Social Media!

Social media is a device which is becoming quite popular these days due to its consumer-friendly features. Social media systems like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and greater are giving human beings a chance to connect with every different throughout distances. In other words, the entire global is at our fingertips all thanks to social media. The youngsters is mainly one of the most dominant users of social media. All this makes you wonder that something so powerful and with one of these big attain can not be all appropriate. Like how there are continually aspects to a coin, the equal goes for social media. Subsequently, exclusive human beings have exceptional critiques on this debatable subject matter.

When we have a look at the wonderful factor of social media, we discover several benefits. The most crucial being a top notch device for schooling. All the statistics one requires is just a click on away. Students can train themselves on numerous subjects the use of social media. Furthermore, as an increasing number of humans are distancing themselves from newspapers, they are depending on social media for news. You are always updated at the state-of-the-art happenings of the world through it. An individual turns into extra socially aware of the issues of the arena. Most importantly, it also presents a tremendous platform for young budding artists to showcase their talent without cost. You can get amazing possibilities for employment via social media too.

Despite having such precise advantages, social media is taken into consideration to be one of the most dangerous elements of society. If using social media isn’t monitored, it is able to lead to grave results. It is harmful because it invades your privacy like by no means earlier than. The oversharing taking place on social media makes youngsters a goal for predators and hackers. It also results in cyberbullying which impacts any individual notably. This dependancy hampers with the educational performance of a student as they waste their time on social media rather than studying. Social media additionally creates communal rifts. Fake information is unfold with the usage of it, which poisons the thoughts of peace-loving residents.

Social media has both advantages and downsides. When you use it productively, it could be a device of titanic assist however over utilization can become a silent enemy. Thus, we as users ought to learn how to stability and now not permit ourselves to be controlled by way of this technology.

The Movies

 A film also called a moviemotion picture, or moving picture is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These images are generally accompanied by sound, and more rarely, other sensory stimulations.  The word “cinema“, short for cinematography is often used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, and to the art form that is the result of it.

The worlds first three movies were 

  • The Horse In Motion (1878)
  • Roundhay Garden Scene (1888)
  • Arrival of a Train (1895)

Modern Cinema 

With years of the release of the first movie, the Cinema is constantly evolving all around the world with new technology being added up all the time. 

Back in the 1960’s to 1990’s watching movies in theaters was a huge trend and it was most popular among teens and college students. Students were so interested in watching the latest release on Fridays that they will bunk classes for it. 

Then came the era of VCR, DVD players. It gained a lot of market attraction. Their main motive was comfort and portability. People could buy a DVD player and then go to any movie library, pick any disc and watch it at home as many times as they want. and it also gave out a decent quality. The top companies in this field were Philips, Sony, and Toshiba.

Soon the era of internet had begun, people had soon begun shifting from DVD players and started to watch movies online on the internet. The acronym OTT stands for Over-the-Top. This means streaming across different devices whenever we want is possible because of “over-the-top,” a convenient little term that explains the new delivery method of film and TV content over the internet without the need for traditional broadcast, cable, or satellite pay-TV providers. In the best quality possible. In simple terms, we’re talking about people paying an internet provider, like jio, for internet access to watch Netflix, without paying for cable TV. In many ways, OTT platforms were considered much convenient since we didn’t need to Keep buying disks as we did for the DVD players. The top competitors in the market are Netflix, Amazon, and Disney. 

Is watching movies in theaters still a trend?

Nobel Prize For Literature – 2021

The Nobel prize ceremony is literature’s greatest show of the year and the jury ensures that only the best make it to the podium. Each year, the literature community is abuzz with speculations regarding the potential winner. The wait came to an end on Thursday when this year’s victor was declared.

About the Prize

The Nobel Prizes, which have been awarded since 1901, recognise achievement in literature, science and peace. As stated by Alfred Nobel in his will, the Nobel Prize in Literature is given to “the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction.” The 18-member Swedish Academy selects the Nobel Laureates in Literature. Nominations come from members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, and the presidents of writers’ organisations. However, it is against the rules to nominate oneself.

Winner of 2021

Abdulrazak Gurnah was preparing a cup of tea in the kitchen of his Canterbury home on Thursday when he received the auspicious call, telling him that he had won the most esteemed prize in the field of Literature. He admitted, that he didn’t have the slightest idea that he was being considered for the award.

A novelist and academic based in the United Kingdom, Gurnah was bestowed with the Nobel Prize for his eminent contributions to literature. In the words of the academy, the prize motivation was “for his uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents.”            

About the winner

Born in Zanzibar in 1948, Gurnah was displaced from his country and was forced to take refuge in Britain as a young teenager. His books pronouncedly detail the struggles of refugees who sought asylum in other countries. In the 1960s, the Arab Muslims fled Zanzibar to shield themselves from the oppressive regimes that persecuted their community. After reaching England, Gurnah found solace in writing which helped him cope with the loss of his home. He soon became a member of the faculty, at the University of Kent, following the completion of his studies in Canterbury. Gurnah proceeded to have an illustrious career in both academics and writing. The settings in his stories are diverse, ranging from East Africa under German colonialism to modern-day England. Many of Gurnah’s characters deal with the dilemma of leaving their old lives behind and prepare for the life to come, finding themselves in a gulf between cultures while confronting racism and prejudice. He has authored ten novels, throughout his life with three of them featuring in the Man Booker shortlists — “Memory of Departure,” “Pilgrims Way,” “Paradise”. The novels have left a profound impact all across the world, by highlighting the issues of migration, focusing mainly on uprooted people and the places they make their new homes. His work’s relevance has increased even more now, as the world witnesses the large-scale displacement of the Afghan natives.

Past Winners

Past winners have included novelists such as Ernest Hemingway, Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Toni Morrison, poets such as Pablo Neruda, Joseph Brodsky and Rabindranath Tagore, and playwrights including Harold Pinter and Eugene O’Neill.

Different Types of Vegetables

1. Artichoke

Artichoke (or artichoke heart) is a kind of thistle.Interestingly, this vegetable is actually the flower buds of the plant before they bloom.Nutritionally, artichokes offer a decent mix of vitamins and minerals per 100g (1);Calories: 47 kcalCarbohydrate: 10.5 gFiber: 5.4 gSugar: 1.0 gFat: 0.2 gProtein: 3.3 gVitamin C: 20% RDAVitamin K1: 18% RDAFolate: 17% RDAMagnesium: 15% RDAManganese: 13% RDA

2. Arugula

Arugula leaves are otherwise known as ‘rocket’, and they are particularly popular in the Mediterranean and Middle-East.

In fact, arugula is one of the tastiest foods on this vegetable list, and it adds a complex flavor to any dish.These leaves are relatively nutrient-dense too, and their nutritional

3. Asparagus

Out of all the different vegetables in the world, asparagus has a good argument for being the tastiest.After all, it’s often the one which steakhouses serve alongside the main attraction.As well as being one of the tastiest vegetables, it provides a good source of nutrition too (3);Calories: 20 kcalCarbohydrate: 4.0 gFiber: 2.1 gSugar: 1.9 gFat: 0.1 gProtein: 2.2 gVitamin K1: 52% RDAVitamin A: 15% RDAFolate: 13% RDAIron: 12% RDAVitamin B1: 10% RDA

4. Bell Peppers

Bell peppers come in all shapes and sizes, but they all grow from the same plant.The difference between green, yellow, orange and red varieties is merely the state of ripeness. Red bell peppers are the ripest and sweetest, while green peppers are the freshest and slightly bitter.Technically bell peppers are a fruit, but since most people use them as a vegetable, they make this list.Nutritionally, each color pepper has a very slight difference, but they are fairly similar.

5 . Beet Greens

The leaves of the beetroot plant are incredibly nutritious, so don’t throw them away!Out of all plant foods, beet greens are one of the most impressive for nutrient density (5);Calories: 22 kcalCarbohydrate: 4.3 gFiber: 3.7 gSugar: 0.5 gFat: 0.1 gProtein: 2.2 gVitamin K1: 500% RDAVitamin A: 127% RDAVitamin C: 50% RDAPotassium: 22% RDAManganese: 20% RDASee this guide to leafy greens for an in-depth look at the nutritional benefits of leafy vegetables.

6. Beets / Beetroot

Depending on where you are from, beets (or beetroot) goes by different names.Beets are a root vegetable, and they are quite adaptable too. For instance, they can be boiled, fried, roasted, mashed, or you can even buy pickled beets.Consuming beets leads to a large intake of nitrate, which has many purported health benefits. Most notably, nitrate helps to lower blood pressure

Health Benefits Vegetables

All food and beverage choices matter – focus on variety, amount, and nutrition.

1 . As part of an overall healthy diet, eating foods such as vegetables that are lower in calories per cup instead of some other higher-calorie food may be useful in helping to lower calorie intake.

2 . Eating a diet rich in vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet may reduce risk for heart disease, including heart attack and stroke.

3 . Eating a diet rich in some vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet may protect against certain types of cancers.

4 . Adding vegetables can help increase intake of fiber and potassium, which are important nutrients that many Americans do not get enough of in their diet.

Benefits of Lemons

Lemons are high in vitamin C, fiber, and various beneficial plant compounds.These nutrients are responsible for several health benefits.In fact, lemons may support heart health, weight control, and digestive health

1. Support Heart Health

Lemons are a good source of vitamin C.One lemon provides about 31 mg of vitamin C, which is 51% of the reference daily intake (RDI).Research shows that eating fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C reduces your risk of heart disease and stroke

2. Help Control Weight

Lemons are often promoted as a weight loss food, and there are a few theories as to why this is.One common theory is that the soluble pectin fiber in them expands in your stomach, helping you feel full for longer.That said, not many people eat lemons whole. And because lemon juice contains no pectin, lemon juice drinks will not promote fullness in the same way.

3. Prevent Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are small lumps that form when waste products crystallize and build up in your kidneys.They are quite common, and people who get them often get them repeatedly.Citric acid may help prevent kidney stones by increasing urine volume and increasing urine pH, creating a less favorable environment for kidney stone formation

4. Protect Against Anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is quite common. It occurs when you don’t get enough iron from the foods you eat.Lemons contain some iron, but they primarily prevent anemia by improving your absorption of iron from plant foods (26Trusted Source, 27Trusted Source).Your gut absorbs iron from meat, chicken, and fish (known as heme iron) very easily, while iron from plant sources (non-heme iron) not as easily. However, this absorption can be improved by consuming vitamin C and citric acid.

5. Reduce Cancer Risk

A healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables may help prevent some cancers (28Trusted Source).Some observational studies have found that people who eat the most citrus fruit have a lower risk of cancer, while other studies have found no effects (29Trusted Source, 30Trusted Source, 31Trusted Source).In test-tube studies, many compounds from lemons have killed cancer cells. However, they may not have the same effect on the human body

Avocados

Avocados

The popularity of avocado is down to its rich, creamy texture and mild flavour. The avocado, or Persea Americana, is a fruit that belongs to the family of lauraceae; a group that also includes members such as cinnamon and laurel. There are dozens of varieties of avocado, ranging in size, colour and texture. All are native to tropical climates and when harvested, the flesh softens to a buttery texture that has become extremely popular in everything from dips to desserts.

  1. Avocados are nutritionally rich

Avocados have been commended as an example of a nutrient dense food, with one half of the fruit counting towards your five-a-day.Avocados are an excellent source of monounsaturated fat and vitamin E, and are a good source of folate. They also supply more soluble fibre than other fruit and contain a number of useful minerals including iron, copper and potassium.

2. May support heart health

Avocados are high in fat with 60 per cent of this being monounsaturated fats, which research suggests helps to protect against heart disease and lower blood pressure. They are also an excellent source of potassium, folate and fibre, all of which benefit the heart and cardiovascular system.

3. May help to lower cholesterol

The oils supplied by avocado include oleic acid and linoleic acid, these unsaturated fats are recommended as part of a balanced diet to help manage cholesterol.

4. May help to regulate appetite

There is no doubt that the calorie content of avocados is greater than other fruits and vegetables. However, an interesting study has shown that the fat and fibre content of avocados leads to feelings of satiety which helps regulate appetite.

5. May help keep eyes healthy

Alongside the benefits outlined above, avocado are a rich source of protective vitamin E as well as carotenes including lutein and zeaxanthin which are thought to help keep the eyes healthy.

Health Benefits of Kiwifruit

The kiwifruit, or Chinese gooseberry, originally grew wild in China. Kiwis are a nutrient-dense food — they are rich in in nutrients and low in calories.A schoolteacher introduced the fruitTrusted Source to New Zealand in 1904, upon returning from China with seeds. The New Zealanders called it “kiwi” after their national bird.Kiwi has a reputation as a health food because of its high vitamin C content, but the fruit is also rich in other nutrients. These may help reduce blood pressure, boost wound healing, help maintain bowel health, and more.

Kiwi and other fruits provide a range of health benefits due to their nutritional contents. Kiwis are a good source of vitamin C, antioxidants, and fiber.Antioxidants — including vitamin C, choline, lutein, and zeaxanthin — help remove free radicals from the body. Free radicals are unstable molecules that the body produces during metabolism and other processes.If too many free radicals build up, they can causeTrusted Source oxidative stress, which can result in cell damage. This damage may lead to issues such as heart disease or cancer. Antioxidants can help protect the body by removing free radicals.

Are you also thinking to do B.Pharm?

If you are thinking to do a Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm) after your 12th, then you must know the various career opportunities after B.pharm.

In my previous content, we talk about the various entrance exams after B. Pharmacy and their preparation.

Now we will address the various career opportunities after B. Pharmacy.

First, we will talk about the “Government Jobs” available for B. Pharm graduates.

Goverment Jobs:-

All of us have a dream to do government jobs. If we start our preparation from today then our dreams can comes true.

Drug inspector:-

After graduating we can give this test. This test is not much easy as you assume. Most of the students have a dream to become a drug inspector, but the problem is that the seats for this post are very less and the competition is very high, that’s why many of the students are not able to achieve this.

Drug inspector is an expert in monitoring and executing efficiency, safety, quality and usefulness of drugs from the production stage to the final stage.

To become a drug inspector, students are required to go through a selection process conducted by the UPSC and/ or SPSCs.

RRB:-

Railway Recruitment Board Exam (RRB) also we can give after our graduation. For this exam both B. Pharma and D. Pharma candidates are eligible.

The exam type of RRB exam is objective and computer-based. The jobs are available all over India.

Syllabus:-The Syllabus for the RRB Pharmacist exam includes topics from Aptitude, Reasoning, Professional Knowledge, General Awareness. Professional knowledge encompasses questions from all 4 years of B. Pharmacy subjects.

Hospital pharmacist:-

After completion of our graduation, we can also do a job as hospital pharmacists.

Hospital pharmacists (also known as health-system or clinical pharmacists) encompasses a broad range of duties which includes providing quality care during an inpatient stay, ensuring a seamless transition of care, and reducing the number of medication mistakes.

The important thing for students who are interested in doing government jobs is to keep updated on vacancy seats.

Jobs In Industrial Sector:-

Most of the students are interested in doing the job in the industrial sector. But many of the graduates that are doing the job in the industrial sector are completed their master’s degree after B.Pharm. It is our wish to do Masters Degree or not, but I think if we do the masters then we can get placement in the industry with a good package.

Production Department:-

In the industrial sector, there are two divisions one is production and the other is R&D.

Further, there are two divisions in the Production department i.e. “Quality Control & Quality Assurance”.

Quality control:- As the name suggests, it involves assuring the quality of all the products manufactured, at every stage of manufacturing/processing Drug Products.

It also involves the tests to verify the product quality against the predefined standards given in pharmacopoeias.

Quality Assurance:- In the pharmaceutical industry, the main role of the QA department is to ensure that pharmaceutical products are manufactured to a safe and are of a consistent standard. It’s is a very broad field and it involves various other important roles.

R & D department:-

This sector involves research and development and it mostly works to review its business model strategies to maximize the income.

In this sector largely preferred candidates are of having a masters degree (M.Pharm). In this department, the candidate having a B. Pharm degree are much low. The advantage of doing M.Pharm is to increase our knowledge and experience which helps us in this department.

Entrepreneurship:-

In this, we can do our own business. After B. Pharmacy we have the license and we can easily do our business.

In wholesale business, we can transport the required product to a small pharmacy store.

As an entrepreneur, we have to be confident, have patience and work hard to achieve the success. If we have a loss in our business then we have to face the problem and not stay away from that issue.

It includes a whole sell business, retailer and we can also do business of selling manufacturing units.

Marketing:-

After our graduation, we can also get a job in the marketing field as a “Medical Representative”(MR), in which we have to increase the sales of specific medical products of the respective brand.

Academics:-

After our graduation or post-graduation, we have also a career opportunity in academics as Assistant Professor & lecturers.

In this, if we have completed our graduation in B.Pharm then we can do the job as a professor to teach D.Pharm students. And if we have completed our masters then we can teach to B.pharm students.

Entrance exam & Post-graduation:-

As we know, B.Pharm is graduation after this we can prepare for various competitive exams including MPSC etc.

If you want to accomplish specialisation in pharmacy then you have two options i.e. M.Pharm and M.B.A.

My opinion is if you are having an interest in the marketing field then you can do an M.B.A.from a top university.

The benefit of doing M.Pharm. :- As I said earlier, we have the benefit of doing M.Pharm for doing the job in the industrial sector.

Secondly, after qualifying for GPAT (Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test ) i.e. entrance exam for taking admission, with good rank, then we can get a scholarship monthly.

Entrance exams to take admission in postgraduate courses:- There are mainly two tests that are GPAT (Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test ) & NIPER JEE (National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Joint Entrance Exam ).

After qualifying the GPAT we are eligible for the NIPER JEE exam.

There are other entrance exams too such as GMAT, CAT etc.

This is all about the basic knowledge about various career opportunities after B.Pharmacy. So, let’s start investing the time for preparation and achieve success. If you are currently doing the B. Pharm then you must have to do planning as per your interest in various fields and work hard. Best of luck with your upcoming journey. 👍✌

!! Thank you !!

Muskmelon

MuskmelonHomeEntertainment & Pop CultureFoodMuskmelonplantAlternate titles: nutmeg melon BY The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica | View Edit HistoryMuskmelon, also called nutmeg melon, any of several varieties of netted-rind melons in the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), noted for their musky-scented sweet juicy orange flesh. Muskmelons are among the most-important commercial melons and are commonly eaten fresh. Although the term muskmelon is sometimes loosely applied to any dessert melon, in botanical usage it refers strictly to the fruits that are cultivars of the common melon (Cucumis melo) and are classified in the Reticulatus cultivar group. In addition, those melons are sometimes inaccurately referred to as cantaloupe in North America, a term that should properly be reserved for European melons of the Cantalupensis group. Like all melons, muskmelons are annual vines that require a long warm growing season. They have hairy trailing stems with clasping tendrils and bear round to lobed leaves. The yellow unisexual flowers produce large fruits, which give off a sweet odour when ripe. The plants are susceptible to a number of fungal diseases, especially in humid conditions, and are killed by frost.

Cantaloupe nutrition benefits

The humble cantaloupe may not get as much respect as other fruits, but it should.This tasty, although odd-looking, melon is packed with nutrients. If you don’t think about nabbing a cantaloupe each time you hit your grocery store’s produce section, read on to learn why you may want to think again.Adding fruit of any kind to your diet is beneficial. Cantaloupe, a variety of musk melon, is a particularly good choice.

Beta-carotene

When it comes to beta-carotene, cantaloupe knocks other yellow-orange fruits out of the park.According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)Trusted Source, cantaloupe has more beta- carotene than:apricotsgrapefruitorangespeachestangerinesnectarinesmangoes

Vitamin C

According to the USDATrusted Source, 1 cup of balled cantaloupe contains over 100 percent of the recommended daily value (DV) of vitamin C. According to the Mayo Clinic, vitamin C is involved in the production of:blood vesselscartilagemusclecollagen in bonesMore research is needed on vitamin C to prove its effectiveness against diseases like:asthmacancerdiabetesHowever, eating vitamin C-rich foods may help reduce how long your symptoms last the next time you have the common cold.

Folate

Folate is also known as vitamin B-9. Folate is the term used when it’s naturally present in foods. Folic acid is the term used for supplements and fortified foods.Folate is well-known for preventing neural-tube birth defects like spinal bifida.It may also help:reduce the risk of some cancersaddress memory loss due to aging, although more research is neededWhen it comes to cancer, folate may be a double-edged sword.According to a closer look at studies on the vitamin published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, folate may offer protection in early cancers and in people with a folate deficiency. However, vitamin B-9 in high doses, such as excessive supplementation, may stimulate or worsen later-stage cancers.

Cantaloupe

Cantaloupe melon makes a refreshing snack in the summer, and it contains nutrients that can benefit a person’s health.Popular with children and adults, cantaloupe can make a refreshing, healthful, and easy summer dessert, while their high water content helps prevent dehydration.This type of fruit also contains a variety of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.Other names for cantaloupe include muskmelon, mush melon, rock melon, and Persian melon. They are a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, along with honeydew melons, watermelons, and cucumbers.

The water, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals in cantaloupe can provide a variety of health benefits.Antioxidants, for example, can help prevent cell damage that can lead to cancer and other health conditions.During metabolism, the body produces unstable molecules called free radicals, which can collect in the body and damage cells. This damage is known as oxidative stress. Antioxidants help remove free radicals from the body and prevent oxidative stress.Canteloupe contains a range of antioxidants, includingTrusted Source:seleniumbeta carotenevitamin CluteinzeaxanthincholineIt is worth noting that, while the nutrients in food are essential for maintaining a healthy body, scientific investigations into the effects of these nutrients often deal with supplements, rather than dietary sources, and the results may be somewhat different.

Health benefits of oranges

Human and animal studies indicate that regular consumption of oranges is beneficial for health.

Heart health

Heart disease is currently the world’s most common cause of premature death.Flavonoids — especially hesperidin — in oranges may have protective effects against heart disease (11Trusted Source, 16).Clinical studies in humans note that daily intake of orange juice for four weeks has a blood-thinning effect and may reduce blood pressure significantly (11Trusted Source, 17Trusted Source).Fibers also seem to play a role. Intake of isolated fibers from citrus fruits has been shown to decrease blood cholesterol levels (8).Taken together, it is likely that regular consumption of oranges may help lower your risk of heart disease.

Kidney stone prevention

Oranges are a good source of citric acid and citrates, which are believed to help prevent kidney stone formation.Potassium citrate is often prescribed to patients with kidney stones. Citrates in oranges seem to have similar effects (14Trusted Source, 15Trusted Source).

Anemia prevention

Anemia is a condition characterized by low level of red blood cells or hemoglobin, decreasing its ability to carry oxygen. It is often caused by iron deficiency.Although oranges are not a good source of iron, they are an excellent source of organic acids, such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and citric acid.Both vitamin C and citric acid can increase your body’s absorption of iron from the digestive tract (18Trusted Source, 19Trusted Source).When eaten with iron-rich food, oranges may help prevent anemia.

paper making

Chemical pulping

Main articles: kraft process, sulfite process, and soda pulpingTo make pulp from wood, a chemical pulping process separates lignin from cellulose fibre. A cooking liquor is used to dissolve the lignin, which is then washed from the cellulose; this preserves the length of the cellulose fibres. Paper made from chemical pulps are also known as wood-free papers (not to be confused with tree-free paper); this is because they do not contain lignin, which deteriorates over time. The pulp can also be bleached to produce white paper, but this consumes 5% of the fibres. Chemical pulping processes are not used to make paper made from cotton, which is already 90% cellulose.

Mechanical pulping

There are two major mechanical pulps: thermomechanical pulp (TMP) and groundwood pulp (GW). In the TMP process, wood is chipped and then fed into steam-heated refiners, where the chips are squeezed and converted to fibres between two steel discs. In the groundwood process, debarked logs are fed into grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones to be made into fibres. Mechanical pulping does not remove the lignin, so the yield is very high, > 95%; however, lignin causes the paper thus produced to turn yellow and become brittle over time. Mechanical pulps have rather short fibres, thus producing weak paper. Although large amounts of electrical energy are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than the chemical kind.

De-inked pulp

Paper recycling processes can use either Chemically or mechanically produced pulp; by mixing it with water and applying mechanical action the hydrogen bonds in the paper can be broken and fibres separated again. Most recycled paper contains a proportion of virgin fibre for the sake of quality; generally speaking, de-inked pulp is of the same quality or lower than the collected paper it was made from.

Additives

Besides the fibres, pulps may contain fillers such as chalk or china clay,[12] which improve its characteristics for printing or writing.[13] Additives for sizing purposes may be mixed with it or applied to the paper web later in the manufacturing process; the purpose of such sizing is to establish the correct level of surface absorbency to suit ink or paint.

Producing paper

Paper mill in Mänttä-Vilppula, FinlandThe pulp is fed to a paper machine, where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying.Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, which is not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water. When making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead.
Finishing

The paper may then undergo sizing to alter its physical properties for use in various applications.Paper at this point is uncoated. Coated paper has a thin layer of material such as calcium carbonate or china clay applied to one or both sides in order to create a surface more suitable for high-resolution halftone screens. (Uncoated papers are rarely suitable for screens above 150 lpi.) Coated or uncoated papers may have their surfaces polished by calendering. Coated papers are divided into matte, semi-matte or silk, and gloss. Gloss papers give the highest optical density in the printed image.The paper is then fed onto reels if it is to be used on web printing presses, or cut into sheets for other printing processes or other purposes. The fibres in the paper basically run in the machine direction. Sheets are usually cut “long-grain”, i.e. with the grain parallel to the longer dimension of the sheet. Continuous form paper (or continuous stationery) is cut to width with holes punched at the edges, and folded into stacks.

Paper grain

All paper produced by paper machines as the Fourdrinier Machine are wove paper, i.e. the wire mesh that transports the web leaves a pattern that has the same density along the paper grain and across the grain. Textured finishes, watermarks and wire patterns imitating hand-made laid paper can be created by the use of appropriate rollers in the later stages of the machine.

Rose And Uses Of Rose

Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization.

Ornamental plants

The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia, and China.It is estimated that 30 to 35 thousand rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants.Most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having morphed into additional petals.
Cut flowers

Cut flowersBouquet of pink rosesRoses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in greenhouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.

Cut flowers

Main article: Cut flowersBouquet of pink roses

Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.

In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in greenhouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.

Perfume

Rose oil and Rose waterGeraniol (C10H18O)Rose perfumes are made from rose oil (also called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia and then spread through Arabia and India, and more recently into eastern Europe. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa × damascena ‘Trigintipetala’) are used. In other parts of the world Rosa × centifolia is commonly used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. ‘Rose Absolute’ is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil.

sunflower

Origin

EditSunflowers originate in the Americas. They were first domesticated in what is now Mexico and the Southern United States.Domestic sunflower seeds have been found in Mexico, dating to 2100 BCE. Native American people grew sunflowers as a crop from Mexico to Southern Canada. In the 16th century the first crop breeds were brought from America to Europe by explorers.

History

Sunflowers are thought to have been domesticated 3000–5000 years ago by Native Americans who would use them primarily as a source for edible seeds. They were then introduced to Europe in the early 16th century and made their way to Russia. In Russia, where oilseed cultivators were located, these flowers were developed and grown on an industrial scale. Russia then reintroduced this oilseed cultivation process to North America in the mid-20th century; North America began their commercial era of sunflower production and breeding.New breeds of the Helianthus spp. began to become more prominent in new geographical areas.

Benefits of pomegranate

Antioxidants

Pomegranates have been eaten throughout history for their health benefits. Nowadays, the juice of this fruit is a popular part of healthy diets.Pomegranate seeds get their vibrant red hue from polyphenols. These chemicals are powerful antioxidants.Pomegranate juice contains higher levels of antioxidants than most other fruit juices. It also has three times more antioxidants than red wine and green tea.

xidants in pomegranate juice can help remove free radicals, protect cells from damage, and reduce inflammation.

Vitamin C

The juice of a single pomegranate has more than 40 percent of your daily requirement of vitamin C. Vitamin C can be broken down when pasteurized, so opt for homemade or fresh pomegranate juice to get the most of the nutrient.

Alzheimer’s disease protection

The antioxidants in the juice and their high concentration are believed to stall the progress of Alzheimer disease and protect memory.

Digestion

Pomegranate juice can reduce inflammation in the gut and improve digestion. It may be beneficial for people with Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and other inflammatory bowel diseases.While there are conflicting beliefs and research on whether pomegranate juice helps or worsens diarrhea, most doctors recommend avoiding it until you are feeling better and your symptoms have subsided

Cancer prevention

Pomegranate juice recently made a splash when researchers found that it may help stop the growth of prostate cancer cells. Despite multiple studies on the effects of the juice on prostate cancer, results are still preliminary.While there haven’t been long-term studies with humans that prove that pomegranate juice prevents cancer or reduces the risk, adding it to your diet certainly can’t hurt. There have been encouraging results in studies so far, and bigger studies are now being doneTrusted Source.

pomegranate

Pomegranate is a tree. Various parts of the tree and fruit are used to make medicine.People use pomegranate for high blood pressure, athletic performance, heart disease, diabetes, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.Pomegranate has been used for thousands of years. It is in Greek, Hebrew, Buddhist, Islamic, and Christian mythology and writings. It is described in records dating from around 1500 BCE as a treatment for tapeworm and other parasites.Many cultures use pomegranate as a folk medicine. Pomegranate is native to Iran. It is primarily cultivated in Mediterranean counties, parts of the United States, Afghanistan, Russia, India, China, and Japan. You’ll see pomegranate in some royal and medical coats of arms.

Uses of pineapple

Pineapple is more than just a delicious tropical fruit — it offers significant health benefits as well. In fact, it’s been used in folk medicine since ancient times, according to a study published in September 2016 in Biomedical Reports. It’s native to the Americas and is also grown in tropical climates around the world, according to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH).“Pineapple is a great source of vitamin C, B vitamins, fiber, and minerals like manganese,” says Julie Andrews, RDN, a chef based in Appleton, Wisconsin.You’ll find pineapple offered fresh, frozen, and canned, making it a year-round option for those living in the United States. Canned pineapple is convenient, but be sure to look for an option that’s packed in its own juices, not syrup, says Allison Knott, RDN, a dietitian in New York City. “Fruit naturally contains sugar in the form of fructose, so even the canned fruit in its own juice will have grams of sugar listed on the label,” she says. “However, the syrup is considered added sugar and will increase the total grams of sugar while contributing to added sugar intake for the day.”REL

uses of apple

All parts of the fruit, including the skin, except for the seeds, are suitable for human consumption. The core, from stem to bottom, containing the seeds, is usually not eaten and is discarded.Apples can be consumed various ways: juice, raw in salads, baked in pies, cooked into sauces and spreads like apple butter, and other baked dishes.Apples are sometimes used as an ingredient in savory foods, such as sausage and stuffing.Several techniques are used to preserve apples and apple products. Apples can be canned, dried or frozen.Canned or frozen apples are eventually baked into pies or other cooked dishes. Apple juice or cider is also bottled. Apple juice is often concentrated and frozen.Apples are an important ingredient in many desserts, such as apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. When cooked, some apple cultivars easily form a puree known as apple sauce. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are often baked or stewed and are also (cooked) in some meat dishes. Dried apples can be eaten or reconstituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid).Apples are milled or pressed to produce apple juice, which may be drunk unfiltered (called apple cider in North America), or filtered. Filtered juice is often concentrated and frozen, then reconstituted later and consumed. Apple juice can be fermented to make cider (called hard cider in North America), ciderkin, and vinegar. Through distillation, various alcoholic beverages can be produced, such as applejack, Calvados, and apfelwein

Apple

An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus domestica). Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including NorseGreek, and European Christian tradition.

Apples grown from seed tend to be very different from those of the parents, and the resultant fruit frequently lack desired characteristics. Generally then, apple cultivars are propagated by clonal grafting onto rootstocks. Apple trees grown without rootstocks tend to be large and much slower to fruit after planting. Rootstocks are used to control speed of growth and the size of the resulting tree allowing for easier harvesting.There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and use, including cooking, eating raw and cider production. Trees and fruit are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means. In 2010, the fruit’s genome was sequenced as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.Worldwide production of apples in 2018 was 86 million tonnes, with China accounting for nearly half of the total.

Life of Mukesh Dhirubhai Ambani

Mukesh Dhirubhai Ambani was born on 19 April 1957 in the British Crown colony of Aden (present-day Yemen) to Dhirubhai Ambani and Kokilaben Ambani. He has a younger brother Anil Ambani and two sisters, Nina Bhadrashyam Kothari and Dipti Dattaraj Salgaonkar.Ambani lived only briefly in Yemen, because his father decided to move back to India in 1958[7] to start a trading business that focused on spices and textiles. The latter was originally named “Vimal” but later changed to “Only Vimal”.[8][9] His family lived in a modest two-bedroom apartment in Bhuleshwar, Mumbai until the 1970s.[10] The family’s financial status slightly improved when they moved to India but Ambani still lived in a communal society, used public transportation, and never received an allowance Dhirubhai later purchased a 14-floor apartment block called ‘Sea Wind’ in Colaba, where, until recently, Ambani and his brother lived with their families on different floors.

Education

Ambani attended the Hill Grange High School at Peddar Road, Mumbai, along with his brother and Anand Jain, who later became his close associate After his secondary schooling, he studied at the St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai.He then received a BE degree in chemical engineering from the Institute of Chemical Technology.Ambani later enrolled for an MBA at Stanford University, but withdrew in 1980 to help his father build Reliance, which at the time was still a small but fast-growing enterprise.[15] His father felt that real-life skills were harnessed through experiences and not by sitting in a classroom, so he called his son back to India from Stanford to take command of a yarn manufacturing project in his company.

Ambani has been quoted as saying that he was influenced by his teachers William F. Sharpe and Man Mohan Sharma because they are “the kind of professors who made you think out of the box.

Sister Nivedita

Sister Nivedita (Bengali pronunciation: [bhågini: niːbediːtaː] About this soundlisten born Margaret Elizabeth Noble; 28 October 1867 – 13 October 1911)[1][2] was an Irish teacher, author, social activist, school founder and disciple of Swami Vivekananda.[3][4] She spent her childhood and early youth in Ireland. She was engaged to marry a Welsh youth, but he died soon after their engagement.

Sister Nivedita met Swami Vivekananda in 1895 in London and travelled to Calcutta (present-day Kolkata), India in 1898. Swami Vivekananda gave her the name Nivedita (meaning “Dedicated to God”) when he initiated her into the vow of Brahmacharya on 25 March 1898. In November 1898, she opened a girls’ school in the Bagbazar area of Calcutta. She wanted to educate girls who were deprived of even basic education. During the plague epidemic in Calcutta in 1899, Nivedita nursed and took care of the poor patients. Nivedita had close associations with the newly established Ramakrishna Mission. Because of her active contribution in the field of Indian Nationalism, she had to publicly dissociate herself from the activities of the Ramakrishna Mission under the then president, Swami Brahmananda. She was very close to Sarada Devi, the spiritual consort of Ramakrishna and one of the major influences behind Ramakrishna Mission, and also with all brother disciples of Swami Vivekananda. She died on 13 October 1911 in Darjeeling. Her epitaph reads, “Here lies Sister Nivedita who gave her all to India”.[5]

Bhuvaneswari Devi

Bhuvaneshwari Devi (19th century AD) was the mother of Swami Vivekananda and she lived a pious and a noble life, and contains very good qualities. At her younger age, she got married to a noble person Sri Vishwanath Datta, who was a barrister by profession. She gave birth to Swami Vivekananda in the year 1863 at Kolkata, and during that time, she got a dream that the powers of Lord Shiva was entering in her womb. After her husband’s death, she went to her mother’s house and lived along with Vivekananda, and at that time she was very poor. And in course of time, her daughter was also died and Swami Vivekananda has also become a saint.Even then, Mata Bhuvaneshwari Devi remained calm, and maintained her strength, and concentrated her entire attention towards worshipping Shiva-Parvati. Swami Vivekananda was very affectionate with his mother, and visits his mother’s home, once in a month, and used to help her.She spent most of her days by observing fasting and doing meditation, and gained more spiritual energy through that. After leading a spiritual and a noble life for several years, she died, and attained SALVATION.Let us worship the holy mother and be blessed.

Bhupendranath Datta

Bhupendranath Datta (4 September 1880 – 25 December 1961)[1] was an Indian revolutionary and later a noted sociologist and anthropologist. He associated Rishi Aurobindo in his political works. In his youth, he was closely associated with the Jugantar movement, serving as the editor of Jugantar Patrika till his arrest and imprisonment in 1907. In his later revolutionary career, he was privy to the Indo-German Conspiracy. His elder brother was Swami Vivekananda. The Asiatic Society today holds the Dr. Bhupendranath Datta memorial lecture in his honour

Datta was a writer too. He wrote several books on Indian culture and society. He wrote a book named “Swami Vivekananda, Patriot-prophet”.

Life of Sarada Devi

Saradamani Devi was born of Brahmin parents as the eldest daughter on 22 December 1853, in the quiet village of Jayrambati in present-day West Bengal, India.[2] Her parents, Ramachandra Mukhopadhyay and Shyama Sundari Devi,[3] were poor. Her father Ramchandra earned his living as a farmer and through the performance of priestly duties. According to traditional accounts, Ramachandra and Syama Sundari had visions and supernatural events foretelling the birth of a divine being as their daughter.[2][4]Sarada lived the simple life of an Indian village girl. As a child, Sarada—then known as Saradamani—was fascinated by traditional Hindu folklore and narratives. As in the case of most girls of rural upbringing, she did not receive any formal education but learned to serve others as she helped her mother run a large household and looked after her younger brothers.[5][6] During the terrible famine of 1864, Sarada worked ceaselessly as her family served food to hungry people.[7] She was interested in the clay models of goddesses Kali and Lakshmi, which she worshiped regularly. She is said to have started meditating from her childhood, and traditional accounts recount her mystic visions and experiences.[2] According to Sarada Devi, she used to see a bevy of eight girls of her age coming from an unknown place and escorting her in her chores during her childhood.[6]The mother and brother of Ramakrishna thought that a marriage would be a good steadying effect on him, by diverting his attention away from spiritual austerities and visions.[8] It is reported that Ramakrishna himself indicated Saradamani as the bride.[9] In May 1859, Sarada was betrothed to Ramakrishna. Sarada was 5 years old and Ramakrishna was 23; the age difference was typical for 19th century rural Bengal.[10][11]After the betrothal, Sarada was left to the care of her parents and Ramakrishna returned to Dakshineswar.[9] Sarada next met Ramakrishna when she was fourteen years old, and she spent three months with him at Kamarpukur. There, Ramakrishna imparted to Sarada instructions on meditation and spiritual life.[12] Ramakrishna’s frequent bhava samadhi (ecstasy)[13] and unorthodox ways of worship led some onlookers to doubt his mental stability, while others regarded him as a great saint.[14] Sarada joined Ramakrishna at Dakshineswar in 1872 on her own accord when she was eighteen, after hearing these rumours about his mental health. She found Ramakrishna to be a kind and caring person.[11]

Sarada Devi was born in Joyrambati, a village in present-day Bankura District in the state of West Bengal, India. She was married to Ramakrishna in 1859[citation needed] when she was only six years old while Ramakrishna was 23 years old. After the marriage, Sarada mostly stayed at Jayrambati and joined Ramakrishna in Dakshineswar Kali temple at the age of eighteen. According to her biographers, both lived “lives of unbroken continence, showing the ideals of a householder and of the monastic ways of life”. After Ramakrishna’s death, Sarada Devi stayed most of the time either at Joyrambati or at the Udbodhan office, Calcutta. The disciples of Ramakrishna regarded her as their own mother, and after their guru’s death looked to her for advice and encouragement. The followers of the Ramakrishna movement and a large section of devotees across the world worship Sarada Devi as an incarnation of the Adi Parashakti or the Divine Mother.