BOOK REVIEW-THE KITE RUNNER BY KHALED HOSSEINI

BY DAKSHITA NAITHANI

The Kite Runner is a remarkable and compelling novel that has become a cherished, yet another classic. It is a sweeping narrative of family, love, and friendship set against the terrible background of Afghanistan’s history during the previous three decades.

The Kite Runner is a riveting and dramatic narrative of treachery and redemption that left the readers both excited and touched. It depicts the narrative of Amir and Hassan, two best friends who are also specialists in the art of kite flying and are as close as brothers. The two young boys reside in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan and this year they’ll try harder than ever before to win the local kite-fighting championship, a traditional Afghan pastime—which is Amir’s last hope of regaining his father’s affection. But, like the kites fighting in the skies, conflict descends on Afghanistan, turning the nation into a deadly region.

In this work, the kite was utilised as a metaphor. Amir wants to please his father by winning the game, while Hassan demonstrates his naive allegiance by being a kite runner, in the early stages of the storey. Khaled Hosseini’s words are quite solemn, like as Hassan’s dialogue “For you, a thousand times over” when Amir replied “Hassan, come back with the kite.” It expresses Hassan’s earnest commitment to their friendship. Baba is a hero to his son, treating his servant’s son as if he were his own. Amir attempts to amaze him for the most part and becomes exhausted, but Hassan makes it look easy As a result, he despises Hassan for that reason alone. “There is just one sin, only one,” Baba said of lying. That is thievery. Theft is the root of all other sins. When you kill a guy, you take away a life… you take away his wife’s right to a husband, and you take away his children’s right to a father. When you tell a falsehood, you are robbing someone of their right to know the truth. Cheating robs you of your right to justice… there is no more heinous conduct than stealing.” In the second part of the storey, he develops into an irony.

People are frequently compelled to make enormous sacrifices in battle, and the young Amir himself commits a treachery, directed at his best mate Hassan, that will plague him for the rest of his life. When Amir and his father are forced to escape Afghanistan for America, The Kite Runner has become the narrative of Amir’s search for atonement, as he seeks to atone for the wrongs he did as a child in Kabul.

The tale is fast-paced and never dull, and it brings us to a weird, intriguing, yet oddly familiar world, the world of Afghan life. Not only is the storey itself brilliantly constructed, but the book also explores the very art of storytelling. Hosseini’s writing strikes a great balance between being clear and yet powerful, and not only is the story itself brilliantly constructed, but the book also explores the very art of storytelling. Amir becomes a writer himself, and he reflects on his experiences in the tale as if his lifetime were a work of fiction.

The kite runner’s finest feature is its feeling of fate and justice, of virtue triumphing over bad in the end, despite all obstacles. Without giving anything away about the plot, Amir returns to Afghanistan and undertakes a new series of sacrifices in order to put things right. The message underlying the finale might be taken differently by various readers, but it gives a glimmer of hope for the characters’ futures, as well as possibly for war-torn Afghanistan.

Khaled Hosseini writes with a heart that recalls, and remembers well, his motherland. Though most of us think of Afghanistan as war-torn and exhausted, obsessive and confining, even terrifying, Hosseini recalls what it was like before all of that. He provides the Afghan community a face, which has the potential to be quite strong.

He doesn’t offer us a narrator that is pleasant, admirable, or even excusable, but he does give us a narrator who is real, fragile, and suffers as a result of his flaws. There is no atonement for certain sins, just pardon.

HOLOCAUST – THROWBACK TO HISTORY (Part-2)

To put it in plain words, Nazi Germany killed millions of Jews.

WHAT HAPPENS IN CAMPS?

Jews were put to work, they were treated worse than slaves. In the novel Night, we get to know that the jews were evacuated from their houses. The families were separated, their house were snatched from them. Imagine waking up and having to leave our house not knowing where we are headed to.

Nazi Camps. Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps. The workers were given huge load of work. The food provided were not enough, they had to fight like mad to get a piece of bread. There was no feeling, no father-son relationship as they have to survive. The families were no more families by heart, to survive they were even willing to beat each other up.

Interned persons may be held in prisons or in facilities known as internment camps, also known as concentration camps.

AUSHWITZ

The most deadliest camp among the concentration camps. Auschwitz concentration camp was a complex of over 40 concentration and extermination camps operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II and the Holocaust. 

The prisoners were departed to the camp were gassed. They worked to death and died in medical experiments. People from all over Europe were crammed into cattle wagons without windows, toilets, seats or food, and transported to Auschwitz. There they were sorted into those who could work and those who were to be immediately killed.

The vast majority were murdered in the complex of gas chambers at Auschwitz II-Birkenau camp.

Zyklon-B gas was used to murder people. Guards pushed the people inside the chamber. There won’t be enough space for the people, they were squeezed inside and they were suffocated to death by the gas. They were also burnt as a whole. The description was so raw, even when the people bang the door, the guards won’t let them out and when they do there would be bodies falling out.

WHAT HAPPENS TO PEOPLE WHO ARE INJURED?

The people who are injured or ill were alloted Barracks. Birkenau concentration camps have Barracks,  were primitive wooden structures with large wooden shelves for bunkbeds. There were 36 bunks per barrack; 5 to 6 prisoners were packed on a shelf to fit over 500 prisoners per barracks. Inmates wore the same ragged clothes for work and sleep. 

The barracks had no insulation from the cold or heat, the wooden roofs often leaked, and the straw sometimes supplied as bedding was soon filthy and wet. The only toilet facility was a single bucket, and diarrhea, lice, and disease were common. Even when it’s cold, the prisoners have to bath in cold water. They have to walk all the way in cold to the bathhouse and get back to the Barracks. If the illness have no progression, they would be sent to death camps.

Life in the camp was hard, the survivors’ interview are available on YouTube. There was two such videos that runs in my mind. Here’s the link to German Nazi meets Holocaust survivor.

Holocaust twin experiment survivor’s interview.

Thank you for reading! Kindly check out the novel Night by Elie Wiesel and the interviews. There is a lack of awareness about Holocaust.

Legal Remedy against a false case

With the sharp increase in number of cases filed has seen Indian citizens becoming aware of their rights. People are now less timid to come out and fight against injustice. However, on the other side of the coin, the proliferation of false and vexatious cases before the judiciary has been taken place for past few decades. It’s imperative to know the legal way out of this trap so that one does not spend a long period of time fighting in the court against a false accusation which consumes his time and energy.

Section 209 in The Indian Penal Code

Dishonestly making false claim in Court.—Whoever fraudu­lently or dishonestly, or with intent to injure or annoy any person, makes in a Court of Justice any claim which he knows to be false, shall be punished with imprisonment of either descrip­tion for a term which may extend to two years, and shall also be liable to fine.

The essential ingredients of an offence under Section 209 are:

  1. The accused made a claim;
  2. The claim was made in a Court of Justice;
  3. The claim was false, either wholly or in part;
  4. That the accused knew that the claim was false; and
  5. The claim was made fraudulently, dishonestly, or with intent to injure or to annoy any person.

A litigant makes a ‘claim’ before a Court of Justice for the purpose of Section 209 when he seeks certain relief or remedies from the Court and a ‘claim’ for relief necessarily impasses the ground for obtaining that relief.

The offence is complete the moment a false claim is filed in Court.

The section provides a remedy for making false and dishonest claims in the court. This provision has been seldom used. Despite that, there are some rulings in which the courts have initiated the criminal proceedings for false claims and dismissed their case.

In Badri vs Emperor, the court stated that it is immaterial whether the court in which the false claim was made had jurisdiction to try the suit or not.

Ramnandan Prasad Narayan Singh vs Public Prosecutor, The Patna High Court held that mere dismissal of the plaintiff’s case would not justify sanction under section 209 of Indian penal code. A mere proof that the accused failed to prove his claim in the civil suit or the court did not rely upon his evidence on account of discrepancies or improbabilities is not sufficient.

There are many prudent legal provisions to punish the offender who institute a false case, but in the presence of these legal provisions, the courts have witnessed an increase of false cases large number. Hence, there is a need to bring a special law to deal with the false cases as recommended by the Law Commission in its 192ndreport, to bring strong deterrence in society regarding this crime. Apart from this there is a need to spread awareness in people regarding their rights and remedies available in case of a false F.I.R.

HOLOCAUST – A THROWBACK TO HISTORY (Part 1)

The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide of European Jews during World War II. Between 1941 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews across German-occupied Europe, around two-thirds of Europe’s Jewish population. 

Holocaust is a word of Greek origin meaning “sacrifice by fire.” By the late 19th century, holocaust most commonly came to mean “a complete or wholesale destruction.”

WHEN DID HOLOCAUST BEGIN?

Prior to the beginning of second world war, the  persecution of Jews started. It got intensifed as the Nazi invaded Poland. It was a traumatic event for Jewish people. The idea of holocaust was caused by many factors, including millions of individuals.

WHAT IS ANTISEMITISM?

Antisemitism, the fear or hatred of Jews had existed in Europe for centuries. It did not matter whether a person practiced the Jewish faith because the Nazis believed Jews belonged to a separate race and had distinct “Jewish blood.” This belief was false: there is no biological difference between Jews and non-Jews.

WHY GERMANS TOLERATED HOLOCAUST?

Many Germans were tolerating the treatment as they believed the Nazi party was restoring Germany’s status as an international power after its humiliating defeat in World War 1. The Nazis also promised to restore Germany economically after years of inflation.

The holocaust couldn’t have happened without the support of millions of people.

WHY JEWS WERE ATTACKED?

The specific hatred of Jews, had existed in Europe for centuries. The early Christian church had portrayed Jews as unwilling to accept the word of God. After World War I, the new Nazi Party and it’s leader, Adolf Hitler, blamed Jews for Germany’s defeat.

WHAT HAPPENS TO THE JEWS?

Germany first used concentration camps as places of terror and unlawful incarceration of political opponents. There were concentration camps and the Jews were segregated to work there, other weakling were pushed to death.

Transportation to and between camps was often carried out in closed freight cars with little air or water, long delays and prisoners packed tightly. The Jews were separated from their family. The camp was not kind to them. They were slowly dying there.

Death camp became the center of Nazi Holocaust. Aushwitz was originally a Polish army barracks in southern Poland. Nazi Germany invaded and occupied Poland. Later, it was used to gas Jews to death. This became the site of the huge gas chambers where hundreds of thousands were murdered.

BOOK BASED ON HOLOCAUST

NIGHT BY ELIE WIESEL

The cruelty Jews faced were portrayed clearly as the author is one of the survivor. If one wants to know about Holocaust, this book is a must read for them.

BUY NOW

Let me discuss the details of what Jews faced there in part two. Hope you get the gist of the concept of Holocaust. Survivor’s words, “I survived two concentration camps”

In just over four-and-a-half years, Nazi Germany systematically murdered at least 1.1 million people at Auschwitz. Almost one million were Jews. Let’s know more about what exactly happens in the concentration and death camps.

Thank you.

BRAIN

The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body.
It is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that communicate in trillions of connections called synapses.

The brain is made up of many specialized areas that work together:
• The cortex is the outermost layer of brain cells. Thinking and voluntary movements begin in the cortex.
• The brain stem is between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain. Basic functions like breathing and sleep are controlled here.
• The basal ganglia are a cluster of structures in the center of the brain. The basal ganglia coordinate messages between multiple other brain areas.
• The cerebellum is at the base and the back of the brain. The cerebellum is responsible for coordination and balance.

The brain is also divided into several lobes:
• The frontal lobes are responsible for problem solving and judgment and motor function.
• The parietal lobes manage sensation, handwriting, and body position.
• The temporal lobes are involved with memory and hearing.
• The occipital lobes contain the brain’s visual processing system.

The brain is surrounded by a layer of tissue called the meninges. The skull (cranium) helps protect the brain from injury

Brain Conditions

* Headache: There are many types of headaches; some can be serious but most are not and are generally treated with analgesics/painkillers.
* Stroke (brain infarction): Blood flow and oxygen are suddenly interrupted to an area of brain tissue, which then dies. A blood clot, or bleeding in the brain, are the cause of most strokes.
* Brain aneurysm: An artery in the brain develops a weak area that swells, balloon-like. A brain aneurysm rupture can causes a stroke.
* Subdural hematoma: Bleeding within or under the dura, the lining inside of the skull. A subdural hematoma may exert pressure on the brain, causing neurological problems.
* Epidural hematoma: Bleeding between the tough tissue (dura) lining the inside of the skull and the skull itself, usually shortly after a head injury. Initial mild symptoms can progress rapidly to unconsciousness and death, if untreated.
* Intracerebral hemorrhage: Any bleeding inside the brain.

* Concussion: A brain injury that causes a temporary disturbance in brain function. Traumatic head injuries cause most concussions.
* Cerebral edema: Swelling of the brain tissue in response to injury or electrolyte imbalances.
* Brain tumor: Any abnormal tissue growth inside the brain. Whether malignant (cancer) or benign, brain tumors usually cause problems by the pressure they exert on the normal brain.
* Glioblastoma: An aggressive, malignant brain tumor (cancer). Brain glioblastomas progress rapidly and are very difficult to cure.
* Hydrocephalus: An abnormally increased amount of cerebrospinal (brain) fluid inside the skull. Usually this is because the fluid is not circulating properly.
* Normal pressure hydrocephalus: A form of hydrocephalus that often causes problems walking, along with dementia and urinary incontinence. Pressures inside the brain remain normal, despite the increased fluid.

* Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain tissue, usually from infection with a virus. Fever, headache, and confusion are common symptoms.
* Traumatic brain injury: Permanent brain damage from a traumatic head injury. Obvious mental impairment, or more subtle personality and mood changes can occur.
* Parkinson’s disease: Nerves in a central area of the brain degenerate slowly, causing problems with movement and coordination. A tremor of the hands is a common early sign.
* Huntington’s disease: An inherited nerve disorder that affects the brain. Dementia and difficulty controlling movements (chorea) are its symptoms.
* Epilepsy: The tendency to have seizures. Head injuries and strokes may cause epilepsy, but usually no cause is identified.
* Dementia: A decline in cognitive function resulting from death or malfunction of nerve cells in the brain. Conditions in which nerves in the brain degenerate, as well as alcohol abuse and strokes, can cause dementia.

* Alzheimer’s disease: For unclear reasons, nerves in certain brain areas degenerate, causing progressive dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia.
* Brain abscess: A pocket of infection in the brain, usually by bacteria. Antibiotics and surgical drainage of the area are often necessary.

Brain Tests

• Computed tomography (CT scan): A scanner takes multiple X-rays, which a computer converts into detailed images of the brain and skull.
• Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan): Using radio waves in a magnetic field, an MRI scanner creates highly detailed images of the brain and other parts of the head.
• Angiography (brain angiogram): A special substance doctors call “a contrast agent” is injected into the veins, and travels into the brain. X-ray videos of the brain are taken, which can show problems in the brain’s arteries.
• Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): A special MRI scan of the brain’s arteries. An MRA scan may show a blood clot or another cause for stroke.
•Lumbar puncture (spinal tap): A needle is inserted into the space around the spinal nerves, and fluid is removed for analysis. Lumbar puncture is often done if meningitis is suspected.

• Electroencephalogram (EEG): Brain activity is monitored through electrodes placed on the skin on the head. EEG can help diagnose seizures, or other brain problems.
• Neurocognitive testing: Tests of problem-solving ability, short-term memory, and other complex brain functions. Usually, neurocognitive testing is done through questionnaires.
• Brain biopsy: In rare situations, a very small piece of the brain is needed to make the diagnosis of a brain condition. Brain biopsies are generally done only when the information is needed to provide proper treatment

Brain Treatments

* Thrombolytics: Clot-busting medicines injected into the veins can improve or cure some strokes if given within a few hours after symptoms start.
* Antiplatelet agents: Medicines like aspirin and clopidogrel (Plavix) help prevent blood clots. This can reduce the chance of a stroke.
* Cholinesterase inhibitors: These medicines can improve brain function slightly in mild or moderate Alzheimer’s disease. They do not slow or prevent Alzheimer’s disease.
* Antibiotics: When a brain infection is caused by bacteria, antibiotics can kill the organisms and make a cure more likely.
* Levodopa: A medicine that increases brain levels of dopamine, which is helpful in controlling symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
* Brain surgery: An operation on the brain can cure some brain tumors. Brain surgery may be performed any time increased pressure in the brain threatens brain tissue.

* Ventriculostomy: A drain is placed into the natural spaces inside the brain (ventricles). Ventriculostomy is usually performed to relieve high brain pressures.
* Craniotomy: A surgeon drills a hole into the side of the skull to relieve high pressures.
* Lumbar drain: A drain is placed into the fluid around the spinal cord. This can relieve pressure on the brain and spinal cord.
* Radiation therapy: If cancer affects the brain, radiation can reduce symptoms and slow the cancer’s growth.

Women at a Higher Risk of Stroke Says a Study And Prevention Of Stroke In Women

  • Strokes are known as “brain attacks.” When blood flow stops to an area of the brain, the cells receive less oxygen, similar to what occurs during a heart attack. When brain cells can’t get enough oxygen, they die. Strokes generally fall in one of two categories,” Dr. Achieng says. “Ischemic strokes occur when a blood clot in a vessel stops blood flow to the brain. Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel bursts and bleeds into the surrounding brain tissue. Certain factors in women can lead to both types of stroke.
  • According to a study presented by European Stroke Organization (ESO) Conference, there is a rising heart attack and stroke among women than men. This is due to work stress, sleep disorders, fatigue, which are usually termed as non-traditional risk factors for heart attack and stroke.
  • While diabetes, arterial hypertension, raised cholesterol, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity are recognized modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, recently, it has been noted that non-traditional risk factors such as work pressures and sleep problems can significantly add to cardiovascular risk. Stroke is the No. 4 cause of death in women and kills more women than men. In fact, one in five women has a stroke.
  • Traditionally men have been perceived to be more affected by heart attacks and strokes than women.
  • But, the “study found men were more likely to smoke and be obese than women, but females reported a bigger increase in the non-traditional risk factors for heart attacks and strokes, such as work stress, sleep disorders, and feeling tired and fatigued”, said Dr Martin Hansel, Neurologist at the University Hospital Zurich, and her team.
  • “This increase coincides with the number of women working full time. Juggling work and domestic responsibilities or other socio-cultural aspects may be a factor, as well as specific health demands of women that may not be accounted for in our daily ‘busy’ lives,” Hansel added.
  • High blood pressure is the leading cause of stroke and is the main cause for increased risk of stroke among people with diabetes.
  • Researchers compared data from 22,000 men and women in the Swiss Health Survey from 2007, 2012, and 2017, and found an “alarming” rise in the number of women reporting the non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The trend coincided with an increase in the number of women working full-time from 38 per cent in 2007 to 44 per cent in 2017.
  • Overall, in both sexes, the number reporting stress at work rose from 59 per cent in 2012 to 66 per cent in 2017, and those reporting feeling tired and fatigued increased from 23 per cent to 29 per cent (to 33 per cent in women and 26 per cent in men).
  • Over the same period, the number reporting sleep disorders went up from 24 per cent to 29 per cent, with severe sleep disorders also rising more sharply in women (8 per cent) than in men (5 per cent).
  • However, the research also found the traditional risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease had remained stable in the same time period, with 27 per cent suffering from hypertension, 18 per cent with raised cholesterol and 5 per cent with diabetes. Obesity increased to 11 per cent and smoking decreased from approximately 10.5 to 9.5 cigarettes per day, but both were more prevalent in men.

Stroke prevention in women:

With so many factors that can raise the risk of stroke in women, are there ways to prevent them?

The same steps you take to improve your heart health will also reduce your stroke risk, Dr. Achieng says. Your doctor may recommend taking a daily dose of aspirin because it thins the blood and reduces clotting, but that will depend on the individual.

Stroke prevention tips:

  • Eat healthier
  • Exercise regularly
  • Aim to lower blood pressure and cholesterol
  • Quit smoking
  • Reach a healthy weight
  • Take rest

Snack Time: Healthy Snacks Options For Those Mid-Day Cravings

Hunger pangs are difficult to manage and snacking is hard to resist. As such, we often end up indulging in chips, soft drinks, pizzas, burgers and fried food items whenever cravings strike. However, these unhealthy  snacks can lead to weight gain and also certain digestive issues.

                 However, you can always replace them with some healthier alternatives. Ayurveda expert has recommended some healthy snacking options that are not just nutritious but also tasty. When it comes to snacks, kids and even millennials tend to choose chips, cookies, pastries, soft drinks, pizza, burgers etc. which are sometimes okay, but really affect your health if had often. Unhealthy snacking is one of the reasons behind obesity, acne, hormonal issues, hair fall, diabetes, thyroid, PCOS & other lifestyle issues.

                When snack time is near, opt for something healthy & light, that will satisfy your cravings & boost your health.

Here are delicious snack time options we know you will surely enjoy are as follows:

Here are delicious snack time options we know you will surely enjoy are as follows:

  • Gur chana (jaggery and chickpeas):

It is easily available, easy to digest, boosts immunity and sharpens memory.

  • Roasted makhana:

It is rich in nutrients, stabilizes your blood sugar and doesn’t make you gain weight.

  •  Poha:

 It makes you feel fuller and energetic. It is a good source of carbohydrates and fat.

  • Puffed rice:

 It is crispy, savory and super easy to prepare and digest.

  • Coconut jaggery ladoo:

 It is best for people who crave sweets.

  • Dry fruit laddoo:

 It is nutritious and filling.

Sattu drink:

It is an amazing source of protein and energy. It can be consumed pre or post-workout or during the afternoon.

  • Sesame laddoo:

It is best for hair, teeth and bones.

  • Nuts and dry fruits:

They have good antioxidants, fiber, nutrition and fills your stomach in an instant.

  • Fruits:

 nourishing and full of nutrients.

  • Cottage cheese & khakhra:

Homemade cottage cheese is loaded with protein. A mini-meal of fresh cottage cheese combined with whole wheat khakhras is sure to satisfy both your hunger pangs, as well as your taste buds!

  • Oats, milk & nuts:

Oats are complex carbohydrates, rich in soluble fiber & low on fat. Prepare a bowl of oats & top it up with low-skim milk & crunchy nuts to enjoy a yummy evening snack.

  • Egg whites & green veggies:

 Egg whites are low on calories & high on protein. Combine them with fresh green vegetables such as, spinach, lettuce, broccoli etc. to keep yourself fueled throughout the day!

  • Fruit Salad:

 Fruits such as apples, pears & cucumbers are loaded with vitamins, fiber & minerals. Top your fruit salad with crunchy flaxseeds or sunflower seeds for better taste & added health benefits.

  • Peanut Butter:

 Peanut butter is a good source of protein & healthy fats. Prepare a peanut butter sandwich using whole wheat bread or dip some fresh fruit pieces into this yummy mixture & munch away!

  • Boiled Sprouts:

 Sprouts are a powerhouse of protein, fiber & vitamins. A mid-day meal of boiled sprouts with tossed veggies & chat masala will surely make for a healthy & delicious evening snack.

  • Smoothies:

 Healthy, wholesome & delicious! You can prepare a smoothie using skim milk & fresh fruits or vegetables. A healthy smoothie will boost metabolism & keep you feeling full until you reach back home.

Where did Necktie came from?

The neckties, also known as decorative noose are a narrow piece of fabric designed to be worn around the neck and tied at the throat. They can be made from many materials but commonly constructed from silk or cotton.

Varieties

Today there are many different kinds of neckties:-

  • Ascot tie
  • The zipper tie
  • Clip on tie
  • The tie dye tie

So when did wrapping a piece of fabric around your neck become a formal style necessity. The length of World War to blame can partially be placed on the French Military. While humans have been tying fabric around their neck since they could sew.

History

The neckties is been known as it didn’t start crowding collars until the 17th century. King Louis XIII of France had hired Croatian mercenaries to fight for him during the 30-year war and the king was impressed by the length of cloth the Croatian used to keep their jackets together.

Croatian

Louis liked it so much that he required his entire royal court to wear them a tradition that his son will continue in his court. The trend soon spread across the French aristocracy and it wasn’t long before all of the Europe had converted to the curve at.

Tying a Necktie

There are four main ways to tie a neckties;

  1. The Four-in-hand knot
  2. The Pratt knot aka The Shelby knot
  3. Half-windsor knot
  4. The Windsor knot

According to researchers from Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, there are 85 ways to tie a tie. Thomas Fink and Yong Mao actually use Mathematical modeling to figure this out and publish a book on their finding.

Towards the end of tie fashion

The necktie is losing its grip around the throat of male fashion. Tech companies such as Google, Amazon, and eBay actually encourage their employees to dress casually with some going as far as banning traditional office wear entirely and other companies are following suits.

Its fast become a power move to dress drown to the office in the 21st century as a statement of fellow workers, you can wear what ever you want.

Californian companies have led the charge in disrupting many common business practices, by rejecting aspects of corporate life that once seemed to given such as

  • Traditional working hours
  • Corporate hierarchies
  • Paying employees a living wage

Now politicians and even royalty are leaving tie in their dresses so it many not be long before neckties joins the history books of pointless male neck fashion.

WHAT HAPPENED TO MARJAN LION?

Marjan was the most famous resident of Kabul Zoo. Marjan, which in Persian means coral, was born in West Germany in 1976 and was given as a gift to Kabul Zoo in 1978 by the Cologne Zoo. He arrived in the Afghan capital and, soon afterwards, a lioness by the name of Chucha joined him. 

WHAT’S SPECIAL ABOUT MARJAN?

The lion witnessed Afghanistan’s history, from the communist coup, the Soviet occupation, the state of warlordism, and the hardline Taliban regime. The zoo was said to be shelled on various occasions. When the zoo personnel couldn’t help Marjan as the medical supply was destroyed. Marjan survived. He is the symbol of survival and a desire for peace.

Usual lion’s lifespan would be 10-15 years in wild, more than 15 in captivity. Marjan lived a hard life and passed away at the age of 23. In captivity, Male lions seems to live around 20 years. They do not face the problems of hunger or conflicts in captivity and the only reason for their death is the old age. The recorded maximum age of male lions in captivity is 25 to 26 years.

STORY OF MARJAN

In 1955, a solider sneaked into Marjan’s den to show his bravery to his fellow soldiers. He disturbed, stroked Chucha, the lioness. Even though Chucha didn’t react much Marjan killed the soldier. To seek revenge the deceased soldier’s brother threw a grenade into the den.

Not even a grenade could take away Marjan. It caused severe injury to Marjan. His eyes were removed. MSF doctors and an Italian photojournalist, thus rendering him blind, deaf, and permanently disabled. Despite several operations, neither Marjan’s eyesight nor his mouth could be saved.

Marjan couldn’t eat boned meat as he lost all of his teeth as a result of the incident. A ramp was built as he was weak yet he is strong as he survived. The incident sparked outrage as animal rights activists and locals started to seek justice. The man who threw grenade was attacked the following week, and passed away. His age was around 23 when death took him.

MARJAN’S DEATH

When American took over Kabul in 2001. The media covered the story of Marjan. He was the last lion in Afghanistan. Marjan died of old age in 2002. Private and public funeral ceremonies were held for the famous lion that was buried in the zoo. A statue was cemented in memory of Marjan, the lion. On his grave were these words in Pashto.

Here lies Marjan, who was about 23. He was the most famous lion in the world.

In March 2002, China donated a pair of lions to the Kabul Zoo to replace Marjan.

Marjan’s story is inspiring. The animals don’t have our facial muscles and language. They can’t communicate with us in exactly the way that we would understand, but if you watch carefully you can see how they are trying to communicate. They are conveying fear, sadness, distress and even happiness. Hence, one should avoid the animal abuse. They have equal rights to live like us.

Thank you.