# BOOK REVIEW – THE BLUE UMBRELLA BY RUSKIN BOND

BY DAKSHITA NAITHANI

The Blue Umbrella has received widespread acclaim from readers and reviewers alike, and is considered one of Ruskin Bond’s best works. The narrative is brief and straightforward, yet it eloquently hits on a fundamental quality of humanity: compassion. Binya Ruskin instils a spirit of kindness in youngsters via his work. It’s a fantastic book that everyone should read. The author’s writing style is admirable since it is basic yet effective, and his imagination is warm and inviting. This collection of lines captures the enthusiasm of people living in mountainous places, a location dear to the author’s heart as his birthplace.

Binya is a poor little girl who lives in a tiny mountainous village in Garhwal with her mother and older brother, Bijju. She comes upon some city folks enjoying a picnic in the valley one day while herding her two cows back home. She is captivated by their well-groomed appearance and wealth. She aspires to be like them, and amid their numerous possessions, a blue frilly umbrella strikes her eye. She has a strong desire for it. The city folks, on the other hand, are drawn to her naive beauty and the necklace around her neck. The pendant is made of a leopard’s claw, which is generally regarded as a mascot in the hills. Binya exchanges her necklace for a blue umbrella.

The blue umbrella is so lovely that it quickly becomes a topic of talk among the villagers, and the youngsters admire her umbrella so much that they want to touch or hold it at all times. Binya is in seventh heaven and only shuts it once in a while since she thinks it looks so lovely while it’s open.

Ram Bharosa owns a tiny shop without a refrigerator where he sells food, groceries, and soft beverages. He is so enamoured with the umbrella that he decides to acquire it under all circumstances. As a result, he makes Binya an offer to buy the umbrella. She, on the other hand, declines the offer. He is turned off by the refusal. He quickly recruits a youngster from a nearby hamlet to work in his business. Binya is out in the forest gathering porcupine quills when the boy, who is devoted to him, snatches the umbrella from her.

Bijju, ironically, catches the youngster. When the child discloses Ram Bharosa’s involvement in the theft, the locals shun him and refuse to visit his business. As a result, Ram Bharosa suffers a setback, and his livelihood is jeopardised. Binya is saddened by Ram Bharosa’s predicament and feels guilty for his suffering. She then gives Ram Bharosa her umbrella. In exchange, Ram gives her a pendant with a bear’s claw embedded in it, which is thought to be fortunate than a leopard’s.

When it comes to little children, various individuals with varied perspectives account for a sense of belonging when it comes to what is good and what is wrong.

In this narrative, it is a lovely trip of the umbrella, rather a risk worthy umbrella, from one hand to another, encapsulating a confusing attitude to how to cope with its beauty from the perspective of a youngster.

On the list, it is a highly recommended book. Adults may use it to educate themselves that power by empathy, rather than power via arrogance, is the only road to succeed. The author has flamboyantly inflated the setting and people, according to a mild critical viewpoint. Apart from that, everything is very gentle and enticing. The enthusiasm for the umbrella is a metaphor for our desire for small pleasures in life.

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# Science and technology

The 19th and 20th centuries were marked by great scientific and technological developments. These developments encompassed many different fields like transportation, communication, manufacturing, education, trade, health care and others.

The life of people has become quite comfortable with these scientific innovations as various types of machines have begun to perform complex tasks for them.

There was a time when man used to walk long distances to reach other places for trade and other pursuits. The invention of wheel enabled him to make hand-driven and animal driven carts to transport various types of goods to different destinations.

With the invention of petrol and the engines that could be used it as fuel came different types of vehicles. Cars, trucks, buses, bikes and other road transport means started being made. This was perhaps the greatest scientific development. People could go to long distances and in large number.

They started going to other countries. Not only the trade flourished but also there was cultural development because of interaction of people of different heritages, beliefs, traditions-each influencing the other in some way. Man conquered the oceans with the making of ships, vessels, boats. Going to other continents became easier. Also with the help of large ships the countries could transport large quantities of products to other places for purposes of trade. The fishing trawlers enabled people to get sea-food in large quantities, adding to their food security.

The biggest achievement in the field of transportation came in the shape of aeroplanes. The Wright brothers made the first aeroplane and flew on it for a few seconds, but most importantly, they gave the idea of the air transport. The idea was subsequently developed by aeronautical engineers into the making of aeroplanes. Today, air travel is perhaps the most important means of travel for its speed and comfort.

A person can have breakfast in India, lunch in London and dinner in some American or African country-thanks to the speedy air-travel. With the development of trade and increase in population, there was a need to build a transport system that could carry a large number of people and heavy amounts of cargo to different places on a regular basis. The answer came in the form of railways which solved both these problems. Crores of people travel to various destinations in trains across the globe. India’s railway transport system is the biggest in Asia.

The latest technological development in this area is the metro railways. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has made a network of metro services in the capital providing sophisticated, comfortable and quick mode of mass public transport system. Similar services are being started in many other major cities in India.

The invention of computers has been another major development in the history of mankind. Broadly speaking, computers are the machines that convert data into information. But with regular upgradation of computer technology, these machines have started to perform the most complex functions.

They are the storehouses of information, disseminators of data, processors of fed information and display systems of the latest positions relating to the area being searched. Invariably all the fields concerned with service industry-including banking, insurance, booking, education, diagnostics, developing, designing, etc. are working with the help of computers-which not only provide accuracy and speed but also variety and attractiveness.

Whereas the new technologies in diagnosis of various diseases have enabled us to detect deformities at exact places in the body and at an early stage of such happening, the treatment has also become easy and sure though expensive. There was a time when lakhs of people died due to epidemics of plague, smallpox, cholera, etc. But, due to research and new treatment technologies involving prevention through immunisation, these diseases are not allowed to assume epidemic and devastating proportions.

Some of diseases like plague, polio, smallpox, etc. have been eradicated. There are medicines for most dangerous of diseases and conditions. Serious ailments like heart trouble, diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, liver damage, etc. are kept under control with the use of medication regularly. Medical check-ups have been very convenient and accurate with the help of new machines.

In the field of communication technology, the innovation of mobile phones has revolutionised the society. People can make a call from anywhere to anywhere exchanging valuable information. This has facilitated trade, strengthened relationships and brought connectivity in the society.

The cellphones can also be used to send messages, listen to music, set alarms, store telephone numbers, addresses, etc. Mass media thrives on technology. The TV programmes which run twenty-four hours a day, three-hundred-sixty-five days a year, bring latest news from all over the world. With serials, films, live telecasts and game shows, the TV has become the biggest source of information and entertainment for us. Its value to students through educational programmes and to people in general for increasing their awareness level is highly significant.

There are certain disadvantages of scientific developments. Scientists have made weapons of mass destruction and other warheads which are used in wars. Humanity has already suffered vast damage and destruction in two Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki when America dropped atom bombs on them in the Second World War-in which thousands of people were killed, several thousands were wounded, property worth several crores of rupees was destroyed.

With the making of such dangerous weapons, today’s wars have become highly dangerous. If there is a third World War only God knows what will happen to the world. The terrorists are using dangerous weapons like mines, explosives, machine guns and rocket launchers to terrorise civil society.

Another fall out of scientific development is the pollution of air and water which has reached alarming levels. The factories, industries and vehicles are giving out tonnes of smoke and effluents which are vitiating the air and water which are our main sources of consumption.

Scientific and technological inventions are for the benefit of mankind. It is for us to use them to bring progress and happiness in society. What we require is judicial use of resources at our proposal, banish war and confrontation and adopt methods of sustainable development. We need to enforce strict discipline to stop unscrupulous and illegal use of technologies.

Stringent laws need to be made against cyber crimes. We also have to ensure that scientific development does not become environmentally destructive. Sustainable practices need to be adopted to protect habitats and natural ecosystems. At international level, the world body-the UNO and other leading nations should assume the responsibility of ensuring that science and technology are not misused.

Science and technology has a profound impact on all of humanity’s activities.

Science and technology inventions and discoveries, including the theory of the origin of the universe, the theory of evolution, and the discovery of genes, have given humanity many hints relating to human existence from civilized and cultural points of view. Science and technology have had an immeasurable influence on the formation of our understanding of the world, our view of society, and our outlook on nature.

The wide variety of technologies and science discoveries produced by humanity has led to the building and development of the civilizations of each age, stimulated economic growth, raised people’s standards of living, encouraged cultural development, and had a tremendous impact on religion, thought, and many other human activities. The impact of science and technology on modern society is broad and wide-ranging, influencing such areas as politics, diplomacy, defense, the economy, medicine, transportation, agriculture, social capital improvement, and many more. The fruits of science and technology fill every corner of our lives.

The hundred years of the twentieth century have been called the “century of science and technology,” the “century of war,” and the “century of human prosperity,” among other expressions. Science and technology have thus far brought humanity immeasurable benefits. In the twenty-first century, dubbed the “century of knowledge” and the time of a “knowledge-based society,” it is hoped that the diverse potentials of science and technology, built upon the foundation of the hard-won science and technology of the twentieth century, will be used to solve the serious issues faced by humanity, such as global environmental problems. Moreover, it is also important to hold the firm belief that science and technology must be faithfully passed on to future generations as an irreplaceable asset of humanity, driven by the trust and support of the public.

In the present, squarely addressing the relationship between science and technology and society is an essential challenge to the sound development of science and technology, one which it is important to continue addressing in the future based on historical and civilized perspectives, while also maintaining a deep awareness of the needs of the times.

# INTERNATIONAL DAY OF CHARITY – 5 SEPTEMBER

Noble cause, similar to the ideas of volunteerism and generosity, gives genuine social holding and adds to the production of comprehensive and stronger social orders. Noble cause can ease the most noticeably terrible impacts of helpful emergencies, supplement public administrations in medical services, training, lodging and kid insurance. It helps the progression of culture, science, sports, and the assurance of social and normal legacy. It additionally advances the privileges of the underestimated and oppressed and spreads the message of mankind in struggle circumstances.

In the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development embraced in September 2015, the United Nations perceives that annihilating neediness in the entirety of its structures and measurements, including outrageous destitution, is the best worldwide test and an essential prerequisite for feasible turn of events. The Agenda additionally requires a feeling of reinforced worldwide fortitude, zeroed in specifically on the necessities of the least fortunate and generally powerless. It additionally recognizes the job of the assorted private area, going from miniature ventures to cooperatives to multinationals, and that of common society associations and magnanimous associations in the execution of the new Agenda.

The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set out in the agenda can be assembled into six basic regions: individuals, planet, thriving, harmony, and association. They can possibly change our lives and our planet by giving the system expected to charitable organizations to empower all individuals to add to the improvement of our reality.

The International Day of Charity was set up with the target of sharpening and assembling individuals, NGOs, and partners from one side of the planet to the other to help other people through volunteer and magnanimous exercises.

The date of 5 September was picked to celebrate the commemoration of the dying of Mother Teresa of Calcutta, who got the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 “for work attempted in the battle to beat neediness and trouble, which additionally establish a danger to harmony.”

Mother Teresa, the famous religious woman and evangelist, was conceived Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu in 1910. In 1928 she went to India, where she committed herself to aiding the penniless. In 1948 she turned into an Indian resident and established the request for Missionaries of Charity in Kolkota (Calcutta) in 1950, which became noted for its work among poor people and the perishing around there.

For more than 45 years she helped poor people, debilitated, stranded and passing on, while directing the Missionaries of Charity’s development, first in Quite a while and afterward in different nations, including hospices and homes for the most unfortunate and destitute. Mother Teresa’s work has been perceived and acclaimed all through the world and she has gotten various honors and qualifications, including the Nobel Peace Prize. Mother Teresa passed on September fifth 1997, at 87 years old.

In acknowledgment of the job of good cause in easing helpful emergencies and human enduring inside and among countries, just as of the endeavours of magnanimous associations and people, including crafted by Mother Teresa, the General Assembly of the United Nations assigned the fifth of September, the commemoration of the passing of Mother Teresa, as the International Day of Charity.

# Why is an Internship necessary ?

During school, vivid temporary positions in your field of study are fundamental for effective results after graduation. Homeroom conditions might include you with conversation, banter, peer collaboration, and shared learning encounters, yet look for promising circumstances for you to apply and foster the scholastic ideas you’re learning in an expert setting too.

Getting the hang of, developing, and in particular, planning forever and a vocation, is what’s really going on with school. Here are a couple of reasons why school entry level positions are so fundamental to help with your vocation status, like a temporary job at The Box Tiger Music!

Profession Development

For the most part, an entry level position is an undertaking explicit trade of administration for experience between an understudy and a business. Inside entry level positions, study hall ideas unexpectedly become genuine secrets to success as you interface and learn in an expert setting. Entry level position encounters are formal, developmental, and central to your profession.

Fostering your insight into working environment coordinated effort, business behaviour, and solid correspondence strategies are among the imperative “delicate abilities” that must be learned at work. Along these lines, temporary jobs in your space of study will construct your list of references and show you instrumental, profession creating characteristics.

Character Growth

In addition to the fact that internships help foster your polished skill, however they likewise empower character development. Numerous businesses even worth individual characteristics over proficient information with regards to work.

Attributes like respectability, responsibility, and self-inspiration are a few characteristics that are learned through an entry level position. In an article by Chris Myers, a contributing author for Forbes, he relates his own insight as an assistant just as the manners in which it formed his person. Throughout his experience, he discovered a guide who assisted him with figuring out how to be modest and crucial to his managers. These exercises stayed with him even as he developed and turned into an entrepreneur with his own understudies. At the point when you leave school, bosses will need school graduates with something other than information; they’ll need the people who have the singular characteristics expected to take care of business well.

Honing one’s capability is a significant advantage of a temporary position, however assembling character in the work environment is a similarly extraordinary benefit. Temporary positions are the

ideal spot to learn, test your abilities, and develop by and by, so you can venture out and apply what you know to this present reality.

A Door to Opportunity

Temporary jobs are primary in planning understudies for the labour force and giving freedoms after graduation. Most businesses look for profession prepared school graduates who have been furnished with related involvements and abilities in a given field.

As indicated by a new review by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, the beginning yearly compensation for school graduates who finished a paid temporary position and were utilized in a private, revenue driven organization was $53,521, while the people who didn’t finish a temporary position began with a normal of$38,572.

The examination additionally tracked down that 72.2% percent of school graduates with entry level position experience got a proposition for employment rather than just 36.5% for the people who didn’t finish one.

Genuine Application

At Grace College in Winona Lake, IN, understudies total 12 “field” credits as a feature of their “Applied Learning” prerequisite. These credits are procured through temporary jobs, work shadowing, research associations, understudy showing programs, and a lot more vocation creating positions—all of which advantage understudies as they extend their expert portfolios.

Here are what a few Grace understudies have said about the entry level position encounters they’ve been a piece of and how those work openings approved what they’ve realized in the study hall.

# MENTAL HEALTH/WELLNESS

Psychological well-being is a significant concern worldwide and India isn’t a long way behind in sharing this. In the event that we assess improvements in the field of emotional wellness, the speed seems, by all accounts, to be slow. Dr. Brock Chisholm, the principal Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), in 1954, had perceptively proclaimed that “without psychological well-being there can be no obvious actual wellbeing.” More than 60 years after the fact, the situation has not changed generously. About 14% of the worldwide weight of infection is credited to neuropsychiatric problems. The weight of mental issues is probably going to have been thought little of in view of insufficient enthusiasm for the between play between psychological maladjustment and other wellbeing problems. There stay significant issues of need setting dependent on the weight of medical issues and of addressing disparities according to determinants and answers for medical issues.

Progress in emotional wellness administration conveyance has been delayed in generally low-and centre pay nations. Boundaries incorporate the current general wellbeing needs and its impact on subsidizing; difficulties to conveyance of emotional wellness care in essential consideration settings; the low quantities of those prepared in psychological well-being care; and the absence of psychological well-being viewpoint in general wellbeing initiative. There have been various calls for conjuring political will, for upgrading support and for arousing local area cooperation; all with meagre improvement in results.

Along these lines, it turns out to be currently fortunate to investigate the worldview of psychological well-being mindfulness as a method for fighting shame, upgrading counteraction, guaranteeing early acknowledgment, and furthermore animating straightforward and down to earth mediations inside the local area. Today there are open doors as far as developing affirmation of mental problems as key focuses of worldwide wellbeing activity, just as of utilizing new innovations especially web, enormous information and phones in intensifying straightforward field intercessions discovered effective in essential consideration and different echelons.

MENTAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH AWARENESS

Psychological wellness mindfulness crusades have yielded positive results. A portion of the procedures embraced to target mindfulness and address shame around psychological instability incorporate interest by relatives, sharpening to treatment and social consideration. Absence of information about the psychological sicknesses represents a test to the emotional well-being care conveyance framework. Examination plays featured the part of local area based frameworks in low-pay nations and has additionally yielded positive outcomes in making mindfulness, in this manner affecting support.

Mindfulness and wellbeing education are two of a kind. Shame and separation are unfortunate results of obliviousness and deception. There are a couple of studies which have estimated emotional well-being education in the Indian setting. One investigation observed emotional wellness proficiency among youths to be extremely low, for example sadness was distinguished by 29.04%

and schizophrenia/psychosis was perceived simply by 1.31%. Shame was noted to be available in help-chasing.

These discoveries support the need to expand attention to psychological well-being. Psychological wellness education is a connected idea which is progressively seen as a significant proportion of the mindfulness and information on emotional well-being messes. Wellbeing proficiency has been portrayed as “capacity to get to, comprehend, and utilize the data to advance and keep up with great wellbeing.” Mental wellbeing education includes acknowledgment, causes, self improvement, assistance of expert intercession, and exploring the data parkway. Mentalities which thwart acknowledgment and proper assistance looking for can be checked by data which is as of now promptly accessible in the public space. There are a lot of instances of mindfulness decidedly affecting emotional wellness results like the Norwegian lobby to lessen the span of untreated psychosis.

THE INDIAN SCENARIO

The WHO has characterized maintainable advancement objectives and explained the effect of psychological instabilities and self-destruction on them. The self destruction rate in India in 2015 at 15.7/100,000 is higher than the local normal of 12.9 and the worldwide normal of 10.6. Self-destruction is the main source of death among those matured 15–29 in India. There stays a huge unaddressed need inside the populace.

The treatment hole, as estimated by the total contrast between the commonness of psychological instabilities and the treated extent, has been observed to be 76%–85% in less-created nations. One of the significant reasons credited to a wide treatment hole is the issue of insufficient assets. In India, deficiency exists in framework just as in HR. Regardless of enhancements in different wellbeing markers, India contributes lopsidedly to the worldwide weight of infection. Our wellbeing pointers contrast negatively and other center pay nations and India’s local neighbors. A huge extent of the populace winds up ruined on account of high cash based medical care consumptions and endures the unfavorable side-effects of the low quality of care. Undertaking moving to no expert local area wellbeing laborers has been suggested as a powerful methodology for conveyance of solid medicines in low-asset settings. Given the critical lack in quantities of specialists, clinicians, mental medical attendants, and social laborers; piggy-sponsorship on essential consideration frameworks and utilizing inventive competitive edges are future approaches.

# Medals won by India in Tokyo Olympics 2020

Neeraj Chopra, Mirabai Chanu, Ravi Dahiya, PV Sindhu, Lovlina Borgohain, Bajrang Punia made India proud.

India completed 48th on the decoration count in Tokyo, its most elevated positioning in more than forty years (if one somehow managed to pass by the all out number of awards, India would have really completed 33rd. Be that as it may, positioning is done essentially dependent on gold awards won). The past best in this period was the 51st position finish at Beijing in 2008, when India won three awards, including Abhinav Bindra’s gold.

India has completed fundamentally higher in the time in which it used to win gold in hockey, yet that time isn’t actually tantamount both due to the many nations that have appeared from that point forward and the extension in the quantity of sports and henceforth decorations. In Moscow, for example, India completed at 23rd position however with simply a single decoration, the hockey gold. A rehash of that at Tokyo would have set India at joint 63rd, a proportion of how unique the two times are.

In London 2012, India had completed 57th notwithstanding winning a larger number of awards than in Beijing on the grounds that the decoration table positions nations by gold, silver and bronze in a specific order and India didn’t win a gold in London. In Rio in 2016, the award count collided with only two thus did the positioning to 67th. From that point, it’s currently gone up almost 20 spots.

SEVEN SAMURAI

1 gold, 2 silver, 4 bronze – India delivered it’s most extravagant ever award pull and the best exhibition ever at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, which finished on Sunday. Here are the people of steel and thunder who made India glad and gave the country something to cheer about in these dull occasions of a lethal pandemic.

GOLD

NEERAJ CHOPRA | Athlete

There were greater names with better records in Tokyo. In any case, while most surrendered to the pressing factor of the large stage, the 23-year-old kid from Haryana’s Panipat area savored and delighted at the time. Following his brilliant toss, millions became enthusiastic on hearing the public hymn at the Olympics interestingly since Beijing 2008. A fitting peak to the narrative of Neeraj Chopra, who risked upon the game while attempting to get in shape and who defeated a grip of wounds to give Indian games its most prominent second on the world’s greatest donning stage

SILVER

SAIKHOM MIRABAI CHANU |Weightlifter

Much was normal from Mirabai Chanu at Rio 2016. She slumped, neglecting to make a solitary quick lift. The strain to convey was smashing at Tokyo 2020. In any case, trained by Vijay Sharma, the obliging 26-year-old from Manipur easily handled the significant burdens to secure a silver happily in the 49kg class. Reclamation had never been seriously fulfilling and better for the one who got logs to accumulate winter fuel for her family as a youngster

RAVI KUMAR DAHIYA |Wrestler

He was positioned world no. 4. In any case, in the approach the Olympics, the spotlight was barely ever on the 23-year-old Olympic debutant from Sonipat. Incognizant, Kumar created a presentation of dazzling dauntlessness and perseverance while following 2-9 against adversary Nurislam Sanayev in the semis. Frantic to escape his iron grasp, the Kazakh bit him severely in his lower arm yet Dahiya wouldn’t give up till the tide was changed. Dahiya contended energetically yet lost in the last to turn into India’s second silver decoration winning grappler after Sushil Kumar. Not really settled competitor, he could well enhance his award tone in 2024

Bronze

Men’s group Hockey

None of them was conceived when India last won an Olympic decoration in hockey. Be that as it may, nothing, not so much as a possibly spirit draining 7-1 misfortune to Australia, could stop skipper Manpreet Singh’s young men from their tryst with the platform. The loss prodded them to convey one standout execution after another, subsequent in a bronze season finisher. The match against Germany was for the ages. You can continue to watch India’s 5-4 victory for the remainder of your lives. However, this group holds the guarantee of a lot more successes to come

the beginning phases in Tokyo, she looked underneath her best. Be that as it may, similar to a finely-tuned accuracy instrument, Pusarla Venkata Sindhu hit the ideal notes as the competition crested.

# WHY IS S.RADHAKRISHNAN’S BIRTHDAY IS CELEBRATED ON SEPTEMBER 5 ?

Dr Radhakrishnan was knighted in 1931, and was granted the Bharat Ratna – the most noteworthy nonmilitary personnel grant in India in 1954. He was made a privileged individual from the British Royal Order of Merit in 1963.

In India, September 5 is commended as Teachers’ Day as an accolade for the commitment made by educators to society. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan — India’s previous President, researcher, savant and Bharat Ratna awardee — was brought into the world on this day in 1888. Brought into the world in a helpless Brahmin family in Andhra Pradesh’s Tiruttani, Dr Radhakrishnan was a brilliant understudy and he finished his examinations through grants.

The story behind Teachers’ Day is that when Dr Radhakrishan took the workplace of the second President of India in 1962, his understudies moved toward him to look for authorization to observe September 5 as an uncommon day. Dr Radhakrishnan rather made a solicitation to notice September 5 as Teachers’ Day, to perceive the commitment of educators to society.

An extraordinary researcher, and rationalist, Radhakrishnan was the primary Vice President and second President of autonomous India. Radhakrishnan graduated with a Master’s certificate in Philosophy and created the book ‘The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore’ in 1917 and put Indian way of thinking on the world guide. He then, at that point held the post of Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University from 1931 to 1936, trailed by Vice-Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in 1939, succeeding Madan Mohan Malviya.

Many caps wore by Dr Radhakrishnan:

During his lifetime, Dr Radhakrishnan was a praiseworthy understudy, a commended educator, famous creator and held various posts. He proceeded to instruct at Chennai’s Presidency College and Calcutta University. As a

teacher at the Presidency College in Madras and the University of Calcutta, he was well known among understudies.

He was knighted in 1931 and was granted the Bharat Ratna — the most elevated regular citizen grant in India in 1954. He was made a privileged individual from the British Royal Order of Merit in 1963.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, who was probably his dearest companion, had numerous extraordinary comments about Dr Radhakrishnan. “He has served his country in numerous limits. However, most importantly, he is an extraordinary educator from whom we all have learnt much and will keep on learning. It is India’s particular advantage to have an extraordinary savant, an incredible educationist and an extraordinary humanist as its President. That in itself shows the sort of men we honor and regard,” said Nehru.

# PINEAPPLE AS PART OF DIET

Fresh pineapple is the only known source of an enzyme called bromelain, which might play a role in a range of different health benefits.

Many examinations have proposed that expanding utilization of plant food varieties like pineapples diminishes the danger of heftiness, by and large mortality, diabetes, and coronary illness.

It likewise advances a solid colouring and hair, expanded energy, and a general lower weight.

Coming up next are potential advantages of eating pineapple :

Asthma counteraction

The dangers of creating asthma are lower in individuals who burn-through a high measure of specific supplements.

One of these supplements is beta-carotene. It is found in orange, yellow and dim green plant food varieties, like pineapple, mangoes, papaya, apricots, broccoli, melon, pumpkin, and carrots.

Some more modest studies Trusted Source have proposed bromelain can likewise add to reducing asthma side effects.

Assimilation / Digestion

Pineapples, in view of their fiber and water content, help to forestall stoppage and advance consistency and a sound gastrointestinal system.

Pineapples are likewise rich in bromelain, a compound that helps the body digest proteins. Bromelain additionally decreases provocative insusceptible cells, called cytokines, that harm the intestinal system lining.

The unappetizing stems are the most focused wellspring of bromelain, which can be removed and is promptly accessible in supplement structure.

Contains disease fighting antioxidants

Not only are pineapples rich in nutrients, they are also loaded with healthy antioxidants. Antioxidants are molecules that help your body combat oxidative stress.

Oxidative stress is a state in which there are too many free radicals in the body. These free radicals interact with the body’s cells and cause damage that is linked to chronic inflammation, a weakened immune system and many harmful diseases

Pineapples are especially rich in antioxidants known as flavonoids and phenolic acids

What’s more, many of the antioxidants in pineapple are bound. This allows the antioxidants to survive harsher conditions in the body and produce longer lasting effects.

May Help Reduce the Risk of Cancer

Malignancy is a persistent infection portrayed by uncontrolled cell development. Its movement is usually connected to oxidative pressure and constant aggravation.

A few examinations have shown that pineapple and its mixtures might decrease the danger of malignancies. This is on the grounds that they might limit oxidative pressure and decrease aggravation.

One of these mixtures is the gathering of stomach related compounds called bromelain. Test-tube studies have shown that bromelain may likewise assist with battling disease

For example, two test-tube studies showed that bromelain smothered the development of bosom disease cells and invigorated cell passing

Other test-tube studies show that bromelain smothers disease in the skin, bile pipe, gastric framework and colon, among different regions

Test-tube and animal studies have found that bromelain may stimulate the immune system to produce molecules that make white blood cells more effective at suppressing cancer cell growth and eliminating cancer cells.

SKIN IRRITATION

Bromelain is utilized as a meat tenderizer, so eating a lot of bromelain-rich pineapple might make your lips sore or enlarged. This response is typically gentle and brief, yet certain individuals are additional touchy to pineapple and may experience the ill effects of more extreme incidental effects, like enlarged tongue, rashes, hives or breathing issues, If you experience these manifestations, try not to eat pineapple, as you might be hypersensitive to it. Also, bromelain is a gentle blood slenderer and eating heaps of pineapple might cause draining issues in certain individuals.

Has High Sugar Content

Typically, when making pineapple juice there is no requirement for one to add any sugar since pineapple itself is now sweet. Pineapple having a high sugar content level and subsequently are not to be taken in overabundance as it can cause gum disease and pits. It ought to likewise be stayed away from by the individuals who are overweight or diabetic.

May demolish existing kidney issues

Notwithstanding bromelain, pineapple likewise contains oxalic corrosive and a lot of potassium. Oxalic corrosive is equipped for creating salts alongside different kinds of mineral mixtures like calcium, which is likewise found in our bodies.

Consequently, those with kidney disappointment or kidney stones can’t and ought not follow the pineapple diet. Doing as such would deteriorate their condition and create an aggregation of potassium in the body.

# WATER

Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth’s hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent[1]). It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula H2O, indicates that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. The hydrogen atoms are attached to the oxygen atom at an angle of 104.45°.[2] “Water” is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard conditions for temperature and pressure.

A globule of liquid water, and the concave depression and rebound in water caused by something dropping through the water surface

A block of solid water (ice)

Clouds in Earth’s atmosphere condense from gaseous water vapor.

A number of natural states of water exist. It forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds consist of suspended droplets of water and ice, its solid state. When finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is steam or water vapor.

Water covers approximately 70.9% of the Earth’s surface, mostly in seas and oceans.Small portions of water occur as groundwater (1.7%), in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland (1.7%), and in the air as vapor, clouds (consisting of ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation (0.001%).Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea.

Water plays an important role in the world economy. Approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture.[6] Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of the long-distance trade of commodities (such as oil, natural gas, and manufactured products) is transported by boats through seas, rivers, lakes, and canals. Large quantities of water, ice, and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a wide variety of substances both mineral and organic; as such it is widely used in industrial processes, and in cooking and washing. Water, ice and snow are also central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, surfing, sport fishing, diving, ice skating and skiing.

Chemical and physical properties

Water (H2O) is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. This simplest hydrogen chalcogenide is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the “universal solvent” for its ability to dissolve many substances.[8][9] This allows it to be the “solvent of life”:[10] indeed, water as found in nature almost always includes various dissolved substances, and special steps are required to obtain chemically pure water. Water is the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas in normal terrestrial conditions

States

Along with oxidane, water is one of the two official names for the chemical compound H
2O;it is also the liquid phase of H
2O.The other two common states of matter of water are the solid phase, ice, and the gaseous phase, water vapor or steam. The addition or removal of heat can cause phase transitions: freezing (water to ice), melting (ice to water), vaporization (water to vapor), condensation (vapor to water), sublimation (ice to vapor) and deposition (vapor to ice)

Density

Water differs from most liquids in that it becomes less dense as it freezes.In 1 atm pressure, it reaches its maximum density of 1,000 kg/m3 (62.43 lb/cu ft) at 3.98 °C (39.16 °F).The density of ice is 917 kg/m3 (57.25 lb/cu ft), an expansion of 9%.This expansion can exert enormous pressure, bursting pipes and cracking rocks (see Frost weathering).

In a lake or ocean, water at 4 °C (39.2 °F) sinks to the bottom, and ice forms on the surface, floating on the liquid water. This ice insulates the water below, preventing it from freezing solid. Without this protection, most aquatic organisms would perish during the winter.

Phase transitions

At a pressure of one atmosphere (atm), ice melts or water freezes at 0 °C (32 °F) and water boils or vapor condenses at 100 °C (212 °F). However, even below the boiling point, water can change to vapor at its surface by evaporation (vaporization throughout the liquid is known as boiling). Sublimation and deposition also occur on surfaces.For example, frost is deposited on cold surfaces while snowflakes form by deposition on an aerosol particle or ice nucleus.In the process of freeze-drying, a food is frozen and then stored at low pressure so the ice on its surface sublimates.

The melting and boiling points depend on pressure. A good approximation for the rate of change of the melting temperature with pressure is given by the Clausius–Clapeyron relation:

where {\displaystyle v_{\text{L}}}{\displaystyle v_{\text{L}}} and {\displaystyle v_{\text{S}}}{\displaystyle v_{\text{S}}} are the molar volumes of the liquid and solid phases, and {\displaystyle L_{\text{f}}}{\displaystyle L_{\text{f}}} is the molar latent heat of melting. In most substances, the volume increases when melting occurs, so the melting temperature increases with pressure. However, because ice is less dense than water, the melting temperature decreases.In glaciers, pressure melting can occur under sufficiently thick volumes of ice, resulting in subglacial lakes.

The Clausius-Clapeyron relation also applies to the boiling point, but with the liquid/gas transition the vapor phase has a much lower density than the liquid phase, so the boiling point increases with pressure. Water can remain in a liquid state at high temperatures in the deep ocean or underground. For example, temperatures exceed 205 °C (401 °F) in Old Faithful, a geyser in Yellowstone National Park.In hydrothermal vents, the temperature can exceed 400 °C (752 °F).

At sea level, the boiling point of water is 100 °C (212 °F). As atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude, the boiling point decreases by 1 °C every 274 meters. High-altitude cooking takes longer than sea-level cooking. For example, at 1,524 metres (5,000 ft), cooking time must be increased by a fourth to achieve the desired result. (Conversely, a pressure cooker can be used to decrease cooking times by raising the boiling temperature.) In a vacuum, water will boil at room temperature.

Triple and critical points

On a pressure/temperature phase diagram (see figure), there are curves separating solid from vapor, vapor from liquid, and liquid from solid. These meet at a single point called the triple point, where all three phases can coexist. The triple point is at a temperature of 273.16 K (0.01 °C) and a pressure of 611.657 pascals (0.00604 atm); it is the lowest pressure at which liquid water can exist. Until 2019, the triple point was used to define the Kelvin temperature scale.

The water/vapor phase curve terminates at 647.096 K (373.946 °C; 705.103 °F) and 22.064 megapascals (3,200.1 psi; 217.75 atm).This is known as the critical point. At higher temperatures and pressures the liquid and vapor phases form a continuous phase called a supercritical fluid. It can be gradually compressed or expanded between gas-like and liquid-like densities, its properties (which are quite different from those of ambient water) are sensitive to density. For example, for suitable pressures and temperatures it can mix freely with nonpolar compounds, including most organic compounds. This makes it useful in a variety of applications including high-temperature electrochemistry and as an ecologically benign solvent or catalyst in chemical reactions involving organic compounds. In Earth’s mantle, it acts as a solvent during mineral formation, dissolution and deposition.

Phases of ice and water

The normal form of ice on the surface of Earth is Ice Ih, a phase that forms crystals with hexagonal symmetry. Another with cubic crystalline symmetry, Ice Ic, can occur in the upper atmosphere.As the pressure increases, ice forms other crystal structures. As of 2019, 17 have been experimentally confirmed and several more are predicted theoretically.The 18th form of ice, ice XVIII, a face-centred-cubic, superionic ice phase, was discovered when a droplet of water was subject to a shock wave that raised the water’s pressure to millions of atmospheres and its temperature to thousands of degrees, resulting in a structure of rigid oxygen toms in which hydrogen atoms flowed freely.When sandwiched between layers of graphene, ice forms a square lattice.

The details of the chemical nature of liquid water are not well understood; some theories suggest that its unusual behaviour is due to the existence of 2 liquid states.

Taste and odor

Pure water is usually described as tasteless and odorless, although humans have specific sensors that can feel the presence of water in their mouths,and frogs are known to be able to smell it.However, water from ordinary sources (including bottled mineral water) usually has many dissolved substances, that may give it varying tastes and odors. Humans and other animals have developed senses that enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water that is too salty or putrid.

Color and appearance

Pure water is visibly blue due to absorption of light in the region ca. 600 nm – 800 nm. The color can be easily observed in a glass of tap-water placed against a pure white background, in daylight. The principal absorption bands responsible for the color are overtones of the O–H stretching vibrations. The apparent intensity of the color increases with the depth of the water column, following Beer’s law. This also applies, for example, with a swimming pool when the light source is sunlight reflected from the pool’s white tiles.

In nature, the color may also be modified from blue to green due to the presence of suspended solids or algae.

In industry, near-infrared spectroscopy is used with aqueous solutions as the greater intensity of the lower overtones of water means that glass cuvettes with short path-length may be employed. To observe the fundamental stretching absorption spectrum of water or of an aqueous solution in the region around 3500 cm−1 (2.85 μm) a path length of about 25 μm is needed. Also, the cuvette must be both transparent around 3500 cm−1 and insoluble in water; calcium fluoride is one material that is in common use for the cuvette windows with aqueous solutions.

The Raman-active fundamental vibrations may be observed with, for example, a 1 cm sample cell.

Aquatic plants, algae, and other photosynthetic organisms can live in water up to hundreds of meters deep, because sunlight can reach them. Practically no sunlight reaches the parts of the oceans below 1,000 meters (3,300 ft) of depth.

The refractive index of liquid water (1.333 at 20 °C (68 °F)) is much higher than that of air (1.0), similar to those of alkanes and ethanol, but lower than those of glycerol (1.473), benzene (1.501), carbon disulfide (1.627), and common types of glass (1.4 to 1.6). The refraction index of ice (1.31) is lower than that of liquid water.

Polar molecule

In a water molecule, the hydrogen atoms form a 104.5° angle with the oxygen atom. The hydrogen atoms are close to two corners of a tetrahedron centered on the oxygen. At the other two corners are lone pairs of valence electrons that do not participate in the bonding. In a perfect tetrahedron, the atoms would form a 109.5° angle, but the repulsion between the lone pairs is greater than the repulsion between the hydrogen atoms.The O–H bond length is about 0.096 nm.

Other substances have a tetrahedral molecular structure, for example, methane (CH
and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, oxygen is more electronegative (holds on to its electrons more tightly) than most other elements, so the oxygen atom retains a negative charge while the hydrogen atoms are positively charged. Along with the bent structure, this gives the molecule an electrical dipole moment and it is classified as a polar molecule.

Water is a good polar solvent, that dissolves many salts and hydrophilic organic molecules such as sugars and simple alcohols such as ethanol. Water also dissolves many gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide—the latter giving the fizz of carbonated beverages, sparkling wines and beers. In addition, many substances in living organisms, such as proteins, DNA and polysaccharides, are dissolved in water. The interactions between water and the subunits of these biomacromolecules shape protein folding, DNA base pairing, and other phenomena crucial to life (hydrophobic effect).

Many organic substances (such as fats and oils and alkanes) are hydrophobic, that is, insoluble in water. Many inorganic substances are insoluble too, including most metal oxides, sulfides, and silicates.

Hydrogen bonding

Because of its polarity, a molecule of water in the liquid or solid state can form up to four hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules. Hydrogen bonds are about ten times as strong as the Van der Waals force that attracts molecules to each other in most liquids. This is the reason why the melting and boiling points of water are much higher than those of other analogous compounds like hydrogen sulfide. They also explain its exceptionally high specific heat capacity (about 4.2 J/g/K), heat of fusion (about 333 J/g), heat of vaporization (2257 J/g), and thermal conductivity (between 0.561 and 0.679 W/m/K). These properties make water more effective at moderating Earth’s climate, by storing heat and transporting it between the oceans and the atmosphere. The hydrogen bonds of water are around 23 kJ/mol (compared to a covalent O-H bond at 492 kJ/mol). Of this, it is estimated that 90% is attributable to electrostatics, while the remaining 10% is partially covalent.

These bonds are the cause of water’s high surface tension and capillary forces. The capillary action refers to the tendency of water to move up a narrow tube against the force of gravity. This property is relied upon by all vascular plants, such as trees.

Self-ionisation

Water is a weak solution of hydronium hydroxide – there is an equilibrium 2H
2O ⇔ H
3O+
+ OH−
, in combination with solvation of the resulting hydronium ions.

Electrical conductivity and electrolysis

Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, which increases with the dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as common salt.

Liquid water can be split into the elements hydrogen and oxygen by passing an electric current through it—a process called electrolysis. The decomposition requires more energy input than the heat released by the inverse process (285.8 kJ/mol, or 15.9 MJ/kg)

Mechanical properties

Liquid water can be assumed to be incompressible for most purposes: its compressibility ranges from 4.4 to 5.1×10−10 Pa−1 in ordinary conditions.Even in oceans at 4 km depth, where the pressure is 400 atm, water suffers only a 1.8% decrease in volume.

The viscosity of water is about 10−3 Pa·s or 0.01 poise at 20 °C (68 °F), and the speed of sound in liquid water ranges between 1,400 and 1,540 meters per second (4,600 and 5,100 ft/s) depending on temperature. Sound travels long distances in water with little attenuation, especially at low frequencies (roughly 0.03 dB/km for 1 kHz), a property that is exploited by cetaceans and humans for communication and environment sensing (sonar).

Reactivity

Metallic elements which are more electropositive than hydrogen, particularly the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals such as lithium, sodium, calcium, potassium and cesium displace hydrogen from water, forming hydroxides and releasing hydrogen. At high temperatures, carbon reacts with steam to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

# BOOKS UNDER 100 PAGES

Books come in different colors and size. Few readers love thick books whereas few prefer think books. The most frequent answer when asked why someone refuses to read is there seems to be no time in their schedule.

On hectic days, 100 paged books are our saviors. An overriding theme, authentic characters and an engrossing plot with tension and resolution. So you have the satisfaction of a story that immerses you in another world, moves you in some way and stays with you afterwards.

Number of pages: 64

“We spend too much time teaching girls to worry about what boys think of them. But the reverse is not the case.”

This book is basically an essay, it is about feminism. What is feminism? I often heard people saying, why feminism? If the goal is equality between gender. This short book will explain everything clearly.

“Masculinity is a hard, small cage, and we put boys inside this cage.”

CHECK IT OUT

Number of pages: 48

One rainy Tokyo night, a waitress’s uneventful twentieth birthday takes a strange and fateful turn when she’s asked to deliver dinner to the restaurant’s reclusive owner. The book leaves us thinking, undoubtedly a story one can read again and again.

CHECK IT OUT

Number of pages: 46 pages

The Houseplant is a short story about George, a houseplant. Brenda is its human, who got George and kept him on her reading room window. She had book club women coming to meet her, she would tell the meet-cute story of meeting George for the first time, over and over. George has a different version to the meet-cute story of Brenda. He didn’t like the environment and the human at first, slowly he realized the kindness, love and care showed by his human.

The story is from George’s POV, which is adorable. I just feel in love with George from the very beginning. Author has done a fabulous job and managed to make me feel connected, I can’t believe I was immersed and didn’t know its going to end, I realized that I wanted to heard more from George. I too saw everything from the houseplants perspective. A fun, enjoyable read for sure.

CHECK IT OUT

Number of pages:90

The story revolves around Binya, a small girl from Garhwal hills. The villagers have tiger-clawed pendants to wear off the evil eyes. Binya has one too, she meets a tourist and she gets a beautiful blue umbrella in exchange for the pendant she wears. Ram Bharosa, the shopkeeper is envious of the umbrella tries to get hold of it.

“The umbrella was like a flower, a great blue flower that had sprung up on the dry brown hillside.”

The story is less than 100 pages and is available on Amazon for less than Rs.100. I would highly recommend it as this one makes us think and ends on a happy note.

CHECK IT OUT

These are a set of must read books that are less than 100 pages. Let me know in the comments if this helps. I have more such recommendations coming up, stay tuned.

# WHY SHOULD WE WATCH BOOKTUBE?

BookTube is a book-specific subset of the YouTube community. BookTube is the unofficial name given to a collection of YouTube channels that discuss all things bookish. Each day, thousands of online creators, or BookTubers, share videos about books they love (and hate), literacy, fandom and being generally crazy for reading.

While watching videos about reading can seem counterproductive, BookTubers encourage people to stop watching YouTube and start reading as many books as possible in as many genres that exist. There are unique contents like reading a particular colored books for a month, reading 25 hours straight, Asian authors etc…

WHEN DID BOOKTUBING START?

Though it lacks an exact origin, the BookTube community began around 2010 and has thrived exponentially in recent years. Christine Riccio (PolandbananasBOOKS) is often known as a pioneer of BookTube and became one of the first BookTubers to gain a large following.

WHY SHOULD YOU WATCH BOOKTUBE?

The same reason why we watch YouTube. There are lots of unboxing videos that are so satisfying. It is entertaining, encouraging, inspiring, makes us productive. Booktubers encourages us to read more, explore more genres. We get more recommendations, I believe that’s an amazing reason to watch booktube.

LIST OF BOOKTUBERS TO FOLLOW

Helly started her channel in the year 2015, since then she makes incredible student life, productive, freelancing and bookish videos. One of the things that introduced me to the bookish world would be the Helly channel.

The Melodramatic Bookworm is a wonderful channel. Since 2018, Sonali, an Indian booktuber is doing a crazy good job by recommending books.

BookJunction – Sneha Banerjee’s videos are exciting to watch. She covers book recommendations, self-improvement, stationery items, arts and much more in her videos.

I’m a fan of LibroReview and her bookshelf is desirable. Anchal runs the channel by spreading positivity, self-improvement, book reviews, recommendations and she is great at non-fiction recommendations.

WiseWithGrace shares inspiring videos. The channel is about lifestyle, books, and productivity. Her enthusiastic recommendations will make us add the book to our tbr lists.

Emmie, IndianBooktuber, Fandomnewbie, BooksAreMySocialLife and a lot more fascinating channels are out there for us.

CAN BOOKTUBERS EARN MONEY?

Yes. Just like youtube channels, a bookish channel with a certain expected number of views will be monetized. Not all book tubers channels are monetized, it takes lots of time and effort. Supporting a channel by sharing, liking and engaging through comments can help them. It also encourages them to make more such videos.

Until your channel is eligible for monetization, you can’t make any money from ad revenue. The good news is, you can still make money from affiliate marketing. They get paid through ads.

The percentage of people who skip ads heavily impacts YouTubers’ revenue as YouTube does not count skipped ads as a view, advertisers don’t pay for skipped ads, and therefore creators do not get paid for viewers who skip ads. If a YouTuber has an audience made of people who always skip ads, they won’t earn as much.

you can make a living on Youtube, on condition that you pay more attention to develop your channel, to get more and more fans and more and more video views, so that you are more likely to earn more money from Youtube for your life. If you are planning to start a booktube channel, All the best.

Thank you!

# BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER(BDD)

Body Dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder marked by an obsessive of perceived defects or flaws in once appearance. A flaw that to others is considered minor or not observable.

People suffering from BDD

1. Can feel emotion such as shame and disgust concerning a part or parts of their body part and fixate on this.
2. The obsession is so intense that the person repeatedly checks and compares the perceived flaw seeks reassurance sometimes for several hours each day.
3. The person can also adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes the perceived flaw.
4. This pervasive thoughts about their appearance and body image interfere with their daily life via
• Educational
• Occupational dysfunction and
• Isolation

No matter how many times people assure them that there is no flaw, they cannot accept that the issue doesn’t exist.

The most common features about which people obsess includes:-

• Nose
• Wrinkles
• Acne
• Complexion
• Blemishes
• Hair
• Skin
• Vein appearance
• Muscles size
• Tone
• Breast size
• Buttocks
• Genitalia

BDD is estimated to affect up to 2.4% of the population. The condition usually starts during adolescence affecting both men and women. BDD does not go away on its own if Untreated it may get worse with time leading to

• severe depression
• Anxiety
• Substance abuse
• Suicidal thoughts and behavior

### Causes

The exact cause is unknown, but like every other disorder BDD may result from a combination of causes such as:-

1. Brain differences
2. Environmental factors; special if they involve negative social evaluations about the body or Self-image
3. Childhood trauma
4. Genetics; studies suggest that BDD is likely to run in family.

Certain factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition may include:-

1. A family history
2. Negative body image
3. Perfectionism
4. Negative life experiences such as bullying or teasing
5. Introversion
6. Media influence.

### Symptoms

Extreme preoccupation with a perceived flaw in your physical appearance that appear minor to others for at least one hour a day. Attempting to hide perceived flaw with –

• styling, makeup or clothes – to seeking plastic or cosmetic surgery,
• avoiding social situations,
• constantly comparing appearance with others,
• always seeking assurance about appearance from others,
• low self-esteem, compulsive behaviour such as skin picking and frequent clothes changing.

Extreme preoccupation with an appearance that interferes with social life work, school, or other functionality.

### Diagnosis

A medical evaluation will be carried out other medical conditions after which further evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional.

Diagnosis is based on:-

1. A psychological evaluation; which aims at assessing risk factors and thoughts feeling as well as behavior can be associated with a negative self-image.
2. Personal, medical, family and social health history.

### Treatment

Treatment option may include therapy and medication includes:-

1. Cognitive behavioral therapy; that helps you learn how to cope and behave to improve your mental health
2. Medications; such as SSRIs may help is control obsession and control repetitive behaviours

Psychiatric hospital may be suggested if the symptom is severe such as when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself.

### Famous personality with BDD

Here is a list of people with BDD;

• Michael Jackson(singer, dancer)
• Billie Elish (singer)
• Robert Pattinson (from twilight)
• Ileana D’Cruz (from Rustom)
• Miguel Herrán (from money heist)