Telemedicine

Telemedicine is an emerging field of convergence of medicine, technology and communication. It promises the best of medicinal facilities to people in rural or far flung areas. Telemedicine provides local medical staff the guidance of an expert physician far from the site of emergency. Such timely diagnosis and treatment increases the chances of patient survival. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are expanding the availability and affordability of healthcare services. These technologies integrate electronic electronic medical information, clinical assessment tools and laboratory data to bring state of the art medical expertise to undeserved areas. Seamless sharing of information between healthcare providers has enabled the concept of hospitals without walls.

Patient data,both clinical and non-clinical, is crucial for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Clinical information includes history of illness, associated signs and symptoms, clinical observations and interventions, diagnosis and treatment, etc non-clinical information includes information about the patients’s environment , demographic information, lifestyle and occupation and any other relevant information for providing daycare. In most of the situations, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment can save patients’s life. For hard-pressed local medical staff with a serious or unusual medical condition, the ability to consult specialists elsewhere can mean the difference between life and death of the patient. With advances in telecommunication in formation processing capability and miniaturization of health diagnostic equipment, it has become possible to deliver immediate and effective healthcare to the masses.

Teleconsultation

Voice, video and data are electronically communicated for consultation between geographically separated clinicians. This involves:

a) Telemonitoring: Use of Audio-visuals, electronic signal/information processing and telecommunication technologies to monitor the patient’s such details as measurements taken from devices such as blood pressure cuff, blood oxygen, thermometer, stethoscope, weigh scale, blood glucose, meter, etc.

b) Telediagnosis: Detection of a disease by observation and evaluation of the patient data acquired and transmitted from the equipment/devices monitoring the remote patient.

c) Telementoring: Using telemonitoring an expert consultant guides a distant clinician in a new medical procedure.

Data acquisition and transfer

Data can be transferred in two ways: store-and-forward and real-time interactive video. The choice depends on the clinical setting, purpose of the consultation, infrastructure and economic considerations. Emerging rends in remote monitoring and diagnosis Electronic patient record. An Electronic patient record (EPR) are the electronically stored health information about any individual uniquely identified by an identifier which entails capturing, storing, retrieving, transmitting and manipulating patient specific healthcare data (including clinical, administrative and biographical data).

Home Telecare: The home telecare solution allows visual assessment of the patient, tracking of vital signs and review of the medications remotely,eliminating the need for the physician to be the physically present or the patients who may otherwise be unable to receive them due to geographic distance barriers. thus it holds a great promise in managing the health needs of individuals living in rural and remote areas. The home telecare system comprises a home care unit serving as the video interface, a camera and a gateway.

Emergency care: These devices have the ability to telematically “bring in” an expert emergency, allowing him to review the vital signs and issue directions on patient managements and treatment procedures to the emergency personnel until the patient is administered first aid and the hospital. This results in effective patient management, as the patient and initiate the treatment immediately. Medical Images and waveform can even be downloaded, stored, displayed and exchanged on personnel digital assistants (PDAs) and mobile phones, so these can be accessed at any time, anywhere to aid remote diagnosis and referrals.

Smart cards: Smart cards act as a portable, comprehensive and accurate source of up-to-date patient information. These can provide basic medical information about the patients, such as lists of drug sensitivities, current conditions being treated, name and phone number of the patients’s doctor and other information vital in an emergency. These can also carry vital medical history and details about insurance coverage. Remote diagnostics and related decision-making process can be integrated efficiently as the patients could carry the repository of information wherever he/she goes to receive treatment.

Telesurgery: Telesurgery is the provision of surgical care over a distance, with direct, real-time visualization of the operative field. it may be categorized into telepresence surgery and telerobotics. telepresence surgery uses a computerized interface to transmit a surgeon’s actions at the surgical workstations to the operative site at the remote surgical unit, with haptic feedback about the tactic environment of the operative fields to the surgeon. Telerobotics is remote control with a robotic arm, usually in conjunction with a laparoscope, without haptic feedback. In the future, though telemedicine will take some time to be available to ordinary people, it will have the greatest impact in the area of home healthcare, since the efficiencies realized are unimaginable.

The Solar System

Solar System means system of the sun. All bodies under the gravitational influence of our local star, the Sun, together with the Sun, forms the solar system. The largest bodies, including Earth revolving around the sun are called planets. Often smaller cool bodies, called satellites and moons, orbit a planet. Bodies smaller than planets that orbit the sun are classifieds as Asteroids if they are rocky or metallic from the region between Mars & Jupiter, Comets if they are mostly ice & dust, and Meteoroids if they are very small.

Our Solar System

How Big is Our Solar system ?

To think about the large distances, we use a cosmic ruler based on the astronomical unit(AU). 1 AU is the distance from Earth to the Sun, which is about 150 million kilometres. the area of the Sun’s influence stretches far beyond the the planets, forming a giant bubble called the heliosphere. The enormous bubble of the heliosphere is created by the solar wind, a stream of charged gas blowing outward from the Sun. As the Sun orbits the center of the milky way, the bubble of heliosphere also moves ahead of itself in interstellar space through the interstellar gases. The area where the solar wind is abruptly slowed by pressure from gas between the stars is called the termination shock. That was observed when Voyager 1 began sending unusual data to Earth in late 2003. In December 2004, thats how scientists confirmed that Voyager 1 had crossed the termination shock at about 94 AU, approximately 13 billion kms from the sun,venturing into the vast, turbulent expanse where the Sun’s influence diminishes. Voyager 2, 16 billion kilometres from Voyager 1, crossed the termination shock in August 2007. Voyager 1 may reach in interstellar space sometime between 2014 & 2017; when voyagers exit the enormous Oort Cloud, a vast spherical shell of icy bodies surrounding the solar system.

Galaxies

Solar System: As we know it

A Solar system refers to a star and all the objects that travel in orbit around it. Our Solar system consists of the sun – our Star – Eight planets and their natural satellites (such as our moon); dwarf planets; asteroids and comets. Our solar system is locally in an outward spiral of the Milky Way galaxy.

Like early explorers mapping the continents of our globe, astronomers are busy charting the spiral structure of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Using infrared images from NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists have discovered that the Milky Way’s elegant spiral structure is dominated by just two arms wrapping off the ends of a central bar of stars. Previously, our galaxy was thought to possess four major arms. This annotated artist’s concept illustrates the new view of the Milky Way, along with other findings presented at the 212th American Astronomical Society meeting in St. Louis, Mo. The galaxy’s two major arms (Scutum-Centaurus and Perseus) can be seen attached to the ends of a thick central bar, while the two now-demoted minor arms (Norma and Sagittarius) are less distinct and located between the major arms. The major arms consist of the highest densities of both young and old stars; the minor arms are primarily filled with gas and pockets of star-forming activity. The artist’s concept also includes a new spiral arm, called the “Far-3 kilo-parsec arm,” discovered via a radio-telescope survey of gas in the Milky Way. This arm is shorter than the two major arms and lies along the bar of the galaxy. Our sun lies near a small, partial arm called the Orion Arm, or Orion Spur, located between the Sagittarius and Perseus arms.

Our Solar System Consists of-

  • Planets:8 – The planet count in our solar system has gone as high as 15 before new discoveries prompted a fine tuning of the definition of a planet.
  • Dwarf planets:6 – This new class of worlds helps us categorize objects that orbit the Sun but aren’t quite the same as the rocky planets and gas giants of our solar system. There could be hundreds more of these small worlds far out there waiting to be discovered.
  • Moons:173 – This Counts includes only the moons orbiting the eight planets in our solar system. it is likely there are more moons orbiting the giant planets of our solar system and there are moons orbiting around dwarf planets and asteroids.
  • Asteroids:645,118 – New asteroids are discovered on an almost daily basis. it is estimated that the mineral wealth of the asteroid in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter is about $100,000,000 for every person on Earth.
  • Comets:3,279 – orbiting spacecraft such as SOHO have raised this tally in recent years by catching the comets as they plunge towards the Sun – and sometimes vaporize. Scientists estimated there could be as many as 1,000,000,000 comets held in the gravitational grip of the Sun.

 Review on: One Arranged Murder by Chetan Bhagat

Who can read?

Just like most of his books, “One Arranged Murder” is written for the masses. Because the language is so simple and flowy, the book can be easily picked up by a non-reader or a beginner-level reader in English.

Let’s talk about the storyline

Keshav and Saurabh are best friends, colleagues, flatmates, and business partners at a detective agency they started. They are the same guys whom we see in the book, “The Girl in Room 105”. But Keshav and Saurabh are not talking, and the reason is Keshav’s habit of fat-shaming Saurabh’s fiancé, Prerna. Prerna is on the heavier side, and Keshav always finds some reason to take a jab at her weight.

Prerna and Saurabh, on the other hand, are a cheesy and romantic couple. There is probably more love between them than any arranged marriage couple. On Karva Chauth, Prerna decides to fast for Saurabh. She doesn’t eat and drink all day, and in the evening, gets all decked up, waiting for Saurabh to come and help break her fast. Saurabh is supposed to enter from the back gate and meet her on the terrace of her three-story house, but when he finally reaches there, what he sees shocks the life out of him.

This is the story of “One Arranged Murder”; the story of one arranged marriage that eventually becomes one arranged murder.

What to expect?

Expect the same things that you would expect from a regular Chetan Bhagat novel. It does not matter which category of readers you belong to, beginners or regulars, you would mostly be getting the same things out of this novel. Yes, there is a marginal improvement from his previous works, but the word that I would like to stress upon is marginal.

What about the writing style?

The book has all the ingredients of a classic masala drama. It has romance, comedy, murder, action, adventure, family drama, friendships, and light-hearted banter. It has a big Indian joint family that looks picture perfect from the outside, but on the inside, it is brimming with secrets and scheming members. People have corrupt intentions, dirty secrets, personal vendettas, and generations-old grudges.

How good is the pace?

Racy and fast-paced, the book can captivate the reader from the very beginning. For many books, what doesn’t happen till, well, 30% of the book, happens at just 30 pages here. I remember getting sucked into the story and its mystery by the end of the 30th page.

What did I like?

I like the way Chetan experiments with the narration. Throughout the book, it is mostly Keshav who narrates the story, but at times, some characters (like Sourabh and Anjali) tell their own story in some parts. They tell their tales from their point of view and perspectives.

Experimenting with the concept of an unreliable narrator in the first two chapters is also something that I loved. I just hoped Chetan had used it on a bigger scale. The ingenuity of this switch, especially in the beginning, is truly remarkable. In the first chapter, Keshav narrates and makes you form an opinion of Saurabh Then in 2nd chapter, Saurabh assumes the role of narrator, and tells you that he is sure Keshav must have already brainwashed you, he must have told you things, and you must have believed him. This makes the reader have trust issues with the main narrator – the reader is confused as to whose story must be trusted– Keshav’s or Saurabh’s?

The book also provides a running social commentary about things that are wrong with society. Some of the things that the author talks about are – 

(1) Big fat Indian weddings, where people spend lavishly, only to show off, even when the money is tight .

(2) How people cringe at the word dowry, but the same people say ‘sometimes it is not dowry, it is love, isn’t it?’

(3) People holding on to family honor, even when it comes at the cost of justice and 

(4) The tendencies of businesses to work unethically, when they overborrow, speculate, and siphon funds that do not belong to them.

How Spotify analyzed brain activity to improve its ad experience

Neuromarketing, a field that makes use of studies and research into the human mind, thoughts, feelings and experiences to design better products, increase sales as well as enhance the marketability of organizations has been gaining momentum. It involves developing an understanding of consumer needs by applying the techniques of neuroscience. While some techniques such as EEG, fMRI and the like are used to directly measure brain activity corresponding to specific functions, other tools include eye tracking and biometric data measurement.

Neuromarketing requires a good amount of investment. However, it is worth the expense since, in comparison to traditional forms of data collection, such as questionnaires and surveys, it directly collects information from the subconscious, a prime source of human decision-making. Moreover, manipulation of data is less likely using this method and it establishes a far better emotional connection with the audience. PepsiCo, Hyundai, Yahoo and eBay are some of the well-known organizations that have used neuromarketing. Spotify, the leading audio streaming platform has joined the list by recently collaborating with the neuro analytics company Neuro-Insight to conduct a brain wave study.

How was it conducted?

The study was based on the experience of 600 participants who listened to multiple genres of music, ranging from rap, pop, Latin, etc. Audio digital ads were allowed to play in between. Brain activity was measured by researchers using a brain tracking method known as Steady State Topography (SST). According to its developer, Richard Silberstein, founder of Neuro-Insight, It not only measures an individual’s speed of response to stimuli but also helps in understanding psychological processes by analyzing the speed of various brain sensitively.

What were the results?

  1. Emotional intensity can be increased by using digital audio since it keeps the long-term memory active and engaged in the process of searching for details and memories.
  2. The genre of music determines its impact on the brain. Rap music, which is driven by speech, tends to bring about more engagement. On the other hand, genres such as instrumental and rock produce more emotional attachment.  
  3. About 93 percent of the brain’s capacity to engage with the music or podcast impacts the engagement with ads. This was a particularly noteworthy aspect for Spotify, an ad-driven platform and can serve other similar platforms in the future.

Jon Gibs, who is the principal data scientist and global director at Spotify, reported that this study was conducted to ensure that Spotify serves content that aligns with the interests of the consumer. He believes that through Neuromarketing, brands can get good insights into a consumer’s thought process as they consume multiple types of media. Samrat Saran, who is the head of client solutions at Neuro-Insight, said that this study would enable them to determine Spotify’s efficiency as an ad-driven platform.

This study provided some valuable insights which can be very helpful to plenty of content creating and streaming platforms. Advertisers are always looking for customer-friendly platforms and through such studies, user experience can be optimized in such a way that more investors would be attracted to pitch in, which would, in turn, generate better revenues and services. Even though Neuromarketing is not yet widely used, it has the potential to transform the future of marketing.