Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries


The sources of Indian Constitution include the imaginative aspirations of the nationalist leaders, the actual working of the Government of India Act, 1935, and the experience gained from the actual working of some of the Constitutions of important countries of the world. Its sources thus include not only the sources upon which the founding fathers of our Constitution drew but also the developmental ones such as the judicial decisions, constitutional amendments, constitutional practices and so on. The following overview of the major constitutions of the world has been laid down below.

A constitution is a set of rules through which a country or state operates.Some countries have unwritten constitutions which means there is no formal constitution written in one particular document. Their constitutional rules are originated from a number of sources. Britain sources its constitution from a number of important statutes, or laws, as well as principles decided in legal cases and conventions. New Zealand and Israel are two other countries that do not have formal written constitutions.Other nations have formal written constitutions in which the structure of government is defined and the respective powers of the nation and the states are written in one single document. These systems may also include unwritten conventions and constitutional law which can inform how the constitution is interpreted. Australia, India and the United States are examples of countries with a written constitution.

Importance of constitution:

The role of a constitution is to make certain that the government operates efficiently and in a fair and responsible manner. It does this in three ways:-

–It holds the government to the law.

–It provides distinction of power so that no one part of the government is any more powerful than another.

— It provides a series of checks and balances so that when laws are made or amended, the government follows the correct procedure to pass a Bill.

Ingredients of the Preamble:

The Preamble reveals four ingredients or components:

Source of authority of the Constitution:

The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India.

Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be of a sovereign, socialist, secular democratic and republican polity.

Objectives of the Constitution: It postulates justice, liberty, equality and fraternity as the objectives.

Date of adoption of the Constitution: It stipulates November 26, 1949 as the date.

Striking Features of the Constitution:

The Constitution of India establishes a federal system of government. It contains all the usual features of a federation, viz., two government, division of powers, written Constitution, supremacy of Constitution, rigidity of Constitution, independent judiciary, and bicameralism.

Though, the Indian Constitution also covershuge number of unitary or non-federal features, viz., a strong Centre, single Constitution, single citizenship, flexibility of Constitution, integrated judiciary, appointment of state governor by the Centre, all-India services, and emergency provisions.

Furthermore, the term ‘Federation’ has nowhere been used in the Constitution. Article 1, on the other hand, defines India as a ‘Union of States’ which implies two things: one, Indian Federation is not the result of an agreement by the states; and two, no state has the right to secede from the federation.

Parliamentary Form of Government:

The Constitution of India has chosen the British parliamentary System of Government instead of American Presidential System of Government. The parliamentary system is based on the principle of collaboration and coordination between the legislative and executive organs while the presidential system is based on the principle of separation of powers between the two organs.

The parliamentary system is also called the ‘Westminster’ model of government, responsible government and cabinet government. The Constitution establishes the parliamentary system not only at the Centre but also in the states. The basic attributes of parliamentary government in India are:

a)Presence of nominal and real executives

b)Majority party rule

c)Collective responsibility of the executive to the legislature

d) Membership of the ministers in the legislature

e) Leadership of the prime minister or the chief minister

f) Dissolution of the lower House (Lok Sabha or Assembly)

Though the Indian Parliamentary System is mainly based on the British system, there are some important differences between the two. For example, the Indian Parliament is not anindependent body like the British Parliament. Additionally, the Indian State has an elected head (republic) while the British State has hereditary head (monarchy).

Impact and comparison of various constitutions:

In order to compare Indian constitutional scheme with other countries, it is crucial to assess the impact of various constitution on India and the subsequent features borrowed.

The founding members of the Indian Constitution were intelligent to borrow from the experience gained in working of various other Constitutions. It is well recognized that the Constitution of India is borrowed from the various working Constitutions.

Comparison of Indian constitution vs British Constitution : The British Constitution had immense impact in many respects such as (i) Constitutional head of State (ii) Lower House of Parliament (Lok Sabha) is more powerful than the Upper House; (iii) Responsibility of Council of Ministers towards Parliament; (iv) Parliamentary system of Government , and (v) Prevalence of Rule of Law. UK, US and India countries are labelled as democratic countries of the world. United States is the oldest democratic country of the world and its constitution was made in 1789. WhereasIndia was the Colonial state of the United Kingdom till 1947 and the Indian Constitution came into force in 1950. But constitution of United Kingdom is dissimilar.

Although, UK is the self-governing country but the head of the state is monarch. Besides this one of the uniqueness of theUK‘s constitution is that it‘s not codified one like the US and India having. The UK Parliament can make any law or amendment by simply passing it by majority and then send to the monarch for his assent, which just the formality part. Other dissimilarities among these three countries is that United State is a true federal country, where each state has its own constitution; India is quasi federal there only one constitution for whole country but area of operation is divided between the Union and the State governments. Whereas UK is not having the federal structure, it has the unitary setup of government. In Federal system of governance, state legislatures have asay in amending the constitution but in unitary setup it‘s only the Parliament which hassupremacy for amending the constitution.

US and Indian constitution : The Constitution of the United States had its impact in many ways such as

(i) Preamble of the Constitution
(ii) Provision of Fundamental Rights
(iii) Functions of the Vice-President
(iv) Amendment of the Constitution
(v) Nature andfunctions of the Supreme court

There are many differences between the Constitution of India, and United States of America. Major difference between the two constitutions is that India has a prime minister which is like the president but is actually the head of the legislative branch, whereas the U.S. Constitution has a president, who is the head of the government, and only works in the executive branch. Under the Indian Constitution, the head of state is the president while the actual head of the government is the prime minister. The prime minister and his cabinet has political power, while the president has more power in the name. Other major difference involves the number of terms a president can run. In America, a president can serve a maximum of two -four year terms, while in India a president and prime minister can serve an unlimited number of terms that each last five years.

Comparison of Indian and Australian Constitution: The Indian Constitution, like that of Australia, espoused the federal arrangement and the creation of a judicial branch wholly independent of the other branches of government. Judicial review, to keep all recipients of pubic power within the Constitution and other applicable laws was faithfully imitated. But the Indian Constitution went further. Australian Constitution gave long list of concurrent powers and the procedure for solving deadlock over concurrent subjects between the Centre and the States.Under the Australian Constitution, the subjects in the concurrent list are 39. In India, the Concurrent list had 37 subjects to begin with. They were increased to 52 subsequently. The technique of resolution of disputes between the centre and the states has also been taken from Australia (Article 251) by the Indian Constitution.

Comparison of Indian and Canadian Constitution : India borrowed the provisions of a strong nation, the name ofUnion of Indian and vesting residuary poers with the Union from Canada. India has opted for Federal structure of Government on Canadian pattern. Like Canada, India has made centre more powerful. Indian Federal structure is termed ‘Quasifederal’ i.e., Federal with unitary bias’. Canadian Centre is very influential, so is the case with Indian Union government. Special powers have been accorded to the Union government for meeting all possible eventualities.The division of subjects between the centre and the units and provision of lists is to a great extent on Canadian lines. The Canadian constitution provides for lists of legislative powers, central and provincial. The residuary powers have been given to the centre.

Nord 2 Hit or Hot?

Lawyers for the OnePlus Nord pair in the capital caught fire and exploded, injuring around his abdomen. This is not the first time a pair of nord blasts have been found inside a bag in Bangalore last month. At trial, OnePlus said it was caused by an external injury and was not a manufacturing defect. However, this second incident raises some questions about what was behind the Nord 2 blast.
The OnePlus Nord duo re-launched as the first OnePlus Nord successor in the mid-range premium phase of the Gregorian calendar month. The Nord has a pair, the first OnePlus phone to run on a MediaTek Dimension 1200 processor and a 50MP triple camera option with a four, 500mAh battery that supports 65W quick charging. Prices start at Rs 27,999 in Asia.

According to a report on MySmartPrice, lawyer Gaurav Gulati’s OnePlus Nord pair caught fire and exploded in their cool court chamber. According to Gaurav, the phone was inactive and not charged and he had some stomach injuries. Images shared by Gaurav on Twitter show a very broken cord with a burnt inner couple. Speaking to MySmart Price, he said he felt extra heat when he was in his lawyer coat and saw smoke coming out of his pocket from his phone. “I immediately threw the robe and once my co-workers and I went to the edge of the phone, it exploded.

After he tweeted about the accident, OnePlus contacted Honor and a team met with him and asked him to submit the phone remains for any investigation. However, he told MySmartPrice and Gadgets360 that the company’s approach to the incident was not sensitive.

Many lawyers in New Delhi are currently likely to file an FIR against OnePlus and Amazon on Saturday, with OnePlus being over-subscribed to a terrorist attack that banned the sale of a pair of nodes in the Asian country and recall all manufactured units.

Literature of Manipuri

Manipuri literature is the literature written in the Manipuri language (i.e. Meeteilon). It is also known as Meetei Literature. The history of Manipuri literature can be traced back thousands of years with the flourishing of its civilisation.

But the Puya Meithaba (burning of ancient Manipuri scriptures) in 1729, during the reign of Meidingu Pamheiba (1709-1748), devastated the ancient Manipuri scriptures and cultural history. It began a new era of Manipuri literature.

The Meeteis had a long tradition of writing. It is not completely clear when the archaic Meetei Puyas (old scriptures) and Meetei Mayek (Manipuri scripts) first came into existence.However, the written constitution Loiyamba Shinyen (1110), during the regime of Meidingu Loiyamba (1074-1122), vividly connotes the practice of writing in this era. The Royal Chronicle, Chitharon Kumpaba, was kept meticulously and continued from the fifteenth century until the end of kingship (Meidingu Bodhchandra, 1941-1955).

The skill of writing was at first the prerogative of the professional scribes and scholars of the traditional Meetei culture, the Maichous. But later, as proliferation of religious, proto-scientific and astrological text suggests, writing was expanded beyond these professional scribal classes. However, most of the ancient Meetei puyas (scriptures) were anonymous and undated.

Early Manipuri literature consists of ritual hymn, cosmogony, history, or folktales in prose and poetry. A few of the notable works of ancient Meeteilon (i.e. Manipuri language) are: Numit Kappa, Ougri, Khencho, Sana Lamoak (6th or 7th century), Ahonglon (11th century), Khoiju Lamoak (12th century), Hijin Hirao, and Ningthauron (17th century).

One of the oldest literary works, Numit Kappa was written in archaic Meeteilon with Meetei Mayek (i.e. Manipuri script) in poetry verse. T.C. Hodson was the first to translate this archaic Meeteilon literary work into English in his book The Meitheis. Ougri (also Leiroi Ngongloi Eshei), is an anonymous and undated poetry written in archaic Meeteilon. But it is believed to have been written in the pre-Christian era.

A few notable works of ancient Manipuri literature in prose include Panthoibi Khongul, Nongshaba Laihui, Sakok Lairamlen, Poireiton Khunthokpa (3rd century), Kangla Haoba (5th century), Loyamba Shinyen (11th century), Naothingkhong Phambal Kaba (16th century), Khagemba Yumlep (16th century) and Cheitharon Kumbaba.

Modern poetry

Modern Manipuri poetry distinctly falls into two groups—the poetry of Lamabam Kamal and his contemporaries representing the early phase and poetry of more modern and younger poets representing the Zeitgeist of the contemporary world picture.

The approach of Minaketan is fresh and individualistic. Nilabir Sharma, Gourkishar, R.K. Elbangbam are famous lyrical poets. Surchand Sharma mainly deals with some aspects of the great Moirang Thoibi legend while R.K. Shitaljit is a poet of nature and humanity. R.K. Surendrajit blends the symbolic and the allegoric with lyricism, while in the poetry of Nadia, the narrative is blended with sonorous rhythm.

The poetry of younger poets—Samarendra, Nilakanta, Padmakumar, Shri Biren, Ibomcha, Ibohal, Ibopishak, Madhubir, Jyotirindra and Ibempishak—gives expression to the deep sense of the immense panorama of futility, anger, questioning of traditional values and absence of faith and integrity in the society.

In the field of translation, Nabadwipchandra is famous for his translation of Michael Madhusudhan’s Meghanad Badha Kavya into Manipuri. Tagore’s Gitanjali has been translated by A. Minaketan and Krishnamohan.


The early dramatics and patriotic exploits of the heroes of Manipur, and the heroic and pathetic lives of legendary and mythological characters are the themes in drama. The early drama includes Sati Khongnag and Areppa Marup of Lalit, Nara Singh of Lairenmayum Ibungahal, Moirang Thoibi of Dorendrajit, Bir Tikendrajit of Bira Singh, Chingu Khongnag Thaba of Birmangol, Mainu Pemcha of Shymsundar, and Kege Lanja of Bormani.

The contemporary dramatists have come forward with plays new in theme and technique. They easily come across politics and socio-economic problems in their search. The foremost among these are G.C. Tongbra, Netrajit, M.K. Binodini Devi, Ramcharan, Kanhailal, A. Sumorendro, Tomchou and Sanajaoba. Ratan Thiyam founded ‘Chorus Repertory Theatre’ in Imphal, in 1976.


Early in the 20th century, as stated, Lambam Kamal, Khwairakpam Chaoba and Hijam Anganghal attempted the first original novels in Manipur. Names of R.K. Shitaljit, H. Guno, Thoibi Devi, R.K. Elangbam, Ram Singh, Ibohal, Bhagya, Nodiachand, Ibomcha, Chitreshwar, M.K. Binodini and Pacha Meetei deserve mention besides those of many other contemporary novelists. Surchand Sarma, Shymsundar, Raghumani Sarma and Nishan Singh may be mentioned among the prominent translators.

Short stories :

The short stories also made their advent along with the novel. R.K. Shitaljit’s stories, racy and plain, are narrated in simple, direct and unadorned Manipuri. R.K. Elangbam portrays ordinary people moved by the ordinary concerns and passion of life. Nilbir Sharma expresses the concerns of the poor and the neglected in society. H. Gonu probes into the ailing Manipuri society.

Stories of Nongthombam Kunjamohan are famous for their sentimentalism which is one of the predominant strains of Manipuri literature. Shri Biren, M.K. Binodini, E. Dinamani and Biramani are popular writers.

Critical literature :

Critical literature in Manipuri is gaining popularity. Arabia Manipuri Sahityagi Itihas by Pandit Khelchandra and Manipuri Shatyagi Ashamba Itihas of Kalachand Shastri survey the early and medieval periods of Manipuri literature. Meitei Upanyasa (vol. 1) of Minaketan and Manipuri Sahitya Amasung Sahityakar of Dinamani are critical surveys of prominent Manipuri novels.

Sahityagi Neinaba Wareng of Chandramani, Sheireng Leiteng of Kalachand Shastri, Sahitya Mingshel of Gokul Shastri, Alangkar Kaumudi of Pandit Brajabihari Sharma and Alangkar Jyoti of Laurembam Iboyaima are also well-known critical writings.

Manipuri Kavitagi Chhanda of Nilakanta, Chhanda Veena of R.K. Surendrajit and Manipuri Kavya Kanglon by O. Ibo Chaoba makes a survey of the prosody of Manipuri poetry adopting a scientific approach.


Psychology has become a very important and popular subject today. It deals with many problems of everyday life. Psychology helps us to understand the behaviour of people around us, to find out why they behave differently and what forces are responsible to make them so different from others.

It tries to explain wide array of factors involved in what we human beings do. The principles explained by psychology give us a rational basis of understanding of what we and others do. Psychology has been defined in many ways. In ancient days people were analysing the behavioural aspects on the basis of philosophy. They believed that there is a soul in every individual and this is responsible for all our activities.

This view led to the opinion that the subject matter of psychology must be the study of soul. But this definition could not answer the questions regarding the existence of soul and its accessibility for study. This condition led to a new definition by Greek philosophers who defined psychology as a ‘science of mind’. But this definition was also rejected on the same grounds as soul was rejected.Later, Wilhelm Wundt a psychologist who established the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany defined psychology as the study of consciousness. EB Titchener the disciple of Wundt, proposed the method of Introspection to study consciousness. But because of its subjectivity and unscientific method of study, this definition was also rejected.

Gradually, as a result of the development of scientific outlook people started thinking on scientific basis and began to define psychology as a science of behaviour. Finally, it is JB Watson (1913) defined psychology as a science of behaviour of human as well as animal beings.

Scope of Psychology:

Psychology deals with the origins, development and change of behaviour. It deals with similarities and differences among people, with the occurrence of expected behaviour as well as unexpected behaviour. Equally so it is concerned with the non-occurrence of expected behaviour. It is concerned with behaviour which is observable and unobservable, conscious and unconscious, with the behaviour of individuals as well as groups and with the influence of individuals on the behaviour of one another.

It may also be said that psychologists are concerned not only with the actual day-to-day behaviour but also with the unique products of human activity like dreams, art, literature, mythology, folklore and all other products of human behaviour.

By analysing and studying these products, psychologists have tried to understand the motivational processes and other factors which might have influenced the production and creation of these activities. In recent years, psychologists have also extended their interest to studying political philosophies, ideologies and forms of government.

All this has naturally resulted in the expansion of the scope of psychology. Psychology is applied everywhere in the home, at the school, at the hospitals, in factories and offices, in the armed forces and in all imaginable situations involving the behaviour of human individuals alone or in a group.The subject of psychology which was mainly developed by philosophers from their armchairs, progressed to laboratories and is today studied and applied in all walks of life.

Methods of psychology :

The aim of science is to use scientific method to collect information in the form of verifiable data. Different sciences use different methods that are suitable for the investigation of their subject-matter. However, all of them have one thing in common, in the sense that, they aim at a very high objectivity in the collection of facts and precise description of the phenomena under investigation.

When discussing the methods used by psychology, we must be sure that they fulfill scientific requirements. The complexity of the subject-matter with which psychology deals is quite obvious. The behaviour of the individual is something that varies not only from person to person but also from time to time.

Such variations in behaviour, obviously, are less subject to accurate and objective observation and description than the subject-matter of many sciences like physics, chemistry, biology etc. In spite of these difficulties, psychologists, have tried to confine themselves to the requirements of objectivity, which characterize the methods of science. Like other sciences, psychology also uses several methods to study its problems.

Bell Bottom Review

In Bell Bottom in the mystery story, Akshay Kumar plays the role of investigator and the Analytical Division (RAW) ambassador named the United Nations agency ‘Bell Bottom’. After a plane was hijacked and landed in Amritsar, the seventh hijacking incident in 5 years, Kumar was brought in for several days to be rescued. The film revolves around their plans for a courageous military operation to rescue 210 hostages and neutralize the four kidnappers. Even more impressive is the fact that his operation is associated with personal tragedy.
Like many other Kumar films inspired by real events, this Ranjit Tiwari-directed film is based on two events in which Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister of Asia in the late 70s and early 80s. Happened. It is commendable that the film was shot in various parts of Asia and Scotland during the epidemic.

Kumar’s shiny entry as Bell Bottom really brings some whistleblowers and fills the concert with excitement, not to mention the fact that he looks smart in Tirpan. He was thin, mature and agile, and possessed a sharp army-man skill. Vani Kapoor, who appeared in the role of the husband of the Bell Bottom United Nations agency, may be a national participant. He has a sharp memory and is fluent in Hindi, English, French and German. Vani Kapoor as Kumar’s wife is charming on screen and even with limited screen time, she is well supported for her role. The film stars Adil Hussain, Huma Qureshi and Lara Dutta in polar roles. Looking at the buzz going on around Dutta makeup, we can really say that her makeover as a former Prime Minister politician is very nice. He does not recognize! Huma Qureshi assists the Indian team in rescuing Indian voters trapped in a hijacked plane.

Akshay Kumar is completely kind and strong. He makes full use of his stellar energy. Filming on the Statesman screen is not a trivial matter and Dutta looks half confident and confident. Kumar’s mother is competing with Daly Ahluwalia and they share some sharp and funny scenes.

Written by Asim Arora and Pervez Shaikh, the film featured and captured your attention for 123 minutes. However, every minute of the action you must pause because the inside of the plot is very forward and backward. The speed of the film is constant and the narration and characters also do not lose speed.
As you travel along with the story, the events that unfold are less likely to absorb the emotion it shows you. With a film like this, you expect a lot of goose bump moments, but it doesn’t. At the same time, the film leaves you with questions unrelated to many people, such as the hostage-taking and the terrorist kidnapping plan. The small uncertain size of the film may be , it is overwhelming and dies.

Fast & Furious 9 Review

To make this passage relevant to its time, here is an article. As a result of the Central Board of Film Certification, our Lord Vin Diesel decided that by the year 2009, I was not allowed to see the fourth film in Quick Adventure Story (which was a bit of an adventure story at the time), the moving film should give some friendly bald man ‘A’ status. The humble girl at Satyam Jawaharlal Nehru Place made up my mind in ‘No’ like the adult male in PVR Saket (we took Win recommendation and did not provide). Now, the ninth film in the same franchise is being streamed home (not ours; the Republic of India theatrical release). Therefore, enjoying a quick adventure story depends on whether you are recent and whether you have been able to tap into your past successes.

Not as ridiculous as the F9 franchise’s previous entries, but not due to a lack of effort. Now the difference is that the efforts made to cross the boundaries of the Quality Area Unit are transparently Mizonistic. De Janeiro | Rio | City | Metropolis | After finishing director Justin Statuemaker Accelerated 5 with a high-speed chase at the Urban Center} de Janeiro, it was almost a shameless mistake – the first of its kind in the series. Surprisingly people first became the scarf optical disc player, you have no choice but to admire and sit back for a ride.
It’s like Tom Cruise once set out to personally measure Burj Khalifa on a mission: not possible – Ghost protocol. Currently, every cruise and diesel field unit needs to propel itself to run alone. It is no coincidence that everyone is launching a similar flaky plan to intensify this madness: the house, the last frontier.

As we speak, Cruise is building a mission to be the primary person to film the narrative feature for an international artificial satellite. Meanwhile, Diesel decides to put his original underline Tyrese Gibson and Ludacris in sheltered costumes and asks the statue maker Justin to film him a flounder at zero gravity on an inexperienced screen. None of them are complete, it is almost impossible to tolerate the level of self-parody. The most important surprise is that it is not currently the tenth and eleventh movies in a row on Mars or the invention of the time travel machine to run the time travel machine, Diesel drives a Ford Auto from Canon. Franchise to build low and comeback images.

Public administration

Public administration, the implementation of government policies. Today public administration is often regarded as including also some responsibility for determining the policies and programs of governments. Specifically, it is the planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling of government operations.

Public administration is a feature of all nations, whatever their system of government. Within nations public administration is practiced at the central, intermediate, and local levels. Indeed, the relationships between different levels of government within a single nation constitute a growing problem of public administration.

In most of the world the establishment of highly trained administrative, executive, or directive classes has made public administration a distinct profession. The body of public administrators is usually called the civil service. In the United States, the elitist class connotations historically attached to the civil service were consciously abandoned or from the early 20th century, with the result that civil servants were recognized as professionals and valued for their expertise.

In most countries the civil service does not include local government or public corporations. In some countries, however—particularly those unitary states in which provincial administration is part of the central government—some provincial staffs are civil servants. In the United States, all levels of government have their own civil services—federal, state, and local—and a civil service is specifically that part of governmental service entered by examination and offering permanent tenure.

Let’s talk about some characteristics of public administration :

Commitment to the Mission:- Excitement trickles down from leadership to the employees on the ground. When the administrator is enthused about the organization or agency’s mission, the employees will mirror those feelings. In times of crisis, great administrators remind their staff of the purpose of their mission and the role their organization plays in the larger society.

Strategic Vision :- A public administrator must always remain focused on the strategic vision and the long-term mission of the agency or organization. Staff members can become narrowly obsessed with the day-to-day operations of the agency but count on their leaders to understand the five, 10 and 20-year plans. It is important to remember that the agency or organization was often around long before the public administrator arrived, and will remain in operation long after the administrator leave .

Delegation :- There is a fine line between delegating tasks to staff and shirking from responsibilities, knowing subordinates will take up the slack. Great public administrators navigate this distinction by assigning not just tasks, but clearly defined spheres of influence where staff members have the authority to make decisions. Delegating tasks and responsibilities in this manner empowers staff members to grow in their positions, preparing them for future leadership positions.

Grow Talent :- Internal promotions save companies and organizations thousands of dollars over adding outside hires. A public administrator must be able to take existing talent within the organization, nurture it, and place staff members in positions where they can be successful. Public administrators must be careful not to stifle staff growth by becoming overbearing or forcing staff members into positions for which they are ill-suited.

Creativity :- In most circumstances, public administrators work on shoestring budgets with short deadlines and difficult, seemingly impossible, objectives. Those drawn to public administration thrive on those unique challenges and use the restrictions as a way to showcase their creativity. Public administrators are able to come up with creative solutions to complex problems, usually by seeing an issue from a new perspective or by innovating a new approach to the solution.

Digital Communication Experience :- Social media and digital communication platforms, such as email and video, are cornerstones of modern communications. While leaders in for-profit organizations are responsible to shareholders, they have much more freedom to determine when and where they will communicate. Public administrators are beholden to the people and may be held accountable for their actions at any time. Successful administrators exhibit excellent digital communication skills, especially communication via social media.Public administrators choose their profession because of their love of service and their desire to make their communities a better place. These 10 traits can transform inexperienced administrators into tremendously successful ones.

Political science and International Relations

Political Science and International Relations are complementary and inter-related disciplines that explore power and politics in many different contexts. They provide concepts with which to explain, justify and critique the modern world. They examine ideologies such as colonisation and socialism. They explore systems of ideas like the new right, religious fundamentalism, and postmodernism. They analyse social movements that call for justice, development, gender equality or environmental protection. They help us to understand processes of electoral competition, government, and policy- making in New Zealand and a range of other countries across the world. They uncover the structures and motivations behind cooperation, conflict and war in the international system. They dig into issues of power, conflict, diplomacy, arms control, democracy, revolution, terrorism, developmental politics, civil society, human rights, foreign policy, humanitarian aid, and the international political economy.

Globalisation links people, cultures and countries much more closely than they have ever been. International Relations studies the relationships among countries and the roles of governmental and non-governmental organisations and multi-nationals. In an increasingly inter-connected world, people who understand and can work with these complex relationships have a significant advantage.


Studying these disciplines brings many benefits. There is the personal satisfaction and social confidence that comes from training your brain and raising your understanding of not only world events but also the events of daily life. Being able to step back and see a larger (political) process at work is very empowering at an individual level. It can take the sting out of tense or emotional situations and provide you with strategies that enable you to behave constructively and proactively. Being able to rise above difficulties and move on is enormously valuable in any work environment, particularly when professional issues or competing interests are involved. P

olitical Science and International Relations are embedded not only in social processes and group dynamics, but also different cultural realities. This raises your sensitivity to the taken-for-granted aspects of cultural experience, making you more open to different points of view and value systems. The ability to move comfortably within and between different cultures and political systems is fundamental to international business and trade activities, development support, humanitarian aid and peacekeeping missions. People with this kind of understanding are more likely to be successful in multi-national corporations and professional practices, non-government organisations (NGOs) such as aid agencies, and government agencies including diplomatic services and defence forces. They are also valuable ‘at home’ working in organisations where cultural or ethnic identity has a relationship with other social or political processes.


Political Science and International Relations graduates have a great toolkit of skills to take to work . These include :

Conceptual analysis : Graduates have learned to get their heads around the big issues, including models of government, cultural imperatives, false equivalents, the effects of war, historical intentions and complex current realities. Working productively with this range of information develops skills of abstract thinking and in-depth analysis, which transfer well to many jobs, especially those that deal in conceptual models and/or strategic planning. These include policy analysis, management roles, professional roles in law and economics, technical writing and promotion of the arts.

Consequential thinking: To a large extent Political Science and International Relations is about intentions, decisions and their various consequences. Graduates are adept at identifying the consequential effects of decisions and actions taken historically and in the present. They learn to make connections and formulate arguments. They learn to look for the hidden detail that changes everything. They become quite astute at predicting outcomes. Jobs that draw on these skills include all levels of management, particularly human resources, financial service roles, customer service positions, and any job that involves decision-making and problem solving.

Influencing and persuading skills: When it comes to getting what you want, graduates have an excellent understanding of what works and what doesn’t, having studied political agendas throughout the world and throughout history. It comes back to the element of power that underpins political business everywhere. Many job roles contain an expectation that you will be able to implement decisions, mobilise resources, or motivate others. These outcomes require influencing and persuading skills and are particularly relevant in supervisory roles, but also come into play in roles that involve interviewing for information, such as immigration officer or human resources consultant. Influencing skills make all the difference to sales, marketing and journalism roles, and work well for court lawyers and politicians.

Language skills: These skills encompass the biggies – written and verbal communication. Employers are always delighted to find people who write effectively and express their thoughts clearly. Graduates have these skills – partly from having to think big political ideas through to a logical conclusion, and partly because they are encouraged to write clear, lively well-argued assignments, and also argue their understanding of issues in tutorials with peers. Most work roles are enhanced by good language skills, and all positions of authority and leadership require them

Research skills: Graduates have studied their subject through its protocols of research design and methodology. This includes defining key research questions, tracking down and interpreting official documents, practising stringent internet research techniques, and for some, learning to write research proposals and make submissions to select committees. Many job roles, including policy analysts and advisors, journalists, managers, community liaison officers and social researchers, are highly dependent on superior research skills.


Camel, (genus Camelus), any of three species of large ruminating hoofed mammals of arid Africa and Asia known for their ability to go for long periods without drinking. The Arabian camel, or dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), has one back hump, while the domesticated Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus) and the wild Bactrian camel (C. ferus) have two.

These “ships of the desert” have long been valued as pack or saddle animals, and they are also exploited for milk, meat, wool, and hides. The dromedary was domesticated about 3000–2000 BCE in Arabia, the Bactrian camel by 4000 BCE in the steppes of Central Asia. Most of today’s 13 million domesticated dromedaries and roughly 97 domesticated breeds are in India and in the Horn of Africa. Wild dromedaries are extinct, although there is a large feral population in interior Australia descended from pack animals imported in the 19th century. About one million domesticated Bactrian camels range from the Middle East to China and Mongolia. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has classified the wild Bactrian camel as a critically endangered species since 2002. The largest population—numbering approximately 650 adult animals—lives in the Gobi Desert.

Natural history

Camels have an unmistakable silhouette, with their humped back, short tail, long slim legs, and long neck that dips downward and rises to a small narrow head. The upper lip is split into two sections that move independently. All three species are about 3 metres (10 feet) long and 2 metres (6.6 feet) high at the hump (itself 20 cm [8 inches]). Males weigh 400 to 650 kg (900 to 1,400 pounds), and females are about 10 percent smaller. Colour is usually light brown but can be grayish. Domesticated Bactrian camels are darker, stockier, and woollier than the wild form. Heavy eyelashes protect the eyes from blowing sand, and the nostrils can be squeezed shut. The dromedary has horny pads on the chest and knees that protect it from searing desert sand when it lies down, but the Bactrian camel lacks these callosities. Camels are generally docile, but they will bite or kick when annoyed. When excited, camels huff so sharply that spit is incidentally expelled.

Camels do not walk on their hooves. On each leg, weight is borne on two large toes that spread apart to keep the animal from sinking into the sand. Dromedaries have a soft wide-spreading pad for walking on sand; Bactrian camels have a firmer foot. Like the giraffe’s, the camel’s gait is a pace, with both legs on a side moving together. Short bursts of 65 km (40 miles) per hour are possible, but camels are excellent plodders. Bactrian camels can carry more than 200 kg (about 440 pounds) for 50 km (31 miles) in a day, while the more lightly built dromedaries can carry up to 100 kg (about 220 pounds) for 60 km (about 37 miles) if they are worked in the coolness of night.

During catastrophic droughts, herdsmen may lose all of their cattle, sheep, and goats while 80 percent of the camels will survive, owing to the camel’s ability to conserve water and tolerate dehydration. In severe heat a camel survives four to seven days without drinking, but it can go 10 months without drinking at all if it is not working and the forage contains enough moisture. Even salty water can be tolerated, and between drinks it forages far from oases to find food unavailable to other livestock. The body rehydrates within minutes of a long drink, absorbing over 100 litres (25 gallons) in 5–10 minutes. Cattle could not tolerate such a sudden dilution of the blood, because their red blood cells would burst under the osmotic stress; camel erythrocyte membranes are viscous (that is, sticky and flow-resistant), which permits swelling. A thirsty camel can reduce its urine output to one-fifth of its normal volume and produce feces dry enough for herders to use as fuel for fires.

Another adaptation is minimization of sweating. The fine woolly coat insulates the body, reducing heat gain. The camel also can allow its body temperature to rise to 41 °C (106 °F) before sweating at all. This reduces the temperature difference between the camel and its environment and thereby reduces heat gain and water loss by as much as two-thirds. Only in the hottest weather must the camel sweat. It tolerates extreme dehydration and can lose up to 25–30 percent of its body weight—twice what would be fatal for most mammals.

Camels have also adapted to desert conditions by being able to endure protein deficiency and eat items other livestock avoid, such as thorns, dry leaves, and saltbush. When food is plentiful, camels “overeat,” storing fat in one area on the back and forming a hump. When the fat is depleted, the hump sags to the side or disappears. Storing fat in one place also increases the body’s ability to dissipate heat everywhere else.

When not corralled, camels form stable groups of females accompanied by one mature male. Females breed by three to four years of age. Males begin to manufacture sperm at age three but do not compete for females until they are six to eight years old. Males compete for dominance by circling each other with the head held low and biting the feet or head of the opponent and attempting to topple it. After one camel withdraws from the bout, the winner may roll and rub secretions onto the ground from a gland on the back of its head. The dominant male breeds with all the females in each stable group. After a gestation of 13 or 14 months, one calf weighing up to 37 kg (81 pounds) is born, usually during the rainy season. Milk yields of 35 kg (about 77 pounds) per day are achieved in some breeds (e.g., the “milch dromedary” of Pakistan), though normal yield is about 4 kg (9 pounds) per day. Herders typically divert most milk to their own use during the calf’s first 9 to 11 months, then force weaning and take the rest. The calf is otherwise suckled 12 to 18 months. Females and males reproduce until about 20 years old. Longevity is 40 years.

Camels are classified in the family Camelidae, which first appeared in North America 40 million years ago. North American camelid stock became extinct 10,000 years ago. Living South American camelids are represented by the llama (Lama glama), guanaco (L. guanicoe), vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), and alpaca (V. pacos). The lineage that produced modern dromedary and Bactrian camels diverged from the South American camelid lineage between 11 million and 25 million years ago. Dromedary and Bactrian camel lineages split from one another between 4 million and 5 million years ago, with wild and domestic Bactrian camels separating from one another between 1.5 million and 700,000 years ago. Bactrian camel domestication by human beings came much later, however, occurring between 6,000 and 4,000 years ago. By 2 million years ago (the early Pleistocene Epoch) Camelus representatives had crossed back to Asia and were present in Africa (Tanzania). During the Pleistocene Epoch (2.5 million to 11,700 years ago) camelids reached South America. The family Camelidae belongs to the order Artiodactyla, a large group of hoofed mammals.

Cultural significance

Camels are among those few creatures with which humans have forged a special bond of dependence and affinity. Traditional lifestyles in many regions of the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia would never have developed without the camel, around which entire cultures have come into being. This camel-based culture is best exemplified by the Bedouin of the Arabian Peninsula—the native habitat of the dromedary—whose entire traditional economy depended on the produce of the camel. Camel’s milk and flesh were staples of the Bedouin diet, and its hair yielded cloth for shelter and clothing; its endurance as a beast of burden and as a mount enabled the Bedouin to range far into the desert. The mobility and freedom that the camel afforded to desert Arabs helped forge their independent culture and their strong sense of self-reliance, and they celebrated the camel in their native poetic verse, the qaṣīdah, in which the nāqah (female camel) was a faithful, unwavering mount. Among these nomadic people, a man’s wealth was measured not only by the number of camels he possessed but also by their speed, stamina, and endurance.

Until modern times, the camel was the backbone of the caravan trade, a central pillar of the economy in large parts of Asia and Africa. In settled regions, the caravansary, located on the outskirts of most urban centres, served as a hub for business and as a source of information about the outside world for the city’s residents. In the central Islamic lands, it likewise set the scene for many tales in the rich Arab-Persian oral tradition of storytelling, such as those found in The Thousand and One Nights. In Central Asia, vast and numerous camel caravans ensured the wealth and growth of the great trading cities of the Silk Road, upon which goods moved between Asia and Europe.

Today the camel remains an important part of some local economies, although it has been surpassed by automated forms of transportation for most tasks. Camels are still bred for their meat, milk, and hair, and, beginning in the late 20th century, the age-old sport of camel racing was revived, particularly in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula but also as far afield as Australia and the United States.

Role of civil services in a democracy

The greatness associated with “performing a public service utilizing public fund” reflects power, aspirations of achieving this power, and a consistent hope or ambition of achieving through this power!

The civil servants by virtue of their knowledge, experience, and understanding of public affairs assist the ministers in formulating policy and are responsible for implementing these policies wherein ministers are accountable to parliament and civil servants are accountable to ministers. Though we are a democracy and power is vested in the people, neither politicians nor civil servants are directly and meaningfully accountable to the public.

This lack of accountability has mirrored political and administrative passivity, non-intervention, and negligence. We call this image ‘the system’. This system prevents the poor from accessing basic necessities and resources, and a place giving permanent protection. This system characterizes many discreditable practices, habitual decisions for which accountability is not necessary, work culture where people sometimes habitually look uninterested and unorganized, overlapping of tasks and half-baked results, since the concept of ‘optimization’ has not found its place in this work culture yet.

Any system is a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network. In a democracy, the core things of a system are connected through legislation. A civil servant can change the official or accepted way of doing something, but he can’t change legislation-related input present in it. There are multiple parts in the system even if you better or replace one part, it distorts the working of other parts. In a country as diverse as India, these parts at different levels are uncountable, unless a major reformative decision at a parliamentary level is made, the current system will continue to work in a presentable manner. In this situation, a civil servant can control the work flow, but he can’t set that work to its optimization if it is a part of the interconnecting network.

We have seen various poverty alleviation programs, but some underperformed and their successes looked irregular and unpredictable. Some of them lacked economic rationale or another practical purpose. Had these programs been successful, we would have freed ourselves from poverty long back. Our bureaucratic mechanisms need to comprise holistic approaches and solutions. They monitored and moved to achieve short-term arbitrary outcomes whose consequences could be terrible and had long-term counter-productive effects.

One such consequence was that poverty in India was normalized through its credentials in various statistical projects. Normalizing here means we start taking something a standard condition or state. As we normalized poverty, it became a characteristic of the population, consequently, serious hardships from poverty were no longer seen as violations of law, justice, ethics, or the constitution, so it doesn’t matter if it continues to exist.

Now the legislators whom we call politicians to see their success in terms of improved public relations. A public relations exercise eats up a lot of time. Policymaking is the ultimate responsibility of a minister, but they hardly get time to study something in-depth. They don’t have real field work experience in device policies. In this case, a civil servant renders policy advice to the minister. Usually, politicians work on those combinations which are more beneficial to them than the public. But these policies do carry the inputs of civil servants despite this, these policies have failed to eradicate poverty.

A person becomes a civil servant after passing one of the toughest exams in the world. It is said so. But there is hardly any examination that can check a person’s commitment to work and his work potential. A person becomes a decision-maker after becoming a civil servant. This level of poverty can’t be eradicated through decision-making processes rather ‘individual’s originality related to work’ is a prerequisite that no exam can ensure. Is it possible or has it ever been thought of – that a bureaucrat himself/herself has earned at the grassroots level through inventing his/her original model, and under this model, he/she has devised schemes and implemented them, so that grassroots level people can practice them to earn their livelihoods and also get the scope to upgrade their skill levels? If schemes get formulated in this manner, they will definitely be successful and sustainable. We are heaven away from this kind of system. There is nothing great about “performing a public service utilizing public funds”, since earning according to what is morally right or fair is many times more difficult than spending.

The real work which can generate revenues, consequently employment and vice versa, has yet to see its dawn, the real commitment is unobserved, the real change looks near but it is more like a horizon. What should we do to experience real work, commitment, and change? One possible course of action can be the appointment of ‘village administrators’ through an entrance examination. There are more or less 638,000 villages in India. Every year the government could recruit 25,000 village administrators. A village administrator, after understanding the requirements of the village, will conceive a consolidated plan to address the problems related to livelihoods, education, society, infrastructure, drainage system, and so on.

The present system showcases conspicuous limitations. The limitations limit the scope of real development. In fact, a person who is working to bring real change at the grassroots level without being part of the government service is serving people in a better and sustainable manner. There is no need to become a civil servant to serve people. They can be served better by those who are not part of this system. People are not served through power, they are served through prowess, not that of decision making, but of the original exertions which have undeclared true potential for ‘the mass eradication and mass extinction of poverty’.

The world has failed to realize that poverty has become a species that adjusted long ago to survive on prosperity and by itself.

Wonders of Sciences

This is the age of science. There are many wonders in square metrology. It made our life easier and more enjoyable. Science plays an important role in our daily lives. It made man dreams and imaginations come true. There are imaginative good things for humans from the observation of ordinary events. Science is nothing but a scientific tool for information and living. There are many things and machines imagined for humans and the idea of ​​a railway engine came from observing very simple events from boiling water during a kettle in the US, an apple falling from a tree that helped create Newton’s law of gravity. Electricity is man’s greatest invention, “it serves the U.S. in thousands and thousands of ways to run our trains, mills and factories. Electricity keeps our homes cool and hot. Modern life is simply not possible.” When there is no electricity there is no electricity. Many scientific discoveries have made our lives so much fun. Electricity is a great invention of science. It serves the US in many ways. Modern life is not possible without these scientific discoveries.

Once a person sees a life as cruel as the junction rectifier age, we can notice how far back we have come. Similarly, human evolution is truly admirable. One of the main driving forces behind this is often science. It makes you believe in the miracle of science and the way it proves to be a blessing in our lives. Most importantly, science has contributed to the development of a good civilization. Throughout all the progress that man has made, he has succeeded in constructing a class measure only with the help of science. However, it is not wrong to say that science is a two-sided weapon. It comes with its own advantages and disadvantages. It is ironic to say that science has so many benefits. The benefits of science are not limited to just one area, but it is useful in different parts of the planet. Once we refer to innovations in science and engineering, the first thing that comes to mind is electricity. It helped the power of the planet through its evolution.

There are no boundaries as science is a universal subject. After years of active and lengthy efforts, the science school has been recognized and recognized as an area of ​​the program. Science has proven to be indispensable to human existence and has made revolutionary changes in human life.

Science proficiency is currently established in every field and therefore students need to be trained on science – what science is and where science is. Our pace of life has also accelerated. The individual was given a very new social and political perspective.

Therefore, the study of science became a necessity during this period and modern science did not learn, man was a lame man with an understanding of the fashion era. That’s why it’s so important to learn the wonders of science in the classroom. Provides specialized instruction on science observation and reasoning. It provides an objective call to students. Learning science to look after ourselves in life is incomparable. We are in a world of scientific discoveries. Therefore, science education cannot be neglected.

Optimism and Positivity

A positive attitude will never have a smile on your face, anytime it is over. Although things are completely confusing, the optimistic {mentality | Psychology | Attitude | Mind-set | Attitude |

About managing mental attitude and attitude. As mentioned above, proper or unhealthy diet for your body, positive and negative thoughts will do the same as your mind!

Fill your mind with positive thoughts and you will see amazing changes around you. An honest attitude or a positive attitude means that the external interpretation of the mind is based entirely on positive things. It is a mentality that favors activity over dissatisfaction, happiness over despair, and vain hope. A positive attitude is a state of mind that can only be maintained through conscious effort. Positive people understand that once a subject has shifted a person’s mental focus in a negative direction, changes must be made to bring prosperity. Positive Thinking, Thoughts, Optimism, Hope, and Belief A positive mind expects happiness, health, joy and a specific outcome of every illustration and action and works miracles like magic.

Water Scarcity

The importance of water has changed dramatically over the years. Industries turned farmers upside down. Urban claims much more water than rural areas. The rich take from the poor. Lifestyle dominates livelihoods. Water scarcity reinforces these trends.
The country, which emits more groundwater than any other, has reached water and food security figures that threaten political and economic stability and long-term public health. In this special report, the Circle of Blue reveals that a country of .3 billion people, based on many years of on-the-ground coverage, has failed to conserve its water and is facing a social upheaval. The appeal also included illness and financial difficulties. Going along with groundwater depletion and pollution, it could be a “toxic time bomb” food proposition that could have implications for the world. Once the irrigation wells have dried up, farmers are concerned about the production of untreated waste containing pollutants from industrial chemicals and human biodegradation.
Article on water scarcity: Water scarcity is a major problem facing almost half of the world’s population. Like warming and global climate change, water scarcity affects human life in many ways.
In some places, it can interfere with a greasy life. This makes it harder for human life to exist in alternative parts of the world. At this point, there is no arguing that water is one of the necessities needed for a group to survive on Earth. But, as it has recently appeared, the group itself is responsible for its destruction. Water scarcity around the world cannot be attributed to population growth. Do Nothing Water consumption is one of the many reasons behind water scarcity.
Water scarcity occurs when people do not save water or nature does not conserve it. In some countries of the world the water is thick. People in such countries do not use water. For example, water used to wash cars is also used for agriculture. And the water used to wash the floors is a place to be used for alternative household chores. Even in countries where water is scarce, people use water for every activity. This leads to indiscriminate use of water. In countries where water is scarce, people have set it aside in large quantities. Some governments use monetary incentives to save a lot of water. Water scarcity affects a lot of people. Some have to buy water, while others have to bear the hassle of transporting them from ponds and lakes. Most often, there are cases of water poisoning. This mainly happens when people do not collect water and use it when filtering.
Many water systems that feed ecosystems and feed a growing human population are under pressure. Rivers, lakes and reservoirs dry up or become unclean for use. Most [* fr1] wetlands in the world have disappeared. Agriculture consumes a lot more water than other supplies and much of it is wasted due to inefficiency. Global Climate Change is a global climate and water sterilization model that leads to depletion and drought in some areas and floods in others. At this consumption rate, this example is declining. By 2025, a portion of the world’s population will face water scarcity. And ecosystems around the world may suffer further.

About Afforestation & it’s pros

Forests provide fresh air, water and food grains, which force the creatures to survive in the world. There is no life when there are no forests. During this article we will look at the benefits of those forests and their current status.
The supply of life is wild
It is an observation that only living things on earth sleep in a stellar family, that only air and water exist on earth. The fact is that every living thing on Earth can survive, although researchers are researching whether the square measurements contain enough air and water for the planets to sustain life. This air contains gases such as N, oxygen and greenhouse gases. All living things absorb atomic number 8 and do not use greenhouse gases. At constant times, plants absorb greenhouse gas, do not use atomic number 8, and supply fresh air to measure organisms.
Water supply forest
Water is essential for humans and living things. This water has been on the U.S. market since the fall. Wherever it rains it is usually inside forests. It rains because of the forests. There are no trees in the desert. So no rain. Many of the trees are square inside the hills. Thus it rains abundantly. These forests provide freshwater to the world and American groundwater.
Shade trees and forests
Creatures rest in the shade of a tree as they travel from one place to another. That is why all the kings planted trees on both sides of the roads.
Forests that prevent wear
When it rains and the water flows, the soil washes away. Hence residential square measurements are wasted. However the roots of the trees are so close to the soil that the wear must be prevented.
Jungle to help home
In addition to the above, trees are also used to build doors, tables, beds and shelves for humans to measure.
Food and give medicine trees
The fruits of the square measure trees are used as food for humans and animals. The leaves, bark, roots, fruits and nuts of many trees are also used medicinally. Water falling on some plants and falling on America is also used as medicine.

Fastest Internet speed record

We all love super-fast, slick web services, and in the first place, if you live in a metropolitan city, you’re ready to get the fastest fiber broadband service that can deliver you three hundred Mbps of information. Provides measurement. On average it can stream virtually all of your streaming needs as well as 4K content on multiple devices. However, researchers have never been happy with the way things are, so labs at universities around the world are looking to get web speeds faster than ever before. It is currently set by the National Institute of Data and Engineering (NICT) in Japan, which holds the world’s fastest web speed record at 319 terabits per second.
First, the school – to surpass this record, NICT researchers initially chose to start with fiber optic cables‌. Ordinary fiber broadband cables have a core (which holds information at unsafe speeds for you), wrapped around an insulation pile to protect that core and prevent the information transmission from breaking. During this transmission, Japanese researchers collaboratively used an experimental cable that used four cores instead of the standard one, along with insulation throughout. Researchers believe that this is a very important discovery, and that it will facilitate greater cognitive diagnosis as a result of faster web speeds in the future.

To be clear, never expect a 319 Tbps network in your home. To achieve this speed, the team used a 552-channel comb optical major and transmitted it at multiple wavelengths to enable communication. It additionally uses lanthanum mineral amplifiers to retain information at this speed for older, simulated distances – apparently 3,001 km / h. While this is also a much more beloved and widespread method than practical commercial technology, it is worth noting that the 319 Tbps knowledge transmission is clearly achievable and robust.
Although this technique is low-cost, it should probably not be – it should be noted at least once. Researchers hope to use this type of technology in areas such as the transmission of industrial knowledge over the long term, such as geospatial exploration technology exchange, which can serve as a major tool for enhancing mission power. Super immediate knowledge exchange may be required. While this is not the right technology to facilitate US stream cat video on YouTube, current fiber broadband services already provide enough speed to allow you to watch content at high frame rates and maximum resolutions. Yes, without buffering. In alternative terms, buyer web services are already fast enough to fit the current crop of displays.