jimmy is unaware of the detective’s presence.

Without warning, May playfully locks Agatha in the bank vault, throwing the bolts and spinning the combination lock as she had seen her grandfather perform the maneuver. The safe cannot be opened, Mr. Adams exclaims in horror, since the timer and the combination had not been set. Furthermore, Agatha will soon run out of air in the vault. Jimmy and the others can hear Agatha crying out in panic. Annabel turns to Jimmy, begging him to do something, at least to try.Jimmy looks at Annabel with a “soft smile.” He asks her for the rose she is wearing. Confused, Annabel hands him the rose. Jimmy puts the rose in his vest pocket, throws off his coat, and pushes up his shirtsleeves: “With that act Ralph D. Spencer passed away and Jimmy Valentine took his place.” Using his tools, Jimmy opens the safe in record time, freeing the sobbing child.Once Agatha is safe, Jimmy puts on his coat and walks away; he hears Annabel call out to him, but he does not stop. When he encounters Ben Price, who has witnessed the dramatic scene, Jimmy tells the detective, “Well, let’s go. I don’t know that it makes much difference, now.” Price, who seems to be acting rather oddly, replies, “Guess you’re mistaken, Mr. Spencer . . . Don’t believe I recognize you.” With that, the detective leaves.

Things learn from the story

The tone of the story, with its gentle humour and sentimentality, is representative of much of O Henry’s work. Although Jimmy Valentine has no intention of abandoning his life of crime, love magically transforms him in an instant. Also, many of O. Henry’s stories develop themes which, in their simplicity, can be summed up as “the moral of the story.” In the case of Jimmy Valentine, goodness is rewarded. Cracking Mr. Adams’ safe does not send him back to prison; it prevents his being .




Tata motors limited formerly is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing company . like other companies Tata motors is even facing challenges with the global semiconductor storage and disruption in the supply chain .  Even due to covid-19 and lockdown crises it is facing a struggling period . the shortage is the result of substantial in the demand due to pandemic and increased use of semiconductors in advanced Vehicle. It have already faced controversy over the development of Nano Return on investment on Tata motors shares in low. other competitive car manufacturers have been in the passenger car business for more years , therefore Tata motors limited has to catch up in terms of quality and lean production ,as it relative shares a smaller proportion of market share in passenger vehicle in India.

 Tata motors face intense competition in its domestic as well as foreign competition as well as reducing its share .The regulatory intervention is effective sales of commercial vehicle as well as domestic car sales leading to Tata motors losing money on every car sold in India Presently.


• Bargaining Power of Supplier:
Suppliers bargaining power depends upon the underlying factors affecting the
supply chain. The critical factor affecting suppliers’ ability is the importance of
suppliers, the nature of supplies and the value for the buyer’s supply chain.
• Bargaining Power of Buyers:
The buyers’ power to bargain depends upon the underlying factors and the industry. The other generic
factors that impact buyer power are buyers’ concentration, better alternatives, and competitiveness of
the market. The automobile manufacturing industry is highly competitive; significant players are
competing for each market segment.



➢ The goods and factors company is a great opportunity to automobile companies.

➢ The Indian demonetisation policy has largely affected cash intensive industries like automobile manufacturers .


➢ India’s growing economy is an opportunity for automobile manufacturers as it is considered consistent with robust growth .

➢ The intensive competition in the automobile company.


➢ The changing lifestyle of millennials whereby they have shifted from car ownership to access and buying car has become unnecessary.


➢ The Indian emission norms where by car manufacturers have to give the declaration of the emission level of cars the manufacturer will impact the automobile industry .


➢ The introduction of intelligent connected cars is a major trend which will impact the whole industry.


➢ With the government taxing automobiles only 28% and a reduction on smaller cars and SUVS this will positively impact the automobile industry and the buyer at the same time.

Strategies of Tata motors Limited :

• It is recommended that the company should fallow differentiation strategy and focus on providing unique goods and services to win over the market .

• Digitalisation: Competitive advantage Provide new revenue and value-producing opportunities. Reinvent processes, improve quality and promote consistency.

• Investment in Renewable energy :Low cost, energy efficiency, low emissions, and reusability.30 % of the world’s energy by 2024 Generates saving and commercial opportunities

• Acquisition and mergers of other businesses globally: More resources , scale of operations will increase. Benefit their shareholders Consequently increasing profits .

All the way it help Tata motor to cope up with things.

Thank you



The information technology has revolutionized various aspects of our life it has provided an easy way to go for digital payments. The common people started to move from traditional payment system towards digital payment systems which ensured safety, security and convenience. With giant technological leaps in the smart phone and easy internet access led Indian market to accept digital payments. Initially the scope of digitalization into the market was not that popular but due to changes in the technology people became more aware of digital payments. Quick transfer of payments can take place from anywhere in the world within seconds. The percentage of the digital payments through other modes is also increasing in a significant speed for instance Google pay, Paytm etc. All the transactions in the digital payments are completed through online. It is an instant and convenient way to make payments.

objectives was :

1.To study the impact of cashless transactions on individuals and their behavior
towards adopting digital payments.
2.To understand the problems faced by the people while making online
3.To analyze people’s opinion as to why digital payments can be a source of

India is a diverse country with mixed economy. Cashless economy is an economy where all the transactions are carried out digitally without using cash. Going cashless means it includes e-banking, use of debit/credit cards, Googlepay, phone pay, digital wallets, etc. A cashless country lessens the pester of carrying cash in hand to make a sufficient payment. Digitized payments have become the most efficient and convenient way of transaction. This process helps in the financial transaction. We can also define cashless economy as a flow of cash in an economy in a non-existent way. To get rid of corruption and boost our economy, the only solution is technology- to convert from cash to cashless economy. A cashless India is the first step towards making the dream of digital India a reality. The goal of cashless economy is to become a 100% cashless world. However, it’s not possible but a closer to it is possible. It helps to increase digital literacy. A cashless economy helps create huge employment in IT and software sector. The country will transform itself from informal to a formal sector. The real path of a cashless economy was laid in 2016 by the implementation of demonetisation. “Faceless, Paperless, Cashless” is one of professed role of Digital India


A system where no real cash is accessible for use is a Cashless System. Payments are made electronically i.e. through credit/debit cards, net banking and virtual wallets. The idea of Cashless economy is essential for the Digital India program and its vision is centered around changing India into a general public which is carefully competent and where there is no cash lane. The Government of India is functioning dedicatedly to push India towards a Cashless Economy. The plan is to smooth our the economy and curb corruption. Dispatch of Cashless Economy has achieved an ocean change in Indian Financial Framework. Since digital transactions are simpler and quicker, individuals are

Thank you.

Habit 4 Think Win-WinBook by Stephen Covey.

Most of us learn to base our self worth on comparison and competition . We think about succeeding in terms of someone else failing . Here, Balancing between both courage and consideration is required .when it comes to interpersonal leadership the more genuine character is the higher our level of proactivity, the more committed we are to win ,the more powerful influence will be.

In order to establish effective interdependent relationship we must commit to create in Win-Win situation that are mutually beneficial and satisfying to each party .

So one time Stephen was asked to work with a company whose president was very concerned about the lack of cooperation among his people . Stephen was told the basic problem of the company that the people are not cooperative .if this problem is solved, they would definitely be able to produce so much more . Stephen was said to help them to develop a human relations program that will solve this problem . When Stephen looked deeply into this, he found that there was real selfishness and unwillingness to cooperate, a resistant to Authority ,defensive communication .when he look into it ,he found out the reason behind This behaviour of the managers, is it because of the reward which is somewhere for not cooperating or well known that the reward are much more greater for the people who cooperate .

Covey noticed a chart on the wall of the office behind a curtain , were a numbers of racehorses all lined up on a track, super imposed on the face of each horse was the face of one of his managers ,at the end of the track was a beautiful travel poster of Bermuda , once in a week the president use to show them this chart and discuss about cooperation ,about working together and to make more money by their efforts and will asking about the one who is going to win the trip to Bermuda. It was like telling one flower to grow and watering another. he wanted cooperation , he wanted his people to work together to share idea to all benefit from the effort ,but he was setting them up in a competition with each other .One manager’s success means failure for the other managers.

The problem in this company was the result of a flawed paradigm .The president was trying to get the fruits of the cooperation from a paradigm of competition and when it didn’t work he wanted a technique , a program ,a quick fix antidote to make his people cooperate. But you can’t change the fruit without changing the root working on the attitude and behaviour would have been hacking at the leaves so we focused instead on producing personal and organisational excellence in an entirely different way by developing information and reward system with reinforced the value of cooperation.

Whether you are the president of a company or the janitor , the moment you step from Independence to interdependence in any capacity, you step into a leadership role you were in a position of influencing other people and the habit of the effective interpersonal leadership is think Win-Win.

This habit is about working in collaboration with others and not competitively it’s about getting the most out of every relationship you have ,it is where two people form a group because the value gained from sharing ideas thinking collaboratively and finding the winner is so significant developing this habit in was consistently thinking of others ,considering their values and ensuring their thoughts and feelings are at the forefront of your mind. In doing this you can ensure that your behaviour is appropriate given the time in situation and you can work with that person without any healthy conflict or upset but it’s not just about being emphatic it require confidence courage and openness as well.

Stephen covey states that in order to manage our relationship with others effectively we need think win /win . beyond being a technique it is a philosophy .

According to the author there are six Paradigms of human interaction:

1.win / win : all of the parties win agreements and solution are mutually beneficial to everyone involved . With a win/win solution , all parties feel good about the decision and feel committed to the action plan . It sees life as a cooperative , not a competitive arena .

2. win / lose : if I win ,you lose,” win lose people tend to use their power positions and authority to get their way . One alternative to win/win is win/lose, the paradigm of the race to Bermuda . Most people have been deeply scripted in win/lose mentally since birth . There is a place for win/lose thinking truly competitive and low trust situation . But most of our life is not a competition, most of life is an interdependent , reality .most result depend on cooperation between people . And the win/lose mentality is dysfunction to that cooperation .

3. Lose /win : the other way around – “I loose ,you win “. This is the paradigm of people pleasing . Lose – win people seek popularity and validation . Lose/win is worse than win/lose because it has no standards , no demand , no expectation, no vision . People who think lose/win are usually quick to please or appease. Both win/lose and lose /win are weak position , based in personal insecurities.

4. Lose/ lose : both people lose, this happens when two win-lose people get together both of whom as stubborn and ego invested if the philosophy of conflict and war. Lose/lose is also the philosophy of the highly dependent person without inner direction who is miserable and thinks everyone should be too “ if nobody ever wins , perhaps being a loser isn’t bad.”

5. Win / simply think win : people with the wind mentality don’t necessarily want others to lose its is relevant they just want to get what they want. When there is no sense of contest or competition . Win is probably the most common approach in everyday negotiation .

6. Win /win or no deal: if you can’t reach a mutually beneficial agreement then there is no deal. .According to convey , ideal paradigm is to always think Win-Win in any and all situation .As it helps to create better relationship and build character.But many times “it depend” .if you win a football game , that means the other team loses .If you work in a regional office that is miles away from another regional office , and you don’t have a functional relationship between the offices , you may want to complete in a Win/lose situation to stimulate business. However ,you would not want to set up a win /lose situation like the “race to Bermuda” contest within a company or in a situation where you need cooperation among people or groups of people to achieve maximum success . If you value a relationship and the issue isn’t that really important , you may want to go for lose/win in some circumstances to genuinely affirm the other person. Than even you might go for lose/win if you feel the expenses of time and effort to achieve a win of any kind would violate other higher values. Maybe it isn’t worth it .

To best choice , than depends on reality. The challenge is to read the reality accurately and not to translate win/lose or other scripting into any situation .

Five dimensions of win win

1. Character

Covay identifies three traits that he considered essential to win win paradigm

1. Integrity

There’s no way to go for win win in our own lives if we don’t even know in a deep sense what constitutes a win, what is in fact harmonious with our innermost values .and if we can’t make and keep commitments to ourselves as well as others, our commitment become meaningless.

2. Maturity

Maturity Is the balance between courage and consideration. if I am high on courage and low on consideration, how will I think win/ lose .if I am high and consideration and low on courage, I will think lose /win the basic task of leadership is to increase the standard of living and the quality of life for all stakeholders.

3. Abundance

The abundance mentality ,is the flow out of a deep inner sense of personal worth and security . It is a paradigm that there is plenty out there and enough to spare for everybody. it result in sharing prestige, or recognition of profit,of decision making.

2. Relationship

Without trust the best we can do is compromise ; without trust ,we lack the credibility for open, mutual learning and communication and real creativity. This especially true when dealing with someone who has a win /loss paradigm. We have to plan a communicate more and do so with genuine courtesy, respect, and appreciation for that person .even when the point of view clashes with our own .it is also important to listen with great depth not just to hear the word but to really understand the root of other person worldview .

3. Agreement

Covey provides five element for creating win /win agreement.

• Desired result – identify what is to be done and when.

• Guidelines – specify the parameters within which results are to be accomplished.

• Resources – identify the human, financial, technical ,or organizational support available to help accomplish the results .

• Accountability- set up the standard of performance and the time of evaluation.

• Consequences- specify good and bad ,natural and logical what does and will happen as a result of the evaluation

4. System

If you want to achieve the goals and reflect the values in your mission statement ,then you need to align the reward system with these goals and values .It does not matter whether dealing with a business, community, family etc .If cooperation is the goal, the reward system must line up accordingly.

5. Processes

By processes , covey appears to mean , to solve the problem . There is a four step process covey suggest :

• See the problem from the other point of view. Really seek to understand and to give expression to the needs and concern of the other party as well as or better than they can themselves.

• Identify the key issue and concern(not position ) involved.

• Determine what results would constitute a fully acceptable solution.

• Identify possible knew options to achieve those result .

Thank you

Internet Slangs

With the increase of use of social media and chatting apps, there also has been an increase in the usage of slangs in the conversations. Internet slangs are basically the unofficial forms of language used among peers or in informal conversations. Since, these slangs are constantly being updated, here are some widely used internet slangs:
• AMA- Ask Me Anything
• ASAP- As Soon As Possible
• ATM- At The Moment
• BRB- Be Right Back
• BBL- Be Back Later
• BFF- Best Friends Forever
• BTW- By The Way
• DM- Direct Message
• DND- Do Not Disturb
• ETA- Estimated Time of Arrival
• FAQ- Frequently Asked Questions
• FIFY- Fixed It For You
• FOMO- Fear Of Missing Out
• FWB- Friends With Benefits
• FWIW – For What It’s Worth
• FYI- For Your Information
• GTG- Got To Go
• HTH- Hope This Helps
• IC- I See
• IDK- I Don’t Know
• IDC- I Don’t Care
• IKR- I Know Right
• IMO- In My Opinion
• IRL – In Real Life
• JAM- Just A Minute
• JFY- Just For You
• LMK- Let Me Know
• LOL- Laugh Out Loud
• MYOB- Mind Your Own Business
• N/A- Not Available
• noob- Newbie
• NP- No Problem
• NVM- Never Mind
• OMG- Oh My God
• OMW- On My Way
• PC-Personal Computer
• Pls-please
• RBTL-Read Between The Lines
• ROFL- Rolling On Floor Laughing
• TBA- To Be Announced
• TBC-To Be Continued
• TC- Take Care
• TIA-Thanks In Advance
• TMI- Too Much Information
• TTYL- Talk To You Later
• TY-Thank You
• WBU- What About You
• w/o- without
• WDYM- What Do You Mean
• XOXO-hugs and kisses
• YOLO- You Live Only Once

iPhone 13 series unbeatable display?

Apple iPhone 13 series was launched a few weeks back. With some crazy and exciting features the iPhone 13 series is at the top of the table leaving every smartphone behind. It has become the most expensive flagship for Apple with the high end variant priced at Rs 1,79,900. In terms of display the Apple iPhone 13 Pro MAX is the best and the brightest. The Cupertino based tech giant is getting good reviews over the internet as the sales have begun. People have always loved how Apple offers the best value for money. There are a lot of Android users who have ditched their old smartphones and have joined the Apple smartphone league this year. The features make it more exciting and convenient for the Apple iPhone users that we have hardly seen someone switching their phones with some other smartphone. Recently, the giant iPhone 13 Pro MAX has been rated as a smartphone with the best and the brightest display. 

Apple iPhone 13 Pro MAX; Display

The OLED panel built in the iPhone 13 Pro MAX has proven to be particularly impressive. The device features a Super Retina XDR display with a ProMotion feature of 120 Hz and has set several records. It has an OLED panel with brightness of over 1,000 nits which is the brightest amongst all other smartphones released this year. This display can reach a brightness level of 1200 nits while watching HDR content. However, all OLED displays offer good contrast but the Apple iPhone 13 Pro MAX has impeccable color accuracy. 

The anti-reflective coating in the Apple iPhone 13 Pro MAX has good performance as the measurement of reflectivity is just 4.6 percent that allows you to see the screen perfectly in direct sunlight.  Apple iPhone 13 Pro MAX has been rated A+ for a high quality OLED display.

Facebook holds Instagram Kids for a while

Facebook placed a hold on Instagram for Kids after a pushback

The progress of Instagram kids is currently on hold as a social media platform for children under age 13, Instagram for Kids is an app developed for content consumers which covers a vast audience that is new to social media and want to consume polite and more filtered content.

Instagram is a social media platform that allows people to share their pictures, stories, reels and videos with the world and connect with individuals with the help of the Internet.

Instagram officials said the update might get delayed, it will provide enough time to indulge developers with parents, policymakers, regulators and experts to hear their concerns and result in the final development of the application for the younger audiences around the Globe.

The update took on hold due to mental health issues and anxiety in some teenagers to stop this, Facebook developers working on the content that has to push for teenagers.

Why is Facebook doing this now?

The company’s move follows an explosive mid-September report by The Wall Street Journal that found Facebook knew from its own research that Instagram was harming some teens, especially girls, leading to mental health and body image problems and in some cases eating disorders and suicidal thoughts.

In public, however, Facebook has consistently played down the app’s negative side and until now has barrelled ahead with the kids’ version despite alarms from experts, lawmakers and its own research. It has also relentlessly criticized the Journal article as cherry-picking from Facebook’s research, though it did not dispute the facts. That story, however, was based on internal research leaked by a whistleblower at the company.

Crawlers, Robots and Spiders on Internet

What is a web crawler?

A web crawler, Spider, or web search tool bot downloads and lists content from everywhere the Internet. The objective of such a bot is to realize what (pretty much) every site page on the web is about, so the data can be recovered when it’s required. They’re designated “web crawlers” since creeping is the specialized term for consequently getting to a site and acquiring information through a product program.

These bots are quite often worked via web indexes. By applying an inquiry calculation to the information gathered by web crawlers, web search tools can give pertinent connections because of client search inquiries, producing the rundown of pages that appear after a client types a pursuit into Google or Bing (or another web index).

What is a search ordering?

Search ordering resembles making a library card inventory for the Internet with the goal that a web search knows where on the Internet to recover data when an individual looks for it. It can likewise measure up to the list toward the rear of a book, which records every one of the spots in the book where a specific subject or expression is referenced.

Ordering centers generally around the text that shows up on the page, and on the metadata* about the page that clients don’t see. At the point when most web search list a page, they add every one of the words on the page to the record aside from words like “a,” “an,” and “the” for Google’s situation. At the point when clients look for those words, the web search result goes through its file of the relative multitude of pages where those words show up and chooses the most pertinent ones.

How web crawlers work?

The Internet is continually changing and extending. Since it is absurd to expect to know the number of absolute website pages there are on the Internet, web search result bots start from a seed, or a rundown of known URLs. They creep the website pages at those URLs first. As they creep those website pages, they will discover hyperlinks to different URLs, and they add those to the rundown of pages to slither straightaway.

Given the immense number of website pages on the Internet that could be filed for search, this interaction could go on endlessly. Nonetheless, a web search result will follow certain strategies that make it more particular with regards to which pages to slither, in what request to creep them, and how frequently they should slither them again to check for content updates.

What are Robots?

Search robots, otherwise called bots, drifters, insects, and crawlers, are the instruments many web indexes, like Google , Bing , and Yahoo! , use to construct their data sets. Most robots work like internet browsers, with the exception of they don’t need client cooperation.

Robots access site pages, regularly utilizing connections to find and connection to different locales. They can file titles, outlines, or the whole substance of reports considerably more rapidly and completely than a human could.

While their speed and productivity make them extremely interesting to the chiefs of web indexes, search robots, particularly inadequately built ones, can overpower a few workers. Executives can prohibit or restrict robot access by putting robots.txt records on their workers that diagram how their locales are to be gotten to.

What are Spiders on web?

A Spider is a program that visits Web destinations and peruses their pages and other data to make sections for an internet searcher record. The significant web search tools on the Web all have such a program, which is otherwise called a “Crawler” or a “Spider.” Spiders are commonly modified to visit locales that have been put together by their proprietors as new or refreshed. Whole destinations or explicit pages can be specifically visited and listed.

Greenhouse Effect

GreenHouse effect, a warming of Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere (the most minimal layer of the environment) brought about by the presence of water fume, carbon dioxide, methane, and certain different gases noticeable all around. Of those gases, known as ozone depleting substances, water fume has the biggest effect.

The beginnings of the term Green House effect are muddled. French mathematician Joseph Fourier is now and then given credit as the main individual to coin the term GreenHouse effect dependent on his decision in 1824 that Earth’s environment worked also to a “hotbox” that is, a helio thermometer (a protected wooden box whose top was made of straightforward glass) created by Swiss physicist Horace Benedict de Saussure, which kept cool air from blending in with warm air. Fourier, nonetheless, neither utilized the term Green House effect nor acknowledged barometrical gases for keeping Earth warm. Swedish physicist and actual scientific expert Svante Arrhenius is credited with the beginnings of the term in 1896, with the distribution of the main conceivable environment model that clarified how gases in Earth’s climate trap heat. Arrhenius first alludes to this “hot-house hypothesis” of the climate—which would be referred to later as the Greenhouse impact in his work Worlds really taking shape (1903).

Human activities contribute to global warming by increasing the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect happens when certain gases known as greenhouse gases collect in Earth’s atmosphere. These gases, which occur naturally in the atmosphere, include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxide, and fluorinated gases sometimes known as chlorofluorocarbons

 Consumer preferences towards online food products.

   Abstract :

Food is one of the most common products for human beings. It is a basic source of survival. Today where people are at home or office or maybe at the spot of exchange, online food is one of the best and most productive ways for ordering as well as to satiate the hunger.

. Shopping for food online is a different thing from shopping for other things. Despite most of the population who, are dependent on online food services, many people Or consumers are still concern about the food safety of online food products.

Even where the internet has directly given a positive impact on consumers to get a better amount of satisfaction towards its easy access. However, even today, there are many factors affecting the consumer Behaviour towards it,  that involve ,the prices,  the accessibility , the preferences of the individual .

In this running world , online shopping is the only thing that is preferred with a believe of getting most out of whatever people need .

But whenever the term arises for shopping or ordering  food products online their attitude lead  to  An arena  in terms of their psychological state in terms of making purchases on internet .

Well , its all depend upon , identifying the problem of deciding to make purchases which are always based on there ever – evolving expectations and need .

         Introduction :

With an advancement of internet, the extension of the online food services has been boosted enabling people to search , compare prices and access to these  services conveniently .When compared to physical presence the consumers are more satisfied towards the services provided by online food delivery service and with its products .

In today’s words , the industry are providing a services leading to its 70%  in gross domestic product .Nowadays , many online food portal provide the better usage of facilities provided by the restaurant .

Many people , just from the start of the child to an working professional is accustomed to ordering the food for breakfast , lunch , dinner which is rapidly increasing in the metropolitan cities in the country .

One of the reason was for the maximum convenience and transparency .To get through to consumer needs , the person involve in the  online food servicing business constrain up with providing with increase facilities and services to them . With an updated knowledge of ones expectations will enable the firm to retain the customers to the greater extent .

The process of delivering a food from a restaurant with the help of cooperative web page created involves in  online food ordering , as it takes place .Payment of which is made with either the credit cards and with the  availability of cash on delivery. So basically, it’s a platform to reach a customer with their right  preferences and their needs .

So , with a growing online, platform to ordered the  food products is increasing with the fast pace . Due to the development in the cities and urbanization . Especially with the continuous arrival of professionals the  online food products, service segment is now thriving at a Sizzling  pace , some of the online food services includes food panda , Zomato , swiggy , just eat etc .

Even the customers , attraction towards the advertisement squeeze their time making them attracted towards it leading to of the factors for increasing sales and buying preferences . Even the most convenient method opted for their attraction was cash on delivery . It get easily delivered  their home and  with an easily assess to it putting a Breakout time free zone , buy just  a top of their  Smartphone which get  them food home .

The recent creativeness offer online food servicing accent kept them fascinating  towards it , Which involves :

  • Facebook ordering
  • Mobile ordering
  • Online coupons
  • One and only smartphones .

 Following questions are asked while doing research :

1. Why people are more prone to buy online food products?

2. What factors are affecting customers to purchase or order food online?

3. Why are people so attracted towards buying online food products ?

4. How often customer go ahead to order online food products?

.OBJECTIVES which were included

1.  changing attitude of customers from buying food from restaurants to buying

food online .

2. To study which segment is prone towards buying online food products.

3. To know the reason for preference towards online buying of food.

4. To analyse the level of satisfaction towards the consumption or purchase of online food.


  • Maximum of the respondents are in our survey is students who are pursuing graduation .
  • Most of the respondents are from 10- 20 years of age.
  • Maximum of the respondents are aware about online food products and their services.
  • Most of the respondents prefer online food products.
  • Maximum of the respondents are choosing to buy online food products and services for quality.
  • Most of the respondents said that the online food products are meeting their expectations.

9 .  Conclusion :

When compared to physical presence the respondents are satisfied with buying online food products .Main reason for the purchase of food products online comes here as to sometime , and with convenient access to it. Both male and female have the same type of behaviour towards liking and purchasing physically . Many of them are students pursuing graduation .Many buyers are attracted towards the advertisement and fascinated towards a delivery faculty at home or the work place. Where main reason for dislike of the food products goes is, the inability to touch and feel the product utmost.

 Well all after the other ,a good way of network mainly in this pace of running life. It takes consumer ,all their psychological thinking with a better expectations. Last but not the least is about the new online portals and credit cards give them a one tap access to whatever they are in need. So, it’s a medium of far more accessible than on wandering for it physically providing them comfort zones.

Thank you.

Job (opportunity knocking the door)

How early to apply for jobs:

All about it  :

Life is all of defining and setting up a goal. It is said that a human being with a purpose is most powerful than any other ordinary person. In this world, where obstacle strikes back of opportunities, one has to make there own path towards the destination which is to be decided in present for the future.

Our value increases based on our ability to see our worth, and when difficulties strike hard in life, keeping ourselves at the same pace till the storm passes.

Based on our capacity to grow beyond our scope and nutshell, it’s important to apply and move in the respective field we desired for.

Job, knowing when to apply is not a question today but the way to make us self reliance.

With the consideration of getting a desired job depends not only on eligibility but it requires knowledge. Applying for the job early means to start contributing the knowledge and time to it with full dedication.

The person, applying for the job should be ready, with respect to handling the achievement as well as  regulatory pressure as a part of their work.

Perfect timeframe :

It’s just goes beyond the scope for an individual going ahead with any type of job before completing their education. If one is able gain enough knowledge about the source , eventually it will be easy for the person to handle the things more  effectively and efficiently.

So the basic question arises is, about what should be the timeframe for getting any type of job, which is just perfect .

 The time frame in which one should start working depends on the situation which is prevailing, or it can be because of going out of the box.

 But mainly, When to start depends on the interest on the individual as well as the basic criteria for everyone, which is different in everyone’s life.

If the person is interested to be an entrepreneur than its just alright to join the company whatever they wish to, as in case of the one who have their parental business behind it.

The college students, should actually engaged in some or the other internship so that , with the college , they will eventually get a certificate of practical knowledge of the respective field, where they want to work out in their future.

So the person should start joining when they are sure about their work and about their skill, working out even in more severe conditions .

That’s why the basic thing involve is the desire for job based on the interest which needs experience.

  Jobs during college :

Even a college student can apply for a part time job which is mainly recognizable before the company where they want to take up the fortunate of being employed .

With the basic knowledge of being to their fullest , the extent for the same goes more and more importantly .

To get a desired job directly, one  have to go beyond the scope and level of experience needed for it, that’s why dreaming for big is good but the work and the efforts for the same should be started from the beginning. As the beginning is the toughest and the most important aspect of one’s journey .

A person having the judging potential will find out the way to be extracted from any given opportunity .

When a person decides to start a work, to get an experience, As per his capacities and capabilities , they  always want to get the best out of the prevailing work, To exact out exactly they are expected to .

Before the final year of the college where, more or less many of the companies are ready with their placement, students are at the end of their completion of their respective internship .

Whenever they come toward the interview for their job, Even though if one haven’t heard back from an employer ,

Without getting demotivated and stressed out from being deprived away, should  continue applying to various jobs, which will eventually greaten their chances of getting not a perfect job as but whatever is going to come should always be considered as for the convenience for the good sake .

It is actually for the employment whom that one opportunity just not work out where more desirable candidate are been waiting for .

So the basic age and the eligibility to start with the job goes when a person able to carry out his thought about the goal in their lives,  where one Is ready to workout with full of their vision. Which all goes as when a person enters into a higher education, it can be after 12th or it can be after graduation or post graduation.

But it’s all depend upon getting a job, if one is ready to work out than no one can ultimately stop them to get a job they need .

Jobs a glint :

In this arena of full of competition where candidate are seeking towards getting the perfect job where most of the people are indulge in giving various examinations, which are conducted every year. Mainly they go through various mental pressure if  are rejected in all the go.

So many other graduates doing the same thing, so many people started applying for many of the jobs whatever arises, as no one wants to skip as such just one chance to get through the experience from where expectations strike on .

If one is applying for the job so early that they just won’t have intensity it focus if you start way sooner than needed. They’ll have a sense of comfort and they’ll  just go through the motions without any urgency and Waste of time.

Also, if one start searching for jobs prematurely, ultimately having the risk of  losing the interest of many companies simply because they aren’t willing to wait that long.

Getting a job sooner is better for the representation of one’s identity.

Next stages :

Starting up of an entrepreneur can be a new form of startup for anyone but the one who goes beyond that is the best scope for anyone.

So the basic fact involved here is a person deciding to get a job According to him , and a person wants a job as per his will and desire, goes both as a different things .

It’s really a good idea to start a work as early one can . But it should be not in a hurry, as their can be chances to get more better opportunities in future perspectives .

It’s important to give yourself plenty of time to job search as you consider when to apply. Consulting with others in your view is actually, that already intake in the location you’re moving that could be highly beneficial.

 Also, One should be aware that things might not go according to plan. And that is actually in the case of many .

Once it’s time to start, you have to attack the job search 100%. And that goes more and more important with the fortunate enough to being at the right track.

If the person is already working out in an company and is applying in other companies as due to no interest or any other options, one should not quite the present job and only go ahead with this option when, completely sure about letting it go.

There are many of the people in this world who knows to move faster than one even could not image, and this is exactly from which an imperfect person fear from,

Threat must be present for a protagonists and adventurous, but what about the introverts and defenders, they are the one who have to face anything more than anyone. So start from where one is , whatever one have, and whatever one can do to achieve the successful work from being failure.

 Our value is recognised by the person who want us to get towards the successful means of direction, but the path towards it can we only measured by the hard work and persistent. All we need is to remember that whatever we are going through must be recognised by us and appreciate by us.

 So once an individual starts working as per his interest in the working field and not as per his needs, eventually leading it to extent for a greater time period As for the need get its immense satisfaction. But once they get the best job they will  utilise to their fullest towards the same .

So the question that how early should a person should start working is that when one is confident about his working experience and before that even though one is not having practical knowledge of the same can even though start, start with failures, as they get an opportunity.

But one should start,start by having what so ever.

As the life is a lesson, one should always learn something , understand, even thought losses its charm, win something.

Purpose :

The basic fundamental of life is a purpose, if one has a purpose of being to stand out at different places from the crowd then they will go up higher, even though striving with a problem.

We live in a society that sets demands without a frontier . One would evenly poise us between cherishing the outcome and in front of another skyrocketing dream . The urge to go after the best of the best overshadows the sweetness of fruit to be achieved.

Starting with just a one spark of glint where one is capable of self renewal, their life is worthwhile.  If one have decided their aim in life, and strive hard to achieve It, than no one else in the world can let them down even though obstacles strike hard.

Thank you

What Little Things Season 4 talks about?

After three seasons of being live-in accomplices who even endure a significant distance relationship, Dhruv and Kavya are set to make their bond a stride further in the last section of Little Things. The creators dropped the trailer of its fourth and last season on Tuesday, and fans are just left speculating whether their most loved couple on the OTT is to be sure prepared to go all in.

Played by entertainers Dhruv Sehgal and Mithila Palkar, Little Things dispatched in 2016. What’s more, actually like any millennial who’d grow up notwithstanding relationship objectives, proficient hurdlers and discovering heading throughout everyday life, Dhruv and Kavya have additionally adjusted everything.

The trailer gives a slip look into the two heroes glancing back at their story and how remaining in various time regions, be it Bengaluru or Finland, didn’t prevent them from cherishing each other. Indeed, the two are still frantically enamored, yet just when Dhruv brings up the issue of a daily existence going on – marriage, family and children, Kavya feels a bad case of nerves. She admits of not being certain of the responsibility.

“Are we truly picking the individual we love?” Dhruv’s words in the trailer are without a doubt the essence of the period, that is set to bring blinds down on perhaps the most cherished romance the young crowd saw onscreen as of late.

Easily overlooked details debuted on the YouTube divert of Dice Media in October 2016. It was subsequently gotten by Netflix, with season two turning out in 2018 and season three in November 2019. The show won acclaim for celebrating unobtrusive things in a relationship, adulthood, development and little delights alongside Dhruv Vats and Kavya Kulkarni.

Dhruv Sehgal, who’s additionally the maker of the show said, “My bond with Little Things is exceptionally uncommon, it’s not just a show that I composed or played a person I love, yet this show is likewise my child. I have developed with this show and the measure of adoration it has gotten over the course of the years has truly overpowered me. I’m really a little pitiful that this show is reaching a conclusion, but at the same time I’m monstrously glad that Dhruv and Kavya had the option to spread this much love and bliss among their crowd.”

Amazon Annual Event 2021

Amazon is booked to have its yearly fall occasion on Tuesday, September 28. The organization is set to dispatch new items and administrations, albeit the occasion won’t be live-streamed, with Amazon deciding on a welcome just methodology all things being equal. This is what Amazon is relied upon to declare at the occasion.

New Echo shrewd speakers

Amazon has had a background marked by dispatching new Echo gadgets at its occasions, including the Echo Auto, the pivoting Echo Show 10, and others. The brand is likewise expected to dispatch more speakers in the setup at its 2021 occasion. Not a great deal is thought about new items, yet anticipate that multiple additions should the arrangement.

Alexa refreshes

Amazon’s own voice colleague Alexa is relied upon to pick some significant updates post-occasion that will expand its usefulness. Amazon could add more provisions to help the remote work and video chatting society. The organization added bunch calling support for the Echo Show last year and that gives us an indicate where Amazon is hoping to make enhancements in the midst of Covid.

News on Matter

Amazon’s own widespread language that is set to interface numerous shrewd IoT stages together was something Amazon had gotten ready for some time. Be that as it may, the help has since been pushed to 2022. Amazon could, be that as it may, give us some new reports on something very similar.

Different items, administrations

Amazon is likewise expected to dispatch its Always Home Cam, a flying robot camera at some point in Q4 this year, and the organization is relied upon to declare more subtleties on a similar this year, probably at the fall occasion.

Amazon could likewise new organizations for new administrations as it has done before with Eero, Ring and Blink, and Sidewalk. The organization is additionally expected to speak more with regards to its endeavors towards security and how Amazon ensures customer information.

Google apps will stop working on older devices

Google has reported that it is pulling out help for Maps, Gmail, YouTube, and numerous other applications for a great many cell phone clients from today. The most recent Google update is for Android telephones running on an obsolete adaptation. Essentially, cell phones running on Android 2.3.7 or lower variants can at this point not sign in to most Google applications.

To review, Android 2.3.7 was dispatched back in December 2010. After more than 10 years, Google has reported to presently don’t permit Android 2.3.7 or lower clients to get to its set-up of applications. “As a component of our continuous endeavors to guard our clients, Google will presently don’t permit sign-in on Android gadgets that run Android 2.3.7 or lower beginning September 27, 2021. In the event that you sign into your gadget after September 27, you might get username or secret word blunders when you attempt to utilize Google items and administrations like Gmail, YouTube, and Maps,” the organization said in an assertion.

Google is requesting that clients update to Android 3.0 or above to keep utilizing YouTube, Gmail, and the greater part of its applications and administrations.

Clients who can’t refresh to Android 3.0 or above can not get to these administrations utilizing the separate applications. Be that as it may, they can in any case sign in to their Google record and utilize a portion of these administrations like YouTube, Maps, Gmail, and more through the internet browser.

All you need to know about Digital Marketing

Digital Marketing is a great method for advertising a company’s product or a brand image. Being as Beginner to Digital Marketer  is not just the about Marketing it includes, promotional activities through online sources such as apps, websites, promoted apps and many more where a user can interact with the content or a particular brand.

Digital Marketing has evolved a lot in current situation where covid-19 pandemic happened and when all businesses came towards the online platform and build their brand online and reached more people.

This Guide will help budding Digital Marketer and new people who just getting started, It’s a complete guide for the beginner to interact with Digital Marketing tactics from the basic you’ll learn about Digital Marketing in a very easy method.

What is marketing and how it can lead towards Digital Marketing?

Digital Marketing is the activity which shows the advertising of the company’s product and creates company’s goodwill in the market is describes as marketing. Therefore, Marketing also refers towards the process of planning and executing the promotion and distribution of the ideas behind the product.

On Which Platforms Digital Marketing can be done?

There are several ways and channels through Digital marketing can be done through the Internet which is the great medium of communication Here’s the information about some channels a beginner can see and apply in his/her content for a successful Marketing.

Social Media: It can Include online social platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and many more.

  • Search Engine: Finding a content or anything related to it can be done with the Search Engines websites like Bing, Google and many Search Engines are there to help with the same.
  • E-mail Marketing: It’s the way of connecting through audience and desired customers through a graphically designed E-Mail. It really helps with connecting with the consumers online and update as well as educated them through this way.

Methods and Types of Digital Marketing 

      Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Search Engine Optimization, It means the method of improving your site to extend its visibility when people look for products or service that are included and associated with your business in search context to Google, Bing and other type of Search Engines.

  •       Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

SEM, it also refers to an advertising, that involves the acquisition of ad space in more prominent, visible positions and drag the content to the top of on the search engine websites such as Google, Bing and other search engine websites creating a positive impact on brand recognition and it’s awareness.

  •        Social Media Marketing (SMM)

Social Media Marketing (SMM) refers towards providing companies with how to interact with existing customers and reach new ones while allowing them to market their desired culture, goal or tone. Social Media Marketing has purpose to build data analytics tools that allow marketers to trace the success of their efforts.

Advantages of Digital Marketing and tips for a beginner to consider

  • Global Reach: Digital Marketing allows you to find new markets and trade globally and promote your business onto a next possible in a unique way.
  • Transparency: Digital Marketing can help your content to grow not just this but it also creates a relation between the consumers as well as other audience and creates trust between the two ends.  To the status of a product to have a closer look by looking 3D images online.
  • Lower Cost: Digital Marketing helps to build-up content online and creates well safes time, fuel, and money and makes things easier to understand and plan things in a more efficient and effective way possible.


Speaking English allows you to actually broaden your world, from job opportunities to the ability to relate to people from every country.Knowing the language makes it much more interesting every trip.Anywhere you want to go in the world you can find someone who speaks English. If we account only the country where the English language is the official language, the United Kingdom, Australia, U.S.A., Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and the Caribbean countries, there are more than 400 million native English speakers.

Simply put, we must recognize that English is an international language, the main language of this planet.The statistics reveal that more than a quarter of the world’s population speaks English that means that about 1.6 billion people understand and relate with the help of the language of Shakespeare. To not mention that most of the films are in English, the largest film industry, Hollywood, is produced in English.It is true that in the world are more than 3 billion people who speak Chinese, however it is very unlikely that in addition to the mother tongue there is someone else who wants to learn Chinese characters.Most of the international trade agreements are concluded in English and is the most widely used language for international business meetings.Good English is not only classy but a possibility to continue studies and specializations in the best universities in the world, which are in fact, in countries where they speak English.Education is very important to improve yourself but learning English also improves the quality of life. You have access to jobs that you could not even take into consideration, you can evaluate an international career and you can live in many countries with the ease of being able to go shopping or negotiate rent for the house.

The benefits they bring in the life of a person’s knowledge of the English language are countless. What is important to understand is that the English language is able to knock down a lot of barriers, including cultural ones.Knowing the habits and customs of other countries allows us to understand ourselves and others. By better understanding our fellow man around the world we are always surprised at how we are different and similar at the same time.The English language allows us to relate and therefore to understand each other.

Why English is important?

Learning, for me, is an opportunity to use what I’ve learned, and, broaden my horizons and improve the best version of myself. Learning, helps me discover my hidden talents and helps me to overcome fear and obstacles. I feel that the more I know, the more I am capable of accomplishing what I want, without fear of others’ judgment. Learning is life, and life is learning.

Life offers various challenges and we cannot let fear stop us from learning. I decided that I had to take a stand and be brave. I was sick and tired of not finding the correct words when trying to have a conversation in English. It’s really frustrating, not remembering the right words to express oneself. It breaks my heart when I look back and feel sorry for myself, that I allowed my fear to concur and stop me from fulfilling my dreams. If only I had believed more in myself, I would have succeeded like the rest of my classmates.

The lack of knowledge of the English language, and not being fluent, always kept me back from participating, and from applying for courses. There were times when I felt unworthy, and I had very low self-esteem. But I learned that, with a bit of goodwill I can do it. There was a point in my life, when I felt that I was no longer growing. I was relating perfectly to that expression, “If you’re not growing, you’re dying.” So, I dug deeper in my thoughts and decided that it was never too late. I won’t let my age stop me from learning. Apart from learning English, I must say that I’m enjoying the company of my foreign friends. Although the majority of the students are much younger than I am, they are making me feel I am still that adventurous and challenging person that I was. The fact that we all are on the same boat helps me go all out, speaking my mind without any fear at all.

Apart from my self-esteem, learning English will open more opportunities. However, the English Language plays an important role in our life. It is understood by many people around the world since it is the most spoken language. It is essential in our education. Big companies hire professional staff, soon after making sure that the people they are employing are good in English.

The English Language helps us to communicate with nearly all the people around the world, even though the internet. After all, no man, or woman is an island.

I grew up hearing over and over how important learning is. I used to have good marks at school, but even less free time.As time wore on my achievement at school became even more important because to be admitted to a university is only possible through good scholastic records. I think that as teenagers we learn more because of the expectations of our parents or other people, and it takes time to understand that being well educated and qualified is important for us.How I remember at the beginning of the university studies, almost all of us thought that after six, ten, or twelve semesters we can say Goodbye to learning. It’s true that graduating or rather achieving a Doctorate means that we can forget the exams, the essays, but not the learning at all.Learning as activity, as a way of knowing and understanding, is permanent. It should be a kind of daily routine which is for life. At school, I used to have different subjects like foreign languages, such as German and Italian. I remember that we always had the most fun at the language lessons.The atmosphere of a language class is different from anything else. Teaching and reading languages could be very creative, relaxed and humorous. Especially in the last decade – thanks to Technology – there are even more ways and methods of language teaching, for example through online lessons. In addition – thanks to Politics – it becomes even easier and common to look for a language school abroad.

Nowadays language schools are quite popular, they usually offer a wide selection of foreign languages with English in the focus.Why is it like this? Why is playing English such an important role? As I see it English is the “new Latin”, a kind of “mediator language” as Latin was in the past. You only have to learn one language and you will be able to communicate with people from all over the world. English is the language of our international communication in all areas, such as politics, science, media or art and it is often the language of entertainment as well as socialising.Having a good command of English helps us to have more opportunities in life, first of all, our career. We are likely to have more chance of finding a good job or to get our business of the ground.The latest world news and discoveries, the most important scholarly discussions and the various fields of art – like books, movies, music – are firstly or just available in English. The language of technology (the computers, the iPhones) is also written in English. English became part of our daily life, no matter in which country we live. Nowadays countries are getting more and more multicultural. Sometimes understanding and acceptance – as well as peace – between people, only depends on communication, which is almost impossible without a common language.I’m from a quite small, Central European country. For us it is essential to speak foreign languages. We cannot translate everything because it will be too expensive and first of all because it takes time. If I want to be well informed, up to date and modern, I have to speak the language ofmodernity.


Shashi Tharoor, a name or a class to dignify the Indians at global level that, we could rule in every state, whether it is a science and technology or just a mere language of which the Britishers were proud of. His accent and knowledge of English literature is impeccable. Mostly people think of him as ‘Oxford dictionary’, due to his commendable dialect. He is a very famous Indian politician, writer and former international diplomat. He has authored many books. But here we are going to talk about one of his book named An Era of Darkness: The British Empire in India. It was published in 2016 backlashing over the British rule. In his book, he had talked about the torture people faced during colonization, where we were treated like animals without freedom. He also add on the present situation comparing it with the previous one. He stated, in his book, that it was the guilt which can’t be forgiven yet they (Britishers) haven’t asked for an apology. It is an ugly truth which one could barely deny. Over time people are forgetting these things. But these things have been kept alive even today by writers like him so that the truth remains intact till the people. He talks about GDP of India, where he explains the largest dig of Britishers was to loot the wealthy country. It has also points regarding railways termed as scam, which he had explained with the evidence of literature and documents rooted of that time. He states “The British, created rule poverty as their direct result of their action. The book depicts about the industry and their revenues, which were giving the enemies, the monetary power to rule. He picturizes the assassination of innocent lives during British Raj.

How to stand out as a Digital Marketer

In the times , our lives are much more intertwined with the digital world than they were even ten years ago. And being a Digital Marketer is important. In fact, over half 53% of the world’s population can currently access the online from various mobile devices, with 42% of people having access to the online . With numerous people playing, working, and shopping online, it’s no wonder that digital has moved to the forefront of the marketing department’s priorities. From maintaining relevance in their customer’s mind to producing a profitable brand, companies, organizations, and businesses are starting to invest tons in digital marketing and people who are Digital Marketer.

What is Digital Marketing?

Digital selling, additionally referred to as on-line selling, is that the promotion of brands to connect with potential customers exploitation the net and alternative forms of digital communication . This includes not solely email, social media, and web-based advertising, however additionally text and transmission messages as a selling channel.

Here’s 5 ways you can be a successful Digital Marketer

  1. Indulge with Networking and Business events

Although knowledge and knowledge on digital marketing are widely available from sources like podcasts and online articles, investing during a visit to knowledgeable conference offers you benefits that other informational sources just can’t. At these conferences or networking events, you’ve the prospect to concentrate to global industry experts, take advice from best-in-class digital marketing professionals and acquire a glimpse of the direction that the digital marketing industry is heading in. they’re often crammed with interesting events, workshops, and lessons, all geared to help you improve your skillset and expand your understanding of why you’re doing what you’re doing .

2. Learn from Brand and Entrepreneurs

If you’re considering or just beginning are available a career in digital selling, creating the investment throughout knowledgeable digital selling conference might sound like too massive of a leap. Luckily, there is a diffusion of progressive and informative content on-line intermeshed towards creating your career in digital selling productive . These digital selling ‘thought leaders’ have the expertise, expertise, and knowledge required to make digital content that’s extraordinarily accessible for beginners. And since most of these thought leaders are digital marketers themselves, they grasp precisely the due to create their informative content straightforward to hunt out on search engines and across social media platforms.

3. Conversate with Like-Minded People

Active digital selling communities either on-line or offline will assist you recognize the importance of what you are doing and thus the method it fits inside the ‘big picture’ of your business and your life. after you area unit able to speak your frustrations overtly or just raise a haul a number of neighborhood of digital selling you are unfamiliar with , you may gain confidence in your talents and push yourself to each learn and examine new methods and process.

4. Be a Member of a Recognised Brand or Organization 

Digital selling is additionally a necessary and growing trade round the world, meaning that being a member of knowledgeable digital selling representative body will assist you stand out from the competition once attempting to land your dream job it’s an important element to be a successful Digital Marketer.

5. Stay well aware with the Updates across you

In the same manner that programs, apps, and social media platforms are ever-evolving, therefore a Digital Marketer should be aware of new updates that are across. Also, that the way throughout that digital marketers should act with audiences. From maintaining with common on-line acronyms to knowing however AI (AI) is impacting the way individuals use technology, the earth of digital promoting is dynamic and it takes adaptable digital marketers to remain up.

How Google Rank works?

At the point when Google positions your site, it searches for two things authority and pertinence. Google will make a positioning for a site, in light of the aftereffects of the calculation and data assembled via web search tool ‘bugs’. These sites are shown on query output pages in a request mirroring their position. Being at the highest point of the page conveys how suitable the page is with respect to the pursuit question. In any case, these equations, known as calculations, are continually changing as the web crawlers endeavor to accomplish further developed outcomes.

How Google Loves Optimization of Content
A streamlined site will have essential meta information, meta title, meta depiction and on location H1 and H2 labels on each page, these components assist with deciding how your site positions. Google reported in September 2009 that neither meta portrayals nor meta catchphrases factor into Google’s positioning calculations for web search. Notwithstanding, meta portrayal labels are significant in acquiring clients to navigate from SERPs and those snaps do impact it. These short passages offer you the chance to publicize content to searchers and allow clients the opportunity to choose whether the substance is important and contains the data they’re looking for from their hunt question.
Cash alone can’t purchase Google search results, yet with a brief period and procedure you can advance your situation on the web search tool results page (SERP) without spending a dime.
Here are 3 different ways to further develop your Google Search Rank.

  1. Improve your site’s client experience As indicated by a review on positioning variables by SEMrush, the main four positioning components are site visits, time nearby, pages per meeting, and skip rate. Each of the four of those are straightforwardly identified with the experience your site is giving your clients, which Google as of late underlined with its Page Experience update. It’s really straightforward: If your site is simple and agreeable to utilize and offers important data, you’ll get more guests, who will remain longer on your site and visit more pages, and that will further develop your hunt. It can help your content to grow and further develop your Google Search to get increased by the time.
  2. Write incredible substance streamlined for Search Engine Optimization (SEO) : Having top notch content on your site is one of the most incredible approaches to build traffic and further develop your hunt for result. Truth be told, Google itself said in a blog entry on page experience that having incredible, applicable substance on a page is more significant for positioning than page insight. Ensure your substance is without botch, watchword rich, versatile upgraded, written to address the particular requirements of your intended interest group, and incorporates important connections to extra inner and outside content.
  3. Get more backlinks: Backlinks joins from different destinations to yours are one of the most intensely weighted Google positioning variables. Approaching connects to your site content from significant position spaces show your site’s power, acquire traffic, and further develop your pursuit positioning.
    It’s an inaccurate science. Google utilizes an amazingly convoluted equation called a pursuit calculation to site content. Google doesn’t uncover the particulars of its calculation, since, in such a case that it did, everyone would game the framework instead of produce top notch content. Thus, no one external Google knows explicitly are determined. The equivalent is valid for other web indexes.
    How Google rank my webpage?
    Even on the off chance that you knew Google’s calculation precisely, which you truly can’t, you actually wouldn’t realize how Google positions your organization’s web content and it’s in alight of the fact that no two sites have a similar SEO beginning stage. Contingent upon factors, for example, how solid in SEO your opposition is, the manner by which old your space is, the way well your substance is composed, and considerably more, your site’s exhibition inside Google’s search algorithmic framework will fluctuate from one page to another and from one month to another.
    The positioning calculation is continually evolving. Google and other web indexes ceaselessly refine and adjust their inquiry calculations. In some cases changes are made to keep maltreatment from unscrupulous SEO experts others are made to adjust to changes in client propensities and specialized advances on the Internet. The things that were considered significant for high search optimization five years prior are not equivalent to the present, and five years from now SEO best practices will without a doubt look not at all like the present.

Basics of Search Engine Optimization(SEO)

What is SEO?

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is that the art and science of obtaining pages to rank higher in search engines like Google. as a results of search is one in every of the foremost ways during which throughout which individuals discover content on-line, ranking higher in search engines will cause an increase in traffic to an internet web site.

What are various Types of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)?

  • On-Page Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

On-page SEO, Refers to as a SEO done On-site. This is the process which includes the optimizing content on your website. This can include Keywords, Headers, Meta-Data, Images and more content.

  • Off-Page Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Off-Page SEO, it refers to the type of Search Engine Optimization which includes pretty much everything that can’t be done on the website or online. This is the type of SEO which includes about creating a exposure and trust for your brand or the organization. Which can end to a great marketing and it can be more described as an offline marketing for your organization or the brand.

  • Technical SEO

It is also referred as the type of Search Engine Optimization which includes the actions performed to help search engines crawl the data from the website. As search engines and their algorithms can become more complex, these requirements can change which meaning that this type of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is always on a evolving side.

Technical SEO also includes some parameters which can include certain pointers that are below:

  • Website Speed: A more faster and more pounced website is always a better website, User don’t wants to wait for website to be load and buffer. Be sure that to make your website more simple and unique as well as the website should include optimized graphics that can load in fraction of second or a blink of a eye.
  • Portable/Mobile Friendliness: As we are in the digital era, we all love portability and we like to view our content on our smartphones. That’s why we should always keep this in mind we should create a website that is more optimized for desktop and smartphone and look neat at the same time.
  • Site Structure: The website should look good and include HTTPS hypertext and a user-friendly and more consistent website looks better in everyway.

Why SEO is Important?

You’ve altogether probability detected 100 times that program improvement Search Engine Optimization could even be a big digital selling tool, however albeit you’ve got a basic understanding of what it entails, you’ll still not have a solid grasp on this advanced and multifarious creature. SEO is formed from multiple totally different components, and knowing what they’re and thus the way they work is significant to understanding why SEO is therefore important.

Why chocolates Are Good for Health

Chocolates contain anandamide, which as one might guess, comes from the Sanskrit word “ananda”, meaning happiness, joy and delight. Chocolates also contain the chemical compound phenylethylamine, which is said to enhance our feelings of love.

             Chocolate is made from tropical Theobroma cacao tree seeds. Its earliest use dates back to the Olmec civilization in Mesoamerica. After the European discovery of the Americas, chocolate became very popular in the wider world, and its demand exploded.

           Chocolate has since become a popular food product that millions enjoy every day, thanks to its unique, rich, and sweet taste.

 Facts on chocolate:

  • Chocolate consumption has long been associated with conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. 
  • Chocolate is believed to contain high levels of  antioxidants.
  • Some studies have suggested chocolate could lower  cholesterol levels and prevent memory decline.
  • Chocolate contains a large number of calories.
  • People who are seeking to lose or maintain weight should eat chocolate only in moderation.

Eating chocolate may have the following benefits:

  • Reduces stress:

Studies have found evidence that Polyphenols contained in cocoa used to prepare chocolates can reduce stress. Both dark chocolate and milk chocolate contain such polyphenols. Stress is said to signal an increase in oxidative damage to our systems. The antioxidants in chocolate neutralise this oxidative damage caused by free radicals and reduces stress.

  • Beneficial for the brain and improve its function:

Chocolate contains flavanols, which are antioxidant molecules that help in the optimisation of our brain’s functions and potential. Flavonols protect the neurons in the brain and increase our cognitive abilities concerning memory and learning. A study of healthy volunteers showed that eating high-flavanol cocoa for five days improved blood flow to the brain.

  • Reduces risk of heart diseases:

As per research, consumption of dark chocolate, in particular, has been linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Dark chocolate keeps our blood vessels dilated and aids in normal blood flow.Yet another study showed that eating dark chocolate more than 5 times per week lowered the risk of heart disease by 57% .

  • Protects the kidneys:

Dark chocolate was found to have protective effects on our kidneys. The flavanols in dark chocolate help maintain proper renal tissue oxygenation which is essential for the functioning of the kidneys.

·         Powerful Source of Antioxidants:

Dark chocolate is loaded with organic compounds that are biologically active and function as antioxidants. These include polyphenols, flavanols and catechins, among others. One study showed that dark chocolate had more antioxidant activity, polyphenols and flavonoids.

  • Protect the Skin from the Sun:

The bioactive compounds in dark chocolate may also be great for the skin. The flavanol’s can protect against sun damage, improve blood flow to the skin and increase skin density and hydration. Studies show that the flavanols from cocoa can improve blood flow to the skin and protect it from sun damage.

The darker the chocolate, the higher the concentration of cocoa, and so, in theory, the higher the level of antioxidants there will be in the bar.

However, nutrients vary widely in commercially available chocolate bars, depending on the brand and type you choose. It is best to check the label if you want to be sure of the nutrients.

Basics of Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

Search Engine Marketing

Search Engine Marketing is the act of promoting a business utilizing paid commercials that show up on internet searcher results pages (or SERPs). Sponsors bid on watchwords that clients of administrations, for example, Google and Bing may enter when searching for specific items or administrations, which offers the publicist the chance for their advertisements to show up close by results for those hunt inquiries.

What Is SEM?

SEM, or Search Engine Marketing, is the demonstration of utilizing paid methodologies to build search perceivability. Before, internet searcher advertising was a term used to portray both site design improvement (SEO) and paid inquiry. Be that as it may, presently, it quite often alludes just to pay pursuit advertising.

Pay Per Click

These advertisements, regularly known by the term pay-per-click promotions, arrive in an assortment of organizations. Some are little, text-based promotions, though others, for example, item posting advertisements (PLAs, otherwise called Shopping promotions) are more visual, item based ads that permit customers to see significant data initially, like cost and audits. It has to be considers an important basic element of Search Engine Marketing and Search Engine Optimization.

SEM vs SEO: What’s the distinction?

By and large, “web index promoting” alludes to paid hunt showcasing, a framework where organizations pay Google to show their advertisements in the list items.

Search Engine Optimization, or SEO, is diverse on the grounds that organizations don’t pay Google for traffic and snaps; rather, they procure a free spot in the query items by having the most important substance for a given watchword search.

Both Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and Search Engine Marketing (SEM), ought to be crucial pieces of your internet advertising methodology. Website design enhancement is an amazing method to drive evergreen traffic at the highest point of the channel, while web index ads are an exceptionally savvy approach to drive transformations at the lower part of the pipe.

SEM Keyword Research

Search Engine Before you can pick which catchphrases to use in your web search tool promoting efforts, you need to lead complete examination as a component of your watchword the board technique.

To start with, you need to recognize watchwords that are applicable to your business and that planned clients are probably going to utilize while looking for your items and administrations. One approach to achieve this is by utilizing Word Stream’s Free Keyword Tool. Basically, enter a catchphrase that is applicable to your business or administration, and see related watchword idea thoughts that can frame the premise of different web search tool promoting efforts. This can be consider as an important factor while performing Search Engine Marketing during any form of project or website.

Differential Equations


 Introduction:
Differential equations are meant to state relationship between a variable (to be specific, a function) and the rate of change of another associated with it. If we write,- Y = f(x) , then we are saying that Y is a function of X. Here x is an independent variable and y is dependent variable. In short, an equation with a derivative of an independent variable along with the dependent variable (or not) and a constant is named after “Differential Equation.”

 Key concepts:

 Order and Degree Of a Differential Equation:
The highest order derivative present in the differential equation is the “order” of the equation. Similarly, the power associated with the highest order of derivative is the “degree” of that equation.
In the given figure- 1,

(I) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(II) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(III) Order : 3
Degree: 1
(IV) Order : 1
Degree: 1
Always remember – “order and degree of a differential equation are positive integers.

 Solution of differential equation:
Here solution means the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable without having derivative inside. It has two specific ways which are going to be explained:

  1. General Solution:
    It contains the same number of the arbitrary constants as the order of the differential equation.

In figure- 2, we can see all of the three solutions have excluded the derivatives and established a relation between variables only.

  1. Particular Solution:
    After getting the general one, just assign the values of the constants and you will get particular solution.
    From figure- 2, if we find the value of C1, C2, then it will become a particular solution.
    Figure-3, gives us a clear idea of particular solution
     Formation of Differential Equation:
    There are some steps which are needed to follow while forming a differential equation.

(i) You need to differentiate the equations as many times as the number of arbitrary constants are present in the equation.
(ii) Eliminate all constants.
(iii) Say, there are n constants. Then, the equation will be of nth order and you will get n equations.

 Method of Solving 1st Order 1st Degree Differential Equation:
In this article, we shall deal with only three methods which are as followed.

(a) Variable Separable Method:
In this method, variables are separable i.e. coefficient of dx is only a function of x and coefficient of dy is only a function of y.
From figure- 4, we can see the procedure.

(b) Homogeneous Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,- dy/dx = v + x. dv/dx

Ratio of two homogeneous functions of same degree is to be taken as a single variable (say:”v”) here. Then integration goes on.

(c) Linear Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,- dy/dx + Py = Q

Here the coefficient of independent variable takes major part to solve this equation.

In figure – 6, the steps are to be followed and then the equation is prepared.

 Conclusion:
There are more methods but the syllabus comprises to the above only. The article has all the points which are detailed in NCERT like order and degree of differential equations, formation and methods to solve those. It will help you for last minute revision and to summarize your learnings will give you a new and better approach.

Differential quations


 Introduction:
Differential equations are meant to state relationship between a variable (to be specific, a function) and the rate of change of another associated with it. If we write,- Y = f(x) , then we are saying that Y is a function of X. Here x is an independent variable and y is dependent variable. In short, an equation with a derivative of an independent variable along with the dependent variable (or not) and a constant is named after “Differential Equation.”

 Key concepts:

 Order and Degree Of a Differential Equation:
The highest order derivative present in the differential equation is the “order” of the equation. Similarly, the power associated with the highest order of derivative is the “degree” of that equation.
In the given figure- 1,

(I) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(II) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(III) Order : 3
Degree: 1
(IV) Order : 1
Degree: 1
Always remember – “order and degree of a differential equation are positive integers.

 Solution of differential equation:
Here solution means the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable without having derivative inside. It has two specific ways which are going to be explained:

  1. General Solution:
    It contains the same number of the arbitrary constants as the order of the differential equation.

In figure- 2, we can see all of the three solutions have excluded the derivatives and established a relation between variables only.

  1. Particular Solution:
    After getting the general one, just assign the values of the constants and you will get particular solution.
    From figure- 2, if we find the value of C1, C2, then it will become a particular solution.
    Figure-3, gives us a clear idea of particular solution
     Formation of Differential Equation:
    There are some steps which are needed to follow while forming a differential equation.

(i) You need to differentiate the equations as many times as the number of arbitrary constants are present in the equation.
(ii) Eliminate all constants.
(iii) Say, there are n constants. Then, the equation will be of nth order and you will get n equations.

 Method of Solving 1st Order 1st Degree Differential Equation:
In this article, we shall deal with only three methods which are as followed.

(a) Variable Separable Method:
In this method, variables are separable i.e. coefficient of dx is only a function of x and coefficient of dy is only a function of y.
From figure- 4, we can see the procedure.

(b) Homogeneous Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,- dy/dx = v + x. dv/dx

Ratio of two homogeneous functions of same degree is to be taken as a single variable (say:”v”) here. Then integration goes on.

(c) Linear Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,- dy/dx + Py = Q

Here the coefficient of independent variable takes major part to solve this equation.

In figure – 6, the steps are to be followed and then the equation is prepared.

 Conclusion:
There are more methods but the syllabus comprises to the above only. The article has all the points which are detailed in NCERT like order and degree of differential equations, formation and methods to solve those. It will help you for last minute revision and to summarize your learnings will give you a new and better approach.


What is success to you? How to be successful in life?

To some, when they think of success, they imagine wealth; others want power; some just want to make a positive impact on the world.All of these are perfectly valid, indeed success is a concept that means different things to different people. Though no matter what success is to you, it almost certainly isn’t something will come easily.

There are countless guides and books to being successful, however, as success is personal and unique to each individual. The advice contained in these books can often not be relevant. Therefore following the advice of a single individual can often be unhelpful.

With this in mind, considering the advice of a great many people, people whose ideas of success were different both to each other, and quite possibly, to you can be a good alternative.

What follows is a list of 13 of the best pieces of advice from some of the most successful people who have ever lived. If you want to learn how to be successful, these tips are essential:

1. Think Big:

“The greater danger for most of us lies not in setting our aim too high and falling short; but in setting our aim too low, and achieving our mark.”

There are few artists as influential as Michaelangelo. Today centuries after his death, his work still inspires and connects to people. His work is world famous, just think of his statue of David, or the Mural in the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.

Imagine then, if he decided not to work as an artist.Being a successful artist has always been extremely difficult, imagine if he decided to give up this ambition in favour of something easier?

Oftentimes, people often decided to put their dreams aside for something more “realistic”. To give up their dream for something easier. This quote teaches us the danger of such a point of view.Instead be ambitious.

2. Find What You Love to Do and Do It:

“You know you are on the road to success if you would do your job and not be paid for it.”

This is a good quote to remember and think about when you’re at work.Imagine being as successful as possible in your current job. Ultimately you’ll probably find yourself working extremely hard and this it will take up much of your time.If it’s a job you hate, then being successful at it might only mean filling your life with something you hate to do. What’s the sense in this?

Instead, why not focus on doing something you love? When you’ve found what you’re passionate about, you get the motivation to keep you moving. Success at this means the fulfilment of your dreams.

Not sure what your passion is yet? You should learn about your Motivation Engine first. To discover your own Motivation Engine, join Lifehack’s free Fast-Track Class – Activate Your Motivation. In this intensive session, you will dig deep into your inner drive and passion and build a unique Motivation Engine based on it, so you will never lose motivation again even when times get tough. Join this fast-track class for free here.

Even if you’re not successful, you still filled your time with something you love to do. Many successful musicians spent years of their lives doing unpaid performances, the only reason they kept playing was because they loved to perform.

3. Learn How to Balance Life:

“There is an immutable conflict at work in life and in business, a constant battle between peace and chaos. Neither can be mastered, but both can be influenced. How you go about that is the key to success.”

All too often, people think that to be successful, they need to make the object of their success their life.

If a person thinks their job will lead them to success, then they may spend countless hours per day, and well into the evening working hard.

However this comes at the cost of rest, your health and having an enjoyable life. Ultimately they may burn out and cease to be successful at their job anyway.

If success comes from having a strong social life and a good group of friends, their job may suffer; meaning that they may lose their job, and then be unable to afford going out with friends.

In these ways, success, as Phil Knight says above, is helped by balance. Think of it as a balance between rest and work, or work and play.To achieve that balance, this Ultimate Guide to Prioritizing Your Work And Life can help you.

4. Do Not Be Afraid of Failure:

“Failure is simply the opportunity to begin again, this time more intelligently.”

There is a story, it’s unconfirmed whether it actually happened, yet the message within is none the less true:

Thomas Edison inventing the lightbulb was the result of several hundred failed attempts. In an interview, he was asked “How do you feel after all of your failed attempts?”

His response was great, “I didn’t fail, I learned hundreds of ways not to invent the lightbulb”

He saw each “failure” as a lesson. From that lesson he learned what won’t work, and also might work instead.

Each failed attempt, each rejection, were key steps on his path to success. It is easy to feel like you should give up after a failure. But perhaps in that failure is a lesson.

Pay attention to your failures, study them. Perhaps then you’ll learn how to succeed.

5. Have an Unwavering Resolution to Succeed

“I made a resolve then that I was going to amount to something if I could. And no hours, nor amount of labor, nor amount of money would deter me from giving the best that there was in me. And I have done that ever since, and I win by it. I know.”

This, in many ways relates to the above quote about learning from your failures.

It’s the easiest thing in the world to give up from a failure. The only way to push on is if you have the true burning desire to succeed, to not be moved or dissuaded from your goals.

If you are not truly dedicated towards success, then each failure will hurt more, each set back will slow you down.

Success is hard; without the unwavering desire to succeed, this difficulty may seem insurmountable. With the desire, it is merely an obstacle to go through.

6. Be a Person of Action:

“It had long since come to my attention that people of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and happened to things.”

Though it was said hundreds of years ago, it works just as much today as it ever had. It applies to literally any successful person.

Think about it, picture someone like William Shakespeare:

When we think of the time he lived in, we think of the time in a way shaped by him. When we think of Renaissance era Italy, we think of Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci. Or think about the present day, Bill Gates or Steve Jobs. Our current way of life would simply be incomparably different if they didn’t accomplish what they did.

You’re probably reading this article on a device by a company that they either founded or companies influenced by them.

All these figures were proactive, they saw ways to do things differently and did them. If they let the world shape them, then they’d simply fit into the background. Instead they shaped the world.

7. Cultivate Positive Relationships:

The most important single ingredient in the formula of success is knowing how to get along with people.”

The best leaders and some of the most influential people (and Theodore Roosevelt is one of the best leaders and one of the most influential people to have lived) were not those who caused commotions, who fought with people or disregarded people; but were people who were friendly to those around them.People liked them. They wanted them to do well.

It’s logical. If someone likes you, they want to help you; if you give them a suggestion, they’ll gladly follow through with it.

But if someone doesn’t like you, they may either refuse to help or actively get in your way.

What’s more, it’s always a good idea to cultivate good relationships. You can never tell who will prove to become someone who’ll be able to help you in a big way, or even be a good and supportive friend.As such, help people and they may help you; and be good to people, and they my be good to you.

8. Don’t Be Afraid of Introducing New Ideas:

“A person with a new idea is a crank until the idea succeeds.”

It is an unfortunate truth that those with the boldest ideas are often disregarded.Most of us are taught from an early age to think and do things similarly to everyone else. This can be great to fill an existing role. But to truly do things differently (and all successful people did things differently), you need to think differently.

If you have a new idea, don’t throw it away because it’s new and different; instead, celebrate it. Your strange new idea might one day be the one that leads you to success.

9. Believe in Your Capacity to Succeed:

“If you can dream it, you can do it.”

Success has to be something you can imagine yourself achieving.It is possible that you will come across those who doubt you and your ability to succeed. You must not become one of these people because the moment you cease believing and dreaming is the moment these dreams fall away.

10. Always Maintain a Positive Mental Attitude:

“Nothing can stop the man with the right mental attitude from achieving his goal; nothing on earth can help the man with the wrong mental attitude.”

Like the above quote says, you need to trust in your ability to succeed. This is the only way to cultivate the right mindset.

Replace negative thoughts with the positive ones. You need to approach problems, not as obstacles stopping you, but merely tasks that need to be completed for you to keep going.If you stay positive and think like this, setbacks won’t affect you so much, people’s doubts won’t impact you and even the biggest obstacles will seem like minor problems.However with the wrong mindset of doubt, you’ll be much easier to stop.

11. Don’t Let Discouragement Stop You from Pressing On:

“Let no feeling of discouragement prey upon you, and in the end you are sure to succeed.”

It is an unfortunate fact of human nature — all of us in some way, doubt ourselves. This can be made far worse if others doubt us too.When surrounded by doubts, giving up can actually seem like a good idea. Don’t pay attention to the doubts. If you are discouraged, ignore it.Watch this video and learn what to do even when others don’t believe that you’ll succeed:

12. Be Willing to Work Hard:

“Unless you are willing to drench yourself in your work beyond the capacity of the average man, you are just not cut out for positions at the top.”

You might have heard the quote that “success is 1% inspiration, 99% perspiration” or you may have heard about the 10,000 hours idea.Whichever way you frame it, they say one thing:True success comes from work.You’ll never become successful if you don’t work towards your goal in life and keep working towards it.

13. Be Brave Enough to Follow Your Intuition:

“Have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.”

In ancient Greece, there was a group of Oracles who lived in Delphi. Everyone who needed advice or to know their future visited them, from the poorest of society to kings. Above the doorway of the temple were the words “know thyself”.

If you strongly believe and desire something, chances are that you already have an idea how to get there. If not, you may naturally know what things will help you and what things will slow you down.It’s like how your body can detect danger even when things seem safe.Ultimately then, you need to trust your own instincts.


10 Tips to Manage Stress:


Working out regularly is one of the best ways to relax your body and mind. Plus, exercise will improve your mood. But you have to do it often for it to pay off.week?Work up to 2 hours and 30 minutes of moderately intense exercise like brisk walks or 75 minutes of a more vigorous exercise like swimming laps, jogging or other sports.Focus on setting fitness goals you can meet so you don’t give up. Most of all remember that doing any exercise is better than none at all.

2.Relax Your Muscles:

When you’re stressed, your muscles get tense. You can help loosen them up on your own and refresh your body by:

Stretching Enjoying a massage. Taking a hot bath or shower Getting a good night’s sleep.

3.Deep Breathing:

Stopping and taking a few deep breaths can take the pressure off you right away. You’ll be surprised how much better you feel once you get good at it.

Sit in a comfortable position with your hands in your lap and your feet on the floor. Or you can lie down.

Close your eyes.

Imagine yourself in a relaxing place. It can be on the beach, in a beautiful field of grass, or anywhere that gives you a peaceful feeling.

Slowly take deep breaths in and out.

Do this for 5 to 10 minutes at a time.

4.Eat Well:

Eating a regular, well-balanced diet will help you feel better in general. It may also help control your moods. Your meals should be full of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and lean protein for energy. And don’t skip any. It’s not good for you and can put you in a bad mood, which can actually increase your stress.

5.Slow Down:

Modern life is so busy, and sometimes we just need to slow down and chill out. Look at your life and find small ways you can do that. For example:Set your watch 5 to 10 minutes ahead. That way you’ll get places a little early and avoid the stress of being late.When you’re driving on the highway, switch to the slow lane so you can avoid road rage.Break down big jobs into smaller ones. For example, don’t try to answer all 100 emails if you don’t have to — just answer a few of them.

6.Take a Break:

You need to plan on some real downtime to give your mind time off from stress. If you’re a person who likes to set goals, this may be hard for you at first. But stick with it and you’ll look forward to these moments. Restful things you can do include:Meditation,Yoga,Tai chi, Prayer,Listening to your favorite music,Spending time in nature.

7.Make Time for Hobbies:

You need to set aside time for things you enjoy. Try to do something every day that makes you feel good, and it will help relieve your stress. It doesn’t have to be a ton of time — even 15 to 20 minutes will do. Relaxing hobbies include things like:


KnittinDoing an art project

Playing golf

Watching a movie

Doing puzzles

Playing cards and board games.

8.Talk About Your Problems:

If things are bothering you, talking about them can help lower your stress. You can talk to family members, friends, a trusted clergyman, your doctor, or a therapist.

And you can also talk to yourself. It’s called self-talk and we all do it. But in order for self-talk to help reduce stress you need to make sure it’s positive and not negative.So listen closely to what you’re thinking or saying when you’re stressed out. If you’re giving yourself a negative message, change it to a positive one. For example, don’t tell yourself “I can’t do this.” Tell yourself instead: “I can do this,” or “I’m doing the best I can.”

9.Go Easy On Yourself:

Accept that you can’t do things perfectly no matter how hard you try. You also can’t control everything in your life. So do yourself a favor and stop thinking you can do so much. And don’t forget to keep up your sense of humor. Laughter goes a long way towards making you feel relaxed.

10.Eliminate Your Triggers:

Figure out what are the biggest causes of stress in your life. Is it your job, your commute, your schoolwork? If you’re able to identify what they are, see if you’re able to eliminate them from your life, or at least reduce them.If you can’t identify the main causes of your stress, try keeping a stress journal. Make note of when you become most anxious and see if you can determine a pattern, then find ways to remove or lessen those triggers.


A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

On Earth, volcanoes are most often found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-ocean ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust’s plates, such as in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has been postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 kilometers (1,900 mi) deep in the Earth. This results in hotspot volcanism, of which the Hawaiian hotspot is an example. Volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another.

Large eruptions can affect atmospheric temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the Sun and cool the Earth’s troposphere. Historically, large volcanic eruptions have been followed by volcanic winters which have caused catastrophic famines.

Volcanic activity:

Volcanoes vary greatly in their level of activity, with individual volcanic systems having an eruption recurrence ranging from several times a year to once in tens of thousands of years.[50] Volcanoes are informally described as active, dormant, or extinct, but these terms are poorly defined.


There is no consensus among volcanologists on how to define an “active” volcano. The lifespan of a volcano can vary from months to several million years, making such a distinction sometimes meaningless when compared to the lifespans of humans or even civilizations. For example, many of Earth’s volcanoes have erupted dozens of times in the past few thousand years but are not currently showing signs of eruption. Given the long lifespan of such volcanoes, they are very active. By human lifespans, however, they are not.

Dormant and reactivated:

It is difficult to distinguish an extinct volcano from a dormant (inactive) one. Dormant volcanoes are those that have not erupted for thousands of years, but are likely to erupt again in the future.[52][53] Volcanoes are often considered to be extinct if there are no written records of its activity. Nevertheless, volcanoes may remain dormant for a long period of time. For example, Yellowstone has a repose/recharge period of around 700,000 years, and Toba of around 380,000 years.[54] Vesuvius was described by Roman writers as having been covered with gardens and vineyards before its eruption of 79 CE, which destroyed the towns of Herculaneum and Pompeii. Before its catastrophic eruption of 1991, Pinatubo was an inconspicuous volcano, unknown to most people in the surrounding areas. Two other examples are the long-dormant Soufrière Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat, thought to be extinct before activity resumed in 1995 (turning its capital Plymouth into a ghost town) and Fourpeaked Mountain in Alaska, which, before its September 2006 eruption, had not erupted since before 8000 BCE and had long been thought to be extinct.


Extinct volcanoes are those that scientists consider unlikely to erupt again because the volcano no longer has a magma supply. Examples of extinct volcanoes are many volcanoes on the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain in the Pacific Ocean (although some volcanoes at the eastern end of the chain are active), Hohentwiel in Germany, Shiprock in New Mexico, US, Zuidwal volcano in the Netherlands, and many volcanoes in Italy such as Monte Vulture. Edinburgh Castle in Scotland is located atop an extinct volcano, called Arthur’s Seat. Whether a volcano is truly extinct is often difficult to determine. Since “supervolcano” calderas can have eruptive lifespans sometimes measured in millions of years, a caldera that has not produced an eruption in tens of thousands of years may be considered dormant instead of extinct.

Volcanic-alert level:

The three common popular classifications of volcanoes can be subjective and some volcanoes thought to have been extinct have erupted again. To help prevent people from falsely believing they are not at risk when living on or near a volcano, countries have adopted new classifications to describe the various levels and stages of volcanic activity.Some alert systems use different numbers or colors to designate the different stages. Other systems use colors and words. Some systems use a combination of both.

History of volcanology:

Many ancient accounts ascribe volcanic eruptions to supernatural causes, such as the actions of gods or demigods. To the ancient Greeks, volcanoes’ capricious power could only be explained as acts of the gods, while 16th/17th-century German astronomer Johannes Kepler believed they were ducts for the Earth’s tears.One early idea counter to this was proposed by Jesuit Athanasius Kircher (1602–1680), who witnessed eruptions of Mount Etna and Stromboli, then visited the crater of Vesuvius and published his view of an Earth with a central fire connected to numerous others caused by the burning of sulfur, bitumen and coal.

Various explanations were proposed for volcano behavior before the modern understanding of the Earth’s mantle structure as a semisolid material was developed. For decades after awareness that compression and radioactive materials may be heat sources, their contributions were specifically discounted. Volcanic action was often attributed to chemical reactions and a thin layer of molten rock near the surface.


Neurologists diagnose, treat and manage disorders that affect the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (nerves and muscles which activate movement and transmit sensation from all parts of the body to the brain).

Nature of the work:

Neurologists treat any disease of the body’s systems that affects neurological function. High blood pressure, for example, is a cardiac problem, but if it causes a stroke (a sudden loss of blood supply to the brain) the problem becomes a neurological one as well.

Neurologists also treat infectious disease such as meningitis which can cause brain damage and lead to complications like epilepsy.

They also treat peripheral nerve diseases which may result in weakness or sensory impairment.

In many cases, the diagnosis of new patients with neurological problems is by clinical assessment alone (taking a thorough history of the symptoms and physical examination), though in others there may be a need for further investigation such as blood tests, scans (CT or MRI) and electrical tests which measure peripheral nerve and muscle function.

Patients are followed up either to clarify the diagnosis or alternatively to manage longer term problems. Examples of conditions which require long term follow-up are epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.

The process of diagnosis is becoming ever more sophisticated with improved imaging and other types of tests including genetic testing. Available treatments are broadening too with improvements in existing therapy as well as new treatments such as those to modify the disease in multiple sclerosis.

Neurologists treat conditions such as:

multiple sclerosisheadaches blackoutsperipheral neuropathy (disease affecting the nerves) including chronic neuropathic painParkinson’s disease and other movement disorders (eg tremor)Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) also known as motor neuron disease. MND (causing weakness and muscle wasting due to nerve degeneration)epilepsy spinal cord diseases muscle diseases like muscular dystrophy (causing weakness of muscle fibres)myasthenia gravis (where the muscles become weak and tire easily) and related disorders brain tumours functional disorders (symptoms which cannot be explained by neurological damage).

Common procedures/interventions:

Electroencephalography (EEG) to look for signs of epilepsy Nerve conduction tests (neurophysiology)injections for the treatment of patients with dystonia (abnormal muscle contractions)rarely, muscle or nerve biopsies.

Common reasons to visit a neurologist:

A thorough neurological exam is the most important tool I have as a neurologist,” Dr. Bruce explains. “It can help differentiate and localize the causes of common complaints.”

Chronic or severe headaches:

If you get migraine headaches, you should probably make an appointment with a neurologist, especially when the symptoms are associated with neurological deficits or tried treatments prove ineffective.


Experiencing vertigo (feeling like you’re spinning) or having difficulty keeping your balance could be a sign of something more serious.

Numbness or tingling:

Numbness or tingling, especially when it occurs on one side of the body or comes on suddenly, could be a sign of a stroke or other serious condition.

Movement problems:

Difficulty walking, shuffling your feet, tremors and unintentional jerks, can all be signs of a nervous system problem.

Memory problems or confusion:

Worsening memory problems, personality changes or mixing up words could be signs of Alzheimer’s disease.

What is Functional Neurology?

Functional Neurology is a new concept for many people. In essence, functional neurology, also called chiropractic neurology, is the clinical evaluation and treatment method for the central and peripheral nervous system. Very basically, functional neurology can be thought of as exercise for the brain. Just like training a muscle makes it stronger, training your brain will make it stronger.

What does it mean to make the brain stronger? By this, we mean improve the function of the brain. This can be achieved by making positive neuroplastic changes. Neuroplasticity is the term that describes the brains ability to make new connections in order to achieve a new function. Think about a developing child learning to walk or talk or write. It takes practice, but once the task is learned, it is hard wired. Through trauma, degeneration, or a developmental obstacle, the brain may not be wired correctly or it may have a weak or broken wire. A functional neurological treatment is one that promotes rewiring and/or strengthening a connection that is already in place.

Functional neurology is brain training. Smell, taste, sound, balance, vision, movement, and touch are utilized in specific ways to promote neuroplastic changes. Making a positive neuroplastic change requires specificity. Treatment needs to be specific for the part of the brain requiring change and then the treatment intensity needs to be done within the brain’s metabolic capacity. When working with fragile or broken wires (neurons), it is easy to cause more damage if the ‘weight’ of the treatment is not closely monitored.

Functional neurology does not include surgery or pharmaceutical solutions, but may employ some combination of chiropractic manipulation, various therapies, and recommended lifestyle changes.

The explanation which functional neurology provides for neurological disorders is still a hypothesis and difficult to convey in plain language, but here’s the short version based on a recent review of functional neurology.

Functional neurology treats the source of a patient’s ailments as “functional aberrations of the neuraxis” — meaning, clusters of neurons which aren’t working together in the way they are supposed to — in various locations throughout the central nervous system.

Functional neurologists attempt to assess the “central integrative state,” or CIS, of functional units of neurons within the nervous system to determine where those functional aberrations are. The CIS is essentially how they refer to the current healthiness of those neurons.

Functional neurologists believe functional aberrations come from lesions, which are the result of some deficiency — perhaps there are dead cells (worst case scenario), or maybe they aren’t getting enough oxygen or nutrition.

Whatever the case, these aberrations cause communication snafus throughout the central nervous system and lead to hyper- or hypo-functional areas of the brain. In turn, this situation results in “diverse motor, sensory, visceral, or cognitive symptoms”.

Many functional neurologists are also interested in fatigability (can you maintain a healthy response to a certain stimulus?) and hemisphericity (the belief that neurological symptoms come from some imbalance between the two halves of the brain or an area therein).

While their treatment protocols are highly varied, many functional neurologists base treatment on the idea that stimulation of an area is enough to engage the brain’s inherent neuroplasticity, which is its ability to heal itself from certain injuries and conditions.

For the purposes of this piece, we will assume that functional neurologists begin with chiropractic training. Chiropractors spend years learning about the central nervous system and the spine. They spend more time during diagnosis and treatment looking at whole-body care and the effects of lifestyle on health than do most neurologists.

To become a chiropractic neurologist, they complete additional coursework on neurological disorders and the functional neurology approach to treating them.Functional neurologists are in their element while treating symptoms of unknown cause, especially if they are related to the vestibular (balance) system. They can also help patients with neck soreness, back pain, and other symptoms relating to the spine because of their chiropractic training.

International Media Conclave 2021

We at School of Journalism and Mass Communication in JECRC University are all set to host our first International Media Conclave ‘Manthan’ from September 15 to September 17.
The Conclave will have three dozen speakers from over half a dozen countries. It will have six sessions, six keynote addresses and an inaugural address.

For registration and e-Certificate, Register to below link

Joining link
JU International Media Conclave Day 2Time: Sep 16, 2021  3PM India
Join Zoom Meetinghttps://zoom.us/j/98619567328?pwd=SFQ2RVlmdEVLdUV2aUNodGhKMWROdz09

iPhone 13, All you need to know!

The new Apple iPhone recently dropped and for some ‘iFans’ their failure is vast and their day is demolished. Late on Tuesday night, Apple dispatched the cutting edge Apple iPhone 13 series at the Apple California Streaming occasion. The new Apple cell phone series incorporates the standard iPhone 13 close by iPhone 13 smaller than normal, iPhone 13 Pro, and iPhone 13 Pro Max – like the archetype iPhone 12 series. All the new Apple cell phones hold the USB Type-C port, an OLED (Pro XDR) screen, MagSafe support, and quicker 5G groups. iPhone 13 models further get the new-age 5nm Apple A15 Bionic SoC, and obviously, the RAM arrangement and battery limit stay muddled. As far as plan, the iPhone 13 series holds the level edge plan, however the size of the front score has been diminished. The iPhone 13 smaller than expected elements a 5.4-inch show, while the ordinary iPhone 13 games a 6.1-inch show. The double back cameras are set slantingly on the customary and small models. The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max accompany 6.1-inch and 6.7-inch shows, separately. Prominently, the iPhone 13 Pro models presently accompany a 120Hz revive rate that Apple calls ProMotion Display. The ordinary iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 smaller than usual accompany least 128GB stockpiling choices. Conversely, iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max currently have up to 1TB capacity choices. With respect to optics, both normal iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 small hold two 12-megapixel cameras (wide and super wide) at the back and a solitary 12-megapixel from the megapixel camera. The Pro models accompany back three cameras (Main + wide-point + super wide-point) and a Lidar sensor for an improved AR experience.

Apple presented iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 scaled down, the up and coming age of the world’s best cell phone, highlighting an excellent plan with smooth level edges in five dazzling new tones. The two models highlight significant developments, including the most progressive double camera framework ever on iPhone with another Wide camera with greater pixels and sensor-shift optical picture adjustment (OIS) offering upgrades in low-light photographs and recordings, another approach to customize the camera with Photographic Styles, and Cinematic mode, which carries another measurement to video narrating. iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 small likewise gloat super-quick execution and force proficiency with A15 Bionic, longer battery life, a more splendid Super Retina XDR show that rejuvenates content, unimaginable solidness with the Ceramic Shield title page, twofold the passage level stockpiling at 128GB, an industry-driving IP68 rating for water obstruction, and a high level 5G experience.

Top 5 Ways to Fix Slow Internet after Windows 10 Update

1.Adjust the Internet Bandwidth Settings:

Since windows 10, with the aid of  using default ,reserves 20% of the Internet bandwidth for the system applications and its operating system, you can’t browse or surf on the Internet with 100% Internet connection. This solution speeds up the dropping Internet speed by trimming down the bandwidth which is reserved for Windows 10 and system applications. Follow the step-by-step guide to tackle slow Internet after Windows 10 Update.

Step 1. Press Windows shortcut keys Windows + R to open Run dialog box.

Step 2. Type gpedit.msc and then hit OK.

Step 3. Give permissions. A pop-up window will open with title of Group Policy.

Step 4. Click on Computer Configuration on the right side of the window.

Step 5. Navigate to: Administrative Templates >Network >Qos Packet Scheduler >Limit reservable bandwidth.

Step 6. Click on Enable.

Step 7. Change the Value from 20 to 0.

Step 8. Apply and after which click OK.


The maximum apparent solution to this problem is uninstalling the update itself. Since the new Windows 10 update is causing trouble, the easiest thing to do is to uninstall it and hold off updating your operating system until a newer update is released. Once uninstalled, Windows users have reported that the issues they are facing decease to exist.

        The procedure of uninstalling a Windows 10 update is pretty simple. Open Settings then click Update & Security. A window will appear from which you should choose Windows Update and then View update history. Select Uninstall Updates. You have successfully uninstalled the present update that was downloaded and it should, hopefully, fix your internet problem.

3. Disable Updates

Windows has an option called ‘Peer to Peer Updates’ which can be useful for those who are too busy to download Updates and keep their system up-to-date. However, for some, it can wreak havoc. Since these updates download automatically without informing the user, they use 90 percent of the internet bandwidth causing your internet connection to be slow during this Windows 10 update.

           The apparent solution is turning these Peer to Peer Updates off by doing the following. Go to Settings and then Update & Security. Choose the first option called ‘Windows Update’. Click Advanced Options. Select Delivery Optimization. Now, turn Allow Downloads from other PC(s) OFF. This will disable future automatic updates.

4.Update Your Network Drivers:

Some unexpected driver errors may happen when upgrade to new Windows OS. Outdated, missing or incorrect network drivers may result in limiting internet speed. To rule out that possibility, you might as well turn to a professional driver updater utility tool, like Driver Talent, which is able to match the compatible drivers for your computer and download them automatically within two minutes. All the drivers are collected from the official source (original manufacturers and Microsoft) and they are safe and well tested.

5. Disable the firewall:

Windows 10 has an excellent feature which is a built-in firewall. Firewalls are integral for the security of your malware, however, sometimes, firewalls can slow down your Internet speeds and can be the culprit of limiting your bandwidth.

           Many people criticize this option, but it seems to work for multiple users. Windows 10 has excellent features; it is a built-in firewall. A firewall is an indispensable part of malware security. However, sometimes a firewall may slow down the Internet speed and may be the culprit in limiting bandwidth. You can test the theory by disabling the firewall, and if it speeds up, you only need to switch to a third-party firewall instead of the built-in Windows 10 firewall.

How small savings can be a good thing

“Small droplets make a great ocean” edges | Benefits | Some allied honey votes to clarify the benefits and savings benefits. We are going to look at a touch of rationalization throughout this article.

Small savings to help in an accident
Man seeks money to guide traditional human life. Some value class dimensions are subject to human design. Some tribes are unplanned. Take medical expenses as an example. Someone suffers at times like this. Logic They are not set up and saved. However, people who are in the habit of saving need not worry. As a result of his small savings he is offered a hand.

Necessary cost savings
Allocating a line for small savings is the first expense that each individual or family must make to their potential subject to the financial leverage of the market. It is a good habit to set aside the exact share size in the long run.

Small savings classes measure security for tomorrow’s generation
To any person, “Why would anyone stay?” The solution is to ask, “For the well-being of my youth.” Yes, young people believe in religion and trust their elders. Fagis is responsible for providing a secure future for his children. It is the savings that provide such protection.

Those who save alone for children’s education, clothes, marriage do not have to worry about anything. For that, the semi-permanent setup and the short run setup must be run and run.

It is equally important to store fresh water in dams, lakes and ponds and to save occasional cash as it is used longer for agriculture and drinking.

Ways to save
We rarely see people shouting that the money we save is in camera corporations with low interest rates. So instead of saving in insecure private corporations, it is safer to save a lot in reliable, secure post offices or government-owned banks.

We really need a saving habit. It should be put in more reliable places. Only then will our life be happy.


In ordinary parlance law means the rules which guide human action. In every community there is a body of customary ways for carrying social activities.

These are clear-cut and definite. Otherwise, a good deal of time would have been wasted to meet the friction.These are a kind of unwritten code enforced by religious authorities or by the pressure of public opinion. These social standards sometimes assume greater significance for the purpose of the general welfare that some penalty is necessary for those who violate these customary laws.

Then these customs cease to be purely social customs and assume political nature and become the laws of the land. These laws then virtually become the commands of the society. Their violations are met with penalty. In modern states law is an enactment made by the state. It is backed by coercion or force. Its violation is punishable by the courts. It stands for the will of the state. It exists to realise the purpose of the state.

It regulates the rights and duties of the citizens towards one another and also towards the state.It is the medium of the state to fulfill its promises to the people.

It represents the sociological needs of the society. It reflects the political, social and economic relationship in the state.

Relation between Law and Morality:

Here we shall discuss the similarity between law and morality and then point out the difference between law and morality.

Similarity between Law and Morality:

There is a close relation between law and morality. Law is by and large based on the moral ethos of society.They act and react upon each other.

The ideal of law is to project general welfare and to promote the moral perfection of the individual.The state must endeavour to make such laws that will heighten the moral standard of the people. So the laws of the state are rather the standard of morality of that time.

Thus Plato’s Republic which is a book on politics is at the same time a good treatise on morality. In ancient India Dharma would stand for both law and morality. Thus law is not only the command of the sovereign but a code of moral conduct also.Without the moral support of the people a law cannot be enforced.

So we find that law against the dowry has not been successful because a vast majority of the people in India does not morally support it.In this context Thomas Hill Green pointed out “In attempting to enforce an unpopular law, a government may be doing more harm than good by creating and spreading the habit of disobedience to law. The total cost of such an attempt may well be greater than the total gain.”

Difference between Law and Morality:

Law :

1. Law is concerned with the external human conduct and does not regulate with the inner motives. Law does not take notice of the inner motives of a man notice of the inner motives of a man notice of the inner motives of a man.

2. Law is uniform for all and it does not vary from man to man.

3. Law is precise and definite. Every state has a common forum of law.

4. There is a definite organ in every state for making law. The violator of law is punished by the state.

5. Law belongs to the subject of jurisprudence.

Morality :

1. Morality is concerned with both the inner motives and external actions of a man. So the scope of morality is wider than that of law.

2. Every man has a different moral obligation. It varies from man to man, age to age and circumstances to circumstances.

3. Morality is vague and indefinite. There is no authority to enforce morality.

4. Morality is never made by any organ. There is no force to punish the breaker of morality. There is no element of compulsion in morality.

5. The branch of knowledge that deals with morality is called ethics.

Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States

The Indian system of governance is described as federal with a unitary bias. While in essence, our nation is a federation of states, with the state governments coming together under the leadership of the union government at the centre, but retaining their liberty in policy making for the state’s internal affairs; multiple factors point to the Unitarianism that is being followed in the democracy.

This type of governing mechanism makes Indian governance system unique as compared to those of other nations across the globe.

The Indian Constitution is a well-defined archive of the guidelines that help govern our country. Part V and Part VI of the constitution describes multiple aspects of the Union as a whole and the states respectively.

To maintain its status as a federation as well as implement the unitary nature, the seventh schedule of the constitution allocates the powers and functions on various subjects between the centre and the states.

This gave rise to three lists of subjects namely- the Union List, which covers 97 subjects under the jurisdiction of the Union, the State List, with 66 subjects to look after and the Concurrent List, pertaining to 47 subjects in which both the Union and the State have authority to look into.

With such a variety of subjects to tend to, both the centre and the state government are tasked with huge responsibility to maintain the stability and ensure welfare and development of the citizens.

In the following passages, we will cover the features and responsibilities of Union and State governments in India, and then explore the centre-state relationship that exists in our country.

These factors are crucial in understanding the functioning of these governments. Finally we will also take a brief look at the current problems our country is facing and what possible measures responsible Union and State governments can take to overcome these issues.

Relation between union and state governments :

While both the governments at their level of jurisdiction exercise powers similar to each other, it is important to understand the fields that each government can get involved in to make decisions and enforce them. As per the seventh schedule of the Indian Constitution, 210 subjects of national and regional interests were identified and distributed amongst the state and the union.

Being a federal nation, administration is primarily under the supervision of the state. The agencies of administrations hire individuals through separate commissions- the state public service commissions hire administrative employees for the state government, while the union public service commission does the same for union government.

Yet we see no overlapping in the fields of services. The state deals with the subjects as listed in the state list of the 7th schedule of the Indian Constitution, whereas the Centre limits its interest to the union list. The concurrent list is a separate list which consists all the subjects that the Union as well as state can look into.

The successful implementations of the schemes of the Union government require cooperation with the state. It is the state which is responsible for the programmes to take effect. The existing multi-party system has contributed to the decentralisation as in the current scenario; many states are being governed by regional political parties as compared to national parties.

Hence, mode of the administration is under their wing. This gives a heavy electoral edge to the regional parties and forces the national parties to rethink their strategies and make much more personalised schemes to suit the specific regions.

Enacting schemes and programmes that are against the regional parties might not sit well with them and can form a big gap between the union and the state.

Yet if there is a political tug-of-war between the Union and the state, the former is bound to get the advantage. The division of powers highly favours the centre. There are more subjects under the union list than the state list. Additionally, the overriding power that the Centre exercises on the concurrent list, makes them more powerful than the state.

Furthermore, the states are not indestructible. There borders, area and names can be altered by the centre if necessary. This slightly differs from the original ideology of federalism, giving it the famous ‘unitary bias’.

Major functions of the Union and the State :

The functions and responsibilities of the Union can be summarised into six major classes. First one concerns the formulation, execution, evaluation and revision of public policy in various spheres which the party in power seeks to progress and practice. Secondly, they are responsible for coordination among various ministries and other organs of the government which might indulge in conflicts and wastefulness.

The third duty is to prepare and monitor the legislative agenda which translated the policies of the government in action through statutory enactments. Fourth responsibility is the executive control over administration through appointments, rule-making powers and handling of crises and disasters, natural as well as political.

They are also involved in financial management through fiscal control and operation of funds like Consolidated Fund and Contingency Funds of India. And lastly, they can review the work of the planning commission.

State government have a separate jurisdiction limited to the boundary of their state. They have separate departments for efficient functioning of the state like education, agriculture, transport, water supply, public health, sanitation, hospitals and dispensaries and others.

They are also responsible to ensure the internal security of the state and maintain the law and order. Hence state police forces come under the state’s jurisdiction.

The state legislature also covers the finances of the state which includes authorisation of all expenditure, taxation and borrowing by the state government. It has the power to originate money bills. It has control over taxes on entertainment and wealth, and sales tax.

Conclusion :

To summarize, the Structure of Indian constitution deals with Union and State executive distinctly but the provisions follow a common pattern for the Union and the States. The system of distribution of administrative powers between union and states followed in the Constitution of India in various administrative fields.The Union Government is reliant on the States to give effect to its programmes.

The system of distribution of administrative powers has two objectives. It enables the union government with powers to control over administration of the state and at the same time it espouses several advice’s for intergovernmental cooperation and coordination.

Role of women’s and women organization

Traditionally, an Indian woman had four fold status-role sequences. These were her role as a daughter, wife, housewife (homemaker), and mother.Today Indian women work in demanding settings with long work hours, tight deadlines and professional pressures in competitive environments.

The natural tendency for anyone dealing with a busy day would be to turn home to relax. But for women, parenting duties and household work make it difficult to find this space at home.

The woman in modern times is entering into certain new fields that were unknown to the woman’s sphere of role-sets. They are activating participating in social, economic, and political activities.

Besides the lack of time faced by women after care giving activities to pursue income generating skills and active careers, they also find themselves often subjected to a family imposed ideal of priority skill sets to work on which in turn shapes them to cater to the requirements of a chauvinistic marriage market rather than a job market.

Role of Women in the Freedom Movement :

For the period of freedom struggle in the motherland, women were not staying at the back. The role of women in the freedom struggle is extremely significant and they also participated in the Indian struggle for Independence. There is a large list of great women whose names have gone down in history for their dedication and undying devotion to the service of India’s freedom struggle.

Bhima Bai Holkar fought against the British Colonel Malcolm, and defeated him in guerrilla warfare.

The Rani of Jhansi, Rani Lakshmi Bai whose heroism was an outstanding example for all. Begum Hazrat Mahal was a great Indian freedom fighter who played a major role during India’s First War of Independence. Arun Asaf Ali played an outstanding role in the Quit India Movement.

Annie Besant was the first Women President of the Congress and gave a powerful lead to women’s movements in India. Sarojani Naidu was elected as a president of Indian National Congress.

She campaigned for the Montague Chelmsford Reforms, the Khilafat issue, the draconian Rowlett Act and the Satyagraha. Kasturba Gandhi was a leader of women’s Satyagrah. Madam Cama unfolded the first National flag at International Socialist Conference in Stuttgart(Germany) in 1907. She declared “the Flag is of India”.

Factors affecting women’s work participation:

1)Education is one of the most important factors influencing female labour force participation. Human capital theories underline the importance of education in employment outcomes.

2)In the static labour supply model, the effect of education on female labour force participation is dependent on the relative strength of the substitution effect and the income effect. First, education increases the potential earnings and, therefore, the opportunity cost of not working also rises. Second, as a result of higher income, an individual prefers leisure to work and reduces his/her working hours. The net effect depends on which force prevails.

3) A number of studies have shown higher returns to education for women than for men. It is well established in literature that higher levels of human capital lead to higher wages, thereby increasing women’s participation in market work. However, the relationship between educational attainment and female labour force participation is by no means straightforward.

Women’s labour force participation in rural India is negatively influenced by the number of young children (below 5 years) in households. Recent analysis also reported the negative impact of the number of young children on women’s participation in both rural and urban India. In general, and especially in South Asia, it is believed that cultural and societal norms have a significant influence on women’s decision to participate in the labour market and choice of work and on their mobility.These norms operate at multiple levels of society, for example, religion, caste and region. It has been widely recognized that these norms discourage women to take up paid employment and that they confine women to the role of caregivers.Cultural factors limit women’s rights in the workplace and their engagement in work. Religion still has a key role to play in determining gender norms in many countries.

Women’s Organizations :

Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA)Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), meaning “service” in several Indian languages, is a trade union based in Ahmedabad, India that promotes the rights of low-income, independently-employed female workers. With over 2 million participating women, SEWA is the largest organization of informal workers in the world and largest non-profit in India . Self-employed women are defined as those who do not receive a salary like that of formally-employed workers and therefore have a more precarious income and life.

SEWA is framed around the goal of full employment in which a women secures for her family: income, food, health care, child care, and shelter. The principles behind accomplishing these goals are struggle and development, meaning negotiating with stakeholders and providing services, respectively.

Liberalizing the economy to foreign trade in 1991 caused a huge migration of rural inhabitants to Indian cities that then forced urban dwellers into informal occupations. Since the financial crisis of 2008, over 90% of India’s working population is in the informal sector(Shakuntala 2015); yet 94% of working women in 2009 worked in the informal sector. India’s history and modern culture of female subjugation also contributes to this disparity because traditional gender roles exclude women from regular, secure work.

Working women Hostel :

The objective of the scheme is to promote availability of safe and conveniently located accommodation for working women, with day care facility for their children, wherever possible, in urban, semi urban, or even rural areas where employment opportunity for women exist.

To achieve this objective, the scheme will assist projects for construction of new hostel buildings, expansion of existing hostel buildings and hostel buildings in rented premises.

The working women’s hostel projects being assisted under this scheme shall be made available to all working women without any distinction with respect to caste, religion, marital status etc., subject to norms prescribed under the scheme.

While the projects assisted under this scheme are meant for working women, women under training for job may also be accommodated in such hostels subject to the condition that taken together, such trainees should not occupy more than 30% of the total capacity the hostel and they may be accommodated in the hostels only when adequate numbers of working women are not available. Children of working women, up to the age of 18 years for girls and up to the age of 5 years for boys may be accommodated in such hostel with their mothers.

Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

There are various core environmental issues which are taking a heavy toll on human lives. Ranging from overpopulation, hydrological issues, ozone depletion, global warming to deforestation, desertification and pollution, all these issues pose a severe threat to the existence of humankind. The environmental conservation is a practice that paves the way for protecting the environment and natural resources on the individual, organisational as well as governmental levels. Unless environmental conservation is becoming an effective mass movement, it is futile to expect positive growth especially in the age of digital media which holds the potential to bring a revolution to save our planet from destruction.

Importance of Environmental Conservation :

It has become inherently important to work towards environmental conservation in contemporary times. The following pointers elucidate this crucial need to save the environment from further degradation:

–To reduce air, water and land pollution

–To facilitate the conservation of natural resources for our future generations

–To ensure the protection of biodiversity

–To implement sustainable development

–To restore the ecological balance

–To save our planet from harmful repercussions

What are the Methods of Environmental Conservation?

Now that you are familiar with the meaning and importance of Environmental Conservation, let’s understand the core methods through which it can be effectively facilitated:

Forest conversation :

We know that plants and trees are the essential sources of air, food as well as other day-to-day products we use. Forests are the dwelling place of different living creatures and a single disturbance in the ecosystem can cause disruption in the water cycle as well as the food chain. Thus, afforestation is amongst the core Environmental conservation and aims to plant more trees as well as save the existing ones from cutting down as trees play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance.

Soil conservation :

As one of the prominent methods for environmental conservation, the need for soil conservation has arisen to tackle the harmful effects of soil pollution. On earth, the soil is the main element that plays a pivotal role in soil erosion, land degradation and floods. Soil is filled with rich nutrients for plant production. Soil conservation can be carried out by ensuring minimal use of fertilizers and venomous chemicals as well as abolishing the disposal of harmful industrial waste in the soil.

Waste management :

Especially in developing countries and congested places, on a daily basis, a large amount of waste is thrown away recklessly on the streets and roads. The improper disposal of waste segregation can lead to various dreadful diseases as well as soil pollution.Waste Segregation Waste Segregation

To ensure minimal wastage as well as facilitate waste disposal, we can opt for various techniques like the 3R’s, i.e. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, dry and wet waste segregation, amongst others.

Public awareness :

With the boom of information technology and the advent of digital media, public awareness pertaining to environmental conservation can potentially yield promising results. There is a dire need to aware the masses about the consequences of environmental pollution and degradation. Further, every individual should be made conscious of how they are polluting the environment and what steps can be taken to implement environment conservation, be it through using greener energy sources to following the 3Rs of Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.

Pollution control :

As the increase in temperature is concerning, there is a need to keep a watch on the toxic compounds we ingest that pollute the atmosphere. We need to adopt environmentally sustainable methods to minimise multiple forms of emissions, such as eliminating waste, saving electricity, limiting the unnecessary usage of fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides, and using energy-efficient appliances, among others.

Measures to Conserve Environment :

Here are some measures to save the environment:

Deforestation must be stopped

Natural non-renewable resources must be utilized properly

Every year, we lose a huge number of forest life due to forest fire. We must find a solution to this

.Afforestation is the best way to conserve the environment

Create public awareness

Control pollution and population

Recycle goods

Adopt an environment-friendly lifestyle

Adopt waste management techniques

Species on the verge of extension should be save

Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities

Emotional intelligence is defined as “one’s ability to know, feel and judge emotions in cooperation with a person’s thinking process for behaving in a proper way, with ultimate realisation of happiness in him and in others”.

Like general intelligence, emotional intelligence is also developed in a person by birth. Normal development of emotion leads to healthy life, but too much variation in emotional level damages the individual’s life.

The level of emotion in a person is called Emotional Quotient (EQ). This can be obtained by using emotional intelligence tests, same way as we assess the IQ of a person.The success of a person in his job or profession depends not only on his IQ, but also on his EQ. The nurse with high emotional quotient can identify and perceive her emotions and of others like patients easily through face reading, bodily language, voice tone, etc.

She can have a proper understanding of the nature, intensity and outcomes of her emotions. High EQ also helps the nurse to exercise proper control and regulation over the expression and use of emotions in dealing with her and others, so as to promote harmony and peace.

Hence, it is very important for nurses to develop a high level of emotional intelligence because; they come across many emotional situations in their duties. They see the suffering of patients from many serious diseases, death of patients, and the sorrowfulness of the relatives with patients.

Many times she will come across the situations which lead to a lot of anxiety, tension, anger, etc. To deal with such emotional situations effectively and to have proper control over her emotions, the nurse should have a high level of emotional intelligence.

If not, she can learn to manage her emotions by modifying, changing her existing level of emotions and to use them in an intelligent way.

Concept of Emotional intelligence:

Emotional intelligence has prominence in organizational effectiveness. It is defined by psychological theorists as the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations. The cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living. Other theorists stated that Emotional intelligence involves the “capabilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mayer & Salovey, 1997).

Elements of EI:

Self-Awareness: It is the skill of being aware of and understanding one’s emotions as they occur and as they evolve.

Self-Regulation: It is about controlling one’s emotions i.e. instead of reacting quickly; one can reign in one’s emotions and thus will think before responding.

Internal Motivation: It includes one’s personal drive to improve and achieve commitment to one’s goals, initiative, or readiness to act on opportunities, and optimism and resilience.

Empathy: It is an awareness of the needs and feelings of others both individually and in groups, and being able to see things from the point of view of others.

Social Skills: It is applying empathy and balancing the wants and requirements of others with one’s. It includes building good rapport with others.

Improving Emotional Intelligence :

–By self-evaluating oneself, one can know one’s emotions and reactions to different situations.

–By observing others, one can comprehend feelings of others.

–By improving one’s expression, one can communicate better.

–By analyzing the impact of one’s action over others, one can fine tune the actions.

Now-a-days, organizations take initiative to improve Emotional Intelligence among its employees through different group activities, exercises, seminars and tests. However, EI also improves with age (maturity) due to one’s experiences in life.

Importance of government, transparency , accountability

We don’t have any commonly agreed definition of “governance”. Taking governance in its usual or most basic sense, we can define it as the action or manner of conducting the policy, actions, and affairs of a state, organization, or people with authority, where its course is reflected of control, influence, and regulation. Decision-making and the systems with their processes by which decisions are implemented are the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core of governance. These layers are separated by, crossed intricately together with, caused to blend dynamically into something else through the two most basic tenets of classical humanism called “transparency” and “accountability”. That authoritative conduct should be subject and open to public scrutiny where whoever is placed under this critical observation or examination shouldn’t be worried that something undesirable will happen, since whatever he or she did or has done can be only judged as the fact or condition of being accountable to be transparent.

The governance by means of accountability puts an end to the time, resources, and efforts spent on distracting activities and usual unproductive behavior, consequently, clears the way for transparency to take its natural course since when it makes people accountable for their actions, they have to value their work and get serious about its outcome.

Though governance, transparency, and accountability could have separate important aspects individually or respectively; they are indispensable aspects to each other. Their interdependence is an indissoluble and absolute relation that makes us experience governance as the superstructure built on transparency and accountability.

Accountability and transparency are treated as major building pillars for governing democratic nations in recent years. Before discussing about how they benefit, its needs, and its importance we shall see what exactly accountability and transparency is.

Accountability signifies the concern and duty of government institutional workers to perform their activities in the best interests of the public and that institutional officials should take responsibility for their activities performed. The mechanisms by which government officials can be held responsible for activities against formed principles and rules is called legal accountability. For understanding it well we shall have an example here, Government has accountability for laws and decisions affecting public; a citizen has accountability for his behavior and actions.

Need of Accountability and Transparency:

–Building of trust and impact of schemes can be enhanced with participative governance.

–Major changes can take place in work culture by adopting transparency and accountability in governance which leads to greater concern towards society.

–By adopting Accountability and transparency, it brings out a new way of providing real-time information in online dashboard.

–This not only solves the people’s problems but also service quality can be improved.

–The relationship between government and people can be enhanced and make citizens feel more connected.

–A two-way information channel will be created which helps to understand exactly what people want. By the concepts of “listen, ask, act, interact and inform”.

Some important steps to achieve transparency and accountability:

–Job functions and responsibilities shouldn’t be kept secret with people.

–Government, schemes and institutional outcomes should be shared with people, even if the results are not satisfactory.

–Transparency is about making sure everyone has the right to information to do their jobs effectively.

–People with appropriate principles and vision towards their organization must be hired or selected to maintain the culture of accountability and transparency in government and other institutions.

–Sharing of information, announcements and messages with people should be made easier with the help of open system of communication.

Democratic organizations and financial institutions must try to move away from the business of politics and concentrate more on moving towards accountability and transparency. This will help in building trust in the society. In social, industrial and government sectors its known that Indian democratic organizations are working, but to be better they should start building a good relationship with the public. Citizens who are paying their taxes would like to know exactly where their money is spent and all the developments that has happened in the country. “All government institutions and financial institutions should be re-positioned and redefined to focus on accountability and transparency, if you are a member of government or want to become a member of government, to be prepared to live in a glass house”. Higher the transparency and accountability better the stability of the country’s economy.


Dragon fruit, also known as pitahaya or strawberry pear, is a tropical fruit known for its vibrant red skin and sweet, seed-speckled pulp.

Its unique look and acclaimed superfood powers have made it popular among foodies and the health-conscious.

Luckily, you don’t have to live in the tropics to enjoy the many benefits of dragon fruit. In fact, you can find it fresh or frozen in supermarkets worldwide.

1. High in Nutrients

Dragon fruit is low in calories but packed with essential vitamins and minerals. It also contains a substantial amount of dietary fiber.

Here’s a rundown of the main nutrients in a one-cup serving (227 grams)

* Calories: 136
* Protein: 3 grams
* Fat: 0 grams
* Carbohydrates: 29 grams
* Fiber: 7 grams
* Iron: 8% of the RDI
* Magnesium: 18% of the RDI
* Vitamin C: 9% of the RDI
* Vitamin E: 4% of the RDI

Beyond essential nutrients, dragon fruit supplies beneficial plant compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and betacyanins


* Dragon fruit is low in calories but rich in vitamins, minerals and beneficial plant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and betacyanins.

2. May Help Fight Chronic Disease

Free radicals are unstable molecules that cause cell damage, which may lead to inflammation and disease.

One way to combat this is by eating antioxidant-rich foods like dragon fruit.

Antioxidants work by neutralizing free radicals, thus preventing cell damage and inflammation.

Studies suggest that diets high in antioxidants may help prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes and arthritis.

Dragon fruit contains several types of potent antioxidants, including

* Vitamin C: Observational studies have found correlations between vitamin C intake and cancer risk. For example, a study in 120,852 people associated higher intakes of vitamin C with lower rates of head and neck cancer

* Betalains: Test-tube studies indicate betalains can combat oxidative stress and may have the ability to suppress cancer cells

* Carotenoids: Beta-carotene and lycopene are the plant pigments that give dragon fruit its vibrant color. Diets rich in carotenoids have been linked to a reduced risk of cancer and heart disease

Importantly, antioxidants work best when eaten naturally in food, rather than in pill form or as a supplement. In fact, antioxidant supplements may have harmful effects, and taking them without medical supervision is not recommended

On the other hand, dragon fruit is highly recommended.


* Dragon fruit contains the antioxidants vitamin C, beta-carotene, lycopene and betalain. Studies have linked diets high in antioxidants to a reduced risk of chronic disease.

3. Loaded With Fiber

Dietary fibers are nondigestible carbohydrates that boast an extensive list of potential health benefits.

Health authorities recommend 25 grams of fiber per day for women and 38 grams for men. Like antioxidants, fiber supplements do not have the same health benefits as fiber from foods

With 7 grams per one-cup serving, dragon fruit is an excellent whole-food source.

Although fiber is probably most well known for its role in digestion, research has suggested it may also play a role in protecting against heart disease, managing type 2 diabetes and maintaining a healthy body weight.

Although more research is needed, some observational studies suggest that diets high in fiber may protect against colon cancer.

While no studies have linked dragon fruit to any of these conditions, its high-fiber content can help you meet your recommended daily values.

However, it’s important to note that high-fiber diets can have drawbacks, especially if you’re accustomed to a low-fiber diet. To avoid stomach discomfort, increase your intake of dietary fiber gradually and drink plenty of fluids.


* Dragon fruit offers 7 grams of fiber per serving, making it an excellent choice for meeting your daily fiber needs.

4. Promotes a Healthy Gut

Your gut is home to some 100 trillion diverse microorganisms, including more than 400 species of bacteria.

Many researchers believe this community of microorganisms may impact your health. Both human and animal studies have associated imbalances in your gut to conditions like asthma and heart disease.

Given that dragon fruit contains prebiotics, it can potentially improve the balance of good bacteria in your gut.

Prebiotics are a specific type of fiber that promotes the growth of healthy bacteria in your gut.

Like all fibers, your gut cannot break them down. However, the bacteria in your gut can digest them. They use the fiber as fuel for growth, and you reap the benefits.

In particular, dragon fruit mainly promotes the growth of two families of healthy bacteria: lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria.

Regularly consuming prebiotics may reduce the risk of infection in your digestive tract and diarrhea. This is because prebiotics promote the growth of good bacteria, which researchers believe may outcompete the bad.

For example, a study in travelers showed that those who consumed prebiotics before and during travel experienced fewer and less severe episodes of traveler’s diarrhea.

Some studies also suggest prebiotics may ease symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Unfortunately, these findings are inconsistent.

While much of the research on prebiotics is favorable, the research on the prebiotic activity of dragon fruit is limited to test-tube studies. More studies are needed to determine its true effect on the human gut.


* Dragon fruit may promote the growth of healthy bacteria in the gut, which is associated with a healthy gastrointestinal tract.

5. Strengthens Your Immune System

Your body’s ability to fight infection is determined by several different factors, including the quality of your diet.

The vitamin C and carotenoids in dragon fruit may boost your immune system and prevent infection by protecting your white blood cells from damage.

The white blood cells in your immune system attack and destroy harmful substances. However, they are extremely sensitive to damage by free radicals.

As potent antioxidants, vitamin C and carotenoids can neutralize free radicals and defend your white blood cells against harm.


* Dragon fruit’s high supply of vitamin C and carotenoids may offer immune-boosting properties.

6. May Boost Low Iron Levels

Dragon fruit is one of the few fresh fruits that contain iron.

Iron plays a crucial role in transporting oxygen throughout your body. It also plays an important role in breaking down food into energy.

Unfortunately, many people do not get enough iron. In fact, it has been estimated that 30% of the world’s population is deficient in iron, making it the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide.

To combat low iron levels, it’s important to consume a variety of iron-rich foods. Rich sources of iron include meats, fish, legumes, nuts and cereals.

Dragon fruit may be another great option, as one serving contains 8% of your recommended daily intake (RDI). It also contains vitamin C, which helps your body absorb iron


* Dragon fruit supplies iron along with vitamin C, a combination that may improve your body’s absorption of this important mineral.

7. Good Source of Magnesium

Dragon fruit offers more magnesium than most fruits, with 18% of your RDI in just one cup.

On average, your body contains 24g of magnesium, or roughly one ounce.

Despite this seemingly small amount, the mineral is present in every one of your cells and takes part in over 600 important chemical reactions within your body.

For example, it takes part in reactions needed for the breakdown of food into energy, muscle contraction, bone formation and even the creation of DNA.

More studies are needed, but some indicate that higher intakes of magnesium may reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Studies also show that diets adequate in magnesium support bone health


* Dragon fruit is a great source of magnesium, a nutrient needed for over 600 biochemical reactions in your body.