POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION: PRINCIPLE AND APPLICATIONS

BY DAKSHITA NAITHANI

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in-vitro (laboratory) technique used to produce huge amounts of DNA.

•             PCR is a cell-free amplification method that produces billions of identical copies of any DNA of interest. PCR, which was invented by Karry Mullis in 1984, is today regarded as a fundamental technique for molecular methods. It is the most widely used approach for multiplication of target nucleic acids.

•              The method usually combines complementary nucleic acid hybridization and nucleic acid replication principles, which are applied repeatedly over many cycles to amplify a single and original copy of a nucleic acid target, which is often undetectable by standard hybridization methods, and multiply to 107 or more copies in a short amount of time. In result, it gives a large number of targets which may be identified using a variety of ways.

ADVANTAGES:

•             Despite being simple it is a very powerful technique.

 •            It enables for massive amplification of any particular sequence of DNA given that short sequences on each side of it are known.

•             Improves sensitivity and specificity while allowing for speedier diagnosis and recognition.

PRINCIPLE OF PCR:

Double-stranded DNA in question is denatured, resulting in two independent strands and  each strand is allowed to hybridise using a primer (renaturation). The enzyme DNA polymerase is used to synthesise DNA from the primer-template duplex. To create various forms of target DNA, the three processes of denaturation, renaturation, and synthesis are performed numerous times.

ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PCR:

•             A target DNA which is around 100-35,000 bp in length.

•             Two primers (synthetic oligonucleotides of 17-25 nucleotides length ) that are complementary to regions flanking the target DNA.

•             Four deoxyriobonucleotides  are used(d ATP, d CTP, d GTP, d TTP)

•             MgCl2 (Magnesium Chloride)

•             Nuclease free water

•             Taq DNA polymerase buffer

•             A thermo-stable DNA polymerase is one that can tolerate temperatures up to 95 degrees Celsius.

The target DNA, two primers (in excess), a thermo-stable DNA polymerase (Taq DNA polymerase), and four deoxyribonucleotides are all included in the reaction mixture. It is a method that includes a series of cycles for DNA amplification.

KEY FACTORS OPTIMAL FOR PCR:

•             PRIMERS:

When it comes to determining PCR, these are crucial. Primers with no secondary structure and no complementarity amongst themselves (17-30 nucleotides) are excellent. In PCR, complementary primers can combine to produce a primer dimer, which can be amplified. The replication of target DNA is prevented as a result of this action.

•             DNA POLYMERASE:

Because it can resist high temperatures, Taq DNA polymerase is chosen. After the heat denaturation stage of the first cycle, DNA polymerase is introduced in the hot start procedure. This prevents the misaligned primers from extending, which is common at low temperatures.

Verification or proof reading of exonuclease (3′-5′) activity is absent in Taq polymerase, which might lead to mistakes in PCR products. Tma DNA polymerase from Thermotogamaritama and Pfu DNA polymerase from Pyrococcusfuriosus are examples of thermostable DNA polymerases with proof reading activity.

•             TARGET DNA:

In general, the smaller the target DNA sequence, the greater the PCR efficiency. A mplification of DNA fragments up to 10 kb has been documented in recent years. In PCR, the sequence of the target DNA is also crucial. As a result, CC-rich strand sections obstruct PCR.

•             PROMOTERS AND INHIBITORS:

 Addition of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) improve PCR by shielding DNA polymerase, humic acids which are commonly present in ancient samples of target DNA, hinder PCR.

EACH CYCLE HAS THREE STAGES:

1.            DENATURATION:

The DNA is denatured and the two strands split when the temperature is raised to around 95 degree celsius for about one minute.

2.            RENATURATION OR ANNEALING:

The primers base pair with the complementary regions flanking target DNA strands as the temperature of the mixture is gradually lowered to around 55 degree celsius.  Annealing seems to be the term for this procedure. Due to the high concentration of primer, annealing occurs between each DNA strand and the primer rather than between the two strands.

3.            EXTENSION OR SYNTHESIS:

The 3′-hydroxyl end of each primer is where DNA synthesis begins. By connecting the nucleotides that are complementary to DNA strands, the primers are expanded. The PCR synthesis process is quite similar to the leading strand DNA replication process.  The optimal temperature for Taq DNA polymerase is about 75 degree celsius. (For E.Coli DNA Polymerase is used). By increasing the temperature, the process can be halted (about 95 degree celsius).

Each cycle lasts around 3-5 minutes and in most cases, it is performed on computerised equipment. The corresponding sequence of the second primer lies beyond the new DNA strand linked to each primer. Long templates allude to these additional strands, which will be utilised in the second cycle.

The strands are denatured, annealed with primers, and exposed to DNA synthesis in the second cycle of PCR. Long and short templates are produced at the end of the second round.

The original DNA strands, as well as the short and long templates, are the starting materials for the third cycle of PCR. For each cycle, the procedures are used again and again. About a million-fold target DNA is produced by the conclusion of the 32nd cycle of PCR, according to estimates. As double-stranded molecules build, the small templates containing precisely the target DNA increase.

TYPES OF PCR:

1.            Real-time PCR

2.            Quantitative real time PCR (Q-RT PCR)

3.            Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)

4.            Multiplex PCR

5.            Nested PCR

6.            Long-range PCR

7.            Single-cell PCR

8.            Fast-cycling PCR

9.            Methylation-specific PCR (MSP)

10.          Hot start PCR

11.          High-fidelity PCR

12.          In situ PCR

13.          Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) PCR

14.          Asymmetric PCR

15.          Repetitive sequence-based PCR

16.          Overlap extension PCR

17.          Assemble PCR

18.          Intersequence-specific PCR(ISSR)

19.          Ligation-mediated PCR

20.          Methylation –specifin PCR

21.          Miniprimer PCR

22.          Solid phase PCR

23.          Touch down PCR, etc

APPLICATIONS OF PCR:

1.            PCR IN CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS:

PCR’s specificity and sensitivity make it ideal for diagnosing a variety of human illnesses. RFLP is not involved in the development of many genetic diseases (restriction fragment length poly-morphism). For all of these problems, PCR is a godsend since it delivers straight DNA information it is accomplished by amplifying DNA from the appropriate area and then analysing the PCR results directly.

o             PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF INHERITED DISEASES:

It is used to diagnose hereditary disorders in the womb utilising chorionic villus samples or amniocentesis cells various c onditions such as sickle cell anaemia, p-thalassemia, and phenylketonuria can thus be identified in these specimens using PCR.

o             DIAGNOSIS OF RETROVIRAL INFECTIONS:

                PCR from cDNA is a useful technique for detecting and maintaining retroviral infections, such as HIV.

o             DIAGNOSIS OF BACTERIAL INFECTIONS:

o             PCR is used for the detection of bacterial infections such as tuberculosis which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

o             DIAGNOSIS OF CANCERS:

PCR can identify some virally-induced malignancies, such as cervical cancer caused by the human papillomavirus it can also identify malignancies caused by chromosomal translocations (chromosome 14 and 18 in follicular lymphoma) containing known genes.

o             PCR IN SEX DETERMINATION OF EMBROYS:

The sex of human and animal eggs fertilised in vitro may be identified using PCR using sex chromosome-specific primers and DNA probes. This method can also be used to identify sex-related abnormalities in fertilised eggs.

2.            PCR IN DNA SEQUENCING:

 The process is useful for sequencing since it is considerably easier and faster to amplify DNA. Single strands of DNA are required for this function. Asymmetric PCR involves preferred amplification of a single strand. Strand removal can also be accomplished by digesting one strand.

3.            PCR IN FORENSIC MEDICINE:

For amplification, a single molecule from any source (blood strains, hair, semen, etc.) of a person is sufficient. As a result, PCR is critical for crime detection.

4.            PCR IN COMPARISON WITH GENE CLONING:

In comparison to traditional gene cloning procedures, PCR offers a variety of benefits. Improved efficiency, small amounts of beginning material (DNA), cost-effectiveness, low technical expertise, and the time frame are only a few of them. In the long run, PCR may be able to replace most gene cloning applications.

5.            PCR IN GENE MANIPULATION AND EXPRESSION STUDIES:

The benefit of PCR is that the primers do not need to be complementary to the target DNA. As a result, it may alter and amplify the nucleotide sequence in a portion of the gene (target DNA). The coding sequence of a protein of interest can be changed using this approach. Gene manipulations are also crucial for studying the impact of factors on gene expression.

The study of mRNAs, which are the results of gene expression, requires the use of PCR. Reverse transcription-PCR is used to accomplish this.

6.            PCR IN COMPARITIVE STUDIES OF GENOMES:

PCR using random primers can be used to assess the differences in the genomes of two species. Electrophoresis is used for separation of products for their comparative identification and it is predicted that two genomes from closely related species will produce more comparable bands.

The study of evolutionary biology, more especially phylogenetic biology, relies heavily on PCR. It has transformed palaeontology and archaeological research since it can amplify even minute amounts of DNA from any source (hair, mummified tissues, bone, or any fossilised material).

Indian Heritage

India is blessed with a vast and rich heritage. One has only to see the various architectural marvels and cultural institutions that dot the geographical expanse of India to glimpse the richness of our heritage.

The science and technology of ancient India was quite advanced. Many historians believe that most of the scientific advances believed to have been made in Europe had been achieved centuries ago in India. Such advances covered major fields of human knowledge and activities like mathematics, astronomy, physics, medicine, metallurgy, surgery, fine arts, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding, navigation, etc.

Indian mathematicians have made important contributions to the study of the decimal number system, zero, negative numbers, arithmetic and algebra. The study of linguistics was initiated by Indian grammarians who began the trend by first attempting to catalogue and codify the rules of Sanskrit. Even today, the main terms for compound analysis are taken from Sanskrit.

India is the birthplace of Ayurveda and Yoga; these systems are now finding many followers in the West. India’s rich spiritual tradition has attracted many troubled Westerners, fleeing the materialistic and spiritually empty worlds they inhabit, to her shores, seeking solace and salvation. India’s urban civilization traces its roots to Mahenjodaro and Harappa, now in Pakistan.

Their planned urban townships were very advanced for their time. Metallurgy is central to most civilizations. The science of smelting was highly refined and precise in ancient India. As early as the 5th century BC, Herodotus, the eminent Greek historian, noted that iron was used in the arrows used by Indian and Persian soldiers.

The idea of the atom is derived from the classification of the material world into five basic elements by Indian philosophers. This classification has been in existence since the Vedic age (c.1500 BC). Indian monuments testify to the different influences in her history – Buddhist, Indo-Saracenic, Victorian, Mughal, etc.

Classical Indian music and dance have a wide fan following all over the world. Each state has its own art forms which are well documented. Imposing and architecturally splendid temples, mosques and churches embody the diverse religious and cultural influences that have made India unique. Cuisine too is an important part of our heritage.

As Indians, we ought to be proud of our rich heritage and strive to preserve it for our descendants by respecting it and ensuring its survival.

Indian Customs and Traditions

Indian customs and traditions encourage us to stay humble, respect others and live harmoniously in the society. We value our customs and traditions immensely. These are embedded in our lifestyle and many of the decisions we take are based on our cultural and traditional values. These are passed on from generation to generation.

The Indian festivals are a reflection of the country’s culture and tradition. There is a set traditional pattern in which these are celebrated. This pattern is being followed since the ancient times. These celebrations offer a great way to meet and greet our loved ones and bring in positive energy. These are a part of our rich heritage.

Indian Art Forms:A part of Its Heritage

The various art forms such as different kinds of classical dances, music and paintings are also a part of our heritage. Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi and Odissi are some of the famous Indian dance forms. Carnatic music, Thumri, Rabindra Sangeet, Odissi and folk music are India’s contribution in the field of music. The Madhubani painting, Mughal painting, Tanjore painting, Mysore painting and Pahari Painting are some of the beautiful forms of paintings originated in India.

Indian Monument.

Indian monuments add to the galore of its heritage. Each of our monuments is known for its marvellous architectural design. Taj Mahal, Qutub Minar, Red Fort, Ajanta and Ellora Caves, Sun Konark temple, Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, Brihadishwara Temple, Hawa Mahal and Mysore Palace are some of the heritage monuments of our country.

Conclusion

Our culture, tradition, monuments, literature and various art forms form a part of our heritage. These have been appreciated worldwide. We are proud to be a part of a country with such a vivacious culture.

Indian Heritage: A Gift from the Older Generations to the Younger Generation

Indian heritage is vast and vivid. It is vast because of the large number of religious groups residing in our country. Each religious group has its own set of customs and traditions which it passes on to its younger generation. However, some of our customs and traditions remain the same throughout India. For instance, our tradition includes respecting our elders, helping the needy, speaking the truth and welcoming guests and treating them nicely. Our traditions teach us to inculcate good habits and make us a good human being.

Our cultural heritage is thus a precious gift from our older generation to help us become a better human being and build a harmonious society.

Value of Indian Heritage for New Generation

Our cultural heritage has remained intact since centuries however its charm seems to be declining in the current times. It seems like the new generation does not seem to value our cultural heritage as much.

Our society has seen tremendous changes in the last few decades. The colonization of our country by the British brought western culture to our country. The age old traditions began to change. Today, Indian attire is highly influenced by the Western culture. Our ancient education system of gurukul was replaced by new kind of schools and many other changes were brought about in that era. Since then, there has been no looking back.

Our society has seen numerous changes. For instance, our joint family system faded away giving way to the new nuclear family system. The growth in technology and the advent of internet and smart phones have further distanced us from our cultural heritage. The western culture allures the youths of the country and most of them look down upon our culture and traditions

The young generation is so engrossed in its own world and has become so self centric that it does not pay much heed to the cultural values given by the elders

Invoking Love and Respect for Indian Heritage

It is the duty of the elders to invoke love for the Indian heritage in the younger generations. This must be done from the very beginning only then we can preserve our rich heritage.

One way of invoking love for our heritage is by acquainting the young generation with our glorious past. This would help in invoking a feeling of pride in them and they would be inspired to continue the tradition and also pass it on to the new generation. This needs a collective effort by the teachers as well as parents.

Schools must teach students about the Indian heritage and how it has survived for centuries. They must also share the importance of preserving it.

Conclusion

Young generation must not only preserve the cultural heritage of India but should also be progressive towards preserving the monumental and natural heritage of our country.

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Indian national movement

The Indian national movement was undoubtedly one of the biggest mass movements modern society has ever seen. It was a movement which galvanized millions of people of all classes and ideologies into political action and brought to its knees a mighty colonial empire. Consequently, along with the British, French, Russian, Chinese, Cuban and Vietnamese revolutions, it is of great relevance to those wishing to alter the existing political and social structure.

Various aspects of the Indian national movement, especially Gandhian political strategy, are particularly relevant to these movements in societies that broadly function within the confines of the rule of law, and are characterized by a democratic and basically civil libertarian polity. But it is also relevant to other societies. We know for a fact that even Lech Walesa consciously tried to incorporate elements of Gandhian strategy in the Solidarity Movement in Poland.

The Indian national movement, in fact, provides the only actual historical example of a semi-democratic or democratic type of political structure being successfully replaced or transformed. It is the only movement where the broadly Gramscian theoretical perspective of a war of position was successfully practiced; where state power was not seized in a single historical moment of revolution, but through prolonged popular struggle on a moral, political and ideological level; where reserves of counter-hegemony were built up over the years through progressive, stages; where the phases of struggle alternated with ‘passive’ phases.

The Indian national movement is also an example of how the constitutional space offered by the existing structure could be used without getting co-opted by it. It did not completely reject this space, as such rejection in democratic societies entails heavy costs in terms of hegemonic influence and often leads to isolation – but entered it and used it effectively in combination with non-constitutional struggle to overthrow the existing structure.

The Indian national movement is perhaps one of the best examples of the creation of an extremely wide movement with a common aim in which diverse political and ideological currents could co-exist and work – and simultaneously continue to contend for overall ideological and political hegemony over it. While intense debate on all basic issues was allowed, the diversity and tension did not weaken the cohesion and striking power of the movement; on the contrary, this diversity and atmosphere of freedom and debate became a major source of its strength.

Today, over sixty years after independence, we are still close enough to the freedom struggle to feel its warmth and yet far enough to be able to analyze it coolly, and with the advantage of hindsight. Analyze it as we must, for our past, present and future are inextricably linked to it. Men and women in every age and society make their own history, but they do not make it in a historical vacuum, de novo. Their efforts, however innovative, at finding solutions to their problems in the present and charting out their future, are guided and circumscribed, moulded and conditioned, by their respective histories, their inherited economic, political and ideological structures. To make myself clearer, the path that India has followed since 1947 has deep roots in the struggle for independence. The political and, ideological features, which have had a decisive impact on post-independence development, are largely a legacy of the freedom struggle. It is a legacy that belongs to all the Indian people, regardless of which party or group they belong to now, for the ‘party’ which led this struggle from 1885 to 1947 was not then a party but a movement – all political trends from the Right to the Left were incorporated in it.

What are the outstanding features of the freedom struggle? A major aspect is the values and mean ideals on which the movement itself was based and the broad socio-economic-and political vision of its leadership (this vision was that of a democratic , civil libertarian and secular India, based on self-reliant, egalitarian social order and an independent foreign policy).

The movement popularized democratic ideas and instructions in India. The nationalists fought for the introduction of a representative government on the basis of popular election and demanded that elections be based on adult franchise. The Indian National Congress was organized on a democratic basis and in the form of a parliament. It not only permitted but encouraged free expression of opinion within the party and the movement. Some of the most important decisions in its history were taken after heated debates and on the basis of open voting.

From the beginning, the nationalists fought against attacks by the State on the freedom of the press, expression and association, and made the struggle for these freedoms an integral part of the national movement. During their brief spell in power, from 1937-39, the Congress ministries greatly extended the scope of civil liberties. The defence of civil liberties was not narrowly conceived in terms of one political group, but was extended to include the defence of other groups whose views were politically and ideologically different. The Moderates defended Tilak, the Extremist, and non-violent Congressmen passionately defended revolutionary terrorists and communists alike during their trails. In 1928, the Public Safety Bill and Trade Disputes Bill were opposed not only by Motilal Nehru but also by conservatives like Madan Mohan Malaviya and M.R. Jayakar. It was this strong civil libertarian and democratic tradition of the national movement which was reflected in the constitution of independent India.

The freedom struggle was also a struggle for economic development. In time an economic ideology developed which was to dominate the views of independent India. The national movement accepted, with near unanimity, the need to develop India on the basis of industrialization which in turn was to be independent of foreign capital and was to rely on the indigenous capital goods sector. A crucial role was assigned to the public sector and, in the 1930’s there was a commitment to economic planning.

From the initial stages, the movement adopted a pro-poor ordination which was strengthened with the advent of Gandhi and the rise of the leftists who struggled to make the movement adopt a social outlook. The movement also increasingly moved towards a programme of radical agrarian reform. However, socialism did not, at any stage, become the official goal of the Indian National Congress through there was a great deal of debate around it within the National Movement and the Indian National Congress urging in the 1930s and 1940s. For various reasons, despite the existence of powerful leftist trend within the nationalist mainstream, the dominant vision within the Congress did not transcend the parameters of a capitalist conception of society.

The national movement was, from its early days, fully committed to secularism. Its leadership fought hard to inculcate secular values among the people and opposed the growth of communalism. And despite the partition of India and the accompanying communal holocaust, it did succeed in enshrining secularism in the constitution of free India.

It was never inward looking. Since the days of Raja Rammohan Roy, Indian leaders had developed a broad international outlook. Over the years, they evolved a policy of opposition to imperialism on a world-wide scale and solidarity with anti-colonial movements in other parts of the world. They established the principle that Indians should hate British imperialism but not the British people. Consequently, they were supported by a large number of Englishmen, women and political groups. They maintained close links with the progressive, anti-colonial and anti-capitalist forces of the world. A non-racist, anti-imperialist outlook, which continues to characterize Indian foreign policy, was thus part of the legacy of the anti-imperialist struggle.

In my view, India’s freedom struggle was basically the result of a fundamental contradiction between the interests of the Indian people and that of British colonialism. From the beginning itself, India’s national leaders grasped this contradiction. They were able to see that India was regressing economically and undergoing a process of underdevelopment. In time they were able to evolve a scientific analysis of colonialism. In fact, they were the first in the 19th century to develop an economic critique of colonialism and lay bare its complex structure. They were also able to see the distinction between colonial policy and the imperatives of the colonial structure. Taking the social experience of the Indian people as colonize subjects and recognizing the common interests of the Indian people vis-à-vis colonials, the national leaders gradually evolved a clear-cut anti-colonial ideology and critique of colonialism were disseminated during the mass phase of the movement.

The national movement also played a pivotal role in the historical process through which the Indian people got formed into a nation or a group of people. National leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendranath Banerjee, Tilak, Gandhiji and Nehru accepted that India was not yet a fully structured nation but a nation-in-the-making, and that one of the major objectives and functions of the movement was to promote the growing unity of the Indian people through a common struggle against colonialism. In other words, the national movement was seen both as a product of the process of the nation-in-the-making that was never counter-posed to the diverse regional, linguistic and ethnic identities in India. On the contrary, the emergence of a national identity and the flowering of the narrower identities were seen as processes deriving strength from each other.

The pre-nationalist resistance to colonial rule failed to understand the twin phenomena of colonialism and the nation-in-the-making. In fact, these phenomena were not visible, or available to be grasped, on the surface. They had to be grasped through hard analysis. This analysis and political consciousness based on it were then taken to the people by intellectuals who played a significant role in arousing the inherent, instinctive, nascent, anti-colonial consciousness of the masses.

The Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian National

Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2.1869 A.D. in a trading family of porbander, a small town in Kathiawara. His full name was Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi and his father was the Diwan of Rajkot. He went off to South Africa after marriage and worked as barrister there for twenty years. In South Africa, he had his first brush with apartheid. Once while he was traveling in a train, he was thrown out of the first class compartment despite having a ticket. This made him swear that he would do his best to erase apartheid from the face of his world. He went back to India only to find that his own country was being ruled by the British and his fellow citizens were being treated harshly by the British. Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom Struggle Like other great men in history, Gandhi took his time to grow and develop his techniques to ensure that his actions made an impact. His faith in different religions was commendable. His listened to the teachings of Christianity with the same belief and faith he read the Hindu scriptures with. Gandhi arrived in India on 9 January, 1915. Initially, he spent a year visiting various places in India to have an understanding of the situation. His political engagement started in the 1917-18 period when he took up the issues of Champaran indigo farmers, the Ahmedabad textile workers and the Kheda peasants. These struggles witnessed his specific method of agitation, known as Satyagraha, which had earlier developed in the South African context and through which he was partially successful in achieving his goals.

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Cozy Reads

Fall is for fires and books.

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The perfect season to fall into reading is finally here! Fall is all about warm and cozy stuff. Nothing can beat a hot beverage, crackling fire, your favourite blanket, falling leaves and an amazing book. Fall is a manifestation of endings and beginnings, this is probably the best time to curl with a book and just enjoy.

Curated below is a list of 3 books that you have to checkout this fall.

1. The Chocolate Thief

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 Laura Florand’s, ‘ The Chocolate Thief ‘, tells the sweet tale Cade Corey and Sylvain Marquis’s escapades with chocolate.

Cade Corey belongs to an American family which is famous for their Corey Chocolate Bar, making millions through their chocolate business. Infatuated with chocolates and determined, Cade wants to launch an exclusive line of chocolates rather than her family’s mass made bar. Her dream and determination land her in Paris, in quest of the number one chocolatier in Paris, Sylvain Marquis, who can help her materialise her long envisioned premium chocolate.

Cade was already smitten with Marquis’s exceptional skills long before meeting him, what Cade did not expect was for him to be extremely handsome and basically a jerk. Sylvain is rude, arrogant, bitter and horrified at Cade’s idea of putting out a mass produced chocolate on his name. Their first meeting is an absolute disaster which is followed by equally disastrous thinking on Cade’s part when she decides to break into Sylvain’s laboratroire and steal his chocolate. What follows is an interesting tale of a drama and a blooming romance, sweeter than chocolate.

2. I Have Never

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Camilla Isley’s, ‘ I Have Never ‘, revolves around Twenty nine year old Blair Walker, whose life revolves around a list of dos and don’ts, that would according to her help her lead the perfect life and put everything right in terms of her career aspirations and love life.

Never did Blair ever imagine to be thrown out of running for the dream job she wanted to land because someone bought their way to the top, get fired from her current job and get dumped her boyfriend of all in one day. Dealing with the happenings of her life at a local bar, Blair reads the list of things she vowed never to do and decides to just do them. What follows is something entirely unlike her, waking up in a stranger’s bed, who assures that they didn’t sleep together and offers her a job, working as the  ‘Beauty and Fashion editor’ of an online magazine and dealing with her hunk of a boss who though quite taken with her has a complicated dating history. Blair does all that she thought she’d never do.

3. Dark Skye

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Kresley Cole’s’ ‘ Dark Skye ‘, is a story of scarred warrior prince and a bewitching sorceress who has the power to heal his scarred body and perhaps heart.

Thronos,the prince of Skye Hall, was in love with his childhood best friend, Melanthe, a Sorceress. They are torn apart by a family feud and several misunderstandings only to reconcile centuries later as each other’s mortal enemy, yet the fierce pull between continues to make them yearn for each other. As the story builds, Lanthe and Thronos come together to fight certain wars while subsequently at each other’s throat. Time spent together, helps with the bittersweet memories of the past and helps them discover the actual happenings of the fateful day, they were separated and helps them rediscover their love and yearning for each other.

Other Cozy Reads:

  • When Sparks Fly ( Helena Hunting)
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  • Eleanor & Park (Rainbow Rowell)
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  • The Rosie Project (Graeme Simsion)
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  • Fangirl (Rainbow Rowell)
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Online VS Offline classes

Due to the pandemic, online education is encouraged. It is learning via online classes as per the convenience of the students and teachers. Whereas, offline education is the traditional way of teaching in institutions and schools. It is face-to-face learning.

The Covid-19 impact was everywhere, which resulted in the closure of Schools and other educational institutions. … Though schools are closed, students are attending their classes through various education initiatives like online classrooms, radio programs.

WHICH IS BETTER?

Studying online gives you flexibility. The place is your own space, which is comfortable. We learn in our comfort zone. Online teaching has interactive sessions yet students find it tiring. Students may do other activities while or instead of attending online classes.

Studying online means that you pay the tuition fee, apparently book supplies, an online application fee. The transportation charge is deducted. Online classes teach children to be self-disciplined. That is not the case for most children, some people can’t afford online class essentials. Some children forget what they have learned so far.

Staying motivated and keeping up with assignments may show more difficult for online pupils than for those attending traditional classes. It is important for students attending online classes to be on top of their time management skills.

The interaction in online classes is comparatively less. Online teaching is not for all the topics. Online learning is oftentimes based on theory and lacks in practice-based study.

We are depending on technology, what happens when the device shuts down? What will happen to the assignments stored? Children get eye problems due to the duration of screen time.

Whereas, through the offline study, the teacher will be able to understand if each student is getting the point correctly by asking them to do activities related to the work. Offline classes are the best option for people who don’t have proper internet connection.

NEW NORMAL

Now that things are starting to light up. The schools, colleges and offices are being reopened. In that case, I would say offline learning is better. We get to learn more from offline classes. I believe that the experience we get in offline learning is nothing equal to online learning.

However, we must consider the safety of the students. Especially their mental health. After being in their comfort zone for year’s, getting back to school can be hard on them. Even though the exams were conducted online, the students still worked hard to secure marks. There are talks about not employing covid batch freshers for few jobs.

We were not alone, together we faced a lot. It is high time to consider getting to new normal. There should be changes in thd schedule for students but offline learning should be encouraged. We can’t compel the students, we can give them an option to pursue studies online.

IMAGINE COVID-19 WITHOUT ONLINE TEACHING

Online teaching was a saviour. Without which the students would have lost more than a year of studies. It is scary to imagine a world without technology during tough times it helps us get in contactless touch.

CHECK OUT THIS ARTICLE.

Why reading classics is crucial?

A classic is a book accepted as being exemplary or noteworthy it can be applied to works of literature from all traditions. Classic literature is important because it opens up a perspective to different worlds and historical perspectives. It helps in social development.

WHY CLASSICS?

  • The classics gives us moral messages.
  • Increase in vocabulary.
  • Historical and cultural knowledge.
  • It challenges critical thinking.
  • Teaches more about the past.
  • It cultivates wisdom.
  • Understand every walk of life.
  • Different world and historical perspectives.

Here are few books for you to start with;

Classic’s cover would be old and dull is a myth. There are lots of pretty editions for classics. I started classics with Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen.

PRIDE AND PREJUDICE by Jane Austen

Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen follows the relationship between Mr. Darcy and Ms. Elizabeth Bennet. They face Pride and Prejudice, in order for their relationship to work, they should overcome it. The family is relatable even today. The book depicts women’s reputation is important in society. I’m sure you would enjoy this book.

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ANIMAL FARM by GEORGE ORWELL

Why is this book a classic? It has universal theme which is tyrannical government. It is a satirical novella by Orwell. If you are interested in politics, this is a must read for you.

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A TALE OF TWO CITIES by CHARLES DICKENS

The story is set against the conditions that led up to the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror. It deals with the possibility of resurrection and transformation. The moral is remarkable. It has the element of history and love. It was an incredible read for me.

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WUTHERING HEIGHTS by EMILY BRONTË

The book deals with love, rage, betrayal and envy. The love between Heathcliff and Catherine would destroy them and the people around them. Such a pretty cover for an affordable rate.

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LORD OF THE FLIES by WILLIAM GOLDING

A classic for not just children but adults too. Lord of the flies follows the story of a group of boys who got landed up on an island. They don’t have adult supervision. How will they follow the order? It is a book about innocence and the loss of it. A gripping tale about social disintegration.

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ARE CLASSICS MANDATORY?

Absolutely not. Classics are another option for you to appreciate literature. However, if you are a literature student classics are part of your syllabus. Hence, might be mandatory. Reading a book is your choice if you don’t like a book you can DNF without feeling guilty.

Authors take inspiration from classics. The style, language can be difficult to understand. Sometimes lack of knowledge about the particular era might end up confusing us. People think classics are old and predictable, they wish to read something fresh.

You should not read classic if you are not having fun.

“Outside of a dog, a book is a man’s best friend.”

ARE CLASSICS RELEVANT?

It is relevant as it gives insight and is highly relatable even today. Classics are classic for a reason, they are universal and timeless.

Thank you for reading!

ENTHUSIASM.

Hi all, Today my topic is about “ENTHUSIASM”.
Enthusiasm is an important essence of life.

What do enthusiasm means?
    A feeling of energetic interest in a particular subject or activity and an eagerness to be involved in it.

Now story time; There was a highly skilled carpenter who was just about to retire. He was retiring after a long and dedicated career in building houses. He was master in his work and was extremely famous for his extra ordinary work.

At the very beginning of his career, when he joined a prominent contractor, he had been required to make a very special promise. The carpenter had to promise the contractor that every house he built, would be built as if it was the most important project he had ever been given. He also had to promise that every house would be built with full of creativity, dedication, love and care.

Getting ready to retire, the carpenter went into his boss’s office to inform him about his plans. The carpenter said, “The house I have just completed would be my last. I would like to retire from the services now.”

The boss said, “I am sorry to see you are leaving our organisation. May I request you to be kind enough to do a final favor for me?”

The carpenter replied, “Please sir, tell me what can I do for you?”

The boss said, “Just build me one more house, then you’re free to go.” The carpenter, who respected his boss to a great extent, agreed and immediately started to work on the new house. But unlike every other house he had built over the past few years, he did not use the full extent of his expertise with this final one. He took every shortcut he knew, to finish the project in record time. The only reason behind it was, he wanted to begin his second innings after retirement at the earliest. He cut corners, used inferior material and hurried to get the task over with.

Within weeks, the carpenter completed the house. And finally, the carpenter called his employer and showed him the house.

The employer was very happy and grateful to him. He said to the carpenter in a gentle tone, “Thanks for doing this personal favor for me”.

Then the employer handed over the carpenter some papers and keys to the front door and said, “These are for you. The house you just built is my parting gift for all your years of hard work and dedication.”

The carpenter was astounded. He could not believe that the home he had just built was his own. If he had known this, he would have put his very best into it.

From this story we learned that whatever we do, enthusiasm is must

By Being enthusiasm, what you will gain;
* Boosts your confidence level.
* Helps you to see the positive side in all.
* More Peace of mind at the end of each day.
* Improves your focus.
* You can easily achieve your goal.
* Helps you to enjoy each & every minute of your life.
* Broadens your thinking.
* Can absorb/learn more.

So now on, whatever you do, do it with enthusiasm.

“Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.”

Have a beautiful day.

Keep smiling ❣️❣️❣️

Link for the above story:https://www.invajy.com/motivational-and-inspirational-short-stories-about-life-the-retiring-carpenter-story-16/

Facts About Turtles and Tortoises

One of the four main families of reptiles, turtles and tortoises have been objects of human fascination for thousands of years. But how much do you really know about these vaguely comical reptiles? Here are 10 facts about turtles and tortoises, ranging from how these vertebrates evolved to why it’s unwise to keep them as pets.

1.Turtle vs Tortoise Linguistics

* Few things in the animal kingdom are more confusing than the difference between turtles and tortoises, for linguistic (rather than anatomical) reasons.

Terrestrial (non-swimming) species should technically be referred to as tortoises, but residents of North America are just as likely to use the word “turtle” across the board.

* Further complicating matters, in Great Britain “turtle” refers exclusively to marine species, and never to land-based tortoises.

* To avoid misunderstandings, most scientists and conservationists refer to turtles, tortoises, and terrapins under the blanket name “chelonians” or “Testudines.” Naturalists and biologists specializing in the study of these reptiles are known as “Testudinologists.”

2.They Are Divided Into Two Major Families

* The vast majority of the 350 or so species of turtles and tortoises are “cryptodires,” meaning these reptiles retract their heads straight back into their shells when threatened.

* The rest are “pleurodires,” or side-necked turtles, which fold their necks to one side when retracting their heads. There are other, more subtle anatomical differences between these two Testudine suborders. For example, the shells of cryptodires are composed of 12 bony plates, while pleurodires have 13, and also have narrower vertebrae in their necks.

* Pleurodire turtles are restricted to the southern hemisphere, including Africa, South America, and Australia. Cryptodires have a worldwide distribution and account for most familiar turtle and tortoise species.

3.The Shells Are Securely Attached to Their Bodies

* You can forget all those cartoons you saw as a kid where a turtle jumps naked out of its shell, then dives back in when threatened.

* The fact is that the shell, or carapace, is securely attached to its body. The inner layer of the shell is connected to the rest of the turtle’s skeleton by various ribs and vertebrae.

* The shells of most turtles and tortoises are composed of “scutes,” or hard layers of keratin. The same protein as in human fingernails.

* The exceptions are soft-shelled turtles and leatherbacks, the carapaces of which are covered with thick skin. Why did turtles and tortoises evolve shells in the first place? Clearly, shells developed as a means of defense against predators.

* Even a starving shark would think twice about breaking its teeth on the carapace of a Galapagos tortoise!

4.They Have Bird-Like Beaks, No Teeth

* You might think turtles and birds are as different as any two animals can be, but in fact, these two vertebrate families share an important common trait: they’re equipped with beaks, and they completely lack teeth.

* The beaks of meat-eating turtles are sharp and ridged. They can do serious damage to the hand of an unwary human, while the beaks of herbivorous turtles and tortoises have serrated edges ideal for cutting fibrous plants.

* Compared to other reptiles, the bites of turtles and tortoises are relatively weak. Still, the alligator snapping turtle can chomp down on its prey with a force of over 300 pounds per square inch, about the same as an adult human male.

* Let’s keep things in perspective, however: the bite force of a saltwater crocodile measures over 4,000 pounds per square inch!

5.Some Live for Over 100 Years

* As a rule, slow-moving reptiles with cold-blooded metabolisms have longer life spans than comparably-sized mammals or birds.

* Even a relatively small box turtle can live for 30 or 40 years, and a Galapagos tortoise can easily hit the 200-year mark.

* If it manages to survive into adulthood (and most turtle babies never get the chance, since they’re gobbled up by predators immediately after hatching), a turtle will be invulnerable to most predators thanks to its shell.

* There are hints that the DNA of these reptiles undergoes more frequent repair and that their stem cells are more easily regenerated.

* It should come as no surprise that turtles and tortoises are avidly studied by gerontologists, who hope to isolate “miracle proteins” that can help extend the human life span.

6.Most Don’t Have Very Good Hearing

* Because their shells provide such a high degree of protection, turtles and tortoises haven’t evolved the advanced auditory capabilities of, for example, herd animals like wildebeest and antelopes.

* Most Testudines, while on land, can only hear sounds above 60 decibels. For perspective, a human whisper registers at 20 decibels.

* This figure is much better in the water, where sound conducts differently. The vision of turtles isn’t much to brag about, either, but it gets the job done, allowing carnivorous Testudines to track prey.

* Also, some turtles are especially well-adapted to seeing at night. Overall, the general intelligence level of Testudines is low, though some species can be taught to navigate simple mazes and others have been shown to possess long-term memories.

7.They Lay Their Eggs in the Sand

* Depending on species, turtles and tortoises lay anywhere from 20 to 200 eggs at a time. One outlier is the eastern box tortoise, which lays only three to eight eggs at once.

* The female digs a hole in a patch of sand and soil deposits her clutch of soft, leathery eggs, and then promptly ambles away.

* What happens next is the kind of thing producers tend to leave out of TV nature documentaries: nearby carnivores raid the turtle nests and devour most of the eggs before they’ve had a chance to hatch.

* For example, crows and raccoons eat about 90 percent of the eggs laid by snapping turtles. Once the eggs have hatched, the odds aren’t much better, as immature turtles unprotected by hard shells are gobbled up like scaly hors-d’oeuvres.

* It only takes one or two hatchlings per clutch to survive in order to propagate the species; the others wind up being part of the food chain.

8.Their Ultimate Ancestor Lived During the Permian Period

* Turtles have a deep evolutionary history that extends to a few million years before the Mesozoic Era, better known as the Age of Dinosaurs.

* The earliest identified Testudine ancestor is a foot-long lizard called Eunotosaurus, which lived in the swamps of Africa 260 million years ago. It had wide, elongated ribs curving along its back, an early version of the shells of later turtles and tortoises.

* Other important links in Testudine evolution include the late Triassic Pappochelys and the early Jurassic Odontochelys, a soft-shelled marine turtle that sported a full set of teeth.

* Over the ensuing tens of millions of years, Earth was home to a series of truly monstrous prehistoric turtles, including Archelon and Protostega, each of which weighed almost two tons.

9.They Don’t Make Ideal Pets

* Turtles and tortoises may seem like the ideal “training pets” for kids (or for adults who don’t have a lot of energy), but there are some very strong arguments against their adoption. First, given their unusually long lifespans, Testudines can be a long-term commitment.

* Second, turtles need very specialized (and sometimes very expensive) care, especially in regard to their cages and food and water supplies.

* Third, turtles are carriers of salmonella, serious cases of which can land you in the hospital and even endanger your life. You don’t necessarily have to handle a turtle to contract salmonella, as these bacteria can thrive on the surfaces of your home.

* The general view of conservation organizations is that turtles and tortoises belong in the wild, not in your kid’s bedroom.

10.The Soviet Union Once Shot Two Tortoises Into Space

* It sounds like a science-fiction TV series, but Zond 5 was actually a spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union in 1968. It was carrying a payload of flies, worms, plants, and two presumably very disoriented tortoises.

* Zond 5 circled the moon once and returned to Earth, where it was discovered that the tortoises had lost 10 percent of their body weight, but were otherwise healthy and active.

* What happened to the tortoises after their triumphant return isn’t known and given the long life spans of their breed, it’s possible that they’re still alive today.

* One likes to imagine them mutated by gamma rays, blown up to monster sizes, and spending their dotage in a post-Soviet research facility on the fringes of Vladivostok.

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE AND THE MODERN PERIOD OF INDIA

The colonial influence in Indian architecture can be seen in office buildings. The British people from the 16th century have constructed several churches and other buildings. Basilica Bom Jesus and the church of Saint Francis are the most famous churches built by the Portuguese in Goa. Many administrative and residential buildings are built by the British in India. We can also see the influence of Greek and Roman in the colonnades and pillared buildings. Rashtrapati Bhavan, formerly the Viceroy’s residence was designed by the architect Lutyens. Writers’ Building in Calcutta, where several governmental officers worked in the British period is still the administrative center of Bengal after independence. The church buildings like St. Paul’s Cathedral in Calcutta are another design in the British period. They also left their impressions by building the railway terminals like Victoria Terminus in Mumbai. The French architect Corbusier had designed several buildings that are built on Chandigarh. The India International Centre in Delhi where conferences are held by leading intellectuals from all over the world is designed by the Austrian architect, Stein. In the past few decades, several Indian architects have emerged. Charles Correa and Raj Rewal are the architects of this generation.

CHENNAI:

Chennai, formerly known as Madras is one of the four metropolitan cities of India. The city has become the seat of Madras Presidency, the southern division of British Imperial India by the 19th century. The city had become the capital of Madras state in 1947. Later, the madras state was replaced by Tamil Nadu in 1968. Various cathedrals, buildings, and wide tree-lined avenues at Chennai influence the colonial period. The High Court Building, built in 1892, during the British period was said to be the largest judicial building in the world after the Courts of London. To store enormous blocks of ice cut from the Great Lakes in the northern USA in India, Icehouse was built during the colonial period. The Church of St. John that had wide Gothic arches and beautiful stained-glass windows is the beautiful structure of that period. The General post office in Chennai is built-in 1872. The General Post Office has a vast central hall with a high dome. The first English fortress in India, Fort St George is found in the coastal city of madras.

MUMBAI:

Mumbai, the capital of Maharashtra is located on the west coast of India. The city of Mumbai has come to light by the arrival of the British in the 17th century. It was known as Bombay. It is the first city in India to have railways. Also, it was the city where the newspaper came into existence. During the end of the 19th century, many buildings were constructed in Bombay in Victorian Gothic Style. The Secretariat, the Council Hall, and Elphinstone College were built in the above-mentioned style. The most impressive style was the massive railway construction in 1887, Victoria Terminus (modern Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus). It looks more like a cathedral than a railway station. To honor the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to India, the famous Gateway of India was built. Since independence, Mumbai has continued to be India’s leading commercial and industrial city. The stock exchange, business centers, film industry named Bollywood, and anything that comes under modernization and westernization is all started in Bombay.

DELHI:

Delhi was founded by Raju Dhilu and Ptolemy, the geographer who marked Delhi in his map as Daidala. Today, Delhi is one of the largest cities not only in India but in the whole world. After the period of Tomars, Chauhans built the city named Qila Rai Pithora in Lal Kot, Mehrauli. The famous Qutub Minar is finished by Iltutmish which was started by Qutb-ud-din. The Siri fort exists in Delhi and currently, this area in Delhi is known as Shahpur Jat. After some years, Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq constructed the city called Tughlaqabad. After the death of Ghiyasuddin, the earlier cities of Delhi into a single unit and were named Jahanpanah by Mohammed Bin Tughlaq. Firoz Shah constructed Firozabad, located near Firoz Shah Kotla. The Mughal ruler Humayun built the Dinpanah on the mound of ancient Indraprastha. Shah Jehan, the grandson of Humayun started building the Red Fort in 1639 and finished it in 1648. Nearly for 24 Sufis, Delhi is the hometown. After the Mughal rule in Delhi, the British occupied Delhi after defeating the Marathas in 1803. The Parliament House and the North and South Blocks, the India Gate, and the Viceroy house were all made to impress the Indian subjects of the British rule. Delhi has become an important commercial, cultural, and political center of India. Museums, beautiful parks, flyovers, the Metro, a beautiful airport, educational centers, massive buildings, big wholesale markets, large malls, major industries, etc. all contribute to male Delhi as an outstanding city.

9 Supreme Court passes judgment on make vow on a day of many records

This Tuesday (31 st September 2021) was a noteworthy day for the Supreme Court as a record nine new Supreme Court judges made vow, the nation moved towards getting its first lady Chief justice of India, and among those sworn in were three future chief justice of India and three ladies’ judges.

In an eye-ball snatching occasion held in the 900-seater hall with severe consistence of Covid convention, the emphasis was on 58-year-old Justice Bangalore Venkataramiah Nagarathna. On making vow, she not just continued in her dad E S Vankataramiah’s strides to the Supreme court , however like him will proceed to turn into the Chief justice of India in September 2027. She would be India’s first lady Chief Justice since the SC appeared 77 years prior. It is one sort of a glad second for us as this drive will energize ladies strengthening, set a model for different ladies to try sincerely and accomplish achievements which none idea you might at any point accomplish. Aside from this it involves motivation for ladies in the country.

Credit for making such countless records on a solitary day goes to CJI N V Ramana and other collegium individuals Justices U Lalit, A M Khanwilkar, D Y Chandrachud and L N Rao. They chose the nine consistently on August 17 and the Union government endorsed the suggestions inside a record 10 days.

Justice Nagarathna talked a couple of impactful words to TOI. “I, as an appointed authority, should practice limitation and assimilate integrity”. She comprehends that she will be under the consistent examining look of residents up and down her six-year long excursion coming full circle with the top post in legal executive.

First among the ladies judges to make vow was Justice Hima Kohli, who started her vocation as a promoter rehearsing in the Delhi HC and in 2006 turned into an appointed authority there. This year, she was designated boss equity of Telangana High court.

The third lady judge to make vow was Justice Bela Madhyurya Trivedi. She was designated Gujarat HC judge in 2011 and was moved that very year to Rajasthan High court. She was moved back to Gujarat HC in 2016 and had as of late berated the Gujarat government for laxity in controlling the pandemic.

With these three, the SC would have a record four ladies decided simultaneously, including Justice Indira Banerjee, who was selected as Supreme court judge in 2018. The primary lady judge in Supreme court was Justice Fathima Beevi. She too had navigated the long twisting way of beginning her profession as a preliminary adjudicator and getting designated as SC judge in 1989. The nation so far has delegated just 11 ladies’ judges, including the three who made vow on Tuesday.

From among the nine new Supreme court judges, three — Justices Vikram Nath, Nagarathna and Pamidighantam Sri Narasimha — would proceed to become Chief justice of India in a specific order. Other new adjudicators are Justices Jitendra Kumar Maheshwari, Chudalayil Thevan Ravikumar and M Sundresh.