Data is a collection of facts, figures, objects, symbols, and events gathered from different sources. Organizations collect data to make better decisions. Without data, it would be difficult for organizations to make appropriate decisions, and so data is collected at various points in time from different audiences.

For instance, before launching a new product, an organization needs to collect data on product demand, customer preferences, competitors, etc. In case data is not collected beforehand, the organization’s newly launched product may lead to failure for many reasons, such as less demand and inability to meet customer needs. 

Although data is a valuable asset for every organization, it does not serve any purpose until analyzed or processed to get the desired results. 

You can categorize data collection methods into primary methods of data collection and secondary methods of data collection.

Primary Data Collection Methods

Primary data is collected from the first-hand experience and is not used in the past. The data gathered by primary data collection methods are specific to the research’s motive and highly accurate.

Primary data collection methods can be divided into two categories: Quantitative methods and qualitative methods

Quantitative Methods:

Quantitative techniques for market research and demand forecasting usually make use of statistical tools. In these techniques, demand is forecast based on historical data. These methods of primary data collection are generally used to make long-term forecasts. Statistical methods are highly reliable as the element of subjectivity is minimum in these methods.

Time Series Analysis

The term time series refers to a sequential order of values of a variable, known as a trend, at equal time intervals. Using patterns, an organization can predict the demand for its products and services for the projected time. 

Smoothing Techniques

In cases where the time series lacks significant trends, smoothing techniques can be used. They eliminate a random variation from the historical demand. It helps in identifying patterns and demand levels to estimate future demand. The most common methods used in smoothing demand forecasting techniques are the simple moving average method and the weighted moving average method. 

Barometric Method

Also known as the leading indicators approach, researchers use this method to speculate future trends based on current developments. When the past events are considered to predict future events, they act as leading indicators.

Qualitative Methods:

Qualitative methods are especially useful in situations when historical data is not available. Or there is no need of numbers or mathematical calculations. Qualitative research is closely associated with words, sounds, feeling, emotions, colors, and other elements that are non-quantifiable. These techniques are based on experience, judgment, intuition, conjecture, emotion, etc.

Quantitative methods do not provide the motive behind participants’ responses, often don’t reach underrepresented populations, and span long periods to collect the data. Hence, it is best to combine quantitative methods with qualitative methods.


Surveys are used to collect data from the target audience and gather insights into their preferences, opinions, choices, and feedback related to their products and services. Most survey software often a wide range of question types to select.

You can also use a ready-made survey template to save on time and effort. Online survey can be customized as per the business’s brand by changing the theme, logo, etc. They can be distributed through several distribution channels such as email, website, offline app, QR code, social media, etc. Depending on the type and source of your audience, you can select the channel.

Once the data is collected, survey software can generate various reports and run analytics algorithms to discover hidden insights. A survey dashboard can give you the statistics related to response rate, completion rate, filters based on demographics, export and sharing options, etc. You can maximize the effort spent on online data collection by integrating survey builder with third-party apps.


Polls comprise of one single or multiple choice question. When it is required to have a quick pulse of the audience’s sentiments, you can go for polls. Because they are short in length, it is easier to get responses from the people.



Tabulation Meaning:

Tabulation is a systematic and logical representation of numeric data in rows and columns to facilitate comparison and statistical analysis. It facilitates comparison by bringing related information close to each other and helps in statistical analysis and interpretation.

In other words, the method of placing organised data into a tabular form is known as tabulation. It may be complex, double, or simple, depending upon the nature of categorisation.

Objectives Of Tabulation:

(1) To simplify complex data

  • It reduces the bulk of information, i.e., it reduces raw data in a simplified and meaningful form so that it can be easily interpreted by a common man in less time.

(2) To bring out essential features of data

  • It brings out the chief/main characteristics of data.
  • It presents facts clearly and precisely without textual explanation.

(3) To facilitate comparison

  • The representation of data in rows and columns is helpful in simultaneous detailed comparison on the basis of several parameters.

(4) To facilitate statistical analysis

  • Tables serve as the best source of organised data for statistical analysis.
  • The task of computing average, dispersion, correlation, etc., becomes easier if data is presented in the form of a table.

(5) To save space

  • A table presents facts in a better way than the textual form.
  • It saves space without sacrificing the quality and quantity of data.


What is Hypothesis in Research?

A Hypothesis is a tentative statement of a proposition which the researcher seeks to prove. It’s basically a concrete generalization. Of course, this generalization requires essential characteristics that pertain to an entire class of phenomena.

When a theory stated as a testable proposition formally and subject to empirical verification we can define it as a hypothesis. Researchers make a hypothesis on the basis of some earlier theories and some rationale that generally accepted as true. The hypothesis test finally will decide whether it is true or rejected.

So, to clarify a hypothesis is a statement about the relationship between two or more variables. The researcher set out the variables to prove or disprove. Hypothesis essentially includes three elements. For example-

  1. Variables
  2. Population
  3. Relationship between variables.

Example of Hypothesis

  1. Rewards increase reading achievements
  2. Rewards decrease reading achievements
  3. Or rewards have no effect on reading achievements

In the above examples- variables are- Rewards & Achievements.

Steps in Formulation of Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a tentative assumption drawn from practical knowledge or theory. A hypothesis is used as a guide in the inquiry of other facts or theories that a researcher does not know. However, the formulation of the hypothesis is one of the most difficult steps in the entire scientific research process.

Therefore, in this regard, we intend to point out the basic steps in the formulation of a hypothesis. We are pretty sure that this guideline will be helpful in your research works.

1. Define Variables

At first, with a view to formulating a hypothesis, you must define your variables. What do you want to test? Will you test that rewards increase reading achievement? Or rewards decrease reading achievement? Whatever your goals are, they need to be clearly defined, quantifiable, and measurable. This will provide you with a clear idea of what to follow to achieve results.

2. Study In-Depth the Variables

If we do think that your variables are Rewards & Achievements, then you need to intense study how rewards increase reading achievements? An in-depth study, rigorous questions, and data of rewards increase reading achievements will make you able to confirm your hypothesis. Specify dependent and independent variables.

3. Specify the Nature of Relationship

Then, identify what relationship there exist between the variables. What variable influences the other? That is what is the dependent variable and what is the independent variable? How Rewards impact achievements? If reward plays a key role in reading achievements, then reward is the independent variable.

4. Identify Study Population

The population in research we mean the entire group of individuals is going to study. If you want to test how rewards increase reading achievements in the United Kingdom, you need not study the whole population of the United Kingdom. Because the total population does not involve in reading achievements. Therefore, the researcher must identify the study population.

5. Make Sure Variables are Testable

Variables in your hypothesis must be testable. Otherwise, the hypothesis would be worthless. Because your research study must accept or reject a variable. So, variables you must need to test. Testable variables can only be accepted or rejected. Moreover, the sole aim of a research hypothesis is to test variables in the long run.

It is crucial for graduate students to search the thesis and dissertation literature to make sure that an idea or hypothesis has not already been tested, explored, and published.  An additional reason to search this literature is that it is rich with ideas and information not found elsewhere.  If graduate students do not continue on as academics or if students that came after them in their programs did not continue their research, this literature may be the end of the line for scholarship on a topic. Tesi Online is a good resource for scholars to try.

Photo by Andrea Piacquadio on


1. Mission Changes

Did you know that the team who made Instagram had previously developed a product called Burbn?  It was a check-in service similar to Foursquare except that it focused on hanging out with your friends.  Needless to say, it never took off.  The team performed something that is most visibly seen in the tech community: a company pivot.  They changed their business focus and created Instagram.

Sometimes companies need to change direction to survive.  For more on corporate culture and the role of the mission statement, check out this article on shaping an authentic corporate culture.

2. Strategic Changes

A strategic change is a change in how the company tackles a problem.  Going from print advertising for your business to online, for example, is a strategic change.  As is targeting a different demographic or selling a new type of product.  When Amazon launched the Kindle, that was a strategic change.  When Microsoft revealed that Windows 8 had changed how the company had approached operating systems, that was a strategic change.  Change management in this case means convincing your team of the new strategy’s value.

3. Operational Changes

An operational change is a change in the structure of your company.  That could be a reorganization, lay offs, or just a team change due to a strategic or mission statement change.

Operational changes are some of the roughest for your employees because they never quite know what to expect.  At least with a change in technology they aren’t likely to find themselves without a job.

4. Technological Changes

Technology is advancing inexorably, whether we like it or not.  That means we need to keep upgrading or fall behind.  Often operational and strategic changes are driven by a change in technology.  At the turn of the century, for example, it was rare to see a TV commercial direct you to a website.  Now it is commonplace.

A change in technology could mean a change that affects all your employees.  If an operating system upgrade breaks a proprietary piece of software, you are going to have to retrain your team with the new software.  Technological changes don’t have to be rough, though.  Switching to Intuit Quickbase is often quick and painless.

That said, people are stubborn.  Often technological changes cause the most trouble.  Make sure your team is trained for the software, though, and you should be able to avoid most of it.


Total project management solutions (TPM solutions) will help a project-thinking organization to stabilize the business processes and begin leading employees towards achieving refined efficiency and accountability. Implementing TPM solutions requires a flexible infrastructure that lets respond to the dynamics of a project environment and rapid technological advances. In this article, I will briefly talk about what TPM concept means and will also outline a 5-step model for implementing total PM solutions. I guess my considerations will be helpful for management staff and executives in project-thinking organizations.

TPM Concept

The key idea behind total project management (TPM) consists in providing a project-thinking organization with an enterprise-wide approach to establishing an efficient project management system. Such a system paves the way for developing total project management solutions (TPM solutions) through creating a project-based culture in which every project is performed in line with the organization’s corporate strategy, and therefore every project participant and team member can get necessary support from managers at all levels. The system will be the foundation for implementing TPM effort and starting the project management process.

TPM solutions make it possible to build close collaboration and communication between project-thinking employees, technology and processes which are the key drivers in the total project integration environment. The implementation of total project management solutions depends on a selected management style that integrates accountability into the total project processes and serves as a convenient way for continuous improvement of both corporate and individual performance.

A 5-Step Model

A macro-level model of total project management includes 5 steps Taking each of the steps builds an infrastructure for implementing TPM solutions. Here are these steps:

  • Communication
  • Assessment
  • Recommendation
  • Implementation
  • Validation

Because a model of total project management encompasses all of the listed steps, a project-thinking organization needs to incorporate collaborative methods, tools, and appropriate technologies to create a synchronized and highly productive infrastructure that tends to be stable and flexible in a rapidly changing project environment.

Once the steps of TPM model are taken along with the standards of best practices (incl. communication protocols, employee competency assessments, project portfolio analysis, project methodology planning, process scheduling and mapping, application-based working environments, team training and development), the infrastructure for achieving efficient total project management solutions will be established.

The performance appraisal

Performance appraisal

Forming part of an organisation’s overall performance management system, the performance appraisal can be defined as the process of identifying, evaluating and developing the work performance of employees to help achieve the goals and objectives of the organisation. At the same time, appraisals benefit employees by providing them with recognition, feedback, career guidance and development.

Performance appraisal involves managers and their staff members meeting on a one-on-one basis at regular intervals (at least annually) to discuss work performance in relation to:

  • execution of roles and responsibilities
  • the requirements of the organisation and individuals’ contribution to the achievement of the organisation’s objectives.

Effective performance appraisal relies on clear performance standards being established and discussed with employees. Using these standards, appraisal involves:

  • observing the employee’s work behaviour and results, and comparing them against the agreed standards
  • evaluating job performance and the employee’s development potential
  • providing feedback to the employee
  • acting on the results of the appraisal process, for example through promotion, reward and recognition, counselling, training, or in some cases termination.


Negotiation is a dialogue between two parties to resolve conflicts or issues so that both parties find the solution acceptable. Usually, it is a compromise involving give and take. Negotiation results when each party compromises to resolve a conflict for everyone’s benefits. In the workplace, negotiations may take place between managers, departments, colleagues or between a team member and a manager. Even before you join the workplace, you may negotiate the job offer with the interviewer or HR manager.

In this article, we will discuss what negotiation skills are, its benefits, examples and tips for improving your negotiation skills.

What are negotiation skills?

Negotiation skills are inherent qualities that help two or more parties agree to a common logical solution. In the workplace, you may have to display your negotiating skills in various situations such as:

  • Negotiating a salary hike with the HR manager after promotion
  • Negotiating a project deadline with your team lead or manager
  • Negotiating few days off for a family holiday with your manager
  • Negotiating contract terms with a potential customer

Lack of negotiation skills affects the business bottom line and could ruin customer relationship. Negotiation skills are soft skills and essential to become a negotiator and resolve workplace conflicts.

However, this skill set depends on the work environment, the parties involved and outcome desired. Often, when one party is ready for reaching a compromise, the other party may be resistant. This makes negotiation difficult and you are likely to encounter such situations in the workplace. That is why you need to master your negotiation skills.

Why is knowledge management important?

Knowledge management

The knowledge management (KM) category represents solutions that streamline the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using knowledge. When an organization is able to easily access, share, and update business knowledge, it can become more productive and cost-efficient. The ability to access the right knowledge at the right time, via a robust knowledge management system, informs accurate decision-making and stimulates collaboration and innovation.

A McKinsey Global institute reports indicates that a robust knowledge management system can reduce information search time by as much as 35 percent and raise organization-wide productivity by 20 to 25 percent. Findings culled from the International Data Corp also corroborates the value of a knowledge management system.

As your enterprise grows, so too will the need to access a reliable knowledge database in order to effectively run your business, serve your clients, and increase revenue. Without a knowledge management system in place, your employees will be forced to learn and relearn processes and information. That’s an inefficient and costly practice. Plus, you may also run the risk of losing those processes or information if a knowledge leader or legacy employee leaves your company.


1. Human Resources Approach:

This approach recognizes that human resources in an organisation are the central force. Their development will contribute to the success of the organisation. Human resources approach provides for the changes in the managerial role. It requires that the managers, instead of controlling the employees, should provide active support to them by treating them as part of the group.

The superiors and managers should practice a style where workers are given the opportunities and encouragement to perform under loose supervision. By treating individuals as mature adults, organisations can increase productivity and at the same time meet the needs of individuals for independence and growth.

2. Contingency Approach:

The approach stresses that there is no single way to manage effectively under all circumstances. The methods of behaviours which work effectively in one situation may fail in another. The organisational structure and the processes of management are governed by the external environment and several aspects of the internal environment. Effective management processes will vary in different situations depending on the individuals and groups in the organisation, the nature of the job and technology, the environment facing the organisation and its structure.

The manager’s task therefore, is to identify which method will, in a particular situation, under particular circumstances and at a particular time, best contribute to the attainment of organization’s goals. Thus, the manager will have to analyze each situation prior to action and different managerial practices and styles are needed for effective management.

3. Productivity Approach:

Productivity means the numerical value of the ratio of output to input. Higher the value of this ratio, greater is the efficiency and effectiveness of the management. The traditional concept of productivity was concerned with economic inputs and output only. But nowadays human and social inputs and outputs are equally important. Productivity, a significant part of organisational behaviour decisions, is recognized and discussed extensively. These decisions relate to human, social and economic issues. For example if better organisational behaviour can reduce worker’s turnover or the number of absentees, a human output or benefit occurs.

4. System Approach

The systems approach is of the view that an organisation is a powerful system with several subsystems which are highly and closely interconnected. Any action taken to solve the problems in one subsystem will have its effect on the other subsystems as well; since all the parts of the organisation are closely connected. Thus, this approach gives the managers a way of looking at the organisation as a whole, whole group, and the whole social system. Systems approach has become an integral part of modern organisational theory. Organisations are termed as complex systems comprising of interrelated and interlocking systems.

According to this approach, an organisation receives several inputs from its environment such as material, human and financial. These inputs are then processed so as to produce the final output in terms of products or services.


The Organizational Process

Organizing, like planning, must be a carefully worked out and applied process. This process involves determining what work is needed to accomplish the goal, assigning those tasks to individuals, and arranging those individuals in a decision‐making framework (organizational structure). The end result of the organizing process is an organization — a whole consisting of unified parts acting in harmony to execute tasks to achieve goals, both effectively and efficiently.

A properly implemented organizing process should result in a work environment where all team members are aware of their responsibilities. If the organizing process is not conducted well, the results may yield confusion, frustration, loss of efficiency, and limited effectiveness.

1.Review plans and objectives.

Objectives are the specific activities that must be completed to achieve goals. Plans shape the activities needed to reach those goals. Managers must examine plans initially and continue to do so as plans change and new goals are developed.

        2.Determine the work activities necessary to accomplish objectives.

Although this task may seem overwhelming to some managers, it doesn’t need to be. Managers simply list and analyze all the tasks that need to be accomplished in order to reach organizational goals.

     3.Classify and group the necessary work activities into manageable units.

A manager can group activities based on four models of departmentalization: functional, geographical, product, and customer.

    4.Assign activities and delegate authority.

Managers assign the defined work activities to specific individuals. Also, they give each individual the authority (right) to carry out the assigned tasks.

    5.Design a hierarchy of relationships.

A manager should determine the vertical (decision‐making) and horizontal (coordinating) relationships of the organization as a whole. Next, using the organizational chart, a manager should diagram the relationships.


Systems approach is based on the generalization that everything is inter-related and inter­dependent. A system is composed of related and dependent element which when in interaction, forms a unitary whole. A system is simply an assemblage or combination of things or parts forming a complex whole.

One its most important characteristic is that it is composed of hierarchy of sub-systems. That is the parts forming the major system and so on. For example, the world can be considered-to be a system in which various national economies are sub-systems.

In turn, each national economy is composed of its various industries, each industry is composed of firms’ and of course a firm can be considered a system composed of sub-systems sudi as production, marketing, finance, accounting and so on.

Features of Systems Approach:

(i) A system consists of interacting elements. It is set of inter-related and inter-dependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole.

(ii) The various sub-systems should be studied in their inter-relationships rather, than in isolation from each other.

(iii) An organisational system has a boundary that determines which parts are internal and which are external.

(iv) A system does not exist in a vacuum. It receives information, material and energy from other systems as inputs. These inputs undergo a transformation process within a system and leave the system as output to other systems.

(v) An organisation is a dynamic system as it is responsive to its environment. It is vulnerable to change in its environment.

In the systems approach, attention is paid towards the overall effectiveness of the system rather than the effectiveness of the sub-systems. The interdependence of the sub-systems is taken into account. The idea of systems can be applied at an organisational level. In Appling system concepts, organisations are taken into account and not only the objectives and performances of different departments (sub-systems).

The systems approach is considered both general and specialised systems. The general systems approach to management is mainly concerned with formal organisations and the concepts are relating to technique of sociology, psychology and philosophy. The specific management system includes the analysis of organisational structure, information, planning and control mechanism and job design, etc.

As discussed earlier, system approach has immense possibilities, “A system view point may provide the impetus to unify management theory. By definitions, it could treat the various approaches such as the process of quantitative and behavioural ones as sub-systems in an overall theory of management. Thus, the systems approach may succeed where the process approach has failed to lead management out of the theory of jungle.

Is Protecting Our Environment A Priority?

Look around yourself. Listen to the rustling of leaves, feel the bracing winds on your face, experience the trickling water slip through your fingers, hear the rumbling of clouds and the plashing patter of steady rain. Now imagine yourself in a place devoid of all this. Pretty hard to imagine, isn’t it? It may be difficult now to envision a world sans nature, but it is a dreadful reality looming over us. Probably a few years down the line, green spaces, clear water and fresh air would be the new El Dorado.

For over a century now, humans have been constantly capitalising on nature, an indispensable asset to extract monetary benefits. People treat nature simply as a warehouse of resources to serve human needs. ‘There is enough in nature for everybody’s need, but not enough for everybody’s greed’ is an apt statement made by Mahatma Gandhi that throws light on the avaricious temperament of mankind.

Humans are unappeasable creatures that can go on exploiting the environment without a second thought. They never think about the consequences of their actions and time and again they’ve paid the price for this.

In the United States when wheat cultivation had expanded dramatically in the early twentieth century, zealous farmers had recklessly uprooted all vegetation. This was followed by terrifying dust storms. Black blizzards rolled in, very often 7,000 feet high, rising like monstrous waves of muddy water. People were blinded and choked as the skies darkened, and the dust swept in.

They came year after year, throughout the 1930s.

In part, they came because the early 1930s were years of persistent drought. The temperatures soared owing to the falling rains. However, ordinary dust storms became black blizzards because the entire landscape had been stripped of all grass that held it together.

The American dream of a land of plenty had turned into a nightmare.

This is only one such incident that highlights the consequences of environmental degradation.

Now, a new problem has come to the fore — climate change.

We are facing a potentially staggering expansion of dangerous heat over the coming decades. Climate change poses a fundamental threat to flora and fauna. Due to global warming, sea levels are rising and oceans are becoming warmer. Longer, more intense droughts threaten crops and freshwater supplies. It might be possible that our grandchildren or great-grandchildren wouldn’t be fortunate enough to witness the beauty of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as it would be submerged underwater.

Global warming is the direct outcome of high levels of pollution. Today, pollution is the most significant issue that concerns the health of our environment. Industrialisation and modernisation encouraged the widespread use of fossil fuels. Hundreds of factory chimneys spew black smoke into the skies and large quantities of refuse and waste products pollute the air and water.

We’re producing and consuming more than ever before, and generating more greenhouse gases as a result, as well as air pollutants in the form of chemicals and particulate matter. These activities have interfered with the Earth’s natural greenhouse effect. Too many of these gases result in the Earth’s atmosphere trapping additional heat.

A dangerous constituent of these gases is Chlorofluorocarbon, also known as Freon. It is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. CFC’s lower the average concentration of ozone in the stratosphere. Discarded spray cans, leaking refrigerators and the burning of plastic products release the CFC’s into the atmosphere. Depending on the type, CFC’s stay in the atmosphere from 22 to 111 years.

Due to the depletion of the ozone layer, the earth is exposed to the harmful UV rays of the sun. Exposure to UV radiation is the main factor that causes skin cells to become cancer cells and is also responsible for sunburns and blindness.

Protecting the environment is the need of the hour. If we don’t take preventive actions now, we will have to face terrible consequences in the future. The air might become too toxic to breathe, the water too contaminated to drink, and the rainfall too acidic to harvest. Children might never enjoy the sun without getting sunburnt.

It’s time that we show some appreciation for all that nature has given us. The Bishnoi people were not a bunch of lunatics who sacrificed their lives to save trees and the villagers of Reni were not some crazy tree huggers. These people understood the value of nature and fought to preserve it.

We can all do our bit to conserve the environment, starting by switching off the electric appliances, not in use and not littering our surroundings. I can assure you that our great-grandchildren will certainly respect our efforts.

Women’s Safety In India

Women Safety in India is broadly talked about wherever these days. It has now turned into a significant issue. The crime percentage is on the spike. Women are neither protected outside nor at home. Women voyagers from different nations are likewise in a questionable state while contemplating coming to India. Notwithstanding, this dread can’t get them far from any sort of friendly action. There are laws however there ought to be appropriate security estimates which we need to follow stringently to shield the women from brutality.

Security of Women in India has turned into a significant issue in India now. The crime percentages against women in the nation have simply ascended generally. Women really reconsider getting out of their homes, particularly at the evening. This is, shockingly, the miserable truth of our country that lives in steady dread. Not a day passes by where you don’t know about the information on a wrongdoing against women in India. Truth be told, there are somewhere around five news stories that enlighten us concerning the horrendous subtleties of the different wrongdoings. It is very difficult to watch the situation with women security in India, particularly in a nation where women are given the height of goddesses.

To further develop women security in India the primary undertaking is to work on the quantity of ladies in each circle of society. Alongside that the adjustment of mentality of individuals is exceptionally fundamental for the wellbeing of women. From family to instructive organizations men ought to be educated about regarding females. Further, there ought to be quick track courts to hear the cases and they cases ought to be examined in a period bound way. Just severe laws can not tackle the issue of women wellbeing in India rather the execution of these laws in a period bound way can address the issue generally.

So, wrongdoings against women are halting the development of our country. We should not accuse ladies and request that they be extra cautious. All things considered, we should request that the men change their reasoning and work to make the world a more secure spot for women.