Harappan civilization

Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappan civilization is the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. Among the world’s three earliest civilizations the Indus civilization was the most extensive. The civilization was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo daro near the Indus River in the Sindh oth sites are in present day Pakistan, in Punjab and Sindh provinces, respectively. The ruins of Mohenjo-daro were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1980. The Indus civilization is known to have consisted of two large cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and more than 100 towns and villages, often of relatively small size. The population was estimated to be 23,500-35,000 in Harappa and 35,000-41,250 in Mohenjo daro. The civilization subsisted primarily by farming, supplemented by an appreciable but often elusive commerce. Domesticated animals included dogs and cats, humped and shorthorn cattle, domestic fowl, and possibly pigs, camels, and buffalo. Trade was extensive and apparently well-regulated, providing imported raw materials for use at internal production centres, distributing finished goods throughout the region, and arguably culminating in the establishment of Harappan colonies in both Mesopotamia and Badakhshan. The remarkable uniformity of weights and measures throughout the Indus lands were seen. Further, the widespread occurrence of inscriptions in the Harappan script almost certainly indicates the use of a single lingua franca. Stone sculpture is extremely rare, and much of it is quite crude. The figures are apparently all intended as images for worship. Such figures include seated men, recumbent composite animals a standing nude male and a dancing figure. The popular art of the Harappans was in the form of terra-cotta figurines. The majority are of standing females, often heavily laden with jewelry, but standing males some with beard and horns are also evident. Copper and bronze were the principal metals used for making tools and implements. Bronze is less common than copper, and it is notably rarer in the lowerlevels. Other special crafts include the manufacture of faience for making beads, amulets, sealings, and small vessels and the working of stone for bead manufacture and for seals. Beads were made from a variety of substances, but the carnelians Shell and ivory were also worked and were used for beads, inlays, combs, bracelets, and the like.. There are more than 500 signs, many appearing to be compounds of two or more other signs, but it is not yet clear whether these signs are ideographic, logographic, or other. The Harappans also employed regular systems of weights and measures. The decline probably occurred in several stages, perhaps over a century or more: the period between about 2000 and 1750 BCE is a reasonable estimation. The collapse of the urban system does not necessarily imply a complete breakdown in the lifestyle of the population in all parts of the Indus region, but it seems to have involved the end of whatever system of social and political control had preceded it. The end of Mohenjo-daro is known, however, and was dramatic and sudden

Dissociative identity disorder

Dissociative personality disorder also known as multiple personality disorder r split personality disorder is a disorder intriguing the interest of a lot of people. It is characterized as endurance of a lot of personality in one person which are certainly unaware about each other as well. These personalities control their behaviour at different times. They might be accompanied by post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) substance abuse disorder, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorder etc. In about 90% of cases, there is a history of abuse in childhood while other cases are linked to experiences of war, or medical procedures during childhood, where as Genetic and biological factors are also believed to play al role. Treatment generally involves supportive care and psychotherapy. It is believed to affect about 1.5% of the general population DID is diagnosed about six times more often in females than males. According to the fifth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders the presence of two or more distinct personality states accompanied by the inability to recall personal information, beyond what is expected through normal forgetfulness is a major symptom of dissociative identity disorder. The majority of patients with this disorder report childhood sexual or physical abuse. It can lead to gaps in memory and hallucinations. It is one of several dissociative disorders. These disorders affect a person’s ability to connect with reality. Other dissociative disorders include Depersonalized or derealization disorder, which causes a feeling of detachment from your actions where as the other, Dissociative amnesia is a condition in which a person cannot remember important information about his or her life his forgetting may be limited to certain specific areas or may include much of the person’s life history and/or identity. In some rare cases called dissociative fugue, the person may forget most or all of his personal information and may sometimes even travel to a different location and adopt a completely new identity in all cases of dissociative amnesia, the person has a much greater memory. loss than would be expected in the course of normal forgetting. Sometimes dissociative identity disorder develops in response to a natural disaster or other traumatic events. A person with DID has two or more distinct identities. The “core” identity is the person’s usual personality. “Alters” are the person’s alternate personalities. Some people with DID have up to 100 alters The identities might have different genders, ethnicities, interests and ways of interacting with their environments. Its symptoms might include Memory loss Suicidal thoughts or self harm, drug abuse. There is no cure for it. Most people will manage the disorder for the rest of their lives. But a combination of treatments can help reduce symptoms. A strong support system can make living with DID more manageable

10 ways to self love

Self-love is a popular concept these days, and it looks a little different for everyone. We all have a unique way of loving ourselves. If you’re unsure about how to start showing yourself some love, here are some thought-starters for how to do it today and every day. Read about ’em, try ’em, and then make ’em your own.

1. Create a self-love ritual.

Turn off the TV and unplug from social media for 15 minutes to get centered while moisturizing your skin with intention. As you massage your feet, thank them for getting you to where you need to go; as you moisturize your hands, love them for all the transactions and introductions they’ve helped you with throughout your life. For a moment, stop taking your body for granted and shower yourself with gratitude.

2. Build a precious community.

As much as we would like to think we can, we can’t do everything ourselves. We need the support and love from people around us to stay motivated and on track. Research shows that positive energy is contagious, so whether you’re building a network or planning to go to a fun event, it’s always important to have a community you value around you regularly.

3. Make a “What’s Working for Me” list.

Truly loving yourself comes from self-acceptance. And one helpful step toward getting to that point of self-acceptance is recognizing what you already have that’s great by writing a “What’s Working for Me” list. Once you see it on paper and accept all of the positivity in your life, it will make it that much easier to love yourself.

4. Know that your body is a loving vessel.

Treating your body like a loving vessel will boost not only your self-love but also your energy. Be intentional about what you put into your body, not because you want to look good but because you want to feel good. Feeding your body nutrient-rich foods will have you oozing love out of every pore.

5. Clean out your closet.

Tidying is more therapeutic than you might think, and getting rid of old things will make room for new ones to come into your life. Cleansing your mind can sometimes work in the form of letting go of clothes, shoes, jewelry, etc., that remind you of a certain time in your life that links to a negative vibration. Don’t chase what’s already happened; love yourself enough to know the best is yet to come.

6. Don’t compare yourself to others on social media.

We’ve all done it. Browsed through social media only to see our favorite media personalities in the middle of a photoshoot for their new books, just after they had awesome shopping sprees and right before the post about their engagements. WHAT?! But remember that these positive pics on the Internet don’t always tell the whole story, and everyone—yes, everyone—has bad days.

7. Explore your spirituality.

Faith is the foundation for self-love. Whether or not you’re religious, believing in something opens up your soul to the beauty of belief and trust. It will build your intuition and help you make decisions based on your intuition. When you explore your spirituality, it will also take you on a journey to learning things about yourself, and those new thoughts, feelings, passions, and raw emotions will make you appreciate yourself for being authentically you.

8. Do something you’re good at.

If this isn’t the ultimate self-esteem booster, I don’t know what is! Self-esteem and self-love often go hand in hand, and participating in a hobby you’re good at will not only boost your endorphins but will bring out the best version of you. If you love to cook, then cook! If you love to run, then grab those sneakers, head outside, and run.

9. Find your happy place.

Think of a place that makes it simple to just be. Sit quietly and embrace the here and now, not thinking about what’s due at work or what bills need to be paid.

10. Build your letting-go muscle.

We’re constantly holding onto things in our past, which can weigh heavy on our souls and even give us low self-esteem. The more blocks we clear, the more we can really live big in the area of self-love. Although we may do this as a way to protect ourselves from hurting, it’s really only holding us back from moving forward to reaching optimal self-acceptance and loving who we are.

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Top 10 Indian Crime Series On Internet to Watch

This quarantine, chances are that each one of us has binge-watched at least one series or movie on the web. With the advent of online web-based entertainment apps and ever since the Star Network introduced Hotstar to the public and Netflix found its way into the Indian market, the web content has become just too full of quality to ignore. There is quality in the plot, acting, scripts, and more importantly the freedom of choosing bold content. That is the primary reason why well-accomplished actors and directors are choosing the web platforms while some great new actors are being unearthed.

However, over the last two years, there have been so many platforms with so many quality shows that the catalogue seems simply endless. The two domains that have attracted a majority of the crowd are crime/action and comedy. But we are spoilt for choices to such an extent where identifying a really good show has just become impossible. Some raging shows may not be up to the mark while some undiscovered gems are critically well acclaimed but don’t often make the headlines. In this article, we have compiled a list for you of the 10 best crime series on Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video, Voot, and Zee5. These are all high-octane, action-packed, crime thrillers that are sure to leave you gasping for more at the end. Here are the 10 best Indian crime series On Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video, Voot and Zee5:

10. Abhay

Gore, gruesome deaths, murders, suspense, and thrill. If these things hook you on, Abhay is a must-watch for you. Revolving around the story of Abhay – a forever-frowning cop from the Special Task Force, this original inspired by true events hooks you on from the word go. Every episode is packed with intriguing mysteries, fascinatingly tantalizing deaths and engrossing cases. Produced by crime expert B.P. Singh – best known for the TV show “CID” which was the longest-running TV show on the Indian small screen, the show does not know how to disappoint.

9. Asur: Welcome to your dark side –

Starring Bollywood veterans Arshad Warsi and Barun Sobti, Oni Sen’s directorial venture “Asur” is a mythic-crime thriller that takes you on a journey of murders, suspense and the supernatural. Set in the scenic city of Varanasi, it follows the story of Nikhil Nair (Barun Sobti) and his mentor Dhananjay Rajput (Arshad Warsi) as they race against time to take on a dangerous serial killer out on a rampage in the

8. Jamtara – Sabka Number Ayega – Netflix

When the world of technology meets crime, the most common cybercrime is identity fraud. Jamtara deals with a true story of phishing activities in the Jamtara district of Jharkhand state. When Soumedra Padhi read an article about the same in a newspaper, he got hooked and sent his research team to collect more information. The result was seen four years later as Padhi weaved his research team’s efforts to direct a gripping story with a spellbinding screenplay.

7. Mirzapur – Amazon Prime Video

If you haven’t seen a Mirzapur sticker or meme out there, ask yourself this: What am I doing with my life? Primarily shot in the titular district of Mirzapur, the series was received very well by young adults and the critics. Starring Pankaj Tripathi and Ali Faizal in leading roles, this is a typical gun-first-words-later mafia movie with corrupt politicians, daring dons, and bold language.

6. SHE – Netflix

Featuring an undercover female constable who is ordered to use her sexuality as a weapon to infiltrate a gang, this thrilling crime show is written by Imtiaz Ali and author Divya Johri. Officer Bhumika Pardeshi has been recently inducted into the Anti-Narcotics Group and her first assignment is to capture an underworld drug lord. With twists and turns each episode, this is a riveting tale of the true power of seduction and the protagonist is a great example of beauty with brains.

5. Sacred Games – Netflix

You had to be living under a rock if you haven’t heard of the Sacred Games. Starring Saif Ali Khan as Inspector Sartaj Singh, Nawazuddin Siddiqui as Ganesh Gaitonde, Radhika Apte as Anjali Mathur and Pankaj Tripathi as the Guruji, the series revolves around a threat to a city that is supposed to be destroyed in 25 days. With a highly unpredictable plot and twists like never seen before, the Sacred Games has been listed in the New York times 30 best TV shows of the decade – and deservedly so!

4. Rangbaaz – Zee5

Rangbaaz is the true story of a gangster Prakash Shukla of Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. The man who studied at DDU became the second most wanted man in India at one point of time, and this series is a retelling of his story.

3. Special OPS – Hotstar

Created by Neeraj Pandey and starring Kay Kay Menon, Karan Tacker, Vinay Pathak and Vipul Gupta in leading roles, the film centers around Kay Kay Menon’s character – Himmat Singh as he studies the patterns in all terrorist attacks on the country and is convinced that one man is responsible for all this. The episodes see him and his team of five try to track down the ultimate mastermind before another explosion or terrorist attack can rock the country.

2. Delhi Crime – Netflix

The series focusses on the aftermath of the brutal Delhi Gang-Rape Case of 2012 where 16 men in a moving bus raped and assaulted a 23-year old physiotherapy intern and assaulted her male friend accompanying her. The series revolves around the efforts of the Delhi Police in searching and apprehending the men responsible.

1. Breathe – Amazon Prime Video

Breathe is a psychological crime-thriller depicting the lengths that a father would go to, to save his son. R. Madhavan stars as the desperate father trying to save his son Joshua (Atharva Vishvakarma) from a deadly medical condition. Murders, cover-ups and more murders are all you get when you cross path with an over-protective father, and by the end, you cannot help but feel sympathy for the murderer, confused if he was ever the criminal or himself a victim.

So those were the Top 10 Indian crime series On Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime Video, Voot, and Zee5. Do you feel a show is missing? Or is a show wrongly placed on the list? Do let us know in the comments.

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COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.

Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation.

In other definitions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation.

ROLES:

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is the interface between the computer’s software and hardware and also can be viewed as the programmer’s view of the machine. Computers do not understand high-level programming languages such as Java, C++, or most programming languages used. A processor only understands instructions encoded in some numerical fashion, usually as binary numbers. Software tools, such as compilers, translate those high level languages into instructions that the processor can understand.

Besides instructions, the ISA defines items in the computer that are available to a program—e.g., data types, registers, addressing modes, and memory. Instructions locate these available items with register indexes (or names) and memory addressing modes.

The ISA of a computer is usually described in a small instruction manual, which describes how the instructions are encoded. Also, it may define short (vaguely) mnemonic names for the instructions. The names can be recognized by a software development tool called an assembler. An assembler is a computer program that translates a human-readable form of the ISA into a computer-readable form. Disassemblers are also widely available, usually in debuggers and software programs to isolate and correct malfunctions in binary computer programs.

ISAs vary in quality and completeness. A good ISA compromises between programmer convenience (how easy the code is to understand), size of the code (how much code is required to do a specific action), cost of the computer to interpret the instructions (more complexity means more hardware needed to decode and execute the instructions), and speed of the computer (with more complex decoding hardware comes longer decode time). Memory organization defines how instructions interact with the memory, and how memory interacts with itself.

During design emulation, emulators can run programs written in a proposed instruction set. Modern emulators can measure size, cost, and speed to determine whether a particular ISA is meeting its goals.

Computer organization:

Computer organization helps optimize performance-based products. For example, software engineers need to know the processing power of processors. They may need to optimize software in order to gain the most performance for the lowest price. This can require quite a detailed analysis of the computer’s organization. For example, in an SD card, the designers might need to arrange the card so that the most data can be processed in the fastest possible way.

Computer organization also helps plan the selection of a processor for a particular project. Multimedia projects may need very rapid data access, while virtual machines may need fast interrupts. Sometimes certain tasks need additional components as well. For example, a computer capable of running a virtual machine needs virtual memory hardware so that the memory of different virtual computers can be kept separated. Computer organization and features also affect power consumption and processor cost.

Implementation:

Once an instruction set and micro-architecture have been designed, a practical machine must be developed. This design process is called the implementation. Implementation is usually not considered architectural design, but rather hardware design engineering. Implementation can be further broken down into several steps:

Logic implementation designs the circuits required at a logic-gate level.

Circuit implementation does transistor-level designs of basic elements (e.g., gates, multiplexers, latches) as well as of some larger blocks (ALUs, caches etc.) that may be implemented at the logic-gate level, or even at the physical level if the design calls for it.

Physical implementation draws physical circuits. The different circuit components are placed in a chip floorplan or on a board and the wires connecting them are created.

Design validation tests the computer as a whole to see if it works in all situations and all timings. Once the design validation process starts, the design at the logic level are tested using logic emulators. However, this is usually too slow to run a realistic test. So, after making corrections based on the first test, prototypes are constructed using Field-Programmable Gate-Arrays (FPGAs). Most hobby projects stop at this stage. The final step is to test prototype integrated circuits, which may require several redesigns.

For CPUs, the entire implementation process is organized differently and is often referred to as CPU design.

Computer Architects:

Computer architects oversee the implementation of architecture strategies and policies within companies. They create computer models and standard solutions that save costs, increase capabilities and align with business needs. Their architectural solutions must deliver stability, availability and sustainability. Computer architects may deal with server storage, data backup, virtual recovery and internal applications. In order to produce efficient systems, they must stay up to date on the latest computer, programming and technology trends.

Computer architects formulate strategies that evolve compute architecture, leverage new features, explore new capabilities and improve user friendliness. They may be expected to manage and maintain enterprise-wide architecture patterns, offerings and policies. They may partner with peers and vendors regarding the integration, alignment and convergence of architectural strategies and standards. Computer architects may create communications and presentations that articulate the logic behind programming and production changes.

The Challenge of Architecting:

Creating a computer’s architecture, framework and infrastructure can be quite challenging. Computer architects must be able to present and drive the alignment and adoption of system evolution to programmers, engineers, designers and leaders. This means that they must be able to gain support and elicit alignment for project funding, strategies and recommendations. Computer architects may perform root cause analysis to understand and eliminate reoccurring incidents that impact the architectural structure and performance.

Senior computer architects may update, maintain and create system architectures that support product lines and business goals. They may review, modify and approve existing architectural designs through careful comparative research. Senior computer architects may communicate architecture strategies in order to convince executive management, technical teams and third-party vendors. Senior computer architects must have significant experience in the design, development and deployment of enterprise solutions. They should fully understand computer infrastructure, middleware and integration.

Computer architecture involves the broad infrastructure of modern PCs. All modern computers, mobile devices and similar technology rely on this architectural knowledge. Anyone who wants to become a computer architect should consider becoming an electrical, software or computer hardware engineer.

LIST OF HILL STATIONS IN INDIA

The hill stations are high-altitude towns for recreation, enjoyment and used as a place of refuge to escape the blistering heat in India during summertime. As India is a vast peninsular country with limited amounts of the coastal area most of its towns and districts face continental type of climate with summer being very hot so hill stations (as situated on high altitude due to which it faces low temperature) becomes an excellent spot to escape such hot and humid conditions as well as a place of enjoyment to spent quality time with your family and partner during summer break.

The Indian subcontinent has seven principal mountain ranges and the largest of all is the Himalayas that lies in the northern part of India. The famous peaks and ranges include the Kangchenjunga range in the Eastern Himalayas which frames the hill stations of Darjeeling and Gangtok as well as the Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand. The Shivalik range that also lies within the same region also has some famous hill stations that include Mussoorie, Drass, Dalhousie, Kullu, Shimla, Nainital and many more.

Most of the hill stations in India were developed by the British around a central mall to get respite from the oppressive summer heat. Many have picturesque lakes as their focal point, making them excellent places for boating activities.

Most of the hill stations in India are located in Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Meghalaya in the Himalayas and in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Kerala, and Tamilnadu in Western ghats.[2] Some are located in Eastern ghat Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal. Some of the hill stations in India are listed below by state.

Since a number of these hill stations attract large numbers of tourists in summer as well as other times of the year, they are well connected by rail, road, and air services to major Indian cities.

The Most Popular Hills In India are: 1.Shivalik Hills 2.Anamalai Hills 3.Ashambu Hills 4.Cardamom Hills 5.Biligiriranga Hills 6.Palani Hills 7.Nilgiri Hills 8.Nallamala Hills 9.Lushai Hills 10.Garo-Khasi-Jainitia Hills.

Hill stations in India were established for a variety of reasons. After the revolt of 1857 the “British sought further distance from what they saw as a “disease-ridden” land by escape to the Himalayas in the north and Nilgiri Hills in the south”, a pattern which started even before 1857. Other factors included anxieties about the dangers of life in India, among them “fear of degeneration brought on by too long residence in a debilitating land.” The hill stations were meant to reproduce the home country, illustrated in Lord Lytton’s statement about Ootacamund, in the 1870s, “such beautiful English rain, such delicious English mud.”[3] Shimla was officially made the “summer capital of India” in the 1860s and hill stations “served as vital centers of political and military power, especially after the 1857 revolt.

Dane Kennedy, following Monika Bührlein, identifies three stages in the evolution of hill stations in India: high refuge to hill station, and hill station to town. The first settlements started in the 1820s, primarily as sanitoria. In the 1840s and 1850s, there was a wave of new hill stations, with the main impetus being “places to rest and recuperate from the arduous life on the plains”. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a period of consolidation with few new hill stations. In the final phase, “hill stations reached their zenith in the late nineteenth century. The political importance of the official stations was underscored by the inauguration of large and costly public-building projects.”

INDIAN OCEAN

The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world’s oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) or 19.8% of the water on Earth’s surface.[5] It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use.[6] Along its core, the Indian Ocean has some large marginal or regional seas such as the Arabian Sea, the Laccadive Sea, the Somali Sea, Bay of Bengal, and the Andaman Sea.

Location – South and Southeast Asia, Western Asia, Northeast, East and Southern Africa and Australia

Max. length -9,600 km (6,000 mi) (Antarctica to Bay of Bengal)

Max. width-7,600 km (4,700 mi) (Africa to Australia)

Surface area -70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi)

Average depth-3,741 m (12,274 ft)

Max. depth -7,258 m (23,812 ft)

Shore length1 -66,526 km (41,337 mi)

History:

The Indian Ocean, together with the Mediterranean, has connected people since ancient times, whereas the Atlantic and Pacific have had the roles of barriers or mare incognitum. The written history of the Indian Ocean, however, has been Eurocentric and largely dependent on the availability of written sources from the colonial era. This history is often divided into an ancient period followed by an Islamic period; the subsequent periods are often subdivided into Portuguese, Dutch, and British periods.

A concept of an “Indian Ocean World” (IOW), similar to that of the “Atlantic World”, exists but emerged much more recently and is not well established. The IOW is, nevertheless, sometimes referred to as the “first global economy” and was based on the monsoon which linked Asia, China, India, and Mesopotamia. It developed independently from the European global trade in the Mediterranean and Atlantic and remained largely independent from them until European 19th-century colonial dominance.

The diverse history of the Indian Ocean is a unique mix of cultures, ethnic groups, natural resources, and shipping routes. It grew in importance beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and, after the Cold War, it has undergone periods of political instability, most recently with the emergence of India and China as regional powers.

First settlements:

Pleistocene fossils of Homo erectus and other pre-H. sapiens hominid fossils, similar to H. heidelbergensis in Europe, have been found in India. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, a supereruption c. 74000 years ago at Lake Toba, Sumatra, covered India with volcanic ashes and wiped out one or more lineages of such archaic humans in India and Southeast Asia.

The Out of Africa theory states that Homo sapiens spread from Africa into mainland Eurasia. The more recent Southern Dispersal or Coastal hypothesis instead advocates that modern humans spread along the coasts of the Arabic Peninsula and southern Asia. This hypothesis is supported by mtDNA research which reveals a rapid dispersal event during the Late Pleistocene (11,000 years ago). This coastal dispersal, however, began in East Africa 75,000 years ago and occurred intermittently from estuary to estuary along the northern perimeter of the Indian Ocean at a rate of 0.7–4.0 km (0.43–2.49 mi) per year. It eventually resulted in modern humans migrating from Sunda over Wallacea to Sahul (Southeast Asia to Australia).[67] Since then, waves of migration have resettled people and, clearly, the Indian Ocean littoral had been inhabited long before the first civilisations emerged. 5000–6000 years ago six distinct cultural centres had evolved around the Indian Ocean: East Africa, the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent, South East Asia, the Malay World, and Australia; each interlinked to its neighbours.

Food globalisation began on the Indian Ocean littoral c. 4.000 years ago. Five African crops — sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, cowpea, and hyacinth bean — somehow found their way to Gujarat in India during the Late Harappan (2000–1700 BCE). Gujarati merchants evolved into the first explorers of the Indian Ocean as they traded African goods such as ivory, tortoise shells, and slaves. Broomcorn millet found its way from Central Asia to Africa, together with chicken and zebu cattle, although the exact timing is disputed. Around 2000 BCE black pepper and sesame, both native to Asia, appear in Egypt, albeit in small quantities. Around the same time the black rat and the house mouse emigrate from Asia to Egypt. Banana reached Africa around 3000 years ago.

At least eleven prehistoric tsunamis have struck the Indian Ocean coast of Indonesia between 7400 and 2900 years ago. Analysing sand beds in caves in the Aceh region, scientists concluded that the intervals between these tsunamis have varied from series of minor tsunamis over a century to dormant periods of more than 2000 years preceding megathrusts in the Sunda Trench. Although the risk for future tsunamis is high, a major megathrust such as the one in 2004 is likely to be followed by a long dormant period.

A group of scientists have argued that two large-scale impact events have occurred in the Indian Ocean: the Burckle Crater in the southern Indian Ocean in 2800 BCE and the Kanmare and Tabban craters in the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia in 536 CE. Evidences for these impacts, the team argue, are micro-ejecta and Chevron dunes in southern Madagascar and in the Australian gulf. Geological evidences suggest the tsunamis caused by these impacts reached 205 m (673 ft) above sea level and 45 km (28 mi) inland. The impact events must have disrupted human settlements and perhaps even contributed to major climate changes.

Antiquity:

The history of the Indian Ocean is marked by maritime trade; cultural and commercial exchange probably date back at least seven thousand years.Human culture spread early on the shores of the Indian Ocean and was always linked to the cultures of the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. Before c. 2000 BCE, however, cultures on its shores were only loosely tied to each other; bronze, for example, was developed in Mesopotamia c. 3000 BCE but remained uncommon in Egypt before 1800 BCE.During this period, independent, short-distance oversea communications along its littoral margins evolved into an all-embracing network. The début of this network was not the achievement of a centralised or advanced civilisation but of local and regional exchange in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Sea. Sherds of Ubaid (2500–500 BCE) pottery have been found in the western Gulf at Dilmun, present-day Bahrain; traces of exchange between this trading centre and Mesopotamia. The Sumerians traded grain, pottery, and bitumen (used for reed boats) for copper, stone, timber, tin, dates, onions, and pearls.Coast-bound vessels transported goods between the Indus Valley Civilisation (2600–1900 BCE) in the Indian subcontinent (modern-day Pakistan and Northwest India) and the Persian Gulf and Egypt.

The Red Sea, one of the main trade routes in Antiquity, was explored by Egyptians and Phoenicians during the last two millennia BCE. In the 6th century, BCE Greek explorer Scylax of Caryanda made a journey to India, working for the Persian king Darius, and his now-lost account put the Indian Ocean on the maps of Greek geographers. The Greeks began to explore the Indian Ocean following the conquests of Alexander the Great, who ordered a circumnavigation of the Arabian Peninsula in 323 BCE. During the two centuries that followed the reports of the explorers of Ptolemaic Egypt resulted in the best maps of the region until the Portuguese era many centuries later. The main interest in the region for the Ptolemies was not commercial but military; they explored Africa to hunt for war elephants.

The Rub’ al Khali desert isolates the southern parts of the Arabic Peninsula and the Indian Ocean from the Arabic world. This encouraged the development of maritime trade in the region linking the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to East Africa and India. The monsoon (from mawsim, the Arabic word for season), however, was used by sailors long before being “discovered” by Hippalus in the 1st century. Indian wood have been found in Sumerian cities, there is evidence of Akkad coastal trade in the region, and contacts between India and the Red Sea dates back to 2300 B.C. The archipelagoes of the central Indian Ocean, the Laccadive and Maldive islands, were probably populated during the 2nd century B.C. from the Indian mainland. They appear in written history in the account of merchant Sulaiman al-Tajir in the 9th century but the treacherous reefs of the islands were most likely cursed by the sailors of Aden long before the islands were even settled.

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, an Alexandrian guide to the world beyond the Red Sea — including Africa and India — from the first century CE, not only gives insights into trade in the region but also shows that Roman and Greek sailors had already gained knowledge about the monsoon winds.[72] The contemporaneous settlement of Madagascar by Austronesian sailors shows that the littoral margins of the Indian Ocean were being both well-populated and regularly traversed at least by this time. Albeit the monsoon must have been common knowledge in the Indian Ocean for centuries.

The Indian Ocean’s relatively calmer waters opened the areas bordering it to trade earlier than the Atlantic or Pacific oceans. The powerful monsoons also meant ships could easily sail west early in the season, then wait a few months and return eastwards. This allowed ancient Indonesian peoples to cross the Indian Ocean to settle in Madagascar around 1 CE.

In the 2nd or 1st century BCE, Eudoxus of Cyzicus was the first Greek to cross the Indian Ocean. The probably fictitious sailor Hippalus is said to have learnt the direct route from Arabia to India around this time.[78] During the 1st and 2nd centuries AD intensive trade relations developed between Roman Egypt and the Tamil kingdoms of the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas in Southern India. Like the Indonesian people above, the western sailors used the monsoon to cross the ocean. The unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea describes this route, as well as the commodities that were traded along various commercial ports on the coasts of the Horn of Africa and India circa 1 CE. Among these trading settlements were Mosylon and Opone on the Red Sea littoral.

Unlike the Pacific Ocean where the civilization of the Polynesians reached most of the far-flung islands and atolls and populated them, almost all the islands, archipelagos and atolls of the Indian Ocean were uninhabited until colonial times. Although there were numerous ancient civilizations in the coastal states of Asia and parts of Africa, the Maldives were the only island group in the Central Indian Ocean region where an ancient civilization flourished.Maldivians, on their annual trade trip, took their oceangoing trade ships to Sri Lanka rather than mainland India, which is much closer, because their ships were dependent of the Indian Monsoon Current

Arabic missionaries and merchants began to spread Islam along the western shores of the Indian Ocean from the 8th century, if not earlier. A Swahili stone mosque dating to the 8th–15th centuries has been found in Shanga, Kenya. Trade across the Indian Ocean gradually introduced Arabic script and rice as a staple in Eastern Africa.Muslim merchants traded an estimated 1000 African slaves annually between 800 and 1700, a number that grew to c. 4000 during the 18th century, and 3700 during the period 1800–1870. Slave trade also occurred in the eastern Indian Ocean before the Dutch settled there around 1600 but the volume of this trade is unknown.From 1405 to 1433 admiral Zheng He said to have led large fleets of the Ming Dynasty on several treasure voyages through the Indian Ocean, ultimately reaching the coastal countries of East Africa.The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope during his first voyage in 1497 and became the first European to sail to India. The Swahili people he encountered along the African east coast lived in a series of cities and had established trade routes to India and to China. Among them, the Portuguese kidnapped most of their pilots in coastal raids and onboard ships. A few of the pilots, however, were gifts by local Swahili rulers, including the sailor from Gujarat, a gift by a Malindi ruler in Kenya, who helped the Portuguese to reach India. In expeditions after 1500, the Portuguese attacked and colonised cities along the African coast.

European slave trade in the Indian Ocean began when Portugal established Estado da Índia in the early 16th century. From then until the 1830s, c. 200 slaves were exported from Mozambique annually and similar figures has been estimated for slaves brought from Asia to the Philippines during the Iberian Union (1580–1640)

The Ottoman Empire began its expansion into the Indian Ocean in 1517 with the conquest of Egypt under Sultan Selim I. Although the Ottomans shared the same religion as the trading communities in the Indian Ocean the region was unexplored by them. Maps that included the Indian Ocean had been produced by Muslim geographers centuries before the Ottoman conquests; Muslim scholars, such as Ibn Battuta in the 14th Century, had visited most parts of the known world; contemporarily with Vasco da Gama, Arab navigator Ahmad ibn Mājid had compiled a guide to navigation in the Indian Ocean; the Ottomans, nevertheless, began their own parallel era of discovery which rivalled the European expansion.

The establishment of the Dutch East India Company in the early 17th century lead to a quick increase in the volume of the slave trade in the region; there were perhaps up to 500,000 slaves in various Dutch colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries in the Indian Ocean. For example, some 4000 African slaves were used to build the Colombo fortress in Dutch Ceylon. Bali and neighbouring islands supplied regional networks with c. 100,000–150,000 slaves 1620–1830. Indian and Chinese slave traders supplied Dutch Indonesia with perhaps 250,000 slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries.

The East India Company (EIC) was established during the same period and in 1622 one of its ships carried slaves from the Coromandel Coast to Dutch East Indies. The EIC mostly traded in African slaves but also some Asian slaves purchased from Indian, Indonesian and Chinese slave traders. The French established colonies on the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in 1721; by 1735 some 7,200 slaves populated the Mascarene Islands, a number which had reached 133,000 in 1807. The British captured the islands in 1810, however, and because the British had prohibited the slave trade in 1807 a system of clandestine slave trade developed to bring slaves to French planters on the islands; in all 336,000–388,000 slaves were exported to the Mascarene Islands from 1670 until 1848.

In all, European traders exported 567,900–733,200 slaves within the Indian Ocean between 1500 and 1850 and almost that same amount were exported from the Indian Ocean to the Americas during the same period. Slave trade in the Indian Ocean was, nevertheless, very limited compared to c. 12,000,000 slaves exported across the Atlantic.

Modern era:

Scientifically, the Indian Ocean remained poorly explored before the International Indian Ocean Expedition in the early 1960s. However, the Challenger expedition 1872–1876 only reported from south of the polar front. The Valdivia expedition 1898–1899 made deep samples in the Indian Ocean. In the 1930s, the John Murray Expedition mainly studied shallow-water habitats. The Swedish Deep Sea Expedition 1947–1948 also sampled the Indian Ocean on its global tour and the Danish Galathea sampled deep-water fauna from Sri Lanka to South Africa on its second expedition 1950–1952. The Soviet research vessel Vityaz also did research in the Indian Ocean.[1]The Suez Canal opened in 1869 when the Industrial Revolution dramatically changed global shipping – the sailing ship declined in importance as did the importance of European trade in favour of trade in East Asia and Australia.[86] The construction of the canal introduced many non-indigenous species into the Mediterranean. For example, the goldband goatfish (Upeneus moluccensis) has replaced the red mullet (Mullus barbatus); since the 1980s huge swarms of scyphozoan jellyfish (Rhopilema nomadica) have affected tourism and fisheries along the Levantian coast and clogged power and desalination plants. Plans announced in 2014 to build a new, much larger Suez Canal parallel to the 19th-century canal will most likely boost the economy in the region but also cause ecological damage in a much wider area.

Throughout the colonial era, islands such as Mauritius were important shipping nodes for the Dutch, French, and British. Mauritius, an inhabited island, became populated by slaves from Africa and indenture labour from India. The end of World War II marked the end of the colonial era. The British left Mauritius in 1974 and with 70% of the population of Indian descent, Mauritius became a close ally of India. In the 1980s, during the Cold War, the South African regime acted to destabilise several island nations in the Indian Ocean, including the Seychelles, Comoros, and Madagascar. India intervened in Mauritius to prevent a coup d’état, backed up by the United States who feared the Soviet Union could gain access to Port Louis and threaten the U.S. base on Diego Garcia.[88]Iranrud is an unrealised plan by Iran and the Soviet Union to build a canal between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf.Testimonies from the colonial era are stories of African slaves, Indian indentured labourers, and white settlers. But, while there was a clear racial line between free men and slaves in the Atlantic World, this delineation is less distinct in the Indian Ocean — there were Indian slaves and settlers as well as black indentured labourers. There were also a string of prison camps across the Indian Ocean, from Robben Island in South Africa to Cellular Jail in the Andamans, in which prisoners, exiles, POWs, forced labourers, merchants, and people of different faiths were forcefully united. On the islands of the Indian Ocean, therefore, a trend of creolisation emerged.

On 26 December 2004 fourteen countries around the Indian Ocean were hit by a wave of tsunamis caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The waves radiated across the ocean at speeds exceeding 500 km/h (310 mph), reached up to 20 m (66 ft) in height, and resulted in an estimated 236,000 deaths

In the late 2000s, the ocean evolved into a hub of pirate activity. By 2013, attacks off the Horn region’s coast had steadily declined due to active private security and international navy patrols, especially by the Indian Navy.

Malaysian Airlines Flight 370, a Boeing 777 airliner with 239 persons on board, disappeared on 8 March 2014 and is alleged to have crashed into the southern Indian Ocean about 2,500 km (1,600 mi) from the coast of southwest Western Australia. Despite an extensive search, the whereabouts of the remains of the aircraft is unknown.

The Sentinelese people of North Sentinel Island, which lies near South Andaman Island in the Bay of Bengal, have been called by experts the most isolated people in the world.

The sovereignty of the Chagos Archipelago in the Indian Ocean is disputed between the United Kingdom and Mauritius.[94] In February 2019, the International Court of Justice in The Hague issued an advisory opinion stating that the UK must transfer the Chagos Archipelago to Mauritius.

SOCIAL MEDIA

Seeing the popularity and power of Social Media Channels, businesses and marketers look for different types of Social Media networks that they can use to target and convert their audiences.General people are only aware of Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram sorts of social channels.

Social media will help you build up loyalty of your current customers to the point that they will willingly, and for free, tell others about you.

Over 88% of the companies are now marketing on Social Media.But for a marketer or any brand, many other types of Social Media channels are there to explore, as they play a significant role in targeting and converting prospects.

Different Types of Social Media Networks:

1. Social Networks: Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn:

Such types of Social Media are used to associate with individuals (and brands) on the web. They help your business via branding, social awareness, relationship building, customer service, lead generation, and conversion.You can channelize different types of Social Media campaigns on these networks that will help you widen your reach. Some of the benefits of these Social Marketing Networks are-(i) They encourage individuals and businesses to interact online and share data and thoughts for ensuring mutually productive relationships.

(ii) In case you are searching for the best ways to optimize current marketing campaigns then you will discover a variety of organic and paid ways to do this on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn sorts of social networks.

2. Media Sharing Networks: Instagram, Snapchat, YouTube:

Media sharing types of Social Media are used to find and share photographs, live video, video and other kinds of media on the web.They are also going to help you in brand building, lead generation, targeting and so on. They give individuals and brands a place to discover and share media so the target audiences can be targeted and converted into a convincing and result-driven way possible.Social networks nowadays also offer these features, however, for Media Sharing Networks, sharing of media is their basic role.(i) Starting with image or video on Instagram, YouTube and Snapchat types of media sharing networks would be more beneficial for you.(ii) To decide whether you should use these networks for your business or not, you should consider your resources and target audiences. These channels will help you run well-planned campaigns to generate leads and widen your audience base.

3. Discussion Forums: Reddit, Quora, Digg:

Such types of Social Media channels are used for finding, sharing and discussing different kinds of information, opinions, and news.They help businesses by being a top-notch resource for doing immaculate market research. These forums are the oldest ways of running Social Media Marketing campaigns.Before the entry of popular Social Media players like Facebook, these forums were the places where professionals, experts and enthusiasts used to do different kinds of discussions concerning a variety of fields.(i) These discussion forums have a massive number of users and it ensures unprecedented reach for your business. These are the places that provide the answers to different queries of any domain.(ii) In case your business needs deep customer research then these places would the most befitting one for your business.(iii) Along with sharing information and knowing answers, these places are very impactful in advertising as well.

4. Bookmarking & Content Curation Networks: Pinterest, Flipboard:

Opting for such types of Social Media will help you find out, share, discuss and save a variety of latest content and media that are trending as well.They are very helpful in channelizing brand awareness for your business, plus, choosing this one to run different types of Social Media Marketing campaigns will help you generate website traffic and customer engagement.In case you want to run some out of the box highly creative campaigns that can not only inform your audience and but also attract them then this one is the best fit.(i) To run a Social Media campaign on Pinterest, you need to have a site that is bookmark-friendly. You should optimize headlines and images for the feeds that Bookmarking and Content Curation Networks use for accessing and sharing your content.(ii) Flipboard lets you create your own Flipboard magazine by using most engaging content and then you can showcase that to your audiences.

5. Consumer Review Networks: Yelp, Zomato, TripAdvisor:

Using Customer Review networks will help you find out, share and review different information about a variety of products, services or brands.When a business has positive reviews on these networks, their claims turn more credible because reviews on these networks act as Social Proof.For running a successful Social Media Marketing Campaigns, it is very important for today’s businesses to have positive reviews on these sites.In addition, resolving all the issues that your customers are posting on these Review platforms is another thing that is going to be very important for the positive and productive outcomes for your business.(i) These networks offer a place to users for reviewing different kinds of products and services that they have used.(ii) Review content adds great value to any brand because it will influence more and the number of new buyers to attempt your services.(iii) Yelp and Zomato are the types of social media platforms that offer location-based review services that will help you run location-based social campaigns.

6. Blogging & Publishing Networks: WordPress, Tumblr, Medium:

You should choose these types of Social Media networks for publishing, discovering and commenting on articles, social media blogs and other content on the web.Content marketing is one of the most powerful ways to target, attract, engage and convert a target audience. It is going to be the base of successful online marketing campaigns that play the most important role in conversion funnels of Digital Marketing campaigns.WordPress and Blogger are the traditional blogging platforms while Tumblr (micro-blogging service) and Medium (Social Publishing Platform) is the latest blogging and publishing networks.(i) These networks are must for the businesses that want to effectively use Content Marketing, plus, you can share this content on a variety of Social Networks like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc.(ii) Content that you use on these networks will also help you create a niche for your business and audiences who are in search of information concerning that niche will for sure visit your blog or site.

7. Social Shopping Networks: Polyvore, Etsy, Fancy:

Want to find out all the latest trends in the marketing or crave to know the shopping tips then such types of Social Media channels are for you.In addition, they help you follow different brands, share interesting things and make a purchase on these Social Shopping networks.Businesses can use such types of Social Media Platforms for creating brand awareness, boosting engagement and selling products on some new and effective platforms. These channels transform e-commerce by making them more engaging via some interesting social elements.(i) To use these networks effectively you should create a site that integrates shopping experience with social experience.(ii) These networks are very result-driven for small businesses and startups as they can sell their products without any land-based office or store.

8. Interest-Based Networks: Goodreads, Houzz, Last.fm:

You can use such types of Social Media networks for connecting with other people who have the same sorts of hobbies or interests.You can easily find the audiences who are interested in knowing more and more about the kinds of products and services that you offer.This makes it one of the best networks for engaging with your audience and creating exclusive brand awareness online. Compared to big social networks, using Interest-based networks would help you run a more targeted campaign.(i) Choosing these networks will help you focus solely on a single product or service related to any particular subject, for instance, home décor, Digital Marketing Training, Music, Books, etc.(ii) These networks are the best places to engage with the audiences of a particular niche.

A Popular Spanish Series Money Heist Season 5 Streaming On Netflix from today

Netflix’s popular thriller series Money Heist is coming back! It is entering its fifth and final season. The Spanish TV series will be split into two volumes of five episodes each. Created by Alex Pina and produced by Vancouver Media, the show, titled “La Casa De Papel” in Spanish, wrapped production on its last chapter on May 14. In the final season, the gang has been shut in the Bank of Spain for over 100 hours. They have managed to rescue Lisbon, played by Itziar Ituno, but their darkest moment is upon them after losing one of their own. “The Professor (Alvaro Morte) has been captured by Sierra (Najwa Nimri) and, for the first time, doesn’t have an escape plan. Just when it seems like nothing else could go wrong, an enemy comes on the scene that is much more powerful than any they’ve faced: the army. The end of the greatest heist in history is approaching, and what began as a robbery will turn into a war,” reads the official logline of the last chapter. The global hit took fans back inside the Bank of Spain where the gang is facing its biggest enemy to date – the army.

            The most-awaited season of the engaging and thrilling series Money Heist is here to blow your mind. The series is filled with action, is completely unpredictable, that will keep you glued to the seat. The finale season of Netflix is going to be highly heavy-duty and exploding.

          The fifth season of the popular series  Money Heist is all set to release. While fans are super excited for the same, one question that is on everyone’s mind is if the new season will have the tragic death of their beloved character – the Professor.

            While several fan theories have predicted that the Professor could meet his end in the very first episode of the new season, one must also notice the hints regarding the fate of the professor in the trailer. In the season 5 trailer, Professor says, “It’s possible this is the last time I speak to you.” The trailer also presents how Alicia Sierra has tied him up in chains. In another scene, she throws him from an elevated height.

              Money Heist will drop heavy grenade this season as the makers promise a loaded show with more twists, a gripping storyline and a tale of complex human emotions offering an engaging ride. The new faces will surely add more weight to show giving it more dimension. It is by far safe to say that the season will explode your mind with its adventurous content. The series is split into two halves by Netflix. It has a total of ten episodes in Season 5. 

                     Money Heist season 5 “Volume 1” will be available at 12:30pm IST on September 3. Volume 2 will release at 1:30pm IST on December 3. There are 10 episodes in total in Money Heist season 5. The five-episode Volume 1 will be available September 3. Money Heist season 5 volume 2 release date is December 3.

5 Incredible Beaches to Visit in Kerala

Kerala: 

Kerala, a state on India’s tropical Malabar Coast, has nearly 600km of Arabian Sea shoreline. It’s known for its palm-lined beaches and backwaters, a network of canals. Inland are the Western Ghats, mountains whose slopes support tea, coffee and spice plantations as well as wildlife.

Looking for a beach vacay? What better than sun, sand, shade, surf and truck loads of fun in the beaches, right? Well, if you are looking for just all that we have mentioned, then head to Kerala on your next trip Called as the “God’s own country”, Kerala has an abundance of breathtaking beaches that are perfect for your next fun getaway with family.

1.Poovar Beach:

Poovar is a natural wonder where lake, river and sea meet the land. Poovar beach near the Kovalam beach separates the river Neyyar from the sea. This beautiful beach is a favourite spot for those who prefer solitude and serenity. Its beauty will calm your heart and soul instantly.

2.Cherai Beach:

Located on Vypeen Island, which can be reached from Kochi by ferry and then a bus or auto rickshaw ride through the villages and paddy fields Cherai beach is isolated. A substantial portion of the main beach was recently beautified, which included the addition of a new walkway. One of the remarkable sights there is beach and lagoon so close together. In fact, it is the longest beach in Kochi. This shallow, calm 10-km long beach is called the “The Princess of Arabian Sea”. Interestingly, the beach is located near to Kochi International Airport which makes it easily accessible too.

3.Bekal Beach:

Next one in the list is Bekal beach in Kerala. It lies in Kasaragod district. The virgin beauty of Bekal beach is an ideal place for some quiet and relaxing time. The centuries old fort in the beach, Bekkal Fort, facing the Arabian sea, is worth exploring too.

4.Kovalam Beach:

Many of you would have already heard about Kovalam beach in Kerala. Just as Goa’s popular Calangute and Baga beaches, Kovalam is a much preferred beach in Kerala which is located not far from the capital, Trivandrum. It’s actually made up of two main coves Hawa (also referred to as Eve’s Beach) and Lighthouse Beach. Lighthouse is the biggest and busiest of the two, with its promenade lined with open-air restaurants.

5.Varkala Beach:

A quiet and an isolated sandy beach, Varkala beach is less crowded than another popular beach – Kovalam, and offers breathtaking views. The striking beach lies at the bottom of a long stretch of cliff that’s bordered by beach shacks and shops. You can stay right on the cliff, overlooking the ocean, or set back from it.

Depression

-Aastha Joshi



Depression is classified as a mood disorder. It may be described as feelings of sadness, loss, or anger that interfere with a person’s everyday activities. People experience depression in different ways. It may interfere with your daily work, resulting in lost time and lower productivity. It can also influence relationships and some chronic health conditions. feeling down at times is a normal part of life. Sad and upsetting events happen to everyone. But, if you’re feeling down or hopeless on a regular basis, you could be dealing with depression. Depression is considered a serious medical condition that can get worse without proper treatment. There are a lot of stigma about mental health and depression. There are various symptoms of depression example anger, aggressiveness, irritability, anxiousness, restlessness, feeling empty, sad, hopeless, loss of interest, no longer finding pleasure in favourite activities, feeling tired easily, thoughts of suicide, drinking excessively, using drugs, engaging in high-risk activities, reduced sexual desire, lack of sexual performance. Physical symptoms like fatigue, pains, headache, digestive problems, insomnia, restless sleep, excessive sleepiness, not sleeping through the night. Depression can be faced in any phase and any age of life. Depression can be caused by a lot of reasons like Family history, if you one have a family history of depression or another mood disorder they are prone to depression Early childhood trauma, Brain structure, there’s a greater risk for depression if the frontal lobe of your brain is less active. Medical conditions like chronic illness, insomnia, chronic pain, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder can also lead to depression. A history of drug or alcohol misuse can trigger depression. About 21 percent of people who have a substance use problem also experience depression. low self-esteem or being self-critical and stressful events, such as loss of a loved one, economic problems, or a divorce can also make a person fall for depression. weight gain or loss, physical pain and panic attacks are evidently visible in a person suffering from depression. There are many types of depression. Major depressive disorder is the more severe form of depression. It’s characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness that don’t go away on their own. Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) used to be called dysthymia. It’s a milder, but chronic, form of depression. Some ways to treatand cure depression is medical treatment, therapy, exercise, avoid the use of alcohol or drugs, meditation.

BHAGAVAD GITA

The Shrimad Bhagavad Gita (/ˌbʌɡəvəd ˈɡiːtɑː, -tə/; Sanskrit: श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता, lit. ’The Song by God’;[a] IAST: bhagavadgītā),[1] often referred to as the Gita (IAST: gītā), is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of Bhishma Parva), dated to the second half of the first millennium BCE and exemplary for the emerging Hindu synthesis. It is considered to be one of the holy scriptures for Hinduism.

Information

Religion Hinduism

Author Traditionally attributed to Vyasa

Language Sanskrit

Period 1st-millennium BCE

Chapters 18

Sutras Yoga Sutras

Verses 700 (approx.)

The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna, an avatar of Lord Vishnu. At the start of the Dharma Yuddha (righteous war) between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is filled with moral dilemma and despair about the violence and death the war will cause in the battle against his own kin.He wonders if he should renounce and seeks Krishna’s counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute the Bhagavad Gita. Krishna counsels Arjuna to “fulfill his Kshatriya (warrior) duty to uphold the Dharma” through “selfless action”.The Krishna–Arjuna dialogues cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces.

CONTENT

Structure

The Bhagavad Gita is a poem written in the Sanskrit language.Its 700 verses are structured into several ancient Indian poetic meters, with the principal being the shloka (Anushtubh chanda). It has 18 chapters in total. Each shloka consists of a couplet, thus the entire text consists of 1,400 lines. Each shloka line has two quarter verses with exactly eight syllables. Each of these quarters is further arranged into “two metrical feet of four syllables each”, state Flood and Martin.The metered verse does not rhyme.While the shloka is the principal meter in the Gita, it does deploy other elements of Sanskrit prosody.At dramatic moments, it uses the tristubh meter found in the Vedas, where each line of the couplet has two quarter verses with exactly eleven syllables.

Narrative

The Gita is a dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna right before the start of the climactic Kurukshetra War in the Hindu epic Mahabharata.Two massive armies have gathered to destroy the other. The Pandava prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna to drive to the center of the battlefield so that he can get a good look at both the armies and all those “so eager for war”.He sees that some among his enemies are his own relatives, beloved friends, and revered teachers. He does not want to fight to kill them and is thus filled with doubt and despair on the battlefield.He drops his bow, wonders if he should renounce and just leave the battlefield.He turns to his charioteer and guide Krishna, for advice on the rationale for war, his choices and the right thing to do. The Bhagavad Gita is the compilation of Arjuna’s questions and moral dilemma, Krishna’s answers and insights that elaborate on a variety of philosophical concepts. The compiled dialogue goes far beyond the “a rationale for war”; it touches on many human ethical dilemmas, philosophical issues and life’s choices.According to Flood and Martin, although the Gita is set in the context of a war epic, the narrative is structured to apply to all situations; it wrestles with questions about “who we are, how we should live our lives, and how should we act in the world”.According to Sargeant, it delves into questions about the “purpose of life, crisis of self-identity, human Self, human temperaments, and ways for spiritual quest”.

Characters

The thematic story of Arjuna and Krishna at the Kurukshetra War became popular in southeast Asia as Hinduism spread there in the 1st-millennium CE.Above, an Arjuna-Krishna chariot scene in Jakarta center, Indonesia.

* Arjuna, one of the five Pandavas
* Krishna, Arjuna’s charioteer and guru who was actually an incarnation of Vishnu
* Sanjaya, counselor of the Kuru king Dhritarashtra (secondary narrator)
* Dhritarashtra, Kuru king (Sanjaya’s audience) and father of the Kauravas

Chapters

Bhagavad Gita comprises 18 chapters (section 23 to 40)in the Bhishma Parva of the epic Mahabharata. Because of differences in recensions, the verses of the Gita may be numbered in the full text of the Mahabharata as chapters 6.25–42 or as chapters 6.23–40. The number of verses in each chapter vary in some manuscripts of the Gita discovered on the Indian subcontinent. However, variant readings are relatively few in contrast to the numerous versions of the Mahabharata it is found embedded in, and the meaning is the same.

The original Bhagavad Gita has no chapter titles. Some Sanskrit editions that separate the Gita from the epic as an independent text, as well as translators, however, add chapter titles such as each chapter being a particular form of yoga.For example, Swami Chidbhavananda describes each of the eighteen chapters as a separate yoga because each chapter, like yoga, “trains the body and the mind”. He labels the first chapter “Arjuna Vishada Yogam” or the “Yoga of Arjuna’s Dejection”. Sir Edwin Arnold titled this chapter in his 1885 translation as “The Distress of Arjuna”.

Chapter 1 (46 verses)

Some translators have variously titled the first chapter as Arjuna vishada yoga, Prathama Adhyaya, The Distress of Arjuna, The War Within, or Arjuna’s Sorrow.The Bhagavad Gita is opened by setting the stage of the Kurukshetra battlefield. Two massive armies representing different loyalties and ideologies face a catastrophic war. With Arjuna is Krishna, not as a participant in the war, but only as his charioteer and counsel. Arjuna requests Krishna to move the chariot between the two armies so he can see those “eager for this war”. He sees family and friends on the enemy side. Arjuna is distressed and in sorrow.The issue is, states Arvind Sharma, “is it morally proper to kill?” This and other moral dilemmas in the first chapter are set in a context where the Hindu epic and Krishna have already extolled ahimsa (non-violence) to be the highest and divine virtue of a human being.The war feels evil to Arjuna and he questions the morality of war. He wonders if it is noble to renounce and leave before the violence starts, or should he fight, and why.

Chapter 2 (72 verses)

Some translators title the chapter as Sankhya Yoga, The Book of Doctrines, Self-Realization, or The Yoga of Knowledge (and Philosophy).[The second chapter begins the philosophical discussions and teachings found in Gita. The warrior Arjuna whose past had focused on learning the skills of his profession now faces a war he has doubts about. Filled with introspection and questions about the meaning and purpose of life, he asks Krishna about the nature of life, Self, death, afterlife and whether there is a deeper meaning and reality. Krishna answers. The chapter summarizes the Hindu idea of rebirth, samsara, eternal Self in each person (Self), universal Self present in everyone, various types of yoga, divinity within, the nature of Self-knowledge and other concepts.The ideas and concepts in the second chapter reflect the framework of the Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy. This chapter is an overview for the remaining sixteen chapters of the Bhagavad Gita. Mahatma Gandhi memorized the last 19 verses of the second chapter, considering them as his companion in his non-violent movement for social justice during the colonial rule.

Chapter 3 (43 verses)


Some translators title the chapter as Karma yoga, Virtue in Work, Selfless Service, or The Yoga of Action.Arjuna, after listening to Krishna’s spiritual teachings in Chapter 2, gets more confounded and returns to the predicament he faces. He wonders if fighting the war is “not so important after all” given Krishna’s overview on the pursuit of spiritual wisdom. Krishna replies that there is no way to avoid action (karma), since abstention from work is also an action. Krishna states that Arjuna has an obligation to understand and perform his duty (dharma), because everything is connected by the law of cause and effect. Every man or woman is bound by activity. Those who act selfishly create the karmic cause and are thereby bound to the effect which may be good or bad.Those who act selflessly for the right cause and strive to do their dharmic duty do God’s work.Those who act without craving for fruits are free from the karmic effects, because the results never motivated them. Whatever the result, it does not affect them. Their happiness comes from within, and the external world does not bother them. According to Flood and Martin, chapter 3 and onwards develops “a theological response to Arjuna’s dilemma”.

Chapter 4 (42 verses)


Some translators title the fourth chapter as Jñāna–Karma-Sanyasa yoga, The Religion of Knowledge, Wisdom in Action, or The Yoga of Renunciation of Action through Knowledge.Krishna reveals that he has taught this yoga to the Vedic sages. Arjuna questions how Krishna could do this, when those sages lived so long ago, and Krishna was born more recently. Krishna reminds him that everyone is in the cycle of rebirths, and while Arjuna does not remember his previous births, he does. Whenever dharma declines and the purpose of life is forgotten by men, says Krishna, he returns to re-establish dharma.Every time he returns, he teaches about inner Self in all beings. The later verses of the chapter return to the discussion of motiveless action and the need to determine the right action, performing it as one’s dharma (duty) while renouncing the results, rewards, fruits. The simultaneous outer action with inner renunciation, states Krishna, is the secret to the life of freedom. Action leads to knowledge, while selfless action leads to spiritual awareness, state the last verses of this chapter.The 4th chapter is the first time where Krishna begins to reveal his divine nature to Arjuna.

Chapter 5 (29 verses)


Some translators title this chapter as Karma–Sanyasa yoga, Religion by Renouncing Fruits of Works, Renounce and Rejoice, or The Yoga of Renunciation. The chapter starts by presenting the tension in the Indian tradition between the life of sannyasa (monks who have renounced their household and worldly attachments) and the life of grihastha (householder). Arjuna asks Krishna which path is better. Krishna answers that both are paths to the same goal, but the path of “selfless action and service” with inner renunciation is better. The different paths, says Krishna, aim for—and if properly pursued, lead to—Self-knowledge. This knowledge leads to the universal, transcendent Godhead, the divine essence in all beings, to Brahman – the Krishna himself. The final verses of the chapter state that the self-aware who have reached self-realization live without fear, anger, or desire. They are free within, always. Chapter 5 shows signs of interpolations and internal contradictions. For example, states Arthur Basham, verses 5.23–28 state that a sage’s spiritual goal is to realize the impersonal Brahman, yet the next verse 5.29 states that the goal is to realize the personal God who is Krishna.

Chapter 6 (47 verses)

Some translators title the sixth chapter as Dhyana yoga, Religion by Self-Restraint, The Practice of Meditation, or The Yoga of Meditation.The chapter opens as a continuation of Krishna’s teachings about selfless work and the personality of someone who has renounced the fruits that are found in chapter 5. Krishna says that such self-realized people are impartial to friends and enemies, are beyond good and evil, equally disposed to those who support them or oppose them because they have reached the summit of consciousness. The verses 6.10 and after proceed to summarize the principles of Yoga and meditation in the format similar to but simpler than Patanjali’s Yogasutra. It discusses who is a true yogi, and what it takes to reach the state where one harbors no malice towards anyone.

Chapter 7 (30 verses)

Some translators title this chapter as Jnana–Vijnana yoga, Religion by Discernment, Wisdom from Realization, or The Yoga of Knowledge and Judgment. The chapter 7 once again opens with Krishna continuing his discourse. He discusses jnana (knowledge) and vijnana (realization, understanding) using the Prakriti-Purusha (matter-Self) framework of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, and the Maya-Brahman framework of its Vedanta school. The chapter states that evil is the consequence of ignorance and the attachment to the impermanent, delusive Maya. It equates self-knowledge and the union with Purusha (Krishna) as the Self to be the highest goal of any spiritual pursuit.

Chapter 8 (28 verses)

Some translators title the chapter as Aksara–Brahma yoga, Religion by Devotion to the One Supreme God, The Eternal Godhead, or The Yoga of the Imperishable Brahman. The chapter opens with Arjuna asking questions such as what is Brahman and what is the nature of karma. Krishna states that his own highest nature is the imperishable Brahman, and that he lives in every creature as the adhyatman. Every being has an impermanent body and an eternal Self, and that “Krishna as Lord” lives within every creature. The chapter discusses cosmology, the nature of death and rebirth.This chapter contains eschatology of the Bhagavad Gita. Importance of the last thought before death, differences between material and spiritual worlds, and light and dark paths that a Self takes after death are described

Chapter 9 (34 verses)

Some translators title the ninth chapter as Raja–Vidya–Raja–Guhya yoga, Religion by the Kingly Knowledge and the Kingly Mystery, The Royal Path, or The Yoga of Sovereign Science and Sovereign Secret. Chapter 9 opens with Krishna continuing his discourse as Arjuna listens. Krishna states that he is everywhere and in everything in an unmanifested form, yet he is not in any way limited by them. Eons end, everything dissolves and then he recreates another eon subjecting them to the laws of Prakriti (nature).He equates himself to being the father and the mother of the universe, to being the Om, to the three Vedas, to the seed, the goal of life, the refuge and abode of all. The chapter recommends devotional worship of Krishna.According to theologian Christopher Southgate, verses of this chapter of the Gita are panentheistic,while German physicist and philos opher Max Bernhard Weinstein deems the work pandeistic. It may, in fact, be neither of them, and its contents may have no definition with previously-developed Western terms.

Chapter 10 (42 verses)

Some translators title the chapter as Vibhuti–Vistara–yoga, Religion by the Heavenly Perfections, Divine Splendor, or The Yoga of Divine Manifestations. Krishna reveals his divine being in greater detail, as the ultimate cause of all material and spiritual existence, one who transcends all opposites and who is beyond any duality. Krishna says he is the atman in all beings, Arjuna’s innermost Self, also compassionate Vishnu, the Surya (sun god), Indra, Shiva-Rudra, Ananta, Yama, as well as the Om, Vedic sages, time, Gayatri mantra, and the science of Self-knowledge. Arjuna accepts Krishna as the purushottama (Supreme Being).

Chapter 11 (55 verses)

Main article: Vishvarupa
Some translators title the chapter as Vishvarupa–Darshana yoga, The Manifesting of the One and Manifold, The Cosmic Vision, or The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form. On Arjuna’s request, Krishna displays his “universal form” (Viśvarūpa).This is an idea found in the Rigveda and many later Hindu texts, where it is a symbolism for atman (Self) and Brahman (Absolute Reality) eternally pervading all beings and all existence. Chapter 11, states Eknath Eswaran, describes Arjuna entering first into savikalpa samadhi (a particular), and then nirvikalpa samadhi (a universal) as he gets an understanding of Krishna. A part of the verse from this chapter was recited by Robert Oppenheimer as he witnessed the first atomic bomb explosion.

Chapter 12 (20 verses)

Some translators title the chapter as Bhakti yoga, The Religion of Faith, The Way of Love, or The Yoga of Devotion.In this chapter, Krishna glorifies the path of love and devotion to God. Krishna describes the process of devotional service (Bhakti yoga). This chapter of the Gita, states Easwaran, offers a “vastly easier” path to most human beings to identify and love God in an anthropomorphic representation, in any form. He can be projected as “a merciful father, a divine mother, a wise friend, a passionate beloved, or even a mischievous child”, according to Easwaran. The text states that combining “action with inner renunciation” with the love of Krishna as a personal God leads to peace. In the last eight verses of this chapter, Krishna states that he loves those who have compassion for all living beings, are content with whatever comes their way, who live a detached life that is impartial and selfless, unaffected by fleeting pleasure or pain, neither craving for praise nor depressed by criticism.

Chapter 13 (34 verses)

Sanskrit, Kannada script (Karnataka)
Bhagavad Gita and related commentary literature exists in numerous Indian languages.


Some translators title this chapter as Ksetra–Ksetrajna Vibhaga yoga, Religion by Separation of Matter and Spirit, The Field and the Knower, or The Yoga of Difference between the Field and Field-Knower.The chapter opens with Krishna continuing his discourse from the previous chapter. He describes the difference between transient perishable physical body (kshetra) and the immutable eternal Self (kshetrajna). The presentation explains the difference between ahamkara (ego) and atman (Self), from there between individual consciousness and universal consciousness. The knowledge of one’s true self is linked to the realization of the Self. The 13th chapter of the Gita offers the clearest enunciation of the Samkhya philosophy, states Basham, by explaining the difference between field (material world) and the knower (Self), prakriti and purusha.According to Miller, this is the chapter which “redefines the battlefield as the human body, the material realm in which one struggles to know oneself” where human dilemmas are presented as a “symbolic field of interior warfare”.

Chapter 14 (27 verses)

Some translators title the fourteenth chapter as Gunatraya–Vibhaga yoga, Religion by Separation from the Qualities, The Forces of Evolution, or The Yoga of the Division of Three Gunas.The chapter once again opens with Krishna continuing his discourse from the previous chapter. Krishna explains the difference between purusha and prakriti, by mapping human experiences to three Guṇas (tendencies, qualities).These are listed as sattva, rajas and tamas. All phenomena and individual personalities are a combination of all three gunas in varying and ever-changing proportions. The gunas affect the ego, but not the Self, according to the text.This chapter also relies on the Samkhya theories.

Chapter 15 (20 verses)

Some translators title the chapter as Purushottama yoga, Religion by Attaining the Supreme Krishna, The Supreme Self, or The Yoga of the Supreme Purusha.The fifteenth chapter expounds on Krishna theology, in the Vaishnava Bhakti tradition of Hinduism. Krishna discusses the nature of God, according to Easwaran, wherein Krishna not only transcends impermanent body (matter), he also transcends the atman (Self) in every being.According to Franklin Edgerton, the verses in this chapter in association with select verses in other chapters make the metaphysics of the Gita to be dualistic. Its overall thesis is, states Edgerton, more complex however, because other verses teach the Upanishadic doctrines and “through its God the Gita seems after all to arrive at an ultimate monism; the essential part, the fundamental element, in every thing, is after all One — is God.”

Chapter 16 (24 verses)

Some translators title the chapter as Daivasura–Sampad–Vibhaga yoga, The Separateness of the Divine and Undivine, Two Paths, or The Yoga of the Division between the Divine and the Demonic.According to Easwaran, this is an unusual chapter where two types of human nature are expounded, one leading to happiness and the other to suffering. Krishna identifies these human traits to be divine and demonic respectively. He states that truthfulness, self-restraint, sincerity, love for others, desire to serve others, being detached, avoiding anger, avoiding harm to all living creatures, fairness, compassion and patience are marks of the divine nature. The opposite of these are demonic, such as cruelty, conceit, hypocrisy and being inhumane, states Krishna.Some of the verses in Chapter 16 may be polemics directed against competing Indian religions, according to Basham The competing tradition may be the materialists (Charvaka), states Fowler.

Chapter 17 (28 verses)

Some translators title the chapter as Shraddhatraya-Vibhaga yoga, Religion by the Threefold Kinds of Faith, The Power of Faith, or The Yoga of the Threefold Faith. Krishna qualifies the three divisions of faith, thoughts, deeds, and even eating habits corresponding to the three modes (gunas)

Chapter 18 (78 verses)

Some translators title the chapter as Moksha–Sanyasa yoga, Religion by Deliverance and Renunciation, Freedom and Renunciation, or The Yoga of Liberation and Renunciation.In the final and long chapter, the Gita offers a final summary of its teachings in the previous chapters.It covers many topics, states Easwaran.It begins with discussion of spiritual pursuits through sannyasa (renunciation, monastic life) and spiritual pursuits while living in the world as a householder. It re-emphasizes the karma-phala-tyaga teaching, or “act while renouncing the fruits of your action”

History of Indian Stamps

India got independence on 15th August of 1947 assured in a new era in the history of the country but philatelist had to wait another 98 days for the release of India’s most commemorate stamp on 21st of November 1947.

First stamp

The Postal Telegraph Department however came out with a large Kashi postmarked with the slogan “Jai hind” for the occasion and letters mailed that the major post offices of the country were cancelled with this post mark.

The India’s first commemorative stamp features the Lion capital of Ashoka which had one set on the top of a column of Sarnath near Varanasi. The lion capital has since been around at the state emblem of India the denomination of the stamp was one and a half annas and an inspiration of “Jai hind” in Hindi was also depicted in the stamps.

Other stamps

Actually three stamps were planned to release at the time of Independence. The rest two stamps were released in the 15th of December 1947 with the three and a half annas stamp with portray of the national flag in tricolor Saffron on the top, white in the middle and green in the bottom.

The twelve annas stamp depicts an aircraft a symbol of the modern age. These stamps also have inscription “Jai hind” in hindi, they are also known are Jai Hind stamps.

The stamps were printed offset lithography. As the three and a half annas stamp was printed in three colors in three steps because difference in inking at different stages, because specimens having the top of the flag in deep orange or pale orange and the lower part in pale green and deep green were coming across.

What is Magic Realism?

Magical realism portrays fantastical events in an otherwise realistic tone. It brings fables, folk tales, and myths into contemporary social relevance. It is a Latin-American narrative strategy that is the inclusion of mythical elements into realistic fiction.

The term Magical Realism was introduced by Franz Roh, a German art critic. He is said to be the father of the term as he coined it.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MAGICAL REALISM

  • Real-world setting.
  • Fantasy element.
  • Metafiction.
  • Shifting POVs.
  • Political critique.
  • Authorial reticence.

Magical realism is all about mixing fantasy with mundane life.

BOOKS WITH MAGICAL REALISM

MIDNIGHT’S CHILDREN BY SALMAN RUSHDIE

Midnight’s Children is a historical fiction novel which deals with magic realism. Saleem Sinai was born at midnight, the midnight of India’s independence, and found himself mysteriously “handcuffed to history” by the coincidence. He is one of 1,001 children born at the midnight hour, each of them endowed with an extraordinary talent and whose privilege and curse it is to be both master and victims of their times.

Rushdie fuses magic and reality in this book. BUT NOW

ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF SOLITUDE BY GABRIEL GARCIA MARQUEZ

One Hundred Years of Solitude tells the multi-generational story of the Buendía family, whose patriarch, José Arcadio Buendía, founded the town of Macondo. The novel is often cited as one of the supreme achievements in literature. Magic realism is the mystical village of Macondo. BUY NOW

THE HOUSE OF THE SPIRITS BY ISABEL ALLENDE

Class struggle is the major theme in The House of the Spirits. It supports the view of peasants. One of the most important novels of the twentieth century, it is an enthralling epic that spans decades and lives, weaving the personal and the political into a universal story of love, magic, and fate.

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KAFKA ON THE SHORE BY MURAKAMI

Kafka on the Shore is powered by a teenage boy,  Kafka who runs away from home. The theme here is deeply concerned with the nature consciousness.

Memories warm you up from the inside. But they also tear you apart.

– Murakami

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LOVE IN THE TIME OF CHOLERA BY GABRIEL GARCIA MARQUEZ

In Love in the Time of Cholera, for example, Fermina might sense the flesh and blood presence of her dead husband – and then go about her day. This is magical realism, it fuses along with everyday lives.

“The only regret I will have in dying is if it is not for love.” BUY NOW

THE NIGHT CIRCUS BY ERIN MORGENSTERN

The Night Circus is a terrific example of magical realism. The story takes place in an ahistorical Victorian London and follows the lives of two young magical proteges. These magicians can perform actual magic and not just feats of illusion.

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Magical realism authors deliberately leave magic realism unexplained to normalize and reinforce that it is part of everyday life. Critique. Authors often use magical realism to offer a tacit judgment of society, most notably politics and the society.

A most common question is, is Harry Potter a magical realism novel? The Harry Potter novels comprise elements of magical realism although is not commonly called a creation of the magic realism genre.

Thank you!

Reasons To Ban Books

Banned books are a printed work, essay, poem, novel, or novella prohibited by law. A form of censorship occurs when private individuals, government officials, or organizations remove books from libraries, school reading lists, or bookstore shelves because they object to their content, ideas, or themes.

WHY BOOKS GET BANNED?

There are various reasons for banning a book however the most common are racial issues, encouraging racism, violence and damaging lifestyle.Books with content that include violence are often banned or censored. Some books have also been deemed too negative or depressing and have been banned or censored as well.

In some cases children’s books are viewed to have “inappropriate” themes for the age level at which they are written for. Many books that have been banned or censored later were dropped from banned books lists and were no longer considered controversial. 

WHO DECIDES TO BAN BOOKS?

The process of banning a book begins with the individual who is issuing the challenge. Once a challenge is made, the institution in question can either ban the book from the premises, or deny the challenge. Bans are done on an institutional basis, which means if a book is banned in one library, it is not banned in all others

BANNED BOOKS AND REASONS

TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD BY HARPER LEE

To kill a mockingbird was banned and challenged for racial slurs. It’s perception on the colored experience, featuring a white survivor, it had negative effects on students. The major conflict is it exposes the evil side of human nature.

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OF MICE AND MEN BY JOHN STEINBECK

Of Mice and Men usually is on the banned list put out by American Library Association. It has been banned because of the vulgarity, and its treatment of women. Even in the twenty-first century, the book is still being challenged. Challenges include profanity, morbid and saddening themes.

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THE BLUEST EYE BY TONI MORRISON

The reason is cited as sexually explicit material. Not just that, complained as a bad book, it was said to have graphic descriptions and lots of disturbing languages. It depicts child sexual abuse.

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THIRTEEN REASONS WHY BY JAY ASHER

Ah! This book is really disturbing. It was adapted as a Netflix series and many viewers claim that the series based on the novel glamorizes teen suicide. The relationship between counsellors and students, adults and teens have been portrayed unrealistically. Yet the book is a bestseller.

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Few schools and libraries have banned The Hunger Games for being anti-ethnic, offensive language, and violent. In 2014, the novel was also banned for reasons of inserted religious perspective.

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HARRY POTTER BY J.K ROWLING

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Harry Potter!? I was shocked to know it was banned. Few Christian schools banned it deals with witchcraft and satanic. Apart from that, Harry is a terrible student, he often skips classes and it creates a bad example. More detailed reasons for Harry Potter is banned in few countries.

But it’s a fantasy novel! The whole Hogwarts is imaginary. There are few reasons for banned books that makes absolutely no sense. A book banned in a place might not be banned in another. It is not illegal if it’s not banned in your country. Few books are out of the banned list, whereas the others are still in the list.

Thank you for reading!

ENVIRONMENT STUDIES

Environment studies is all about learning the way we should live and how we can develop sustainable strategies to protect the environment. It helps individuals to develop an understanding of living and physical environment and how to resolve challenging environmental issues affecting nature. In addition to studying the physical aspects of the environment, it also emphasizes the need to conserve biodiversity and adopt a more sustainable lifestyle and utilize resources in a responsible way. To create awareness among today’s generation on pressing environmental problems, the University Grants Commission (UGC) has made it mandatory for the universities to introduce a course in environmental studies and teach students about the eco-system, pollution and problems concerned with the environment. Let us discuss the dire need to include environmental studies in the course curriculum.

Learn how to use resources sustainably: With natural resources such as air, water, oil, minerals are getting depleted rapidly, the environmental studies course can help students understand the importance of these resources and how we can improve the situation by taking appropriate actions in our regular lives to preserve these resources.

Create awareness about preserving the environment: Whether it is spreading awareness against plastic use or air pollution, universities can conduct various beyond-the-classroom activities as a part of this course to make students understand the significance of protecting the environment. Activities such as conducting awareness programs and rallies can prevent the degradation of the environment.

Participate in the mass movement to protect nature: While pursuing a course in environmental studies, students can be a part of mass public awareness movements and encourage their fellow batchmates to participate. Whether it is taking an initiative by planting trees in the campus, conducting workshops on various pressing issues or joining an NGO that supports environmental conservation, students can learn about various ways of protecting and conserving the environment.

Foster a healthy learning environment:Such important non-academic courses empower students to take a lead in creating a healthier, greener and sustainable learning environment where students understand the importance of saving the environment and take necessary steps to conserve the natural resources. Environment studies also help them develop the knowledge and skills required to address challenging environmental issues.

Pursue a full-time career in environment studies: Career opportunities in environmental studies are thriving with multiple options in the energy industry, animal conservation and more. You can prepare yourself for a fulfilling career that will include everything from conducting research, protecting the environment, crunching statistics, analyzing data, working in the field, interviewing people about disaster management and drafting policies with lawmakers to conserve the planet.To sum up the importance of introducing environment studies in course curriculum, the objectives are mainly to help students realize the significance of natural resources and learn to develop solutions to pressing environmental problems. The aim should be developing a world where every individual is aware of and concerned about environmental issues and work towards creating sustainable strategies for the current situation and preventing future problems.

Petroleum Jelly is harmful to skin

You probably have a jar of Vaseline somewhere in your house. Millions of people swear by it as a remedy for clapped lips, congestions, diaper rash and dry skin. Unfortunately the popular product is more harmful than many realise.

What is Petroleum Jelly?

Petroleum jelly, commonly known by the brand name Vaseline, is a byproduct of the oil refining process. It was originally found coating the bottom of oil rigs in the mid 1800s. As a byproduct of the oil industry, it’s an unsustainable resource and far from eco-friendly.

How does it work?

Used in everything from lotions to baby products, petroleum jelly works by creating a protective barrier on the skin to hold in moisture. The waterproof barrier it created on the skin blocks pores and can lock in residue and bacteria.

When used on a burn or a sunburn area, it locks in heat and can block the body’s ability to heal. You need to stop using Vaseline for these four reasons:

  1. It contains harmful Hydrocarbon. The skin is unable to metabolize petroleum jelly, so it sits as a barrier on the skin untill it wears off. This blocks the body from gaining any benefit from the substance. A 2011 study found strong evidence that the mineral oil hydrocarbon Vaseline contains are “the greatest contaminant of the human body”
  2. It Promotes Collagen Breakdown. Due to the barrier that petroleum jelly creates on skin, it blocks the skin ability to breathe and absorb nutrients. This can cause the skin to pull the moisture and nutrients it needs from within, leading to collagen breakdown.
  3. It can leads to Estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance occurs when the body has high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It has linked to infertility, menstrual problems, allergies and autoimmune problems. Petroleum jelly contains chemicals called xenoestrogens which are believed to increase estrogen problems.
  4. It can cause pneumonia. Although rare, a condition known as lipid pneumonia can occur when small amounts of petroleum jelly is inhaled and build up in the lungs. Because the body can’t metabolize or breakdown the substance, a severe inflammation in the lungs can occur.

Natural Alternatives

There are several natural alternatives to petroleum jelly that you can use without worrying about health risks. If you’re looking for a simple alternative, try one of these options:-

  • Shea butter – High is vitamin A, E and F, shea butter works to nourish the skin through the beneficial fatty acids it contains. It can also help reduce inflammation and increase collagen productions.
  • Beeswax – a great alternative to petroleum jelly is Beeswax. It can be blended into homemade beauty products to protect the skin. Add it to a homemade lip balm and body cream.
  • Coconut oil – this oil loaded with health benefits. It works to nourish the skin through the fatty acids, lauric acids and anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Coco butter – it contains antioxidants and benefits fatty acids. It may even reduce the signs of ageing.

LESSONS TO SURVIVE FIRST YEAR IN BUSINESS

You have an extraordinary thought and the desire — what’s going on? As you go into business, there are a few things each business visionary has to know to endure that basic first year effectively. In my over 30 years as a tech chief, business person and C-level corporate leader openly and privately owned businesses, here are three of the greatest exercises I’ve learned.

1. DISREGARD PERFECTION AND FOCUS ON FINDING MORE CUSTOMERS

The main explanation business people fizzle is that they don’t have clients who need to purchase their item or administration. In light of that, your first year ought to be tied in with discovering networks of individuals who need to purchase what you’re selling — or even portion of what you’re selling.

As you do, don’t expect that you need to make the ideal item or administration before you find your client base. That will just thwart your energy. Exile negative speculation as per, “On the off chance that I simply get this piece right… ” and rather remain laser-zeroed in on the greater inquiry: “Am I ready to discover or produce sufficient interest to continue to push ahead with my thought?”

One of the most mind-blowing approaches to distinguish your base can be through paid channels like Google that expand your openness to shoppers. Consider how organizations would open in shopping centres since that is the place where the people strolling through was, yet today, the entirety of that traffic is on the web. When you find your clients, you are in a solid beginning position and you can divert to tweaking from that point.

2. CONTROL YOUR CASH

The other fundamental explanation that organizations flop from the get-go is that they run out of cash, so dealing with your month-to-month income and costs is urgent during this window. Obviously, the two-go connected at the hip: You need to have the option to endure sufficiently long to find clients.

To set yourself up for practicality, embrace a profoundly traditionalist methodology. Start by carrying out a decent income the board framework to follow the cash going in and out and have sure you comprehend the effect between income and benefit. For instance, regardless of whether you offer loads of your item to clients, that doesn’t really mean you can cover your bills. In the event that you sell, say, $50,000 worth of items on layaway with 60-day terms, yet you requested $35,000 worth of provisions to cause those items and you to need to pay your providers inside 30 days — on top of lease and finance — the math rapidly becomes muddled, and you will be unable to keep the lights on.

Part of being moderate is likewise settling on determined choices — which means, don’t over enlist ability until you decide how you will find your client base, bring in cash and be alluring to financial backers. Watching out for the entirety of this is vital for opening up development openings.

3. STAY CALM AND TAKE NEXT RIGHT STEP

During the primary year of establishing another organization, there is in every case some motivation to freeze or have an existential emergency. Possibly your new item turns out not to have the take rate you expected, or somebody who you feel is basic to the group stops, or you miss your income numbers in light of a startling cost, or unexpected rivalry enters the market — the rundown can feel perpetual.

These situations are not kidding, yet have confidence that they are common and can be explored effortlessly. The arrangement is frequently to remain quiet (I for one find that reflection assists me with trying not to become twisted up and stay sensitive to what exactly going on around me), pay attention to your impulses and do the following right thing. In the event that you do that, the way ahead will begin to uncover itself.

By conveying these strategies, business people can explore a portion of the more normal difficulties that will definitely emerge during the first — and seemingly the hardest — year while keeping fixed on what is important most for progress.

TYPING SKILLS

Why are typing skills important?

Typing is a necessary skill for today’s students. In today’s ever-evolving world, a student’s ability to type fluently enables them to focus on what they’re typing vs. how to type. Being able to quickly share thoughts and send them to their teacher from any location is much more efficient than using paper and pencil.

Why is it important for a medical assistant to document properly?

A medical assistant will still need to become familiar with important paper documents and their uses. The medical assistant is responsible for accurate documentation and maintenance of patient medical records. Without accurate and complete patient medical records, the patient can receive inadequate treatment.

How has typing helped you perform better?

If a lot of your time sitting at your desk is spent typing, you might be able to improve your posture and your health by increasing your typing speed. This will mean less time spent typing at your desk, and that will lead to more time spent standing up and stretching so as not to hurt your back, neck, and shoulders.

What is the importance of typing rhythm?

At any time while learning typing it is very important to keep a pace or rhythm in typing. This enables to achieve speed in considerable time. Pushing your limits for speed but at the same time keeping a pace in the speed you have achieved in typing is a real must.

What is the best typing method?

Sit straight and remember to keep your back straight.Keep your elbows bent at the right angle.Face the screen with your head slightly tilted forward.Keep at least 45 – 70 cm of distance between your eyes and the screen.Еxpose the shoulder, arm, and wrist muscles to the least possible strain.

What is the use of typing?

Typing is the process of writing or inputting text by pressing keys on a typewriter, computer keyboard, cell phone, or calculator. It can be distinguished from other means of text input, such as handwriting and speech recognition. Text can be in the form of letters, numbers and other symbols.

What jobs can you get with typing skills?

5 Jobs requiring typing. skillsData Entry. Freelance Transcription. Assistant and Secretarial Work. Journalism and Content-Creation. Copy-editing.

What are the 4 benefits of using touch typing?

Speed. This is going to be the first and most obvious benefit of learning to touch type.

Accuracy. One of the most important things to learn no matter how hard you type is to type accurately.

Time.

Fatigue.

Health.

Job Prospects.

Focus.

Editing.

Is touch typing a skill?

Why Touch-Typing Is Important Touch-typing is a skill that everyone should have. It allows you to work faster and spend less time doing your homework, project, work items, and more. Plus, you do not have to think about the keys.

How touch typing is helpful to new learners?

Your fingers learn where each key is placed and are able to find them without assistance from your eyes. Once you can find each key without looking at the keyboard, you’ll find your typing speed increases exponentially, and the more you practice, the faster you will get. Reward yourself!

What are the rules for typing?

Computer Tutoring suggests 7 Rules for Touch Typing:

1 Never look at the keyboard. Even with those awkward symbols and especially with UPPER and lower case letters.

2 Focus on Accuracy.

3 Find the Index Keys.

4 Practise, practise and practise some more.

5 Sit Straight.

6 Look Straight.

7 Take a Break.

What are the typing techniques?

Touch Typing. It is the most common and most efficient method to type.Hunt & Peck. Hunt & Peck is a typing technique where the person types each key one after another.Hybrid. This technique is a mix of Touch Typing and Hunt & Peck method.Buffering.Thumbing.

What is the most important part of keyboarding?

Although not classified as a true keyboarding technique, the student’s striking of each keyboard key with the correct finger is the basis of a productive touch keying skill–and thus the most important objective of keyboarding instruction.

How does typing help students?

It frees up cognitive energy so you focus on the ideas instead of just the language required to articulate them. Moreover, learning keyboarding improves accuracy and can help with decoding and sight-reading skills for children and adults who struggle with specific learning difficulties. Learn more about the benefits.

What is the goal of keyboarding?

The goal of teaching keyboarding is to help students become more comfortable using the computer to gather information, solve problems, and communicate their knowledge. Students are encouraged to practice keyboarding at home as well as in school.

What is data entry and keyboarding skills?

DATA ENTRY AND KEYBOARDING SKILLS. Typing and deleting text. For typing text in a document you should • click on the letters on the keyboard. For deleting text in a document you should • use the backspace key or the delete key. The backspace key will remove text from behind (to the left of) your cursor position.

What kind of job can I get with typing skills?

Transcriptionist. Transcriptionists translate audio recordings into typed documents.

Journalism. Regardless of what sort of journalistic endeavors you pursue, fast typing is a must for a few reasons.

Coders.

Data Entry.

Subtitling.

Personal Assistant.

Court Reporter.

Editor.

APTITUDE TEST

Home Main navigation Jobs Career advice Recruiting Work for us About Contact Job match Search Job interview tips Aptitude test: What you can expect in an interview process An aptitude test is a way for employers to assess a candidate’s abilities through a variety of different testing formats. Aptitude tests will test your ability to perform tasks and react to situations at work. This includes problem-solving, prioritisation and numerical skills, amongst other things. The psychometric tests are multiple-choice and there is only ever one correct answer, your score is then marked and your level is compared against other candidates who have taken the same test as you. There are free tests online that you can take to gauge what sort of questions to expect when taking an aptitude test.Our recruitment consultants are here to help you to prepare for every stage of the interview process, including the aptitude test. In the world of work today, organisations typically run multiple interview stages to make sure that the candidate they hire is the perfect person for the role.

Why and how do you take an aptitude test?

Aptitude tests are a great way for a hiring manager to gauge a candidate’s suitability to a role. They are a tool used to see how candidates might deal with the challenges of the role they are interviewing for.

Aptitude tests are usually done via an online platform, however, businesses may invite you into the office to take these tests too. This depends on their recruitment processes.

Types of aptitude tests:

There are a number of aptitude tests that a business can administer to candidates.

Diagrammatic Reasoning – Tests your ability of logical reasoning, using diagrams and flowcharts.

Numerical Reasoning – Tests your mathematical ability through percentages, averages and the like.

Verbal Reasoning – Assesses you on your ability to assess verbal logic.

Inductive Reasoning – Tests your ability to see patterns and analyse data, in a pressurised environment.

Situational Judgement – Tests your problem-solving ability.

Logical Reasoning – Tests your ability to recognise patterns, sequences or relationships between shapes and imagery.

Abstract Reasoning – These are similar to IQ tests and assess general knowledge, and ability to utilise your knowledge in new situations.

Aptitude test questions :

The questions that you will be asked in an aptitude test will vary based on the type of role you are applying for. They may ask you to identify a missing number, shape or image at the end of a series, or they might give you a written scenario that you will answer questions from. Verbal aptitude tests are formatted with ‘true’, ‘false’ and ‘can’t say’ as the answers.Whether the questions are mathematical or problem-solving based, they are designed to test your ability to process information quickly. This can be useful for hiring managers who are looking for data analysts across all levels.

Preparing for an aptitude test:

The best advice we can give you if you know that you will be required to take an aptitude test is to practice beforehand. Ask your recruitment consultant or the organisation you are interviewing for what type of aptitude test it is you will be taking, then practice these online. It is never certain what questions you will be asked throughout the testing process, however, if you become familiar with the types of questions you will be presented with alongside the time constraints, we believe you will be best prepared to ace your aptitude test and land your dream job.

If you are preparing for an interview yourself, why not browse the job interview tips section of our website, our recruitment consultants have provided expert advice from experience, to help you in your job search. Alternatively, get in touch with one of our specialist recruitment consultants today.

Advantages of Aptitude Tests:

1. Standardization:

Aptitude tests are standardized and are great for the reliability and validity of results. Hence, it is difficult to challenge the results of an aptitude test, making it practical to use during the recruitment process.

2. Cost-effective:

it is easy to administer aptitude tests, as they are outsourced and carried out on laptops and computers. It also accelerates the grading process and expedites the recruitment process for a company.

3. Analysis of the individual:

An aptitude test will determine an individual’s weaknesses, which will help a company and a school to determine the training programs needed to implement for individuals to improve those specific skills.

Importance of Aptitude Test in Career Decisions:

Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions of our life and it is natural to feel confused or even stressed about it. We are constantly bugged by relatives, parents and friends firing the same question day after day, “What after 10th class?” or “What after 12th class?” or even the famous “Which stream will you be selecting after 10th?” This blog talks about the importance of aptitude test in making career decisions.

It is one of those decisions that stick with us throughout our lives and has a really huge impact on our outlook towards life itself. It helps in shaping up the life that we want to create. Considering the heavy weightage attached to this decision, it becomes rather imperative that deciding on a career option is not something that can be done half-heartedly or under the influence of friends and family. It is something that requires thought and planning.

To understand the importance of aptitude test, it is crucial to understand that choosing a career does not simply mean deciding upon the ultimate career profile which will guide you through the gates of success and fame; rather it means that a person should have the potential to grow with that career and achieve success through his/her decision.

That is why it is very important for every student to understand what is embodied within the word Aptitude and why an Aptitude Test for career selection is important when tracing your path towards success and growth. Every career option requires a particular aptitude combination that should match with the individual’s potential ability to grow with that career.

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

WHAT IS PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT?

Personality development is about building your capacities, nurturing your talent, enhancing new skill sets, working on your weaknesses, and transforming them into strengths.You, as an individual, have unique skill sets. Your potential is multi-faceted, and investing in personality development enables you to harness your strengths. Focusing on individual personality development adds to your capabilities and helps your dreams and aspirations turn into a reality.To be a more charismatic person, you have to develop your inner self as well as your outer self. The importance of personality development is undisputed in personal and professional life.Take Rajesh, a lawyer who had a meteoric rise to the top of his firm. His colleagues always wondered how he managed to climb the success ladder so fast. But only his boss knew how hard he had worked to better himself. He had stepped out of his comfort zone to become a better version of himself. Rajesh had understood the importance of personality development.There is no substitute for hard work when it comes to personality development. The sooner you understand it, the better for you. Think about how to develop personality, chalk out a plan, set a goal, and work towards it every day.

IMPORTANCE OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT:

Let’s look at the reasons why it is important to develop one’s personality:Personality development enables you to discover your qualitiesIt empowers you to make the right decisions and to choose wiselyIt builds that one winning quality in you- confidence. Confident people are more equipped to succeed in the long runIt assists you in communicating clearly, convincingly, and precisely Once you know how to develop personality, you will be seen as a leader by your peers and colleagues.

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT TIPS:

Your personality is not static and unchangeable. You can develop it for the better. Play to your strengths and work on your weaknesses.So are you ready to start creating a roadmap to becoming your best version? Here are some tips for personality development.

LEAVE YOUR COMFORT ZONE :

Come out of your shell and explore the world. A comfort zone is limiting. Staying in the comfort zone will make one miss out on the opportunity to try new things and discover themselves. The next time you meet a group of people, try engaging with them more. Introduce yourself to someone and have a conversation with them. Don’t stay in the corner or play with your phone. Interact with people.

MAKE EVERY DAY COUNT:

Plan your time management strategy and make it stronger day by day. Begin your days right. Every morning take time out to read something inspirational. Chalk out what you are going to do that day. Keep in mind your larger goal and select activities accordingly.Challenge yourself from time to time. Learn something new. Be creative. Do what you are passionate about. Take risks. Do not fear failure.Remember the words of performance coach Dale Carnegie: “Today is life-the only life you are sure of. Make the most of today. Get interested in something. Shake yourself awake. Develop a hobby. Let the winds of enthusiasm sweep through you. Live today with gusto.”

DEFINE YOUR AREA OF EXCELLENCE:

Define what you want to excel in and develop relevant skill sets. Maximize your time, energy, and resources to achieve the desired result. Say you want to be a video jockey. Seek personality development tips from a successful VJ and work on your communication skills.

Define what you want to excel in and develop relevant skill sets. Maximize your time, energy, and resources to achieve the desired result. Say you want to be a video jockey. Seek personality development tips from a successful VJ and work on your communication skills.

BE OPTIMISTIC:

Learn to look at the future with positivity. Being optimistic will help you identify opportunities and work towards them. Optimistic people know how to see failures as setbacks. Even when there are challenges and setbacks, optimistic people work on finding a solution.

EVALUATE YOURSELF:

Some people are extremely popular at work. You may wonder what their magic formula is for being constantly appreciated by their superiors. It’s not magic. They simply focus on following tips for personality development such as seeking feedback, correcting mistakes, helping people, and solving problems.Self-evaluation at regular intervals helps improve one’s personality. Evaluate your skills and areas of improvement by asking yourself: Is your public speaking effective? Are your confidence levels high? Is your behavior pleasant and co-operative? Start observing yourself, make notes, and identify the qualities you need to acquire.

NETWORK:

One of the best tips for personality development is to network. Networking has been made much easier by interactive and intelligent social media. So go ahead, create a network of dependable people who trust you, inspire you, lead you.Meeting new people is helpful in many ways. It widens your horizons. You get a chance to observe the good qualities of several dynamic personalities and learn different ways to behave and interact.

READ A LOT:

Have you read The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho? Regarded as a classic personal development novel, it takes you on an enchanting journey of self-discovery with a young shepherd who undertakes a heroic journey to find a treasure he’s been dreaming about.Books such as The Power of Now by Eckhart Tolle, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey, Jonathan Livingston Seagull by Richard Bach, Inspiring Thoughts by Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam, contain time-tested personality development tips and lessons.

IMPROVE YOUR BODY LANGUAGE:

you in a better light. Ensure that your standing and sitting position is upright. Make eye contact while speaking.It is true that factors such as heredity, family upbringing, peer group influencers, societal culture do play a role in shaping your personality. But with proper tips for personality development and sincere efforts, you can bring a holistic change in your personality.Finding your signature voice is important. This process of self-grooming almost always turns out to be the most rewarding enterprise and enriching experience of your life. Harappa’s Building Presence course teaches you to use nonverbal cues. They are the body language techniques that help you exude confidence at work.Building your personal brand and giving your brand a vision is also important for personal growth and professional success. Learn how to do this from our experts. Now that you have read some personality development tips are you ready for the journey? We bet it will be delightful.

Don’t let your circumstances change you

“There once was a blind woman who hated herself purely because she could not see. The only person she loved was her boyfriend, as he was always there for her. She said that if she could only see the world, then she would marry him.

One day, someone donated a pair of eyes to her – now she could see everything, including her boyfriend. Her loving boyfriend asked her, ‘Now that you can see the world, will you marry me?’

The woman was shocked when she saw that her boyfriend was blind  too, and refused to marry him. Her boyfriend walked away in tears, and wrote a short note to her saying: ‘Just take care of my eyes, dear.’”

Your good deeds could change the world

“Every Sunday morning I take a light jog around a park near my home.  There’s a lake located in one corner of the park. Each time I jog by this lake, I see the same elderly woman sitting at the water’s edge with a small metal cage sitting beside her.

This past Sunday my curiosity got the best of me, so I stopped jogging and walked over to her. As I got closer, I realized that the metal cage was in fact a small trap. There were three turtles, unharmed, slowly walking around the base of the trap. She had a fourth turtle in her lap that she was carefully scrubbing with a spongy brush.

‘Hello,’ I said. ‘I see you here every Sunday morning.  If you don’t mind my nosiness, I’d love to know what you’re doing with these turtles.’

She smiled. ‘I’m cleaning off their shells,” she replied. “Anything on a turtle’s shell, like algae or scum, reduces the turtle’s ability to absorb heat and impedes its ability to swim. It can also corrode and weaken the shell over time.’

‘Wow! That’s really nice of you!’ I exclaimed.

She went on: ‘I spend a couple of hours each Sunday morning, relaxing by this lake and helping these little guys out. It’s my own strange way of making a difference.’

‘But don’t most freshwater turtles live their whole lives with algae and scum hanging from their shells?’ I asked.

‘Yep, sadly, they do,’ she replied.

I scratched my head. ‘Well then, don’t you think your time could be better spent? I mean, I think your efforts are kind and all, but there are fresh water turtles living in lakes all around the world. And 99% of these turtles don’t have kind people like you to help them clean off their shells.  So, no offense… but how exactly are your localized efforts here truly making a difference?’

The woman giggled aloud. She then looked down at the turtle in her lap, scrubbed off the last piece of algae from its shell, and said, ‘Sweetie, if this little guy could talk, he’d tell you I just made all the difference in the world.’

You get what you give

“Once, there was a farmer who regularly sold butter to a baker. One day, the baker decided to weigh the butter to see if he was getting the exact amount that he asked for. He found out that he wasn’t, so he took the farmer to court.

The judge asked the farmer if he uses any measure to weigh the butter. The farmer replied, ‘Your Honor, I’m primitive. I don’t have a proper measure, but I do have a scale.’

The judge replied, “Then how do you weigh the butter?”

The farmer replied; “Your Honor, long before the baker started buying butter from me, I have been buying a pound loaf of bread from him. Every day, when the baker brings the bread, I put it on the scale and give him the same weight in butter. If anyone is to be blamed, it’s the baker.’

Moral of the story:In life, you get what you give. Don’t try to cheat others.

Don’t assume you are going to fail

“During a research experiment a marine biologist placed a shark into a large holding tank and then released several small bait fish into the tank.

As you would expect, the shark quickly swam around the tank, attacked and ate the smaller fish.

The marine biologist then inserted a strong piece of clear fiberglass into the tank, creating two separate partitions. She then put the shark on one side of the fiberglass and a new set of bait fish on the other.

Again, the shark quickly attacked. This time, however, the shark slammed into the fiberglass divider and bounced off. Undeterred, the shark kept repeating this behavior every few minutes to no avail.  Meanwhile, the bait fish swam around unharmed in the second partition. Eventually, about an hour into the experiment, the shark gave up.

This experiment was repeated several dozen times over the next few weeks. Each time, the shark got less aggressive and made fewer attempts to attack the bait fish, until eventually the shark got tired of hitting the fiberglass divider and simply stopped attacking altogether.

The marine biologist then removed the fiberglass divider, but the shark didn’t attack. The shark was trained to believe a barrier existed between it and the bait fish, so the bait fish swam wherever they wished, free from harm.”

Learn from your problems

“A man’s favorite donkey falls into a deep precipice. He can’t pull it out no matter how hard he tries. He therefore decides to bury it alive.

Soil is poured onto the donkey from above. The donkey feels the load, shakes it off, and steps on it. More soil is poured.

It shakes it off and steps up. The more the load was poured, the higher it rose. By noon, the donkey was grazing in green pastures.”

Enjoy the moment

“After spending nearly every waking minute with Angel for eight straight days, I knew that I had to tell her just one thing. So late at night, just before she fell asleep, I whispered it in her ear. She smiled – the kind of smile that makes me smile back –and she said, ‘When I’m seventy-five and I think about my life and what it was like to be young, I hope that I can remember this very moment.’

A few seconds later she closed her eyes and fell asleep. The room was peaceful – almost silent. All I could hear was the soft purr of her breathing. I stayed awake thinking about the time we’d spent together and all the choices in our lives that made this moment possible. And at some point, I realized that it didn’t matter what we’d done or where we’d gone. Nor did the future hold any significance.

All that mattered was the serenity of the moment.

Just being with her and breathing with her.”

Don’t judge others before you know them

 

“A 24 year old boy seeing out from the train’s window shouted…‘Dad, look the trees are going behind!’

Dad smiled and a young couple sitting nearby, looked at the 24 year old’s childish behavior with pity, suddenly he again exclaimed…

‘Dad, look the clouds are running with us!’

The couple couldn’t resist and said to the old man…

‘Why don’t you take your son to a good doctor?’

The old man smiled and said…’I did and we are just coming from the hospital, my son was blind from birth, he just got his eyes today.’

Every single person on the planet has a story. Don’t judge people before you truly know them. The truth might surprise you.”

Covid-19

-Aastha Joshi

The world has been stuck hard with corona virus at an extreme level taking lots and lots of lives globally. Coronavirus disease 2019 is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome.coronavirus 2. The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic. Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, but often include fever, cough, headache, fatigue, breathing difficulties, and loss of smell and taste. Symptoms may begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. COVID-19 transmits when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets and small airborne particles containing the virus. The risk of breathing these in is highest when people are in close proximity, but they can be inhaled over longer distances, particularly indoors. Transmission can also occur if splashed or sprayed with contaminated fluids in the eyes, nose or mouth, and, rarely, via contaminated surfaces. Preventive measures include physical.or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmissions. The Covid-19 disease, caused by the infection of SARS Cov-2, was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The extremely communicable disease spread to other countries in a very short span of time. Professor Gautam Menon expert epidemiologist, Ashoka had an early warning of the pandemic On March 11, 2020 the WHO declared covid-19 as a pandemic. The outbreaks of covid-19 also posed other challenges, particularly supply of food and lifesaving medicines and other essential needs from within and between countries. These advances helped to design strategies to test, isolate and quarantine. to make people aware why masks and hand sanitisation are essential and planning days, if not weeks, in advance on how to increase our preparedness. Within 6 months, many vaccines and drugs entered clinical trials. The sharp drop in GDP is the largest witnessed by the countries in the history. From April to June 2020, India’s GDP dropped by a massive 24.4% According to the latest national income estimates, in the second quarter of the 2020/21 financial year of economy contracted by a further 7.4%. Where as the recovery was not very spectacular in the third and fourth quarter. In the post independence period, India’s national income has declined only four times before 2020. This means that 2020/21 is the worst year in terms of economic contraction in the country’s history, and much worse than theoverall contraction in the world. The unemployment has been suffered by a lot of people in the pandemic phase. Many small scale industries have been severely effected and were forced to shut down in the hard times of covid. The economic and social disruption caused by the pandemic is devastating tens of millions of people are at risk of falling into extreme poverty, while the number of undernourished people, currently estimated at nearly 690 million, could increase by up to 132 million by the end of the year. The pandemic has been affecting the entire food system and has laid bare its fragility. With low and irregular incomes and a lack of social support, many of them are spurred to continue working, often in unsafe conditions, thus exposing themselves and their families to additional risks. Some people are experiencing a range of new or ongoing symptoms that can last weeks or months after first being infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, Tiredness or fatigue, Symptoms that get worse after physical or mental activities, Difficulty thinking or concentrating, Cough, Rash, Mood changes, Change in smell or taste, Changes in period cycles. The world has been dealing with it from last 2 years. Lately the world has been fighting with it together and certainly the covid is getting in control and the death rates and cases has seen a sharp at a global level.

Even though you’re damaged, you still have value

 

“A popular speaker started off a seminar by holding up a $20 bill. A crowd of 200 had gathered to hear him speak. He asked, ‘Who would like this $20 bill?’

200 hands went up.

He said, ‘I am going to give this $20 to one of you but first, let me do this.’ He crumpled the bill up.

He then asked, ‘Who still wants it?’

All 200 hands were still raised.

‘Well,’ he replied, ‘What if I do this?’ Then he dropped the bill on the ground and stomped on it with his shoes.

He picked it up, and showed it to the crowd. The bill was all crumpled and dirty.

‘Now who still wants it?’

All the hands still went up.

‘My friends, I have just showed you a very important lesson. No matter what I did to the money, you still wanted it because it did not decrease in value. It was still worth $20. Many times in our lives, life crumples us and grinds us into the dirt. We make bad decisions or deal with poor circumstances. We feel worthless. But no matter what has happened or what will happen, you will never lose your value. You are special – Don’t ever forget it!’

Don’t insult the things you wish you could have

‘One afternoon, a fox was walking through the forest and spotted a bunch of grapes hanging from a lofty branch.

‘Just the thing to quench my thirst,’ he thought.

Taking a couple of steps back, the fox jumped and just missed the hanging grapes. The fox tried again but still failed to reach them.

Finally, giving up, the fox turned his nose up and said, ‘They’re probably sour anyway,’ and walked away.”

keep trying instead of making excuses.

Struggling will make you stronger

“Once upon a time, a man found a butterfly that was starting to hatch from its cocoon. He sat down and watched the butterfly for hours as it struggled to force itself through a tiny hole. Then, it suddenly stopped making progress and looked like it was stuck.

Therefore, the man decided to help the butterfly out. He took a pair of scissors and cut off the remaining bit of the cocoon. The butterfly then emerged easily, although it had a swollen body and small, shriveled wings.

The man thought nothing of it, and he sat there waiting for the wings to enlarge to support the butterfly. However, that never happened. The butterfly spent the rest of its life unable to fly, crawling around with small wings and a swollen body.

Despite the man’s kind heart, he didn’t understand that the restricting cocoon and the struggle needed by the butterfly to get itself through the small hole were God’s way of forcing fluid from the body of the butterfly into its wings to prepare itself for flying once it was free.”