In ordinary parlance law means the rules which guide human action. In every community there is a body of customary ways for carrying social activities.

These are clear-cut and definite. Otherwise, a good deal of time would have been wasted to meet the friction.These are a kind of unwritten code enforced by religious authorities or by the pressure of public opinion. These social standards sometimes assume greater significance for the purpose of the general welfare that some penalty is necessary for those who violate these customary laws.

Then these customs cease to be purely social customs and assume political nature and become the laws of the land. These laws then virtually become the commands of the society. Their violations are met with penalty. In modern states law is an enactment made by the state. It is backed by coercion or force. Its violation is punishable by the courts. It stands for the will of the state. It exists to realise the purpose of the state.

It regulates the rights and duties of the citizens towards one another and also towards the state.It is the medium of the state to fulfill its promises to the people.

It represents the sociological needs of the society. It reflects the political, social and economic relationship in the state.

Relation between Law and Morality:

Here we shall discuss the similarity between law and morality and then point out the difference between law and morality.

Similarity between Law and Morality:

There is a close relation between law and morality. Law is by and large based on the moral ethos of society.They act and react upon each other.

The ideal of law is to project general welfare and to promote the moral perfection of the individual.The state must endeavour to make such laws that will heighten the moral standard of the people. So the laws of the state are rather the standard of morality of that time.

Thus Plato’s Republic which is a book on politics is at the same time a good treatise on morality. In ancient India Dharma would stand for both law and morality. Thus law is not only the command of the sovereign but a code of moral conduct also.Without the moral support of the people a law cannot be enforced.

So we find that law against the dowry has not been successful because a vast majority of the people in India does not morally support it.In this context Thomas Hill Green pointed out “In attempting to enforce an unpopular law, a government may be doing more harm than good by creating and spreading the habit of disobedience to law. The total cost of such an attempt may well be greater than the total gain.”

Difference between Law and Morality:

Law :

1. Law is concerned with the external human conduct and does not regulate with the inner motives. Law does not take notice of the inner motives of a man notice of the inner motives of a man notice of the inner motives of a man.

2. Law is uniform for all and it does not vary from man to man.

3. Law is precise and definite. Every state has a common forum of law.

4. There is a definite organ in every state for making law. The violator of law is punished by the state.

5. Law belongs to the subject of jurisprudence.

Morality :

1. Morality is concerned with both the inner motives and external actions of a man. So the scope of morality is wider than that of law.

2. Every man has a different moral obligation. It varies from man to man, age to age and circumstances to circumstances.

3. Morality is vague and indefinite. There is no authority to enforce morality.

4. Morality is never made by any organ. There is no force to punish the breaker of morality. There is no element of compulsion in morality.

5. The branch of knowledge that deals with morality is called ethics.


Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States

The Indian system of governance is described as federal with a unitary bias. While in essence, our nation is a federation of states, with the state governments coming together under the leadership of the union government at the centre, but retaining their liberty in policy making for the state’s internal affairs; multiple factors point to the Unitarianism that is being followed in the democracy.

This type of governing mechanism makes Indian governance system unique as compared to those of other nations across the globe.

The Indian Constitution is a well-defined archive of the guidelines that help govern our country. Part V and Part VI of the constitution describes multiple aspects of the Union as a whole and the states respectively.

To maintain its status as a federation as well as implement the unitary nature, the seventh schedule of the constitution allocates the powers and functions on various subjects between the centre and the states.

This gave rise to three lists of subjects namely- the Union List, which covers 97 subjects under the jurisdiction of the Union, the State List, with 66 subjects to look after and the Concurrent List, pertaining to 47 subjects in which both the Union and the State have authority to look into.

With such a variety of subjects to tend to, both the centre and the state government are tasked with huge responsibility to maintain the stability and ensure welfare and development of the citizens.

In the following passages, we will cover the features and responsibilities of Union and State governments in India, and then explore the centre-state relationship that exists in our country.

These factors are crucial in understanding the functioning of these governments. Finally we will also take a brief look at the current problems our country is facing and what possible measures responsible Union and State governments can take to overcome these issues.

Relation between union and state governments :

While both the governments at their level of jurisdiction exercise powers similar to each other, it is important to understand the fields that each government can get involved in to make decisions and enforce them. As per the seventh schedule of the Indian Constitution, 210 subjects of national and regional interests were identified and distributed amongst the state and the union.

Being a federal nation, administration is primarily under the supervision of the state. The agencies of administrations hire individuals through separate commissions- the state public service commissions hire administrative employees for the state government, while the union public service commission does the same for union government.

Yet we see no overlapping in the fields of services. The state deals with the subjects as listed in the state list of the 7th schedule of the Indian Constitution, whereas the Centre limits its interest to the union list. The concurrent list is a separate list which consists all the subjects that the Union as well as state can look into.

The successful implementations of the schemes of the Union government require cooperation with the state. It is the state which is responsible for the programmes to take effect. The existing multi-party system has contributed to the decentralisation as in the current scenario; many states are being governed by regional political parties as compared to national parties.

Hence, mode of the administration is under their wing. This gives a heavy electoral edge to the regional parties and forces the national parties to rethink their strategies and make much more personalised schemes to suit the specific regions.

Enacting schemes and programmes that are against the regional parties might not sit well with them and can form a big gap between the union and the state.

Yet if there is a political tug-of-war between the Union and the state, the former is bound to get the advantage. The division of powers highly favours the centre. There are more subjects under the union list than the state list. Additionally, the overriding power that the Centre exercises on the concurrent list, makes them more powerful than the state.

Furthermore, the states are not indestructible. There borders, area and names can be altered by the centre if necessary. This slightly differs from the original ideology of federalism, giving it the famous ‘unitary bias’.

Major functions of the Union and the State :

The functions and responsibilities of the Union can be summarised into six major classes. First one concerns the formulation, execution, evaluation and revision of public policy in various spheres which the party in power seeks to progress and practice. Secondly, they are responsible for coordination among various ministries and other organs of the government which might indulge in conflicts and wastefulness.

The third duty is to prepare and monitor the legislative agenda which translated the policies of the government in action through statutory enactments. Fourth responsibility is the executive control over administration through appointments, rule-making powers and handling of crises and disasters, natural as well as political.

They are also involved in financial management through fiscal control and operation of funds like Consolidated Fund and Contingency Funds of India. And lastly, they can review the work of the planning commission.

State government have a separate jurisdiction limited to the boundary of their state. They have separate departments for efficient functioning of the state like education, agriculture, transport, water supply, public health, sanitation, hospitals and dispensaries and others.

They are also responsible to ensure the internal security of the state and maintain the law and order. Hence state police forces come under the state’s jurisdiction.

The state legislature also covers the finances of the state which includes authorisation of all expenditure, taxation and borrowing by the state government. It has the power to originate money bills. It has control over taxes on entertainment and wealth, and sales tax.

Conclusion :

To summarize, the Structure of Indian constitution deals with Union and State executive distinctly but the provisions follow a common pattern for the Union and the States. The system of distribution of administrative powers between union and states followed in the Constitution of India in various administrative fields.The Union Government is reliant on the States to give effect to its programmes.

The system of distribution of administrative powers has two objectives. It enables the union government with powers to control over administration of the state and at the same time it espouses several advice’s for intergovernmental cooperation and coordination.

Role of women’s and women organization

Traditionally, an Indian woman had four fold status-role sequences. These were her role as a daughter, wife, housewife (homemaker), and mother.Today Indian women work in demanding settings with long work hours, tight deadlines and professional pressures in competitive environments.

The natural tendency for anyone dealing with a busy day would be to turn home to relax. But for women, parenting duties and household work make it difficult to find this space at home.

The woman in modern times is entering into certain new fields that were unknown to the woman’s sphere of role-sets. They are activating participating in social, economic, and political activities.

Besides the lack of time faced by women after care giving activities to pursue income generating skills and active careers, they also find themselves often subjected to a family imposed ideal of priority skill sets to work on which in turn shapes them to cater to the requirements of a chauvinistic marriage market rather than a job market.

Role of Women in the Freedom Movement :

For the period of freedom struggle in the motherland, women were not staying at the back. The role of women in the freedom struggle is extremely significant and they also participated in the Indian struggle for Independence. There is a large list of great women whose names have gone down in history for their dedication and undying devotion to the service of India’s freedom struggle.

Bhima Bai Holkar fought against the British Colonel Malcolm, and defeated him in guerrilla warfare.

The Rani of Jhansi, Rani Lakshmi Bai whose heroism was an outstanding example for all. Begum Hazrat Mahal was a great Indian freedom fighter who played a major role during India’s First War of Independence. Arun Asaf Ali played an outstanding role in the Quit India Movement.

Annie Besant was the first Women President of the Congress and gave a powerful lead to women’s movements in India. Sarojani Naidu was elected as a president of Indian National Congress.

She campaigned for the Montague Chelmsford Reforms, the Khilafat issue, the draconian Rowlett Act and the Satyagraha. Kasturba Gandhi was a leader of women’s Satyagrah. Madam Cama unfolded the first National flag at International Socialist Conference in Stuttgart(Germany) in 1907. She declared “the Flag is of India”.

Factors affecting women’s work participation:

1)Education is one of the most important factors influencing female labour force participation. Human capital theories underline the importance of education in employment outcomes.

2)In the static labour supply model, the effect of education on female labour force participation is dependent on the relative strength of the substitution effect and the income effect. First, education increases the potential earnings and, therefore, the opportunity cost of not working also rises. Second, as a result of higher income, an individual prefers leisure to work and reduces his/her working hours. The net effect depends on which force prevails.

3) A number of studies have shown higher returns to education for women than for men. It is well established in literature that higher levels of human capital lead to higher wages, thereby increasing women’s participation in market work. However, the relationship between educational attainment and female labour force participation is by no means straightforward.

Women’s labour force participation in rural India is negatively influenced by the number of young children (below 5 years) in households. Recent analysis also reported the negative impact of the number of young children on women’s participation in both rural and urban India. In general, and especially in South Asia, it is believed that cultural and societal norms have a significant influence on women’s decision to participate in the labour market and choice of work and on their mobility.These norms operate at multiple levels of society, for example, religion, caste and region. It has been widely recognized that these norms discourage women to take up paid employment and that they confine women to the role of caregivers.Cultural factors limit women’s rights in the workplace and their engagement in work. Religion still has a key role to play in determining gender norms in many countries.

Women’s Organizations :

Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA)Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), meaning “service” in several Indian languages, is a trade union based in Ahmedabad, India that promotes the rights of low-income, independently-employed female workers. With over 2 million participating women, SEWA is the largest organization of informal workers in the world and largest non-profit in India . Self-employed women are defined as those who do not receive a salary like that of formally-employed workers and therefore have a more precarious income and life.

SEWA is framed around the goal of full employment in which a women secures for her family: income, food, health care, child care, and shelter. The principles behind accomplishing these goals are struggle and development, meaning negotiating with stakeholders and providing services, respectively.

Liberalizing the economy to foreign trade in 1991 caused a huge migration of rural inhabitants to Indian cities that then forced urban dwellers into informal occupations. Since the financial crisis of 2008, over 90% of India’s working population is in the informal sector(Shakuntala 2015); yet 94% of working women in 2009 worked in the informal sector. India’s history and modern culture of female subjugation also contributes to this disparity because traditional gender roles exclude women from regular, secure work.

Working women Hostel :

The objective of the scheme is to promote availability of safe and conveniently located accommodation for working women, with day care facility for their children, wherever possible, in urban, semi urban, or even rural areas where employment opportunity for women exist.

To achieve this objective, the scheme will assist projects for construction of new hostel buildings, expansion of existing hostel buildings and hostel buildings in rented premises.

The working women’s hostel projects being assisted under this scheme shall be made available to all working women without any distinction with respect to caste, religion, marital status etc., subject to norms prescribed under the scheme.

While the projects assisted under this scheme are meant for working women, women under training for job may also be accommodated in such hostels subject to the condition that taken together, such trainees should not occupy more than 30% of the total capacity the hostel and they may be accommodated in the hostels only when adequate numbers of working women are not available. Children of working women, up to the age of 18 years for girls and up to the age of 5 years for boys may be accommodated in such hostel with their mothers.

Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

There are various core environmental issues which are taking a heavy toll on human lives. Ranging from overpopulation, hydrological issues, ozone depletion, global warming to deforestation, desertification and pollution, all these issues pose a severe threat to the existence of humankind. The environmental conservation is a practice that paves the way for protecting the environment and natural resources on the individual, organisational as well as governmental levels. Unless environmental conservation is becoming an effective mass movement, it is futile to expect positive growth especially in the age of digital media which holds the potential to bring a revolution to save our planet from destruction.

Importance of Environmental Conservation :

It has become inherently important to work towards environmental conservation in contemporary times. The following pointers elucidate this crucial need to save the environment from further degradation:

–To reduce air, water and land pollution

–To facilitate the conservation of natural resources for our future generations

–To ensure the protection of biodiversity

–To implement sustainable development

–To restore the ecological balance

–To save our planet from harmful repercussions

What are the Methods of Environmental Conservation?

Now that you are familiar with the meaning and importance of Environmental Conservation, let’s understand the core methods through which it can be effectively facilitated:

Forest conversation :

We know that plants and trees are the essential sources of air, food as well as other day-to-day products we use. Forests are the dwelling place of different living creatures and a single disturbance in the ecosystem can cause disruption in the water cycle as well as the food chain. Thus, afforestation is amongst the core Environmental conservation and aims to plant more trees as well as save the existing ones from cutting down as trees play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance.

Soil conservation :

As one of the prominent methods for environmental conservation, the need for soil conservation has arisen to tackle the harmful effects of soil pollution. On earth, the soil is the main element that plays a pivotal role in soil erosion, land degradation and floods. Soil is filled with rich nutrients for plant production. Soil conservation can be carried out by ensuring minimal use of fertilizers and venomous chemicals as well as abolishing the disposal of harmful industrial waste in the soil.

Waste management :

Especially in developing countries and congested places, on a daily basis, a large amount of waste is thrown away recklessly on the streets and roads. The improper disposal of waste segregation can lead to various dreadful diseases as well as soil pollution.Waste Segregation Waste Segregation

To ensure minimal wastage as well as facilitate waste disposal, we can opt for various techniques like the 3R’s, i.e. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, dry and wet waste segregation, amongst others.

Public awareness :

With the boom of information technology and the advent of digital media, public awareness pertaining to environmental conservation can potentially yield promising results. There is a dire need to aware the masses about the consequences of environmental pollution and degradation. Further, every individual should be made conscious of how they are polluting the environment and what steps can be taken to implement environment conservation, be it through using greener energy sources to following the 3Rs of Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.

Pollution control :

As the increase in temperature is concerning, there is a need to keep a watch on the toxic compounds we ingest that pollute the atmosphere. We need to adopt environmentally sustainable methods to minimise multiple forms of emissions, such as eliminating waste, saving electricity, limiting the unnecessary usage of fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides, and using energy-efficient appliances, among others.

Measures to Conserve Environment :

Here are some measures to save the environment:

Deforestation must be stopped

Natural non-renewable resources must be utilized properly

Every year, we lose a huge number of forest life due to forest fire. We must find a solution to this

.Afforestation is the best way to conserve the environment

Create public awareness

Control pollution and population

Recycle goods

Adopt an environment-friendly lifestyle

Adopt waste management techniques

Species on the verge of extension should be save

Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities

Emotional intelligence is defined as “one’s ability to know, feel and judge emotions in cooperation with a person’s thinking process for behaving in a proper way, with ultimate realisation of happiness in him and in others”.

Like general intelligence, emotional intelligence is also developed in a person by birth. Normal development of emotion leads to healthy life, but too much variation in emotional level damages the individual’s life.

The level of emotion in a person is called Emotional Quotient (EQ). This can be obtained by using emotional intelligence tests, same way as we assess the IQ of a person.The success of a person in his job or profession depends not only on his IQ, but also on his EQ. The nurse with high emotional quotient can identify and perceive her emotions and of others like patients easily through face reading, bodily language, voice tone, etc.

She can have a proper understanding of the nature, intensity and outcomes of her emotions. High EQ also helps the nurse to exercise proper control and regulation over the expression and use of emotions in dealing with her and others, so as to promote harmony and peace.

Hence, it is very important for nurses to develop a high level of emotional intelligence because; they come across many emotional situations in their duties. They see the suffering of patients from many serious diseases, death of patients, and the sorrowfulness of the relatives with patients.

Many times she will come across the situations which lead to a lot of anxiety, tension, anger, etc. To deal with such emotional situations effectively and to have proper control over her emotions, the nurse should have a high level of emotional intelligence.

If not, she can learn to manage her emotions by modifying, changing her existing level of emotions and to use them in an intelligent way.

Concept of Emotional intelligence:

Emotional intelligence has prominence in organizational effectiveness. It is defined by psychological theorists as the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations. The cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living. Other theorists stated that Emotional intelligence involves the “capabilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mayer & Salovey, 1997).

Elements of EI:

Self-Awareness: It is the skill of being aware of and understanding one’s emotions as they occur and as they evolve.

Self-Regulation: It is about controlling one’s emotions i.e. instead of reacting quickly; one can reign in one’s emotions and thus will think before responding.

Internal Motivation: It includes one’s personal drive to improve and achieve commitment to one’s goals, initiative, or readiness to act on opportunities, and optimism and resilience.

Empathy: It is an awareness of the needs and feelings of others both individually and in groups, and being able to see things from the point of view of others.

Social Skills: It is applying empathy and balancing the wants and requirements of others with one’s. It includes building good rapport with others.

Improving Emotional Intelligence :

–By self-evaluating oneself, one can know one’s emotions and reactions to different situations.

–By observing others, one can comprehend feelings of others.

–By improving one’s expression, one can communicate better.

–By analyzing the impact of one’s action over others, one can fine tune the actions.

Now-a-days, organizations take initiative to improve Emotional Intelligence among its employees through different group activities, exercises, seminars and tests. However, EI also improves with age (maturity) due to one’s experiences in life.

Importance of government, transparency , accountability

We don’t have any commonly agreed definition of “governance”. Taking governance in its usual or most basic sense, we can define it as the action or manner of conducting the policy, actions, and affairs of a state, organization, or people with authority, where its course is reflected of control, influence, and regulation. Decision-making and the systems with their processes by which decisions are implemented are the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core of governance. These layers are separated by, crossed intricately together with, caused to blend dynamically into something else through the two most basic tenets of classical humanism called “transparency” and “accountability”. That authoritative conduct should be subject and open to public scrutiny where whoever is placed under this critical observation or examination shouldn’t be worried that something undesirable will happen, since whatever he or she did or has done can be only judged as the fact or condition of being accountable to be transparent.

The governance by means of accountability puts an end to the time, resources, and efforts spent on distracting activities and usual unproductive behavior, consequently, clears the way for transparency to take its natural course since when it makes people accountable for their actions, they have to value their work and get serious about its outcome.

Though governance, transparency, and accountability could have separate important aspects individually or respectively; they are indispensable aspects to each other. Their interdependence is an indissoluble and absolute relation that makes us experience governance as the superstructure built on transparency and accountability.

Accountability and transparency are treated as major building pillars for governing democratic nations in recent years. Before discussing about how they benefit, its needs, and its importance we shall see what exactly accountability and transparency is.

Accountability signifies the concern and duty of government institutional workers to perform their activities in the best interests of the public and that institutional officials should take responsibility for their activities performed. The mechanisms by which government officials can be held responsible for activities against formed principles and rules is called legal accountability. For understanding it well we shall have an example here, Government has accountability for laws and decisions affecting public; a citizen has accountability for his behavior and actions.

Need of Accountability and Transparency:

–Building of trust and impact of schemes can be enhanced with participative governance.

–Major changes can take place in work culture by adopting transparency and accountability in governance which leads to greater concern towards society.

–By adopting Accountability and transparency, it brings out a new way of providing real-time information in online dashboard.

–This not only solves the people’s problems but also service quality can be improved.

–The relationship between government and people can be enhanced and make citizens feel more connected.

–A two-way information channel will be created which helps to understand exactly what people want. By the concepts of “listen, ask, act, interact and inform”.

Some important steps to achieve transparency and accountability:

–Job functions and responsibilities shouldn’t be kept secret with people.

–Government, schemes and institutional outcomes should be shared with people, even if the results are not satisfactory.

–Transparency is about making sure everyone has the right to information to do their jobs effectively.

–People with appropriate principles and vision towards their organization must be hired or selected to maintain the culture of accountability and transparency in government and other institutions.

–Sharing of information, announcements and messages with people should be made easier with the help of open system of communication.

Democratic organizations and financial institutions must try to move away from the business of politics and concentrate more on moving towards accountability and transparency. This will help in building trust in the society. In social, industrial and government sectors its known that Indian democratic organizations are working, but to be better they should start building a good relationship with the public. Citizens who are paying their taxes would like to know exactly where their money is spent and all the developments that has happened in the country. “All government institutions and financial institutions should be re-positioned and redefined to focus on accountability and transparency, if you are a member of government or want to become a member of government, to be prepared to live in a glass house”. Higher the transparency and accountability better the stability of the country’s economy.


Dragon fruit, also known as pitahaya or strawberry pear, is a tropical fruit known for its vibrant red skin and sweet, seed-speckled pulp.

Its unique look and acclaimed superfood powers have made it popular among foodies and the health-conscious.

Luckily, you don’t have to live in the tropics to enjoy the many benefits of dragon fruit. In fact, you can find it fresh or frozen in supermarkets worldwide.

1. High in Nutrients

Dragon fruit is low in calories but packed with essential vitamins and minerals. It also contains a substantial amount of dietary fiber.

Here’s a rundown of the main nutrients in a one-cup serving (227 grams)

* Calories: 136
* Protein: 3 grams
* Fat: 0 grams
* Carbohydrates: 29 grams
* Fiber: 7 grams
* Iron: 8% of the RDI
* Magnesium: 18% of the RDI
* Vitamin C: 9% of the RDI
* Vitamin E: 4% of the RDI

Beyond essential nutrients, dragon fruit supplies beneficial plant compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and betacyanins


* Dragon fruit is low in calories but rich in vitamins, minerals and beneficial plant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and betacyanins.

2. May Help Fight Chronic Disease

Free radicals are unstable molecules that cause cell damage, which may lead to inflammation and disease.

One way to combat this is by eating antioxidant-rich foods like dragon fruit.

Antioxidants work by neutralizing free radicals, thus preventing cell damage and inflammation.

Studies suggest that diets high in antioxidants may help prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes and arthritis.

Dragon fruit contains several types of potent antioxidants, including

* Vitamin C: Observational studies have found correlations between vitamin C intake and cancer risk. For example, a study in 120,852 people associated higher intakes of vitamin C with lower rates of head and neck cancer

* Betalains: Test-tube studies indicate betalains can combat oxidative stress and may have the ability to suppress cancer cells

* Carotenoids: Beta-carotene and lycopene are the plant pigments that give dragon fruit its vibrant color. Diets rich in carotenoids have been linked to a reduced risk of cancer and heart disease

Importantly, antioxidants work best when eaten naturally in food, rather than in pill form or as a supplement. In fact, antioxidant supplements may have harmful effects, and taking them without medical supervision is not recommended

On the other hand, dragon fruit is highly recommended.


* Dragon fruit contains the antioxidants vitamin C, beta-carotene, lycopene and betalain. Studies have linked diets high in antioxidants to a reduced risk of chronic disease.

3. Loaded With Fiber

Dietary fibers are nondigestible carbohydrates that boast an extensive list of potential health benefits.

Health authorities recommend 25 grams of fiber per day for women and 38 grams for men. Like antioxidants, fiber supplements do not have the same health benefits as fiber from foods

With 7 grams per one-cup serving, dragon fruit is an excellent whole-food source.

Although fiber is probably most well known for its role in digestion, research has suggested it may also play a role in protecting against heart disease, managing type 2 diabetes and maintaining a healthy body weight.

Although more research is needed, some observational studies suggest that diets high in fiber may protect against colon cancer.

While no studies have linked dragon fruit to any of these conditions, its high-fiber content can help you meet your recommended daily values.

However, it’s important to note that high-fiber diets can have drawbacks, especially if you’re accustomed to a low-fiber diet. To avoid stomach discomfort, increase your intake of dietary fiber gradually and drink plenty of fluids.


* Dragon fruit offers 7 grams of fiber per serving, making it an excellent choice for meeting your daily fiber needs.

4. Promotes a Healthy Gut

Your gut is home to some 100 trillion diverse microorganisms, including more than 400 species of bacteria.

Many researchers believe this community of microorganisms may impact your health. Both human and animal studies have associated imbalances in your gut to conditions like asthma and heart disease.

Given that dragon fruit contains prebiotics, it can potentially improve the balance of good bacteria in your gut.

Prebiotics are a specific type of fiber that promotes the growth of healthy bacteria in your gut.

Like all fibers, your gut cannot break them down. However, the bacteria in your gut can digest them. They use the fiber as fuel for growth, and you reap the benefits.

In particular, dragon fruit mainly promotes the growth of two families of healthy bacteria: lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria.

Regularly consuming prebiotics may reduce the risk of infection in your digestive tract and diarrhea. This is because prebiotics promote the growth of good bacteria, which researchers believe may outcompete the bad.

For example, a study in travelers showed that those who consumed prebiotics before and during travel experienced fewer and less severe episodes of traveler’s diarrhea.

Some studies also suggest prebiotics may ease symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Unfortunately, these findings are inconsistent.

While much of the research on prebiotics is favorable, the research on the prebiotic activity of dragon fruit is limited to test-tube studies. More studies are needed to determine its true effect on the human gut.


* Dragon fruit may promote the growth of healthy bacteria in the gut, which is associated with a healthy gastrointestinal tract.

5. Strengthens Your Immune System

Your body’s ability to fight infection is determined by several different factors, including the quality of your diet.

The vitamin C and carotenoids in dragon fruit may boost your immune system and prevent infection by protecting your white blood cells from damage.

The white blood cells in your immune system attack and destroy harmful substances. However, they are extremely sensitive to damage by free radicals.

As potent antioxidants, vitamin C and carotenoids can neutralize free radicals and defend your white blood cells against harm.


* Dragon fruit’s high supply of vitamin C and carotenoids may offer immune-boosting properties.

6. May Boost Low Iron Levels

Dragon fruit is one of the few fresh fruits that contain iron.

Iron plays a crucial role in transporting oxygen throughout your body. It also plays an important role in breaking down food into energy.

Unfortunately, many people do not get enough iron. In fact, it has been estimated that 30% of the world’s population is deficient in iron, making it the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide.

To combat low iron levels, it’s important to consume a variety of iron-rich foods. Rich sources of iron include meats, fish, legumes, nuts and cereals.

Dragon fruit may be another great option, as one serving contains 8% of your recommended daily intake (RDI). It also contains vitamin C, which helps your body absorb iron


* Dragon fruit supplies iron along with vitamin C, a combination that may improve your body’s absorption of this important mineral.

7. Good Source of Magnesium

Dragon fruit offers more magnesium than most fruits, with 18% of your RDI in just one cup.

On average, your body contains 24g of magnesium, or roughly one ounce.

Despite this seemingly small amount, the mineral is present in every one of your cells and takes part in over 600 important chemical reactions within your body.

For example, it takes part in reactions needed for the breakdown of food into energy, muscle contraction, bone formation and even the creation of DNA.

More studies are needed, but some indicate that higher intakes of magnesium may reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Studies also show that diets adequate in magnesium support bone health


* Dragon fruit is a great source of magnesium, a nutrient needed for over 600 biochemical reactions in your body.