Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence, also known as the emotional intelligence quotient (EIQ) or emotional quotient (EQ), is the ability to perceive, control, and manage emotions. Although the term first appeared in 1964, it gained popularity in the 1995 best-selling book Emotional Intelligence, written by science journalist Daniel Goleman. Goleman defined EI as the array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance. Emotional intelligence helps build stronger relationships, increase performance at school and work, and achieve professional and personal goals. It can also help connect with your feelings, turn intention into action, and make informed decisions about what matters the most. Since its popularization in recent decades, methods of developing EI have become widely sought by individuals seeking to become more effective leaders. 

Abilities:

Mayer, Salovey and Caruso developed the four-branch ability model of emotional intelligence. They divide the abilities and skills of emotional intelligence into four areas – 

The ability to perceive emotion 

The ability to use emotion to facilitate thought 

The ability to understand emotions

The ability to manage emotions 

Components:

According to Daniel Goleman, an American psychologist who helped to popularize emotional intelligence, there are five main components to it:

Self Awareness: Self-awareness refers to the capacity to recognize and understand emotions and how they can affect others. Self-awareness is associated with being open to different experiences and new ideas and learning from social interactions. It involves knowing your strengths and weaknesses. 

Self Regulation: Self-regulation includes being flexible, coping with change, and managing conflict. It also refers to diffusing difficult or tense situations and being aware of how one’s actions affect others and taking ownership of these actions. It involves the appropriate expression of emotion.

Empathy: Empathy, or the ability to understand how others are feeling, is critical to emotional intelligence. This component enables an individual to respond appropriately to other people based on recognizing their emotions. Being empathetic also allows you to understand the power dynamics that often influence social relationships, especially in workplaces. It is vital for guiding your interactions with different people you encounter each day.

Social Skills: Social Skills refers to interacting well with other people. It involves applying an understanding of the emotions of ourselves and others to communicate and interact with others on a day-to-day basis. Different social skills include – active listening, verbal communication skills, non-verbal communication skills, leadership, and developing rapport.

Motivation: Motivation is another important emotional intelligence skill. Emotionally intelligent people are motivated by things beyond external rewards like fame, money, recognition, and acclaim. Instead, they have the desire to fulfil their own inner needs and goals. They seek internal rewards, experience flow from being totally in tune with activity, and pursue peak experiences. Those who are competent in this area tend to be action-oriented. They set goals, have a high need for achievement, and are always looking for ways to do better.

Ways to improve emotional intelligence:

Practice observing how you feel

Pay attention to how you behave

Take responsibility for your feelings

Take time to celebrate the positive

Acknowledge your emotional triggers

Today, studies show that emotional intelligence (EQ) is more important than IQ. Individuals can improve their emotional intelligence to live a successful life. Being emotionally intelligent is important to how you respond to what life gives us. It’s also an important component of compassion and understanding the deeper reasons behind other people’s actions.

Why anime culture is underrated in India?

Anime (Japanese: アニメ, IPA: ) is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from Japan. In Japan and Japanese, anime (a term derived from the English word animation) describes all animated works, regardless of style or origin. However, outside of Japan and in English, anime is colloquial for Japanese animation and refers specifically to animation produced in Japan. Animation produced outside of Japan with a similar style to Japanese animation is referred to as anime-influenced animation.

The two major reasons for anime culture to be underrated in India are: 

1. People think that anime is for children

This perception among people is because of the popularity of American cartoons such as Tom and Jerry, Powerpuff Girls, Dexter’s Lab, Ed, Edd, and Eddy, etc., all of which I, too, used to watch as a child. Since anime is created in a 2D animation medium, many assume that they are cartoons as well, which is ignorant of them. Just because a show is animated doesn’t mean that it is for kids. Sure, cartoons from the West are mostly for kids, but now there are Western animated shows as well that are made for adults. These include Rick and Morty, Big Mouth, Archer, F is for Family, Bojack Horseman, and so on.

Just like these shows, anime is made for late teenage and adult audiences. Some of these series are Attack on Titan, Fullmetal Alchemist Brotherhood, Another, and so on. Anime also touches upon mature themes of racism, war, violence, friendships, depression, friendship, loss, bullying, and so on. And they do it in a better way, unlike in Bollywood, which mostly makes Pyaar waali kahaaniyaan. And to be honest, it’s hypocritical if you talk about how anime is for kids and then you make your kids watch Bollywood movies where women are being objectified in all item songs.

2. People think that anime and hentai are the same things

Yeah, this is a thing. Some people think that anime and hentai are the same just because they are made in Japan and have the same type of animation. Where anime is for all ages and covers all genres, hentai, on the other hand, is mostly anime with porn. It’s Japanese animated pornography mostly meant for adult demography.

Now, one of the most controversial sides of hentai is the sexual portrayal of underage characters, known as lolicon and shoutacon. Although the depiction of children is illegal in most of the world and India, it is protected by the Constitution under Article 39 and the POSCO Act. It is legal to portray both lolicon and shoutacon in Japan and they are widely used in adult manga and hentai. People think that both promote child abuse and child pornography, but a lot of people debunked that comment.

Now, one of the most controversial sides of hentai is the sexual portrayal of underage characters, known as lolicon and shoutacon. Although the depiction of children is illegal in most of the world and India, it is protected by the Constitution under Article 39 and the POSCO Act. It is legal to portray both lolicon and shoutacon in Japan and they are widely used in adult manga and hentai. People think that both promote child abuse and child pornography, but a lot of people debunked that comment.

Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Life

Three hundred million years before human first stood upright, reptiles known as dinosaurs ruled supreme. Some evolved to become the largest land animals ever to walk on Earth. Other were savage predators. The dinosaurs reign ended about 65 million years ago, probably when a asteroid smashed into the earth and caused them to extinct. In the period that followed, mammals were the dominant species, evolving to produce some amazing creatures, including, eventually us.

The Beginning of life

The Beginning Life on earth began about 3,5600 million years ago. When Earth first formed, it was too hot for life to exist. The first living things were bacteria, which developed in deep-sea springs or muddy pools near volcanoes after the earth had cooled. The bacteria took their energy from chemicals in eater, and slowly developed into more complex life forms, a process known as evolution. Many new living things began to develop by 3,000 million years ago, after some early life forms found a way of getting energy from sunlight and using it to make food. This process is called photosynthesis. During Photosynthesis, Plants release the gas oxygen. The first animals probably looked a little like tiny tadpoles, They lived in the shallow seas that covered earth about 1,200 million years ago and thrived on the new supplies of oxygen in the atmosphere. Slowly, these tiny animals grew together in clusters and developed into the first sponges.

Stromatolites are layers of blue-green algae and rocks. These algae were among the earliest living things to make food by photosynthesis.

Giant Forest and Insects

Plants began to grow on land around 475 million years ago. These plants lived in swamps and on the muddy shores of rivers. They probably had a waxy coating to stop the salty waters and the sun from drying them out. Plant gradually developed roots to reach water underground. They soon spread beyond the shores and began to the land green. Early plants were able to grow so big because of the climate long ago. In many places the air was damp , rather like it in tropical jungles today. As plants crowded together, they grew taller and taller as they competed for the light. Plants in the great early forests included huge horsetails, club mosses and ferns up to 50 meters tall, That is as high as 10 double Decker buses stacked on top of each other. The first insects were probably the bristle tails, which were the size of the a large prawn.. they had no wings and scurried about the ancient swamps on little legs, They used their bristles to sense movements in the air that warned them a predator was about. They had claws on their mouth-parts that they used to feed on plants and waste.

Bristletails
These ferns were common in the Carboniferous and Permian periods between 300 and 270 million years ago. While they had fern-like leaves, they produced seeds rather than spores. This 300 million year old fern is in an ironstone concretion. Photographed at the State Museum, Pennsylvania, USA.
Fossil dragonfly. A fossilized dragonfly preserved in rock. Fossilization occurs when an organism is buried and its body structures are slowly replaced by minerals, leaving an impression in the rock. Dragonflies are large carnivorous insects which catch other insects in mid-flight. Insects made their first appearance in geological history in the Devonian period, between 395 and 345 million years ago. This dragonfly lived in the Upper Jurassic period, 140 million years ago. The fossil comes from Kimmeridge, Solnhofen, Germany.
This giant swampy forest is from about 300 million years ago.

Rise of the Reptiles

The first reptile was probably Hylonomus, which lived 315 million years ago. Hylonomus was 20 centimetres long and looked rather like a modern lizard. Reptiles like these evolved from a group of amphibian-like tetrapods that laid their eggs on land. Inside the eggs,the young fed on yolks,which made them strong and more likely to survive. Reptiles soon became the dominant species on land. Some early reptiles lived permanently in water. The plesiosaurs had large paddle-like legs for moving through the water and long necks for reaching out to catch fish. Ichthyosaurs looked more like large, toothy dolphins. they were swimming in the oceans at the same time as dinosaurs were living on the land.

Hylonomus used its small sharp teeth to eat millipedes and early insects.
The group of reptiles known as Pareiasaurs had plates of bony Armour over their bodies. They lived about 260 million years ago. One type of pareiasaurs was Scutosurus which means “shield lizard.”
Dimentrodon’s spiny sail probably helped it to warm up and cool down.
Ichthyosaurs were sleek, fast-swimming reptiles.

Dawn of the Dinosaurs

The first dinosaurs developed from other reptiles from other reptiles about 230 million years ago. At this time, the world looked very different. There were no birds or mammals, and, although there were ferns and trees, there were no grasses or flowering plants. Vast areas were desert, Dinosaurs dominated the world for 150 million years. Dinosaurs lived on land. Some reptiles did live live in the sea, including Plesiosaurus, which was not related to dinosaurs. This large carnivorous animal had along neck and sharp teeth to catch fish. Other reptiles, such as the Pterosaurs, could fly. They had wings made of skin, similar to those of bats. Some dinosaurs might have hunted in packs, working together in order to catch and bring down larger dinosaurs. Their are several theories about why dinosaurs died out about 65 million years ago. The main one is that a giant asteroid crashed into earth around this time. The impact would have created dust, fires, tsunamis, (giant waves) and volcanic eruptions that caused a huge change in planet”s climate. it seems likely that the wold became freezing cold, and the dinosaurs simply could not survive in the icy conditions.

Brachiosaurus was one of the largest sauropods-gigantic, slow-moving plant eaters. Sauropods included some of the biggest land animals of all time.
Compsognathus, which means “pretty Jaw” lived about 150 million years ago and was only about a metre long.
Plesiosaurus lived in the sea and could grow upto to 12 meter long.
Stegosaurus used its spiked tail for defense and beaked mouth to bite off plants to eat.
Gallimimus was upto 6 meters long and about 3.5 meters tall.
Argentinosaurus grew to over 35 meters long. Even so, it was prey to Giganotosaurus.
Giganotosaurs
Tyrannosaurus Rex’s teeth could be up to 30 centimetres long.
Triceratops used its horns for defense.

Early Birds

Scientists believe that birds developed from dinosaurs. They have discovered the fossil remains of feathered dinosaurs that many people believe are descended from dinosaurs. Archaeopteryx is the oldest known bird in the world. It flew in ancient skies about 150 million years ago. It was a meat – eating bird about the size of a cow that probably flew fairly short distances at a time. It had feathers like bird, but it also had teeth and clawed hand rather like a dinosaur.

A fossil of an Archaeopteryx
The largest of the prehistoric birds was Aepyornis, also called the Elephant bird.

The Rise of Mammals

The 1st mammals developed almost 200 million years ago. During the time of the dinosaurs, mammals were small, furry creatures. They looked rather like the rats and shrews of today, and they ate insects. They scurried around at night and probably lived in holes underground to hide from dinosaurs. After the dinosaurs died out, many new kind of mammals slowly developed.

The 1st mammal was probably Megazostrodon, a small rat like animal.

From Apes to Humans

Primates are a group of mammals that includes apes, monkeys and humans. The 1st primates lived on earth about 50 million years ago, but they looked rather like squirrels. Over million of years, different kinds of primates evolved. Between 20 and 10 million years ago, giant apes were common in Africa. The Neanderthals were an ancient human species that lived in Europe and Asia from about 300,000 to 30,000 years ago, when they became extinct. Long ago, there were other human species, but all of these died out. One was Homo erectus, perhaps our earliest human ancestor. Homo erectus first appeared almost 2 million years ago and died out 100,000 years ago. The 1st people depended on wild plants and animals for food. They used sharp sticks to spear animals or knock them from trees. Their uses of tools and their ability to work together were two of the things that made early humans so successful. Around 5,000 years ago, people began to write and read. This was the end of the prehistoric period because started to write down their history.

Genetic Disorders

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities formed in the genome. Most genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions. Genetic disorders may be hereditary, meaning that they are passed down from the parents’ genes. In other genetic disorders, defects may be caused by new mutations or changes to the DNA. In such cases, the defect will only be passed down if it occurs in the germ-line.

Gene related disorders Autosomal dominant disorders

Autosomal Dominant – A pattern of inheritance in which an affected individual has one copy of a mutant gene and one normal gene on a pair of autosomal chromosomes. (In contrast, autosomal recessive diseases require that the individual have two copies of the mutant gene.)

Types:-

Chondrodystropic dwarfism– A congenital dwarfism in which the disturbed development of the cartilage of the long bones arrests the growth of long bones, resulting in extremely shortened extremities. People with chondrodystrophy have a normal-sized trunk and abnormally short limbs and extremities (dwarfism). Those affected with the disorder often call themselves dwarfs, little people or short-statured persons. Over 100 specific skeletal dysplasias have been identified. Chondrodystrophy is found in all races and in both females and male and occurs in around one of every 25,000 children.

Myotonic muscular dystrophy– Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a form of muscular dystrophy that affects muscles and many other organs in the body. The term “muscular dystrophy” means progressive muscle degeneration, with weakness and shrinkage of the muscle tissue. DM is divided into two types;

  • Type 1 DM (DM1), long known as Steinert disease, occurs when a gene on chromosome 19 called DMPK contains an abnormally expanded section located close to the regulation region of another gene, SIX5.
  • Type 2 DM (DM2), recognized in 1994 as a milder version of DM1, is caused by an abnormally expanded section in a gene on chromosome 3 called ZNF9. DM2 was originally called PROMM, for proximal myotonic myopathy, a term that has remained in use but is somewhat less common than the term DM2.

Huntington’s disease– An inherited condition in which nerve cells in the brain break down over time.It typically starts in a person’s 30s or 40s. Usually, Huntington’s disease results in progressive movement, thinking (cognitive) and psychiatric symptoms.No cure exists, but drugs, physiotherapy and talk therapy can help manage some symptoms.

Neurofibromatosis– A condition that causes tumors to form in the brain, spinal cord and nerves. Neurofibromatosis is usually non-cancerous. There are three types of this condition.

  • Type 1 usually appears in childhood, while Types 2 and 3 appear in early adulthood.
  • Type 1 can cause bone deformities, learning disabilities and high blood pressure.
  • Type 2 can cause hearing loss, vision loss and difficulty with balance.
  • Type 3 can cause chronic pain throughout the body.
  • Some cases may not require treatment other than careful observation. Other cases may require chemotherapy, radiation therapy or surgery.

Hypercholesterolemia– High amounts of cholesterol in the blood. High cholesterol can limit blood flow, increasing the risk of a heart attack or stroke. It’s detected by a blood test. High cholesterol has no symptoms. Treatments include medication, a healthy diet and exercise.

Retinoblastoma- An eye cancer that begins in the back of the eye (retina), most commonly in children. It may occur in one or both eyes. It has few, if any, symptoms at first. It may be noticed if a pupil appears white when light is shone into the eye, sometimes with flash photography. Eyes may appear to be looking in different directions. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation and laser therapy.

Autosomal recessive disorders – To have an autosomal recessive disorder, you inherit two mutated genes, one from each parent. These disorders are usually passed on by two carriers. Their health is rarely affected, but they have one mutated gene (recessive gene) and one normal gene (dominant gene) for the condition.

Types:

Cystic Fibrosis – An inherited life-threatening disorder that damages the lungs and digestive system.It affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. It causes these fluids to become thick and sticky. They then plug up tubes, ducts and passageways. Symptoms vary and can include cough, repeated lung infections, inability to gain weight and fatty stools.
Treatments may ease symptoms and reduce complications. Newborn screening helps with early diagnosis.

Sickle cell disease – A group of disorders that cause red blood cells to become misshapen and break down. With sickle cell disease, an inherited group of disorders, red blood cells contort into a sickle shape. The cells die early, leaving a shortage of healthy red blood cells (sickle cell anaemia) and can block blood flow causing pain (sickle cell crisis). Infections, pain and fatigue are symptoms of sickle cell disease.Treatments include medication, blood transfusions and rarely a bone-marrow transplant.

Thalassaemia – A blood disorder involving lower-than-normal amounts of an oxygen-carrying protein. Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by less oxygen-carrying protein (haemoglobin) and fewer red blood cells in the body than normal.
Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, paleness and slow growth. Mild forms may not need treatment. Severe forms may require blood transfusions or a donor stem-cell transplant.

Alkaptonuria (black urine disease) – Alkaptonuria, or “black urine disease”, is a very rare inherited disorder that prevents the body fully breaking down two protein building blocks (amino acids) called tyrosine and phenylalanine. It results in a build-up of a chemical called homogentisic acid in the body.

Phenylketonuria – A birth defect that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body. Newborns should be screened for PKU. Untreated phenylketonuria can lead to brain damage, intellectual disabilities, behavioral symptoms or seizures. Treatment includes a strict diet with limited protein.

Albinism – Albinism is a rare group of genetic disorders that cause the skin, hair, or eyes to have little or no color. Albinism is also associated with vision problems. According to the National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation, about 1 in 18,000 to 20,000 people in the United States have a form of albinism.

Tay-Sachs Disease – A rare, inherited disorder that destroys nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Tay-Sachs disease is typically found in people with certain ancestry, such as Eastern European Jews. A fatty substance in the brain destroys nerve cells. Symptoms of slowed development usually appear around six months of age. Symptoms progress until they lead to death, often around age four. There is no cure for Tay-Sachs disease, but research is ongoing.

Gaucher,s disease – Gaucher disease is an inherited condition (passed down through families). It is a lysosomal storage disorder, a type of disease that causes fatty substances to build up in the bone marrow, liver and spleen. The fatty substances (sphingolipids) weaken bones and enlarge the organs, so they can’t work like they should.

Galactosemia – Galactosemia is a rare, hereditary disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that affects the body’s ability to convert galactose (a sugar contained in milk, including human mother’s milk) to glucose (a different type of sugar).

Sex linked dominant disorders – Sex-linked dominant is a rare way that a trait or disorder can be passed down through families. One abnormal gene on the X chromosome can cause a sex-linked dominant disease.

Types:

Fragile X-syndrome – A genetic condition causing intellectual disability. Fragile X syndrome causes mild to severe intellectual disability. It affects both males and females, but females usually have milder symptoms. Symptoms include delays in talking, anxiety and hyperactive behaviour. Some people have seizures. Physical features might include large ears, a long face, a prominent jaw and forehead and flat feet. Therapy can be used to treat learning disabilities. Medication may be used to treat anxiety and mood disorders.

Vitamin-D resistant rickets – Hypophosphatemic rickets (previously called vitamin D-resistant rickets) is a disorder in which the bones become painfully soft and bend easily, due to low levels of phosphate in the blood. Symptoms usually begin in early childhood and can range in severity

Sex linked recessive disorders

Types:

Haemophilia (Bleeder’s Disease) – Hemophilia is usually an inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. This can lead to spontaneous bleeding as well as bleeding following injuries or surgery. Blood contains many proteins called clotting factors that can help to stop bleeding.

Red green Colour blindness – Red-green color blindness is the most common type of color deficiency. Also known as deuteranopia, this is most likely a congenital condition, meaning that you’re born with it. If you have this type of color blindness, you may have difficulty seeing different shades of red, green, and yellow.

X linked Ichthyosis (XLI) – X-linked ichthyosis (abbreviated XLI) is a skin condition caused by the hereditary deficiency of the steroid sulfatase (STS) enzyme that affects 1 in 2000 to 1 in 6000 males. XLI manifests with dry, scaly skin and is due to deletions or mutations in the STS gene.

Chromosome disorder – An abnormal condition due to something unusual in an individual’s chromosomes. For example, Down syndrome is a chromosome disorder caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21, and Turner syndrome is most often due to the presence of only a single sex chromosome: one X chromosome.

Autosomal Trisomy in Human beings

Types:-

Down syndrome (trisomy of 21st chromosomes) – A genetic chromosome 21 disorder causing developmental and intellectual delays. Down’s syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in extra genetic material from chromosome 21. Down’s syndrome causes a distinct facial appearance, intellectual disability and developmental delays. It may be associated with thyroid or heart disease. Early intervention programmes with a team of therapists and special educators who can treat each child’s specific situation are helpful in managing Down’s syndrome.

Edward Syndrome (trisomy of 18th chromosomes) – A condition that causes severe developmental delays due to an extra chromosome 18. A first-trimester screening that includes a blood test and ultrasound offers early information about a baby’s risk of having it. A second trimester blood test called a quad screen can also detect it. Symptoms include low birth weight, small abnormally shaped head and birth defects in organs that are often life threatening. Edwards’ syndrome has no treatment and is usually fatal before birth or within the first year of life.

Patau syndrome (trisomy of 13th chromosomes) – A condition in which a person has an extra chromosome 13. Prenatal testing can detect Patau syndrome during pregnancy. Patau syndrome causes severe intellectual disability and physical defects. Most infants with this condition don’t live past their first week of life. Treatment varies from child to child and focuses on relieving symptoms and managing complications.

Deletion in Chromosomes – In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication. Any number of nucleotides can be deleted, from a single base to an entire piece of chromosome.

Types:-

Cri-Du-chat Syndrome Cri du chat syndrome is a rare genetic disorder due to a partial chromosome deletion on chromosome 5. Its name is a French term (“cat-cry” or “call of the cat”) referring to the characteristic cat-like cry of affected children.

Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome(WHS) – Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a genetic disorder that affects many parts of the body. The major features include a characteristic facial appearance, delayed growth and development, intellectual disability , low muscle tone ( hypotonia ), and seizures.

Translocation in chromosomes – In genetics, chromosome translocation is a phenomenon that results in unusual rearrangement of chromosomes. This includes balanced and unbalanced translocation, with two main types: reciprocal-, and Robertson Ian translocation.

Types:-

Chronic myelogenous Leukemia (CML Ttanslocation between 9th and 22nd chromosomes) – A slowly progressing and uncommon type of blood-cell cancer that begins in the bone marrow. Chronic myeloid leukaemia typically affects older adults. It’s caused by a chromosome mutation that occurs spontaneously. Doctors aren’t sure what causes the mutation.Many people don’t develop symptoms until later stages and the diagnosis is only made through routine blood work. When symptoms do occur, they include bleeding easily, feeling run down or tired, weight loss, pale skin and night sweats. Treatments include targeted drugs, stem-cell transplant, chemotherapy and biological therapy.

Burkitt’s Lymphoma (Translocation between 8th and 14th chromosomes) – Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a very fast-growing type of cancer. It is a form of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Signs and symptoms may differ depending on the form of BL and the organs or body systems involved. When it spreads, weakness and fatigue often develop. Lymphoma cells may build up in the lymph nodes and other organs, causing swelling.

Sex chromosomes linked Disorders – It can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. Sex-linked diseases are inherited through one of the sex chromosomes, which are the X and Y chromosomes. Dominant inheritance occurs when an abnormal gene from one parent can cause a disease, even though a matching gene from the other parent is normal.

Types:-

Turner syndrome( X – monosomy = 44+ XO) – A chromosomal disorder in which a female is born with only one X chromosome
Turner syndrome results from a missing or incomplete sex chromosome. Symptoms include short stature, delayed puberty, infertility, heart defects and certain learning disabilities. Treatment involves hormone therapy. Fertility treatment may be necessary for women who want to become pregnant.

Klinefelter Syndrome (extra X- chromosomes along with Y- chromosomes) – Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal condition in boys and men that can affect physical and intellectual development. Most commonly, affected individuals are taller than average are unable to father biological children (infertile); however the signs and symptoms of Klinefelter syndrome vary among boys and men with this condition. In some cases, the features of the condition are so mild that the condition is not diagnosed until puberty or adulthood, and researchers believe that up to 75 percent of affected men and boys are never diagnosed.

Jacobs syndrome ( XYY- with Extra Y- chromosomes) – Males with XYY syndrome have 47 chromosomes because of the extra Y chromosome. This condition is also sometimes called Jacob’s syndrome, XYY karyotype, or YY syndrome. According to the National Institutes of Health, XYY syndrome occurs in 1 out of every 1,000 boys.

Poly X females or Triplo X (with Extra X- chromosomes) – An abnormality resulting in an extra X chromosome in some females.Triple X syndrome is usually caused by malformation of an egg or sperm cell or by an error early in embryo development.
Many women have few or no symptoms. In most cases, no treatment is required. Those who experience developmental delays and learning disabilities may require intervention, such as counselling.

Diagnosis

Due to the wide range of genetic disorders that are known, diagnosis is widely varied and dependent of the disorder. The basic aspects of a genetic disorder rests on the inheritance of genetic material. With an in depth family history, it is possible to anticipate possible disorders in children which direct medical professionals to specific tests depending on the disorder and allow parents the chance to prepare for potential lifestyle changes, anticipate the possibility of stillbirth, or contemplate termination Prenatal diagnosis can detect the presence of characteristic abnormalities in foetal development through ultrasound, or detect the presence of characteristic substances via invasive procedures which involve inserting probes or needles into the uterus such as in amniocentesis.

Prognosis

Not all genetic disorders directly result in death; however, there are no known cures for genetic disorders. Many genetic disorders affect stages of development, such as Down syndrome, while others result in purely physical symptoms such as muscular dystrophy. Other disorders, such as Huntington’s disease, show no signs until adulthood. During the active time of a genetic disorder, patients mostly rely on maintaining or slowing the degradation of quality of life and maintain patient autonomy. This includes physical therapy, pain management, and may include a selection of alternative medicine programs.

Treatment

The treatment of genetic disorders is an ongoing battle with over 1800 gene therapy clinical trials having been completed, are ongoing, or have been approved worldwide. Despite this, most treatment options revolve around treating the symptoms of the disorders in an attempt to improve patient quality of life. Gene therapy refers to a form of treatment where a healthy gene is introduced to a patient. This should alleviate the defect caused by a faulty gene or slow the progression of disease. A major obstacle has been the delivery of genes to the appropriate cell, tissue, and organ affected by the disorder. How does one introduce a gene into the potentially trillions of cells which carry the defective copy? This question has been the roadblock between understanding the genetic disorder and correcting the genetic disorder.

Conclusion

Genetic disorders are a topic in biology that cannot be avoided. The fact is that genetic disorders can happen in humans, plants or animal. No one and nothing is safe from a genetic disorder. A genetic disorder can appear in the first years off life, or can appear much later in life when least expected. A basic principal of biology states that the behaviour of chromosomes during the meiosis process can account for genetic inheritance patterns.

A Brief Overview of The Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the country. It is the fundamental governing document that provides a comprehensive framework to guide and govern the country. The Constituent Assembly of India on adopted the Constitution on 26th November, 1949. It came into effect on 26th January 1950, celebrated as Republic Day in India, replacing the Government of India Act 1935, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. 

The Constitution of India establishes the main organs – executive, legislature, and judiciary, defining their powers, states the fundamental rights and the responsibilities of citizens. The Indian Constitution is the world’s lengthiest for any sovereign nation. At its enactment, the original text of the Constitution contained 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. At about 145,000 words, it is the second-longest active Constitution in the world, after the Constitution of Alabama. The Constitution has a preamble and 470 articles, in 25 parts, with 12 schedules and 5 appendices. It was neither printed or typed, but was handwritten and calligraphed in both Hindi and English.

The Constituent Assembly:

The Constituent Assembly was responsible was drafting the Constitution. The members were elected indirectly by the people by the ‘Provincial Assemblies’ by a single, transferable-vote system of proportional representation. The Constituent Assembly met for the first time on 9 December 1946, reassembling on 14 August 1947 as a sovereign body. The constitution was drafted by 299 delegates, and the assembly took almost 3 years to frame the document holding 11 sessions over 165 days.

Dr. B.R Ambedkar, the chairman of the Drafting Committee, was the chief architect and widely known as the Father of the Indian Constitution. Some of the prominent members of the assembly included – Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Abul Kalam Azad, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh, and Balwantrai Mehta, Sarojini Naidu, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh, Amrit Kaur, and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit. Following India’s independence from the British Government in 1947, its members served as the nation’s first Parliament.  

The Preamble:

A preamble is an introductory statement in a document that explains the philosophy and objectives behind it. The Preamble contains the intention of the makers and the history behind its creation. The Preamble declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. The objectives stated by the Preamble are to secure justice, liberty, equality for all citizens and promote fraternity to maintain the unity and integrity of the nation. These objectives specified in the Preamble cannot be amended and constitute the basic structure of the Indian Constitution. 

Keywords of the Preamble:

We, The People of India: The Constitution was created and made by the people through representatives, without any external power. 

Sovereign: People have the supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India.

Socialist: Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce social and economic inequalities.

Secular: Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. The government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect. 

Democratic: A form of government where people have equal political rights, elect their rulers, and hold them accountable. 

Republic: The head of the state is an elected person and not a hereditary position.

 Justice:  Citizens will not be discriminated against by their caste, religion, and gender. Government should work for the welfare of all, especially of the disadvantaged groups.

Liberty: There are no restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts, and the way they want to follow up their ideas in action.

Equality: All are equal before the law. The government must ensure that there are no social inequalities. 

Fraternity: All of us should behave as if we belong to the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizen as inferior.

Fundamental Rights:

Fundamental Rights are the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of India. These rights are justiciable, and an individual can move the Supreme Court or the High Courts if there is an encroachment on any of these rights. 

(i) Right to Equality

(ii) Right to Freedom

(iii) Right against Exploitation 

(iv) Right to Freedom of Religion 

v) Cultural and Educational Rights 

vi) Right to Constitutional Remedies. 

Governmental Sources of Power:

The Constitution is considered federal in nature and unitary in spirit. It has features of a federation, including a codified, supreme constitution; a three-tier governmental structure (central, state, and local); division of powers; bicameralism; and an independent judiciary. It also possesses unitary features such as – a single constitution, single citizenship, an integrated judiciary, a flexible constitution, a strong central government, appointment of state governors by the central government, All India Services (the IAS, IFS, and IPS), along with emergency provisions. This unique combination makes it quasi-federal in form.

The executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government receive their power from the Constitution. It provides for the Parliamentary form of government with a bicameral legislature at the Centre consisting of Lok Sabha (Lower House of Parliament) and Rajya Sabha (Upper House of Parliament). The President is the nominal head of the state and the Parliament. In actual practice, the Prime Minister, aided by the Council of Ministers, heads the executive and is responsible for governance. 

An impartial judiciary, independent of the legislature and the executive, is one of the main features of the Constitution. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the country, and is known as the guardian of the Constitution. Each state has a High Court as its highest court. Under powers of judicial review, the Supreme Court and High Court can declare a law as unconstitutional or ultra vires if it contravenes any provisions of the Constitution.

Interesting Physiological Facts

The Body of man is made up of many tissues and organs. They number in millions. The cells are organised uniquely and function dynamically together. Their complexities can be better understood when it is closely scanned. Here are some bits of information that are quite interesting.

  1. The stomach takes 20 minutes to tell the brain that is is full and that one should stop eating.
  2. The thickness of the skin varies from 1/2 to 6 mm, depending on the area of your body.
  3. The four taste zones on your tongue are bitter (back), sour (back sides), salty (front sides), and sweet (front)
  4. One uses 14 muscles to smile and 43 to frown.
  5. It takes the interaction of 72 different muscles to produce human speech.
  6. The strongest muscle of the body is the masseter muscle, which is located in the jaw.
  7. The small intestine is about 750 cm long.
  8. The large intestine is 150 cm long and 3 times wider than the small intestine.
  9. Most people shed 20 kg of skin in their lifetime.
  10. When you sneeze, air rushes through your nose at the rate of 156 kmph.
  11. An eye lash lives about 150 days before it falls out.
  12. Our brain sends messages at the rate of 375 kmph.
  13. About 5-6 litres of blood is filtered by 2 million nephrons 37 times a day.
  14. Each of our eyes has 120 M rods, which helps us to see in black & white.
  15. Each eye has 6 M cones, which helps us to see colour.
  16. We blink our eyes about 20,000 times a day.
  17. Our heart beats about 100,000 times day.
  18. Placed end-to-end all our body”s blood vessels would measure about 90,000 kms.
  19. The average human brain has about 100 billion nerve cells.
  20. The thyroid cartilage is more commonly known as the Adam’s Apple.
  21. It is impossible to sneeze with open eyes.
  22. When you sneeze, all your bodily functions stop even your heart.
  23. Babies are born without knee cap. They don’t appear till they are 2-6 years of age.
  24. Children grow faster in spring season.
  25. Women blink twice as much as men.
  26. If one is blind in one eye, he/she only loses about 1/5 vision and the sense of depth.
  27. Our eyes are always the same size from the birth, but our nose and years never stop growing.
  28. The length of the finger shows how fast the fingernail grows. the nail on the middle finger grows fastest. On an average our toenails grow twice as slow as our fingernails.
  29. Hair is made of the same substance as fingernails.
  30. The nose can remember 50,000 scents.
  31. A finger nail takes 6 months to grow from base to tip.
  32. The energy used by the brain is enough to light a 25 watt bulb.
  33. The heart produces enough pressure to squirt blood 900 cm.
  34. We get a new stomach lining every 3-4 days. If we didn’t,the strong acids our stomach uses to digest foods would also digest our stomach.
  35. A pair of feet has 500,000 sweat glands.
  36. Each square inch of human skin consists of 600 cm of blood vessels.
  37. The liver is the only major organ in the human body that can regenerate itself if part of it is removed.

Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam

Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam is a well known name in the entire world. He is considered as a part of the best researchers of the 21st century. Considerably more, he turns into the eleventh leader of India and served his country. He was the most esteemed individual of the nation as his commitment as a researcher and as a president is mind-boggling. Aside from that, his commitment to the ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) is noteworthy. He headed many activities that added to the general public likewise he was the person who helped in the improvement of Agni and Prithvi rockets. For his association in the Nuclear force in India, he was known as “Rocket Man of India”. What’s more, because of his commitment to the country, the public authority granted him with the most noteworthy regular citizen grant.

APJ Abdul Kalam was brought into the world in Tamil Nadu. Around then the monetary state of his family was poor so since the beginning he began supporting his family monetarily. However, he never surrendered training. Alongside supporting his family he proceeded with his investigations and finished graduation. Most importantly, he was an individual from the Pokhran atomic test directed in 1998.

There is an innumerable commitment of Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam to the nation yet he was generally renowned for his most prominent commitment that is the improvement of rockets that passes by the name Agni and Prithvi.

The incredible rocket man turns into the President of India in 2002. During his administration period, the military and nation accomplished a huge number that contributed a great deal to the country. He served the country with an open heart that is the reason he was called ‘individuals’ leader’. However, toward the finish of his term period, he was not happy with his work that is the reason he needed to be the President a second time yet later on relinquished his name.

In the wake of leaving the official office toward the finish of his term Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam again go to his old enthusiasm which is instructing understudies. He worked for some eminent and esteemed organization of India situated the nation over. Most importantly, as indicated by his the young people of the nation is exceptionally skilled yet need the chance to demonstrate their value that is the reason he upheld them in all their products deed.

He passed on during conveying a talk to understudies in Shillong by unexpected heart failure in 2015. He was an extraordinary researcher and a pioneer engineer who served as long as he can remember for the country and kicked the bucket while serving it. The man had the vision to make India an incredible country. Furthermore, as indicated by his the adolescent are the genuine resources of the nation that is the reason we ought to move and persuade them.

Social Issues

Social Issues is an unwanted state which opposes society or a certain a part of society. It refers to an unwanted situation that regularly consequences in issues and continues to harm society. Social issues can motive a whole lot of issues that can be past the manipulate of just one character. Through an essay on social problems, we are able to study why they’re dangerous and what varieties of social troubles we are facing.

Social problems have a lot of drawbacks that harms our society. They are conditions that have an unfavourable and unfavourable end result on our society. They rise up when the public leaves nature or society from a great situation. If you look intently, you may recognise that almost all varieties of social troubles have not unusual origins. In the experience that they all are interconnected one way or the other. Meaning to say, if one solves the other one is likewise maximum likely to clear up. Social troubles have a massive awful impact on our society and in the long run, it affects all and sundry. In order to solve a few social troubles, we need a commonplace technique. No society is free from social problems, almost every considered one of them has some social trouble or the other.

There are a whole lot of social issues we are going through proper now, a few more prominent than the others. First of all, poverty is a international problem. It gives birth to quite a few other social issues which we need to try and get away with on the earliest. Further, international locations like India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and more are facing the problem of the caste gadget on the grounds that times unknown. It consequences in a whole lot of caste violence and inequality which takes the lives of many on a each day basis. Moreover, child labour is any other principal social trouble that damages the lives of younger youngsters. Similarly, illiteracy additionally ruins the lives of many via destroying their chances of a bright future.

In developing nations often, child marriage still exists and is liable for ruining many lives. Similarly, dowry is a completely severe and commonplace social problem that the majority instructions of people partake in. Another distinguished social difficulty is gender inequality which takes away many possibilities from deserving human beings. Domestic violence specially in opposition to ladies is a serious social difficulty we have to all fight against. Other social problems include starvation, infant sex abuse, religious conflicts, child trafficking, terrorism, overpopulation, untouchability, communalism and many greater. It is high time we stop those social troubles.

A society can efficaciously cease social issues if they turn out to be adamant. These social problems act as a barrier to the progress of society. Thus, we ought to all come collectively to fight against them and placed them to an end for the extra desirable.

Personality

In daily existence the time period character is very freely utilized by human beings with exclusive meanings. Some humans discuss with the bodily appearance like height, weight, color, frame constructed, dress, voice, and so on. Some other people talk to intellectual qualities like intelligence, activeness, manner of speech, questioning and reasoning talents, etc.

It is likewise stated social traits like sociability, generosity, kindness, reservedness, etc. On the basis of these characteristics they judge humans as robust or vulnerable personalities, accurate and terrible personalities, and so forth. In this manner all of us make character judgments about the people we recognise. A predominant a part of coming to understand ourselves is growing a sense of what our persona characteristics are. We even form impressions about personalities of people we do now not realize, but have simplest study about. As we shall see, these regular uses of the time period are pretty distinctive from the meaning psychologists give to the term character.

The time period personality has been derived from a Latin phrase ‘personality’- means ‘masks’. In olden days, even as gambling dramas, on the way to provide accurate results to the roles played by means of them, the Greek actors used to put on mask. The psychologists hold to apply the term character to suggest that, the real or inner characteristics of someone could be distinct from, that of the features seen apparently. Hence, defining and expertise the character is not very clean as it appears. It could be very difficult to define character in a unique way. Different psychologists have described persona in their personal ways.

Eysenck defines that, “character is the more or less stable and enduring agency of someone’s character, temperament, mind and body which determines his unique adjustment to the surroundings.”

Most of the definitions of persona have attempted to Consider the totality of the person, that means, all of the capabilities, tendencies and different characteristics, each inherent in addition to acquired, which might be extra or less regular, and distinguishable from the human beings are protected in the personality.