# Differential Equations

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

 Introduction:
Differential equations are meant to state relationship between a variable (to be specific, a function) and the rate of change of another associated with it. If we write,-` Y = f(x) , then we are saying that Y is a function of X. Here x is an independent variable and y is dependent variable. In short, an equation with a derivative of an independent variable along with the dependent variable (or not) and a constant is named after “Differential Equation.”`

 Key concepts:

 Order and Degree Of a Differential Equation:
The highest order derivative present in the differential equation is the “order” of the equation. Similarly, the power associated with the highest order of derivative is the “degree” of that equation.
In the given figure- 1,

(I) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(II) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(III) Order : 3
Degree: 1
(IV) Order : 1
Degree: 1
Always remember – “order and degree of a differential equation are positive integers.

 Solution of differential equation:
Here solution means the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable without having derivative inside. It has two specific ways which are going to be explained:

1. General Solution:
It contains the same number of the arbitrary constants as the order of the differential equation.

In figure- 2, we can see all of the three solutions have excluded the derivatives and established a relation between variables only.

1. Particular Solution:
After getting the general one, just assign the values of the constants and you will get particular solution.
From figure- 2, if we find the value of C1, C2, then it will become a particular solution.
Figure-3, gives us a clear idea of particular solution
 Formation of Differential Equation:
There are some steps which are needed to follow while forming a differential equation.

(i) You need to differentiate the equations as many times as the number of arbitrary constants are present in the equation.
(ii) Eliminate all constants.
(iii) Say, there are n constants. Then, the equation will be of nth order and you will get n equations.

 Method of Solving 1st Order 1st Degree Differential Equation:
In this article, we shall deal with only three methods which are as followed.

(a) Variable Separable Method:
In this method, variables are separable i.e. coefficient of dx is only a function of x and coefficient of dy is only a function of y.
From figure- 4, we can see the procedure.

(b) Homogeneous Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,-` dy/dx = v + x. dv/dx`

Ratio of two homogeneous functions of same degree is to be taken as a single variable (say:”v”) here. Then integration goes on.

(c) Linear Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,-` dy/dx + Py = Q`

Here the coefficient of independent variable takes major part to solve this equation.

In figure – 6, the steps are to be followed and then the equation is prepared.

 Conclusion:
There are more methods but the syllabus comprises to the above only. The article has all the points which are detailed in NCERT like order and degree of differential equations, formation and methods to solve those. It will help you for last minute revision and to summarize your learnings will give you a new and better approach.

# Differential quations

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

 Introduction:
Differential equations are meant to state relationship between a variable (to be specific, a function) and the rate of change of another associated with it. If we write,-` Y = f(x) , then we are saying that Y is a function of X. Here x is an independent variable and y is dependent variable. In short, an equation with a derivative of an independent variable along with the dependent variable (or not) and a constant is named after “Differential Equation.”`

 Key concepts:

 Order and Degree Of a Differential Equation:
The highest order derivative present in the differential equation is the “order” of the equation. Similarly, the power associated with the highest order of derivative is the “degree” of that equation.
In the given figure- 1,

(I) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(II) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(III) Order : 3
Degree: 1
(IV) Order : 1
Degree: 1
Always remember – “order and degree of a differential equation are positive integers.

 Solution of differential equation:
Here solution means the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable without having derivative inside. It has two specific ways which are going to be explained:

1. General Solution:
It contains the same number of the arbitrary constants as the order of the differential equation.

In figure- 2, we can see all of the three solutions have excluded the derivatives and established a relation between variables only.

1. Particular Solution:
After getting the general one, just assign the values of the constants and you will get particular solution.
From figure- 2, if we find the value of C1, C2, then it will become a particular solution.
Figure-3, gives us a clear idea of particular solution
 Formation of Differential Equation:
There are some steps which are needed to follow while forming a differential equation.

(i) You need to differentiate the equations as many times as the number of arbitrary constants are present in the equation.
(ii) Eliminate all constants.
(iii) Say, there are n constants. Then, the equation will be of nth order and you will get n equations.

 Method of Solving 1st Order 1st Degree Differential Equation:
In this article, we shall deal with only three methods which are as followed.

(a) Variable Separable Method:
In this method, variables are separable i.e. coefficient of dx is only a function of x and coefficient of dy is only a function of y.
From figure- 4, we can see the procedure.

(b) Homogeneous Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,-` dy/dx = v + x. dv/dx`

Ratio of two homogeneous functions of same degree is to be taken as a single variable (say:”v”) here. Then integration goes on.

(c) Linear Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,-` dy/dx + Py = Q`

Here the coefficient of independent variable takes major part to solve this equation.

In figure – 6, the steps are to be followed and then the equation is prepared.

 Conclusion:
There are more methods but the syllabus comprises to the above only. The article has all the points which are detailed in NCERT like order and degree of differential equations, formation and methods to solve those. It will help you for last minute revision and to summarize your learnings will give you a new and better approach.

# HOW TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN Life

What is success to you? How to be successful in life?

To some, when they think of success, they imagine wealth; others want power; some just want to make a positive impact on the world.All of these are perfectly valid, indeed success is a concept that means different things to different people. Though no matter what success is to you, it almost certainly isn’t something will come easily.

There are countless guides and books to being successful, however, as success is personal and unique to each individual. The advice contained in these books can often not be relevant. Therefore following the advice of a single individual can often be unhelpful.

With this in mind, considering the advice of a great many people, people whose ideas of success were different both to each other, and quite possibly, to you can be a good alternative.

What follows is a list of 13 of the best pieces of advice from some of the most successful people who have ever lived. If you want to learn how to be successful, these tips are essential:

1. Think Big:

“The greater danger for most of us lies not in setting our aim too high and falling short; but in setting our aim too low, and achieving our mark.”

There are few artists as influential as Michaelangelo. Today centuries after his death, his work still inspires and connects to people. His work is world famous, just think of his statue of David, or the Mural in the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.

Imagine then, if he decided not to work as an artist.Being a successful artist has always been extremely difficult, imagine if he decided to give up this ambition in favour of something easier?

Oftentimes, people often decided to put their dreams aside for something more “realistic”. To give up their dream for something easier. This quote teaches us the danger of such a point of view.Instead be ambitious.

2. Find What You Love to Do and Do It:

“You know you are on the road to success if you would do your job and not be paid for it.”

This is a good quote to remember and think about when you’re at work.Imagine being as successful as possible in your current job. Ultimately you’ll probably find yourself working extremely hard and this it will take up much of your time.If it’s a job you hate, then being successful at it might only mean filling your life with something you hate to do. What’s the sense in this?

Instead, why not focus on doing something you love? When you’ve found what you’re passionate about, you get the motivation to keep you moving. Success at this means the fulfilment of your dreams.

Not sure what your passion is yet? You should learn about your Motivation Engine first. To discover your own Motivation Engine, join Lifehack’s free Fast-Track Class – Activate Your Motivation. In this intensive session, you will dig deep into your inner drive and passion and build a unique Motivation Engine based on it, so you will never lose motivation again even when times get tough. Join this fast-track class for free here.

Even if you’re not successful, you still filled your time with something you love to do. Many successful musicians spent years of their lives doing unpaid performances, the only reason they kept playing was because they loved to perform.

3. Learn How to Balance Life:

“There is an immutable conflict at work in life and in business, a constant battle between peace and chaos. Neither can be mastered, but both can be influenced. How you go about that is the key to success.”

All too often, people think that to be successful, they need to make the object of their success their life.

If a person thinks their job will lead them to success, then they may spend countless hours per day, and well into the evening working hard.

However this comes at the cost of rest, your health and having an enjoyable life. Ultimately they may burn out and cease to be successful at their job anyway.

If success comes from having a strong social life and a good group of friends, their job may suffer; meaning that they may lose their job, and then be unable to afford going out with friends.

In these ways, success, as Phil Knight says above, is helped by balance. Think of it as a balance between rest and work, or work and play.To achieve that balance, this Ultimate Guide to Prioritizing Your Work And Life can help you.

4. Do Not Be Afraid of Failure:

“Failure is simply the opportunity to begin again, this time more intelligently.”

There is a story, it’s unconfirmed whether it actually happened, yet the message within is none the less true:

Thomas Edison inventing the lightbulb was the result of several hundred failed attempts. In an interview, he was asked “How do you feel after all of your failed attempts?”

His response was great, “I didn’t fail, I learned hundreds of ways not to invent the lightbulb”

He saw each “failure” as a lesson. From that lesson he learned what won’t work, and also might work instead.

Each failed attempt, each rejection, were key steps on his path to success. It is easy to feel like you should give up after a failure. But perhaps in that failure is a lesson.

Pay attention to your failures, study them. Perhaps then you’ll learn how to succeed.

5. Have an Unwavering Resolution to Succeed

“I made a resolve then that I was going to amount to something if I could. And no hours, nor amount of labor, nor amount of money would deter me from giving the best that there was in me. And I have done that ever since, and I win by it. I know.”

This, in many ways relates to the above quote about learning from your failures.

It’s the easiest thing in the world to give up from a failure. The only way to push on is if you have the true burning desire to succeed, to not be moved or dissuaded from your goals.

If you are not truly dedicated towards success, then each failure will hurt more, each set back will slow you down.

Success is hard; without the unwavering desire to succeed, this difficulty may seem insurmountable. With the desire, it is merely an obstacle to go through.

6. Be a Person of Action:

“It had long since come to my attention that people of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and happened to things.”

Though it was said hundreds of years ago, it works just as much today as it ever had. It applies to literally any successful person.

Think about it, picture someone like William Shakespeare:

When we think of the time he lived in, we think of the time in a way shaped by him. When we think of Renaissance era Italy, we think of Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci. Or think about the present day, Bill Gates or Steve Jobs. Our current way of life would simply be incomparably different if they didn’t accomplish what they did.

You’re probably reading this article on a device by a company that they either founded or companies influenced by them.

All these figures were proactive, they saw ways to do things differently and did them. If they let the world shape them, then they’d simply fit into the background. Instead they shaped the world.

7. Cultivate Positive Relationships:

The most important single ingredient in the formula of success is knowing how to get along with people.”

The best leaders and some of the most influential people (and Theodore Roosevelt is one of the best leaders and one of the most influential people to have lived) were not those who caused commotions, who fought with people or disregarded people; but were people who were friendly to those around them.People liked them. They wanted them to do well.

It’s logical. If someone likes you, they want to help you; if you give them a suggestion, they’ll gladly follow through with it.

But if someone doesn’t like you, they may either refuse to help or actively get in your way.

What’s more, it’s always a good idea to cultivate good relationships. You can never tell who will prove to become someone who’ll be able to help you in a big way, or even be a good and supportive friend.As such, help people and they may help you; and be good to people, and they my be good to you.

8. Don’t Be Afraid of Introducing New Ideas:

“A person with a new idea is a crank until the idea succeeds.”

It is an unfortunate truth that those with the boldest ideas are often disregarded.Most of us are taught from an early age to think and do things similarly to everyone else. This can be great to fill an existing role. But to truly do things differently (and all successful people did things differently), you need to think differently.

If you have a new idea, don’t throw it away because it’s new and different; instead, celebrate it. Your strange new idea might one day be the one that leads you to success.

9. Believe in Your Capacity to Succeed:

“If you can dream it, you can do it.”

Success has to be something you can imagine yourself achieving.It is possible that you will come across those who doubt you and your ability to succeed. You must not become one of these people because the moment you cease believing and dreaming is the moment these dreams fall away.

10. Always Maintain a Positive Mental Attitude:

“Nothing can stop the man with the right mental attitude from achieving his goal; nothing on earth can help the man with the wrong mental attitude.”

Like the above quote says, you need to trust in your ability to succeed. This is the only way to cultivate the right mindset.

Replace negative thoughts with the positive ones. You need to approach problems, not as obstacles stopping you, but merely tasks that need to be completed for you to keep going.If you stay positive and think like this, setbacks won’t affect you so much, people’s doubts won’t impact you and even the biggest obstacles will seem like minor problems.However with the wrong mindset of doubt, you’ll be much easier to stop.

11. Don’t Let Discouragement Stop You from Pressing On:

“Let no feeling of discouragement prey upon you, and in the end you are sure to succeed.”

It is an unfortunate fact of human nature — all of us in some way, doubt ourselves. This can be made far worse if others doubt us too.When surrounded by doubts, giving up can actually seem like a good idea. Don’t pay attention to the doubts. If you are discouraged, ignore it.Watch this video and learn what to do even when others don’t believe that you’ll succeed:

12. Be Willing to Work Hard:

“Unless you are willing to drench yourself in your work beyond the capacity of the average man, you are just not cut out for positions at the top.”

You might have heard the quote that “success is 1% inspiration, 99% perspiration” or you may have heard about the 10,000 hours idea.Whichever way you frame it, they say one thing:True success comes from work.You’ll never become successful if you don’t work towards your goal in life and keep working towards it.

“Have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.”

In ancient Greece, there was a group of Oracles who lived in Delphi. Everyone who needed advice or to know their future visited them, from the poorest of society to kings. Above the doorway of the temple were the words “know thyself”.

If you strongly believe and desire something, chances are that you already have an idea how to get there. If not, you may naturally know what things will help you and what things will slow you down.It’s like how your body can detect danger even when things seem safe.Ultimately then, you need to trust your own instincts.

# HOW TO MANAGE STRESS

10 Tips to Manage Stress:

1.Exercise:

Working out regularly is one of the best ways to relax your body and mind. Plus, exercise will improve your mood. But you have to do it often for it to pay off.week?Work up to 2 hours and 30 minutes of moderately intense exercise like brisk walks or 75 minutes of a more vigorous exercise like swimming laps, jogging or other sports.Focus on setting fitness goals you can meet so you don’t give up. Most of all remember that doing any exercise is better than none at all.

When you’re stressed, your muscles get tense. You can help loosen them up on your own and refresh your body by:

Stretching Enjoying a massage. Taking a hot bath or shower Getting a good night’s sleep.

3.Deep Breathing:

Stopping and taking a few deep breaths can take the pressure off you right away. You’ll be surprised how much better you feel once you get good at it.

Sit in a comfortable position with your hands in your lap and your feet on the floor. Or you can lie down.

Imagine yourself in a relaxing place. It can be on the beach, in a beautiful field of grass, or anywhere that gives you a peaceful feeling.

Slowly take deep breaths in and out.

Do this for 5 to 10 minutes at a time.

4.Eat Well:

Eating a regular, well-balanced diet will help you feel better in general. It may also help control your moods. Your meals should be full of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and lean protein for energy. And don’t skip any. It’s not good for you and can put you in a bad mood, which can actually increase your stress.

5.Slow Down:

Modern life is so busy, and sometimes we just need to slow down and chill out. Look at your life and find small ways you can do that. For example:Set your watch 5 to 10 minutes ahead. That way you’ll get places a little early and avoid the stress of being late.When you’re driving on the highway, switch to the slow lane so you can avoid road rage.Break down big jobs into smaller ones. For example, don’t try to answer all 100 emails if you don’t have to — just answer a few of them.

6.Take a Break:

You need to plan on some real downtime to give your mind time off from stress. If you’re a person who likes to set goals, this may be hard for you at first. But stick with it and you’ll look forward to these moments. Restful things you can do include:Meditation,Yoga,Tai chi, Prayer,Listening to your favorite music,Spending time in nature.

7.Make Time for Hobbies:

You need to set aside time for things you enjoy. Try to do something every day that makes you feel good, and it will help relieve your stress. It doesn’t have to be a ton of time — even 15 to 20 minutes will do. Relaxing hobbies include things like:

KnittinDoing an art project

Playing golf

Watching a movie

Doing puzzles

Playing cards and board games.

If things are bothering you, talking about them can help lower your stress. You can talk to family members, friends, a trusted clergyman, your doctor, or a therapist.

And you can also talk to yourself. It’s called self-talk and we all do it. But in order for self-talk to help reduce stress you need to make sure it’s positive and not negative.So listen closely to what you’re thinking or saying when you’re stressed out. If you’re giving yourself a negative message, change it to a positive one. For example, don’t tell yourself “I can’t do this.” Tell yourself instead: “I can do this,” or “I’m doing the best I can.”

9.Go Easy On Yourself:

Accept that you can’t do things perfectly no matter how hard you try. You also can’t control everything in your life. So do yourself a favor and stop thinking you can do so much. And don’t forget to keep up your sense of humor. Laughter goes a long way towards making you feel relaxed.

Figure out what are the biggest causes of stress in your life. Is it your job, your commute, your schoolwork? If you’re able to identify what they are, see if you’re able to eliminate them from your life, or at least reduce them.If you can’t identify the main causes of your stress, try keeping a stress journal. Make note of when you become most anxious and see if you can determine a pattern, then find ways to remove or lessen those triggers.

# VOLCANO

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

On Earth, volcanoes are most often found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-ocean ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust’s plates, such as in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has been postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 kilometers (1,900 mi) deep in the Earth. This results in hotspot volcanism, of which the Hawaiian hotspot is an example. Volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another.

Large eruptions can affect atmospheric temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the Sun and cool the Earth’s troposphere. Historically, large volcanic eruptions have been followed by volcanic winters which have caused catastrophic famines.

Volcanic activity:

Volcanoes vary greatly in their level of activity, with individual volcanic systems having an eruption recurrence ranging from several times a year to once in tens of thousands of years.[50] Volcanoes are informally described as active, dormant, or extinct, but these terms are poorly defined.

Active:

There is no consensus among volcanologists on how to define an “active” volcano. The lifespan of a volcano can vary from months to several million years, making such a distinction sometimes meaningless when compared to the lifespans of humans or even civilizations. For example, many of Earth’s volcanoes have erupted dozens of times in the past few thousand years but are not currently showing signs of eruption. Given the long lifespan of such volcanoes, they are very active. By human lifespans, however, they are not.

Dormant and reactivated:

It is difficult to distinguish an extinct volcano from a dormant (inactive) one. Dormant volcanoes are those that have not erupted for thousands of years, but are likely to erupt again in the future.[52][53] Volcanoes are often considered to be extinct if there are no written records of its activity. Nevertheless, volcanoes may remain dormant for a long period of time. For example, Yellowstone has a repose/recharge period of around 700,000 years, and Toba of around 380,000 years.[54] Vesuvius was described by Roman writers as having been covered with gardens and vineyards before its eruption of 79 CE, which destroyed the towns of Herculaneum and Pompeii. Before its catastrophic eruption of 1991, Pinatubo was an inconspicuous volcano, unknown to most people in the surrounding areas. Two other examples are the long-dormant Soufrière Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat, thought to be extinct before activity resumed in 1995 (turning its capital Plymouth into a ghost town) and Fourpeaked Mountain in Alaska, which, before its September 2006 eruption, had not erupted since before 8000 BCE and had long been thought to be extinct.

Extinct:

Extinct volcanoes are those that scientists consider unlikely to erupt again because the volcano no longer has a magma supply. Examples of extinct volcanoes are many volcanoes on the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain in the Pacific Ocean (although some volcanoes at the eastern end of the chain are active), Hohentwiel in Germany, Shiprock in New Mexico, US, Zuidwal volcano in the Netherlands, and many volcanoes in Italy such as Monte Vulture. Edinburgh Castle in Scotland is located atop an extinct volcano, called Arthur’s Seat. Whether a volcano is truly extinct is often difficult to determine. Since “supervolcano” calderas can have eruptive lifespans sometimes measured in millions of years, a caldera that has not produced an eruption in tens of thousands of years may be considered dormant instead of extinct.

The three common popular classifications of volcanoes can be subjective and some volcanoes thought to have been extinct have erupted again. To help prevent people from falsely believing they are not at risk when living on or near a volcano, countries have adopted new classifications to describe the various levels and stages of volcanic activity.Some alert systems use different numbers or colors to designate the different stages. Other systems use colors and words. Some systems use a combination of both.

History of volcanology:

Many ancient accounts ascribe volcanic eruptions to supernatural causes, such as the actions of gods or demigods. To the ancient Greeks, volcanoes’ capricious power could only be explained as acts of the gods, while 16th/17th-century German astronomer Johannes Kepler believed they were ducts for the Earth’s tears.One early idea counter to this was proposed by Jesuit Athanasius Kircher (1602–1680), who witnessed eruptions of Mount Etna and Stromboli, then visited the crater of Vesuvius and published his view of an Earth with a central fire connected to numerous others caused by the burning of sulfur, bitumen and coal.

Various explanations were proposed for volcano behavior before the modern understanding of the Earth’s mantle structure as a semisolid material was developed. For decades after awareness that compression and radioactive materials may be heat sources, their contributions were specifically discounted. Volcanic action was often attributed to chemical reactions and a thin layer of molten rock near the surface.

# NEUROLOGY

Neurologists diagnose, treat and manage disorders that affect the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (nerves and muscles which activate movement and transmit sensation from all parts of the body to the brain).

Nature of the work:

Neurologists treat any disease of the body’s systems that affects neurological function. High blood pressure, for example, is a cardiac problem, but if it causes a stroke (a sudden loss of blood supply to the brain) the problem becomes a neurological one as well.

Neurologists also treat infectious disease such as meningitis which can cause brain damage and lead to complications like epilepsy.

They also treat peripheral nerve diseases which may result in weakness or sensory impairment.

In many cases, the diagnosis of new patients with neurological problems is by clinical assessment alone (taking a thorough history of the symptoms and physical examination), though in others there may be a need for further investigation such as blood tests, scans (CT or MRI) and electrical tests which measure peripheral nerve and muscle function.

Patients are followed up either to clarify the diagnosis or alternatively to manage longer term problems. Examples of conditions which require long term follow-up are epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.

The process of diagnosis is becoming ever more sophisticated with improved imaging and other types of tests including genetic testing. Available treatments are broadening too with improvements in existing therapy as well as new treatments such as those to modify the disease in multiple sclerosis.

Neurologists treat conditions such as:

multiple sclerosisheadaches blackoutsperipheral neuropathy (disease affecting the nerves) including chronic neuropathic painParkinson’s disease and other movement disorders (eg tremor)Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) also known as motor neuron disease. MND (causing weakness and muscle wasting due to nerve degeneration)epilepsy spinal cord diseases muscle diseases like muscular dystrophy (causing weakness of muscle fibres)myasthenia gravis (where the muscles become weak and tire easily) and related disorders brain tumours functional disorders (symptoms which cannot be explained by neurological damage).

Common procedures/interventions:

Electroencephalography (EEG) to look for signs of epilepsy Nerve conduction tests (neurophysiology)injections for the treatment of patients with dystonia (abnormal muscle contractions)rarely, muscle or nerve biopsies.

Common reasons to visit a neurologist:

A thorough neurological exam is the most important tool I have as a neurologist,” Dr. Bruce explains. “It can help differentiate and localize the causes of common complaints.”

If you get migraine headaches, you should probably make an appointment with a neurologist, especially when the symptoms are associated with neurological deficits or tried treatments prove ineffective.

Dizziness:

Experiencing vertigo (feeling like you’re spinning) or having difficulty keeping your balance could be a sign of something more serious.

Numbness or tingling:

Numbness or tingling, especially when it occurs on one side of the body or comes on suddenly, could be a sign of a stroke or other serious condition.

Movement problems:

Difficulty walking, shuffling your feet, tremors and unintentional jerks, can all be signs of a nervous system problem.

Memory problems or confusion:

Worsening memory problems, personality changes or mixing up words could be signs of Alzheimer’s disease.

What is Functional Neurology?

Functional Neurology is a new concept for many people. In essence, functional neurology, also called chiropractic neurology, is the clinical evaluation and treatment method for the central and peripheral nervous system. Very basically, functional neurology can be thought of as exercise for the brain. Just like training a muscle makes it stronger, training your brain will make it stronger.

What does it mean to make the brain stronger? By this, we mean improve the function of the brain. This can be achieved by making positive neuroplastic changes. Neuroplasticity is the term that describes the brains ability to make new connections in order to achieve a new function. Think about a developing child learning to walk or talk or write. It takes practice, but once the task is learned, it is hard wired. Through trauma, degeneration, or a developmental obstacle, the brain may not be wired correctly or it may have a weak or broken wire. A functional neurological treatment is one that promotes rewiring and/or strengthening a connection that is already in place.

Functional neurology is brain training. Smell, taste, sound, balance, vision, movement, and touch are utilized in specific ways to promote neuroplastic changes. Making a positive neuroplastic change requires specificity. Treatment needs to be specific for the part of the brain requiring change and then the treatment intensity needs to be done within the brain’s metabolic capacity. When working with fragile or broken wires (neurons), it is easy to cause more damage if the ‘weight’ of the treatment is not closely monitored.

Functional neurology does not include surgery or pharmaceutical solutions, but may employ some combination of chiropractic manipulation, various therapies, and recommended lifestyle changes.

The explanation which functional neurology provides for neurological disorders is still a hypothesis and difficult to convey in plain language, but here’s the short version based on a recent review of functional neurology.

Functional neurology treats the source of a patient’s ailments as “functional aberrations of the neuraxis” — meaning, clusters of neurons which aren’t working together in the way they are supposed to — in various locations throughout the central nervous system.

Functional neurologists attempt to assess the “central integrative state,” or CIS, of functional units of neurons within the nervous system to determine where those functional aberrations are. The CIS is essentially how they refer to the current healthiness of those neurons.

Functional neurologists believe functional aberrations come from lesions, which are the result of some deficiency — perhaps there are dead cells (worst case scenario), or maybe they aren’t getting enough oxygen or nutrition.

Whatever the case, these aberrations cause communication snafus throughout the central nervous system and lead to hyper- or hypo-functional areas of the brain. In turn, this situation results in “diverse motor, sensory, visceral, or cognitive symptoms”.

Many functional neurologists are also interested in fatigability (can you maintain a healthy response to a certain stimulus?) and hemisphericity (the belief that neurological symptoms come from some imbalance between the two halves of the brain or an area therein).

While their treatment protocols are highly varied, many functional neurologists base treatment on the idea that stimulation of an area is enough to engage the brain’s inherent neuroplasticity, which is its ability to heal itself from certain injuries and conditions.

For the purposes of this piece, we will assume that functional neurologists begin with chiropractic training. Chiropractors spend years learning about the central nervous system and the spine. They spend more time during diagnosis and treatment looking at whole-body care and the effects of lifestyle on health than do most neurologists.

To become a chiropractic neurologist, they complete additional coursework on neurological disorders and the functional neurology approach to treating them.Functional neurologists are in their element while treating symptoms of unknown cause, especially if they are related to the vestibular (balance) system. They can also help patients with neck soreness, back pain, and other symptoms relating to the spine because of their chiropractic training.

# International Media Conclave 2021

We at School of Journalism and Mass Communication in JECRC University are all set to host our first International Media Conclave ‘Manthan’ from September 15 to September 17.
The Conclave will have three dozen speakers from over half a dozen countries. It will have six sessions, six keynote addresses and an inaugural address.

For registration and e-Certificate, Register to below link
https://forms.gle/xXJFXzFp2uifcyHv6