British rule produced radical and lasting changes in Indian society and culture. It was unlike any previous period in Indian history as the British brought with them new technology, institutions, knowledge, beliefs and values. The new technology, and the revolution in communications which this brought about, enabled the British to integrate the country as never before in its history. During the nineteenth century the British slowly laid the foundations of a modern state by surveying land, settling the revenue, creating a modern bureaucracy, army and police, instituting law courts, codifying the law, developing communications—railways, post and telegraph, roads and canals—establishing schools and colleges, and so on. The British also brought with them the printing press,and the profound and many-sided changes this brought about in Indian life and thought deserve a volume in itself. One obvious result was that books and journals, along with schools, made possible the transmission of modern as well as traditional knowledge to large numbers of Indians—knowledge which could no longer be the privilege of a few, hereditary groups—while the newspapers made people in different parts of the far-flung country realize they had common bonds, and that events happening in the world outside influenced their lives for good or ill, which eventually resulted in setting up of the removal of barriers.

It is necessary to distinguish conceptually between Westernization and two other processes usually concomitant with it—industrialization and urbanization. On the one hand, there were cities in the preindustrial world, though they differed significantly from the cities of the Industrial Revolution in the West. For one thing, they needed large rural populations for their support, so that ancient and medieval countries remained dominantly agricultural in spite of a few great cities. Again, while the Industrial Revolution resulted in an increase in the rate of urbanization and “highly urbanized areas are generally highly industrialized areas, urbanization is not a simple function of industrialization.”

Finally, while the most Westernized groups are generally found in the big cities, a caution must be uttered against equating Westernization with urbanization. Even in a country such as India, it is possible to come across groups inhabiting rural areas which are more Westernized in their style of life than many urban groups. The former are to be found in areas where plantation or commercial crops are grown, or which have a tradition of supplying recruits to the Indian army.

Westernization results not only in the introduction of new institutions (for example, newspapers, elections, Christian missions) but also in fundamental changes in the old institutions. Thus while India had schools long before the arrival of the British, they were different from British-introduced schools in that they had been restricted to upper-caste children, and transmitted mostly traditional knowledge—to mention only two of the most important differences. Other institutions such as the army, civil service and law courts were also similarly affected. As a result all this included in this as a major aspect for the westernization which took place.

Thank you

Government Budget (objectives)

Objectives of Government Budget

The government plays a very important role in increasing the welfare of
the people. In order to do that the government intervenes in the economy
in the following ways.
Allocation Function of Government Budget
Government provides certain goods and services which cannot be provided
by the market mechanism that is, by exchange between individual consumers
and producers. Examples of such goods are national defence, roads,
government administration etc. which are referred to as public goods.
To understand why public goods need to be provided by the government, we must understand the difference between private goods such as clothes, cars, food items etc. and public goods. There are two
major differences. One, the benefits of public goods are available to all
and are not only restricted to one particular consumer. For example, if
a person eats a chocolate or wears a shirt, these will not be available to others. It is said that this person’s consumption stands in rival relationship to the consumption of others. However, if we consider a public park or measures to reduce air pollution, the benefits will be
available to all. One person’s consumption of a good does not reduce the amount available for consumption for others and so several people can enjoy the benefits, that is, the consumption of many people is not‘rivalrous’.
Two, in case of private goods anyone who does not pay for the goods
can be excluded from enjoying its benefits. However, in case of public goods, there is no feasible way of excluding anyone
from enjoying the benefits of the good. That is why public goods are
called non-excludable. Even if some users do not pay, it is difficult and sometimes impossible to collect fees for the public good. These non- paying users are known as ‘free-riders’. Consumers will not voluntarily pay for what they can get for free and for which there is no exclusive
title to the property being enjoyed. The link between the producer and
consumer which occurs through the payment process is broken and the
government must step in to provide for such goods.
There is, however, a difference between public provision and public production. Public provision means that they are financed through the budget and can be used without any direct payment. Public goods may be produced by the government or the private sector. When goods are produced directly by the government it is called public production.

Redistribution Function of Government Budget.

The total national income of the country goes to either the private sector, that is, firms and households (known
as private income) or the government (known as public income). Out of
private income, what finally reaches the households is known as personal
income and the amount that can be spent is the personal disposable income. The government sector affects the personal disposable income of households by making transfers and collecting taxes. It is through this that the government can change the distribution of income and
bring about a distribution that is considered ‘fair’ by society. This is the
redistribution function.

Stabilisation Function of Government Budget

The government may need to correct fluctuations in income and employment.
The overall level of employment and prices in the economy depends upon the
level of aggregate demand which depends on the spending decisions of millions
of private economic agents apart from the government. These decisions, in turn,
depend on many factors such as income and credit availability. In any period,
the level of demand may not be sufficient for full utilisation of labour and other
resources of the economy. Since wages and prices do not fall below a level,
employment cannot be brought back to the earlier level automatically. The
government needs to intervene to raise the aggregate demand.
On the other hand, there may be times when demand exceeds available output
under conditions of high employment and thus may give rise to inflation. In
such situations, restrictive conditions may be needed to reduce demand.
The intervention of the government whether to expand demand or reduce it
constitutes the stabilisation function.

It all serves the purpose directly in this field.

Thank you

The Stranger by Albert Camus – A critical commentary

“My mother died today. Or maybe yesterday, I don’t know.”

The Stranger , Albert Camus

Albert Camus lures his readers in like a moth to a flame with his powerful diction, giving the reader a fair idea of the whirlwind of emotions they will be descending into. In this masterpiece, Camus puts forth the absurdity of life through the eyes of Meursault, a peculiar shipping clerk residing in French Algiers. It doesn’t shy away from exploring difficult themes of death, dissociation, and sociopathy 

Part 1 

L’Étranger introduces us to Meursault, a man bearing an astonishingly apathetic worldview that is completely detached from society. We witness this when the protagonist doesn’t display any signs of mourning throughout his mother’s funeral instead, maintaining a stolidly indifferent demeanour while smoking a cigarette. This outlandish attitude is met with contempt and hatred from others.

Meursault is merely a spectator of the events around him, leading a life devoid of meaning and emotions. Through this narrative we examine his perceived alienation, relating it with how he is a stranger to the norms of society. 

Throughout this narrative, Meursault conducts himself absurdly and often immorally, not putting much effort to assimilate into the world around him. His indifference is mainly pointed towards women which are affirmed through many instances. He comfortably turns a blind eye to his friend’s ex-girlfriend who was brutally beaten, his loveless relationship with his girlfriend which he pursued mainly for physical gratification and finally his refusal to mourn over his mother. 

The scorching Algerian sun is revealed to have some form of unusual hold over the protagonist that brings to the surface his irrationality.

Often calling the sun ‘oppressive’ and ‘inhuman’, it can be seen how the heat disorients him. The force of the sun eventually makes him commit murder. 

Part 2 

As the murder trial proceeded, the jury was aghast seeing Meursault’s utter lack of remorse for his actions and his disregard for human life. He talked about death in a frigid manner with his jailer, emphasising that death is an inevitable phenomenon. In his words, “I wasn’t unaware of the fact that it doesn’t matter very much whether you die at thirty or at seventy since, in case, other men and women will naturally go on living, for thousands of years even. Nothing was plainer, in fact. It was still only me who was dying, whether it was now or in twenty years’ time. “

Although after he is sentenced to death we see a paradigm shift in this attitude. The readers witness his cold exterior shattering when he realises that his time had come to an end. He is angry at the unfairness of the world, reproaching how he, a simplistic man with such little needs, is unfairly condemned to death. This rage-filled outburst is followed by passivity. While being isolated in a jail cell he is made aware of how he had isolated himself from the world. Upon a priest’s visit before his execution, Meursault’s aversion to religion is disclosed. He found no sense in religion but didn’t outrightly reject it either, believing that the world would descend into chaos without the principles of religion. After letting the priest know that he would rather not waste his last moments praying, he spent his time reflecting on his actions instead and contemplating the worthlessness of life. A newer, more intellectual Meursault was born, quite ironically, only mere moments before his death. He wished to break free from the alienation and hoped that his execution would attract a huge crowd.

Eventually coming to terms with his impending death, he concluded that he doesn’t regret anything and is ready to live his life all over again. 


Leading a life sans personal values, morals kept Meursault satisfied. He went through his life without truly living. He questioned the purpose of life, declined the societal conventions and still managed to emerge happy, proving himself to the readers as an existentialist anti-hero.

Sustainable development and climate change



At present, a few new terminologies are also being used for economies such as ‘sustainable development’ and ‘green GDP’. ‘Sustainable development’ is a global terminology which is being used to address the global issues of global warming, environmental aspects increased global pollution and ecological imbalances, which are critical for survival of planet earth and is thus a broader concept not relating to any one country but for the world as a whole. It is neither the problem of one country nor can it be solved by one country. It is more macro in nature, which requires to be addressed by countries collectively through a dialogue and a consensus building at a global platform. This is about the present generation’s ability  to meet ‘its’ own needs but without compromising on the ability of the future generation to meet ‘its’ needs. It is about a better environment for the future generation rather than. what the present generation has inherited, to say the least not a worse than that inherited Even though there has been a consciousness on the issue of sustainable development, the real thrust was provided with the Earth Summit during 1992 and then through various international conventions.

All the conventions mentioned so far have flagged the underlying issues especially that of reduction in greenhouse gases emission, which is critical for sustainable development. It also addresses areas of cleaner energy, reduction in biodiversity losses, tree plantation, solar/wind energy and other such global issues in sustainable development.

India has announced its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) With respect of climate change inclusive of following aspects:

• To put forth and further propagate a healthy and sustainable way of living, based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation.

• To adopt a climate-friendly and cleaner path than the one hitherto followed by others at a corresponding level of economic development.

• To achieve about 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non- fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance including from the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

• To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO, equivalent (CO.eq.) through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

• To better adapt to climate change by enhancing investments in development programmes in sectors vulnerable to climate change , particularly agriculture , water resources, the Himalayan region, coastal regions, health and disaster management.

• To mobilize domestic , new and additional funds from developed countries for implementing these mitigation and adaptation actions in view of the resources required and the resource gap.

• To build capacities, create domestic framework and an international architecture for the quick diffusion of cutting-edge climate technology in India and joint collaborative R&D for such future technologies.


Climate finance means local, national or international financing through public, private and alternative sources of financing. It is critical to addressing climate change as large-scale investments are required to reduce climate change induced adversities. Climate finance is equally important for adaptation strategies as there are requirements for significant financial resources to allow countries to adapt to the adverse effects and reduce the impacts of climate change.

Thank you.

Our country INDIA.

India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend and the great grandmother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only. “Mark Twain

India has a unique culture and is one of the oldest and greatest civilizations of the world. It stretches from the snow-capped Himalayas in the north to sun drenched coastal villages of the south and the humid tropical forests on the south-west coast, from the fertile Brahmaputra valley on its east to the Thar desert in the west. It covers an area of 32,87,263 sq. km. lt has achieved all-round socio-economic progress during the last so many years or its Independence. lndia is the seventh largest country in the world and ranks second in population. The country stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give her a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.

Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. The total length of the coastine of the mainland, Lakshadweep islands and Andaman and Nicobar lslands is 7516.6 km.

Geographical Background

Countries having a common border with India are Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west, China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north, Myanmar to the far east and Bangladesh to the east. sri Lanka is separated from India By a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.  The country can be divided into SIX Zones mainly north, south, east, west,Central and north-east zone. It has 29 states and seven union territories.

Physical Features

The mainland comprises four regions, namely, the great mountain zone,plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region and the southern peninsula.


India is rich in flora. Available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area Surveyed so far, over 46,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of india (BSI), Kolkata. The vascular flora, which forms the conspicuous vegetation cover, comprises 15,000 species.

With a wide range of climatic conditions from the torrid to the arctic, India has a rich and varied vegetation, which only a few countries of comparable size possess. India can be divided into eight distinct floristic regions, namely, the western Himalayas, the eastern Himalayas, Assam, the Indus plain, the Ganga plain, the Deccan, the Malabar and the Andamans.

TheThe western Himalayan region extends from Kashmir to Kumaon. Its temperate zone is rich in forests of , pine, other conifers and broad-leaved temperate trees. The eastern Himalayan region extends from Sikkim eastwards and embraces Darjeeling, Kurseong and the adjacent tracts.

Faunal Resources

India is very  in terms of biological diversity due to its unique biogeographical location, diversified climate conditions and enormous Eco diversity and geodiversity. India’s immense biological diversity encompasses ecosystems, populations, species and their genetic make-up. This diversity can be attributed to the vast variety in physiography and climatic situations resulting in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from tropical , sub-tropical, temperate, alpine to desert.

India is not only rich in its physical dimensions but even in its cultural aspect .

Thank you.

Education (government initiatives).

Education , is the basic necessity for an individual .The essence of human resource development is education, which plays a significant and remedial role in balancing the socio-economic fabric of the country . Since citizens of India are its most valuable resource, the billon-strong nation needs the  care in the form of basic education to achieve a better quality of life. This warrants an all round development of the citizens, which can be achieved by building strong foundations in education. Good quality education is the foundation of new discoveries, new knowledge, innovation and entrepreneurship that trigger growth and prosperity of an individual as well as that of a nation.

To lay emphasis on the educational development of students of weaker section of the society, A number of innovative initiatives have been taken by the ministry.

Among which two are given below:

Adult Education

At the time of independence, 86 per cent of India’s population was illiterate and as such the main focus or adult education had been on its very bottom tier that is, impairing of Basic literacy. For accomplishment of this objective, a series of programmes were introduced since the First Plan period, the most prominent, being the National Literacy Mission (NLM), launched in 1988 for the adults in the age group of l5+. The programme of National Literacy Mission was revamped in 2009 in alignment with new paradigms of lifelong learning as Saakshar Bharat. Considerable progress has been made in raising the Literacy rate of the country but still the levels remain uneven across different states, districts, social groups and minorities. The overall goal of adult education is to establish a fully literate society through improved quality and standard of adult education and literacy.

The National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA) is the operating and Implementing organization at national level for all the activities envisaged in Adult Education and Skill Development. During the 12th Five Year Plan, NLMA has been striving to raise the literacy rate to 80 per cent and to reduce the gender gap to less than 10 per cent.

Of 410 districts which quality for coverage under Saakshar Bharat program, the Programme has been sectioned in 04 districts , in which many learners have been enrolled under basic Literacy.

National Council of Educational Research and Training

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) provides academic and technical supports for qualitative improvement of school education. The NCERT was established in 1961 as an apex national body to lead qualitative changes in school education. NCERT has been playing an advisory role guiding central and state governments in formulating policies, acts and government programmes. It has played a crucial role in the development of national policies on education (1968-1986) and national curriculum frameworks. The researches undertaken by the Council have led to building new perspective of schooling and also provided inputs for formulation of policies and programmes. NCERT has been designing and offering innovative and need-Based courses for teachers, teacher educators and counsellors. The curricular and other learning materials developed by the Council have helped in bringing about quality schooling. NCERT has received recognition both at national and International levels in the area of school education owing to its work done in 50 years. It is a unique institution in the country, conducting researches, preparing skilled educational professionals and developing Curriculum and curriculum materials.

Both of the initiatives have given a major impact on the Educational sector .

Thank you.

Continental Drift Theory.

Observing the shape of the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. The symmetry matches
of the coastlines on either side of the ocean. No wonder, many scientists thought of this similarity and considered the possibility of the two Americas, Europe and Africa, to be once joined together. From the known records of the
history of science, it was Abraham Ortelius, a Dutch map maker, who first proposed such a possibility as early as 1596.
However, it was Alfred Wegener—a German
meteorologist who put forth a comprehensive argument in the form of “the continental drift theory” in 1912. This was regarding the distribution of the oceans and the continents.
According to Wegener, all the continents
formed a single continental mass and mega ocean surrounded the same. The super continent was named PANGAEA, which meant all earth. The mega-ocean was called PANTHALASSA, meaning all water. He argued that, around 200 million years ago, the super continent, Pangaea, began to split. Pangaea first broke into two large continental masses as Laurasia and Gondwanaland forming the
northern and southern components
respectively. Subsequently, Laurasia and
Gondwanaland continued to break into various smaller continents that exist today.

A variety of evidence was offered in support of the continental drift are mentioned below:

The Matching of Continents (Jig-Saw-Fit)
The shorelines of Africa and South America facing each other have a remarkable and unmistakable match.

Rocks of Same Age Across the Oceans were found.

The belt of ancient rocks of 2,000 million years from Brazil coast matches
with those from western Africa. The earliest marine deposits along the coastline of South America and Africa are of the Jurassic age.


It is the sedimentary rock formed out of
deposits of glaciers. The Gondawana system of sediments from India is known to have its counterparts in six different landmasses of the Southern Hemisphere. At the base, the system has thick tillite indicating extensive and
prolonged glaciation. Counterparts of this
succession are found in Africa, Falkland Island, Madagascar, Antarctica and Australia. Overall resemblance of the Gondawana-type sediments clearly demonstrates that these landmasses
had remarkably similar histories.

Placer Deposits
The occurrence of rich placer deposits of gold in the Ghana coast and the absolute absence of source rock in the region is an amazing fact. The gold bearing veins are in Brazil and it is obvious that the gold deposits of the Ghana are derived from the Brazil plateau when the two continents lay side by side.

Distribution of Fossils
When identical species of plants and animals adapted to living on land or in fresh water are found on either side of the marine barriers, a problem arises regarding accounting for such distribution. The observations that Lemurs
occur in India, Madagascar and Africa led some to consider a contiguous landmass ‘Lemuria’ linking these three landmasses.

All this provided evidences of this theory.

Thank you.


Infosys Limited is an Indian multinational information technology company that provides business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services. The company was founded in Pune and is headquartered in Bangalore.Infosys is the second-largest Indian IT company after Tata Consultancy Services by 2020 revenue figures and the 602nd largest public company in the world

On 24th August 2021, Infosys became the 4th Indian company to cross $100 billion in market capitalization.

Infosys provides software development, maintenance and independent validation services to companies in finance, insurance, manufacturing and other domains.

One of its known products is Finacle which is a universal banking solution with various modules for retail and corporate banking.

Glass building in Pune campus

Its key products and services are:

NIA – Next Generation Integrated AI Platform (formerly known as Mana)

•Infosys Consulting – a global management consulting service

•Cloud-based enterprise transformation services •Infosys Information Platform (IIP) – Analytics platform

•EdgeVerve Systems which includes Finacle, a global banking platform

•Engineering Services Digital Marketing

Organizational structure followed in Infosys is a Functional Structure.

Under this structure, company will be organized into three main functions (Global sales function, Global delivery function and business enabling functions). In Infosys divides the industry verticals into following five segments •Financial Services Segment •Manufacturing Segment •Retail Segment •Energy, Utilities, Communications & Services Segment •Life Sciences, Healthcare & Insurance Segment

Functional structures are proved to operate well in stable environments where business strategies are less inclined to changes or dynamism, the amount of bureaucracy makes it tough for organizations to respond to changes in the market quickly . It also conducts Career development practice to help employees to showcase their skills, providing career guidance and career development activities. Infosys provides strong property rights to its employees by providing employee stock option plans. Infosys also provides health and pension benefits, but not at a very lucrative scale. It is in line with the government policies.

For its employees, Long term employment recognition and benefits like Pension Plans, Group Medical Policy, Accident Policy, Bonus, Annual Medical Check-ups, Budgets for quarterly team lunch, Annual outings as part of team building activities and flexible work hours.

Success of the organization :

Digital technology is transforming services and businesses in today’s world. It is fundamentally changing operations and delivering value to consumers. It is also a cultural modification which wants organisations to experiment with various things and get comfortable with downfalls.

Infosys is an information technology consulting company. It is an Indian multinational company that provides information technology, business consulting and outsourcing assistance. It considers itself to be a global leader in next-gen digital consulting. It is the 2nd largest IT company after TCS (Tata Consultancy Services). It is also the 596th biggest company in the entire world based on the terms of revenue.

Infosys is a provider of next-gen services. The company enables clients in more than 50+ countries to stay ahead of the innovation curve and outperform in the game. It has more than 187,000 employees working within it. 

Steps for betterment involved :

Investment Thesis

Infosys is one of India’s most pre-eminent providers of IT services. However, the company has suffered from its slow-moving legacy past (smaller, more discretionary projects) and out-of-date go-to-market strategy, resulting in low revenue growth relative to peers, margin compression, leadership churn, and high employee attrition. In light of these issues, Infosys has launched a number of initiatives to improve its performance. The company has some way to go before rectifying its position, but a number of signs are promising, with revenue growth, margins, client mining, and employee attrition improving. Ø ØEconomic Moat

Infosys’ narrow economic moat results from high switching costs (roughly 96%-98% of revenue is from repeat business and has been around these levels for many years). The company’s commitment to building lasting relationships, embedded systems and processes, and intimate knowledge of clients’ IT infrastructure means customers are averse to switching between vendors. On a gross basis, Infosys continually adds over 200 clients per year, which is an encouraging sign and cements further long-dated business given switching costs. Such switching costs ensure a certain level of operational consistency and the company’s exemplary financial health reflects this. We forecast Infosys to easily generate a return on invested capital in excess of its cost of capital for the foreseeable future, and we believe its lower-cost offshore delivery model allows for this assumption.

Risk Infosys has highlighted issues regarding relatively low revenue growth, margin compression, leadership churn, and high employee attrition. Management has taken steps to remedy this, but it is still early and there is the risk that these problems become inflated.Poor macroeconomic conditions, management turnover, founder disruption, visa restrictions, competitive threats, and foreign exchange movements are also external risks that could generate further downside for the company.

all the way it set out to be in this competitive world.

Thank you .

Rule of Thirds

Rule of Thirds

In photography, the rule of thirds is a type of composition in which an image is divided evenly into thirds, both horizontally and vertically, and the subject of the image is placed at the intersection of those dividing lines, or along one of the lines itself.

What is the Rule of Thirds in Photography

The rule of thirds is one of the most common rules in photography, and one of the easiest to learn and to use successfully. To understand and use the rule of thirds, simply break up an image into thirds both horizontally and vertically, as seen here. The four intersection points of these lines, and the four lines themselves, are where subjects, or strong compositional lines of a photograph, can be placed to create a strong, balanced image.

How to break the rule of thirds

Of all the “rules” in photography, the rule of thirds is one of the easiest to successfully break. Framing an image so that subjects or lines don’t fall on the rule of thirds areas can still create a successful image, as long as the lines and other elements in the image do create a strong overall image, and capture the viewer’s eye using other methods such as leading lines, contrast, color, symmetry, etc.


In our biosphere immense diversity (or heterogeneity)exists not only at the species level but at all levels of biological organisation ranging from macromolecules within cells to biomes. Biodiversity is the term popularised by the sociologist Edward Wilson to describe the

combined diversity at all the levels of biological organisation.

The most important of them are–

(i) Genetic diversity: A single species might show high diversity at the genetic level over its distributional range. The genetic variation shown by the medicinal plant Rauwolfia vomitoria growing in different Himalayan ranges might be in terms of the potency and concentration of the active chemical (reserpine) that the plant produces. India has more than 50,000 genetically different strains of rice, and 1,000 varieties of mango.

(ii) Species diversity: The diversity at the species level. For example, the Western Ghats have a greater amphibian species diversity than the Eastern Ghats.

(iii) Ecological diversity: At the ecosystem level, India, for instance,with its deserts, rain forests, mangroves, coral reefs, wetlands, estuaries, and alpine meadows has a greater ecosystem diversity than a Scandinavian country like Norway.

It has taken millions of years of evolution, to accumulate this richdiversity in nature, but one could lose all that wealth in less than two centuries if the present rates of species losses continue. Biodiversity and its conservation are now vital environmental issues of international concern as more and more people around the world begin to realise the critical importance of biodiversity for our survival and well- being on this planet.

How Many Species are there on Earth and How Many in India?

Since there are published records of all the species discovered and named, As how many species in all have been recorded so far, but it is not easy to answer the question of how many species there are on earth. According to the IUCN (2004), the total number of plant and animal species described so far is slightly more than 1.5 million, but we have no clear idea of how many species are yet to be discovered and described. Estimates vary widely and many of them are only educated guesses. For many taxonomic groups, species inventories are more complete in temperate than in tropical countries. Considering that an overwhelmingly large proportion of the species waiting to be discovered are in the tropics, biologists make a statistical comparison of the temperate-tropical species richness of an exhaustively studied group of insects and extrapolate thisratio to other groups of animals and plants to come up with a gross estimate of the total number of species on earth. Some extreme estimates range from 20 to 50 million, but a more conservative and scientifically sound estimate made by Robert May places the global species diversity at about 7 million.

Since life originated on earth nearly 3.8 billion years ago, there had species been enormous diversification of life forms on earth. Biodiversity to the sum total of diversity that exists at all levels of biological organisation. Of particular importance is the diversity at ecosystem levels and conservation efforts are aimed at protecting diversity.  More than 1.5 million species have been recorded in the world, but there might still be nearly 6 million species on earth waiting to be discovered and named. Of the named species, > 70 per cent are animals, of which 70 per cent are insects. The group Fungi has more species than all the vertebrate species combined. India, with about 45,000 species of plants and twice as many species of animals, is one of the 12 mega diversity countries of the world.

Various steps and initiatives have been taken by government to conserve it and still contributing towards it.

Thank you.

Juice market segmentation.

Most sold product – fruit juice (Tropicana)
Tropicana Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing fruit or
vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents.


The segmentation strategy used by Tropicana is very smart as it tries to
reach the highest profit levels for the company.
Under psychographic segmentation, it targets those health conscious and
those who prefer to drink juice instead of coffee or soda.
The main target customers are the adults who are between the ages 21-30
and are more concerned about their health and who choose a nutritious
diet Mainly in this pandemic.
Tropicana has a global strategy to focus on healthier and nutritious
• Strong credibility: this business involves strong credibility.

Customer analysis
The main consumers of these business are the health conscious youth who
would choose to drink Tropicana instead of unhealthier options like Coke
or Pepsi
Promotion Strategy
Tropicana promotes itself based on two facts, first that it is 100% pure
drink and second is that it contains a large amount of fruit in each bottle.

Least sold product – soft drink Pepsi,

In India Pepsi was introduced into the market before few months of
Cricket world cup.

Consumer analysis
It revealed they are well known about the pepsi but majority of the
people didn’t like Pepsi and for many people the color of pepsi
reflected the color of Kerosene.
More over packaging of the drink also plays a important role in its
sale and promotion and from the findings it is clearly noticed that
the availability is in urban areas only.
• Moreover color is a sensitive matter changing it suddenly and
drastically reflects the sales of the product .
Pepsi failed in the market due to lack of proper advertisement and
it’s colour .

Turnover :
This organisation selling juice direct to consumer can expect about a 50%
– 70% gross margin for a month.
The main thing to increase the turnover depend upon the following:
• Financial Projections
• Customer Demographics

Pricing Strategy:
Its products are manufactured with high quality juices with innovative
they can be consumed by middle-income group families .
The 200 ml tetra pack is priced at Rs.30 whereas the 1000 ml tetra pack
is priced at Rs. 120. In the recent years, Tropicana sales have been
increasing, as more and more people have become health conscious.

Market Structure
Monopolistic competition is a type of imperfect competition such
that one or two producers sell products that are differentiated
from one another as goods but not perfect substitutes (such as
from branding, quality, or location)
As a monopolistic competitor this rm takes the prices charged by its
rivals as given and ignores the impact of its own prices on the
prices of other firms.

Thank you .

(News) Empowerment Conclave by Y4D Foundation paves the way for sustainable development of India by empowering the underprivileged.

Life becomes utterly insipid and loses its charm and meaning when the worth of an individual is not valued. Having to face a raw deal every day would mean as one is running the risk of living a monotonous life. Every day is the new beginning for something.

We live in a society that sets demands without a frontier. One would evenly poise us between cherishing the outcome and in front of another skyrocketing dream. The urge to go after the best of the best overshadows the sweetness of fruit to be achieved. With the spark of little thought in the mind which leads to open up the heart for the goal striking in life,  gives one opportunity to change the lives of many. We live in a world that sets demands without the frontier, out of which work hard for an opportunity goes beyond the scope which is important for building the youth of the nation.

Y4D is working towards shaping up a society which is sustainable for future generations by working on environment conservation and introducing values in society. It have even committed to empower the underprivileged section of our society by creating an enabling environment through Encouragement, Education and Employment so that citizens can harness their full potential and live happy and healthy lives with dignity and contribute positively to society.

In this world, where obstacle strikes back of opportunities, one has to make there own path towards the destination which is to be decided in present for the future. Development of any nation directly depends upon the youth of the nation, and the works go beyond one scope to encourage them by motivating and empowering them to ultimately prepare themselves for future goals by their full potential.

Starting with just one spark of the glint where one is capable of self-renewal,  life is worthwhile. Education is the basic necessity of an individual, which eventually leads an individual to reach the path of the desired destination.

The same happens as we go ahead without knowing the fact that whatever is going to happen next directly can be expected which is provided by Y4D Foundation which envisions the nation where each of its citizens lives a happy and content life and provides a platform for building children and youth for nation-building. Even, it emphasis on to educate the youth about financial skills and knowledge at an early stage to help them to make informed financial decisions. 

  In today’s world where more and more people are engaged in their respective works. The desired to change the requirements and going out of their goal and improvement for the same needs drastic steps.

Y4D Foundation provides an opportunity for all this, going out of the box and striking for the success and achievement of the desired goal.

Thank you.