A number of scientific enquirers suggest our universe may be one in a collection of other universes, possibly an infinite number of universes spreading through other dimensions of time and space. Although these ideas are speculative at the moment, the large Hadron Collider in Switzerland is searching for evidence of multiple dimensions. And ESA’s Planck satellite will be looking for the evidence of inflation. if either finds it is looking for, the possibility of multiple universes will become stronger. The new theory postulates that, just after the creation of the universe, space expanded hugely, driven by fluctuations in energy that once they began were rather had to stop. Not only did our universe grow, but so did countless others in a chain reaction that continues to this day. These other universes would bud off from our own and be completely observable to us. they would bud new ones, creating an endless cascade. The idea of multiple universes crops us again in theoretical efforts to understand why we exist. It also points to how the forces of nature are related to one another, suggesting that reality may consists of 11 dimensions, not just the three that are familiar.
How old is the Universe?
According to the best measurements ever taken of the radiation left over from just after the Big Bang, the universe is a little older and perhaps a bit stronger than previously thought.the data from the Planck satellite combined a map of the remnant glow that largely affirms scientists theories about the universe’s early history. but the results also reveal a few quirks. Launched by the European Space Agency in 2009, the Planck satellite scans the sky for the cosmic microwave background, radiation that dates back to about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. That radiation was originally about 2,700 degree Celsius but has cooled to a mere 2.7 degrees above absolute zero. Planck is essentially a supersentitive thermometer that can probe the temperature of this radiation to millionths of a degree. that extraordinary precision allowed researchers to map tiny temperature fluctuations in the radiations across the entire sky. Now, that cosmologists do have access to the map, they can make many conclusions about how the universe has evolved
Dark Matter Mystery
Most of the universe is made up of dark energy, a mysterious force that drives the accelerating expansion of he universe. the next largest ingredient is dark matter, which only interacts with the rest of the universe through its gravity. normal matter, including all the visible stars, planets and galaxies, makes up less than 5% of the total mass of the universe. Astronomers cannot see dark mater directly, but can study its effects. They cans see lights bent from the gravity of invisible objects (called gravitational lensing). they can also measure that stars are orbiting around in their galaxies faster than they should be. This can all be accounted for if there were a large amount of invisible matter tied upon each galaxy, contributing to its overall mass and rotation rate.
What Exactly it is ?
Astronomers know more about what dark matter is not than what is is. Dark matter is dark: It emits no light and cannot be seen directly, so it cannot be stars or planets. Dark matter is not clouds of normal matter , normal matter particles are called baryon. If dark matter were composed of baryons. it would be detectable through reflected light. Dark matter is not antimatter: Antimatter annihilates matter on contact, producing gamma rays. Astronomers do not detect them. Dark matter is not black holes : Black holes are gravity lenses that bend light. Astronomers do not see enough lensing events to accounts of dark matter that must exist. Particle colliders such as the large Hadron Collider. Cosmology instruments such as WMAP and Planck. Direct detection experiments including CDMS, XENON, Zeplin, WARP, ArDM and others. Indirect detection experiments including; Gama ray detectors (Fermi from space and Cherenkov telescopes from the ground ); neutrino telescopes (IceCubes, Antares); antimatter detectors( Pamela, AMS-02) and X-ray and radio facilities.
India measures 3214 km from north to south and 2933 from east to west with a total land area of 3,287,263 sq. km. It has a land frontier of 15.200 km and a coastline of 7516.5 km. Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and lakshadweep in the Arabian sea are parts of India. the Country shares its political borders with Pakistan & Afghanistan on the west and Bangladesh and Burma on the east. the Northern boundary is made up of the Sinkiang province of China, Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan. India is separated from Sri Lanka by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
The state emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath lion, at the capital of Ashoka the Emperor, as preserved in the Sarnath Museum. The Government of India adopted the emblem on 26th January 1950, the day when India became a republic. In the State emblem adopted by the government, only three lions are visible, the fourth been hidden from the view. The wheel appears in the relief in the center of the abacus with a bull on the right and a horse on the left and the outlines of the other wheel on the extreme right and left.the bell shaped lotus has been omitted. the words “Satyameva Jayate” from the Mundaka Upanishads meaning “Truth alone triumphs” inscribed below,the abacus of the emblem in Devanagari script is also referred to as the National Motto.
The National Flag
The National Flag is a horizontal tri-colour of deep saffron (Kesari) (Representing Courage and Sacrifice) at the top, White (peace and truth) in the middle and Dark green (Faith and Chivalry) at the bottom at equal proportion. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is 2:3. In the center of white band is a wheel, in navy blue. Its design is that of the wheel (Chakra) which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Asoka. Its Diameter approximates the width of the white band, it has 24 spokes. The Design of the national flag was adopted by the constituent assembly of India on 22nd July, 1947. Its use and display are regulated by a code.
Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem of India. It was originally composed as Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata in Bengali by polymath Rabindranath Tagore. The first stanza of the song Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India as the National Anthem on 24 January 1950. A formal rendition of the national anthem takes approximately 52 seconds. It was first publicly sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta (now Kolkata) Session of the Indian National Congress. The National Anthem of India is played or sung on various occasions. Instructions have been issued from time to time about the correct versions of the Anthem, the occasions on which these are to be played or sung, and about the need for paying respect to the anthem by observance of proper decorum on such occasions. The substance of these instructions has been embodied in the information sheet issued by the government of India for general information and guidance. The approximate duration of the Full Version of National Anthem of India is 52 seconds and 20 seconds for shorter version.
The song Vande Mataram composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee has an equal status with Jana Gana Mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the INC.
At the time of Independence , the govt, of the India followed the Gregorian calendar based on the christian era. The National Government adopted the recommendation of the Calendar Reform Committee that the Saka era be adopted as the basis of the National Calendar. The Saka year has the normal 365 days and begins with Chaitra as its first month. The days of the Saka Calendar have a permanent correspondence with the dates of the Gregorian Calender, Chaitra 1 falling on March 22 in a normal year and on March 21 in a leap year. The national Calender commenced on Chaitra 1 Saka, 1879 corresponding to to March 22, 1957 AD.
Lotus (Nelumbo NuciferaGaertn) is the national Flower of India. It is sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian Culture since time immemorial. India is rich in Flora. Currently available data places India in the 10th position in the world and 4th in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70% geographical area surveyed so far, 47,000 species of plant have been described by the Botanical Survey of India(BSI).
The Combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned Tiger, (Panthera tigris), its pride of place as the national animal of India. Out of eight species known, The Royal Bengal Tiger, is rare.
the Ganga or Ganges is the longest river of India flowing over 2510 kms of mountains Valleys and plains. It originates in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalaya as the Bhagirathi River. It is later joined by Alakananda, Yamuna, Son, Gomti, Kosi and Ghagra. The Ganga river basin is one of the most fertile and densely populated areas of the world and covers an entire area of 1.000.000 sq.km The Ganga is revered by Hindu as the most sacred river on earth.
Indian fig tree, (Ficus bengalensis) whose branches root themselves like new trees over a large areas. The roots then gives rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this characteristics and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is a n integral part of the myths and legends of India. Even today, the banyan tree is the focal point of village life and thevillage counil meets under the shade of this tree.
Magnifera indica, The mango tree is one of the most important and widely cultivated fruit trees pf the tropical world. its juicy fruit is the rich source of Vitamin A, C & D. In India there are over 100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours. Mangoes have been cultivated in India from time immemorial.
The Indian Peacock, (Pavo cristatus), the national bird of India, is a colorful bird, with beautiful velvet feathers and slender neck. The male of the species more colorful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and spectacular bronze-green tail of around 200 elongated feathers. The female is brownish and slightly smaller than the male and lacks the tail, The dance of the male fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a gorgeous sight.
Hockey is India’s national game. India won the first Olympic history gold in 1928, in Amsterdam, beating the Netherlands 3-0 India’s hockey team is the most successful team ever in the Olympics, having won eight gold medals in 1928, 1932, 1936, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1964 and 1980. India also has the best overall performance in Olympic history with 83 victories out of the 134 matches played.
Indian Standard Time (IST)
India has only one standard time, India is 5.5 hours ahead of GMT/UTC, 4.5 hours behind Australian eastern Standard time and 10.5 hours of American Eastern Standard time.
India gate, one of the largest war memorials, situated in the heart of New Delhi, is the national monument of India. It was erected in memory of 90,000 soldiers who lost their lives fighting in the world war 1 and Afghan war for the British army. It was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyebs. Earlier it was called All India War Memorial.
National Aquatic animal
River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is an endangered species in India. River Dolphin is critically endangered species in India. It has been put in Schedule 1 of the Wildlife protection Act, 1972. Poaching., degradation of its habitat, siltation, pollution and reduced flow of river water are said to be the reasons for its depletion.
The symbol is a combination of both Devanagari letter ”Ra” and Roan letter “R” with a stripe cutting at the middle to represent the tricolor. it also means equality.
National Heritage Animal
In order to enhance the population of this mammalian species the Ministry of the Environment has declared Asiatic Elephants as the National heritage Animal.
First-person shooters are a type of shooter game that relies on a first-person point of view with which the player experiences the action through the eyes of the character. They differ from third-person shooters in that, in a third-person shooter, the player can see the character they are controlling (usually from behind, or above). The primary design focus is combat, mainly involving firearms or other types of long-range weapons. A defining feature of the genre is “player-guided navigation through a three-dimensional space.” This is a defining characteristic that clearly distinguishes the genre from other types of shooting games that employ a first-person perspective, including light gun shooters, rail shooters, shooting gallery games, or older shooting electro-mechanical games. The First-person shooter games are thus categorized as being distinct from light gun shooters, a similar genre with a first-person perspective that uses dedicated light gun peripherals, in contrast to the use of conventional input devices. Light-gun shooters (like Virtua Cop) often feature “on-rails” (scripted) movement, whereas first-person shooters give the player complete freedom to roam the surroundings.
The first-person shooter may be considered a distinct genre itself, or a type of shooter game, in turn, a subgenre of the wider action game genre. Following the release of Doom in 1993, games in this style were commonly referred to as “Doom clones“; over time this term has largely been replaced by “first-person shooter”. Wolfenstein 3D, released in 1992, the year before Doom, has been often credited with introducing the genre, but critics have since identified similar, though less advanced, games developed as far back as 1973. There are occasional disagreements regarding the specific design elements which constitute a first-person shooter. For example, titles like Deus Ex or BioShock may be considered as first-person shooters, but may also fit into the role-playing games category, as they borrow extensively from that genre. Other examples, like Far Cry and Rage, could also be considered adventure games, because they focus more on exploration than simple action, they task players with multiple different objectives other than just killing enemies, and they often revolve around the construction of complex cinematic storylines with a well-defined cast of secondary characters to interact with. Furthermore, certain puzzle or platforming games get also called first-person shooters, despite lacking any direct combat or shooting element, instead of using a first-person perspective to help players immerse within the game and better navigate 3D environments (for example, in the case of Portal, the ‘gun’ the player character carries is used to create portals through walls rather than fire projectiles). Some commentators also extend the definition to include combat flight simulators and space battle games, whenever the cockpit of the aircraft is depicted from a first-person point of view.
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