An Ecosystem is a geographic area where plants, animals, and other organisms, as well as weather and landscapes, work together to form a bubble of life. Ecosystems are dynamic entities—they are subject to periodic disturbances and are always in the process of recovering from some past disturbance. The tendency of an ecosystem to remain close to its equilibrium state, despite that disturbance, is termed its resistance. The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedback is termed its ecological resilience. Ecosystems can be studied through a variety of approaches—theoretical studies, studies monitoring specific ecosystems over long periods of time, those that look at differences between ecosystems to elucidate how they work and direct manipulative experimentation. Biomes are general classes or categories of ecosystems. Ecosystems are controlled by external and internal factors. External factors such as climate, parent material which forms the soil and topography, control the overall structure of an ecosystem but are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem. Internal factors are controlled, for example, by decomposition, root competition, shading, disturbance, succession, and the types of species present. While the resource inputs are generally controlled by external processes, the availability of these resources within the ecosystem is controlled by internal factors. Therefore, internal factors not only control ecosystem processes but are also controlled by them.

The structure of an ecosystem consists of two major components:

  • Biotic components
  • Abiotic components

Biotic Components – It can be described as any living component that affects another organism or shapes the ecosystem. This includes both animals that consume other organisms within their ecosystem, and the organism that is being consumed. Biotic factors also include human influence, pathogens, and disease outbreaks. Each biotic factor needs a proper amount of energy and nutrition to function healthily.

Biotic components are typically sorted into three main categories:

  • Producers, otherwise known as Autotrophs, convert energy (through the process of photosynthesis) into food.
  • Consumers, otherwise known as Heterotrophs, depend upon producers (and occasionally other consumers) for food.
  • Decomposers, otherwise known as Detritivores, break down chemicals from producers and consumers (usually antibiotic) into simpler form which can be reused.

Abiotic components – This are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems. Abiotic factors and the phenomena associated with them underpin biology as a whole. They effect a plethora of species, in all forms of environmental conditions such as marine or land animals. We humans can make or change abiotic factors in a species’ environment. For instance, fertilizers can effect a snail’s habitat, or the greenhouse gases which humans utilize can change marine pH levels.

Types of Ecosystems

The four types of ecosystems are Terrestrial, Freshwater, Marine, and Artificial ecosystems.

Terrestrial ecosystem – A terrestrial ecosystem is a land-based community of organisms and the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in a given area. Examples of terrestrial ecosystems include the tundra, taigas, temperate deciduous forests, tropical rainforests, grasslands, and deserts.

  • A Forest ecosystem is one that consists of various plants, particularly trees. Because of the abundance of plants that serve as producers, this ecosystem abounds in life. Not only plants but also animals are teeming in a forest. They are also a great source of fruits, wood, They also help maintain the earth’s temperature. They are also a major carbon sink.
  • Grassland ecosystems are typically found in tropical or temperate regions. They are dominated by grasses. As such, the animals commonly found in this type of ecosystem are grazing animals, such as cattle, goats, and deer.
  • Tundra ecosystems are characterized as being treeless and snow-covered. The snow melts briefly in spring and summer, producing shallow ponds. During this time, lichens and flowering plants typically grow. Because of the ice that covers the land in the tundra, this type of ecosystem is important in regulating the earth’s temperature. It also serves as a water reservoir (in the form of ice or frost).
  • Desert ecosystems are the ones occurring in desert habitats. Deserts are typically arid and windy. Some of them contain sand dunes, others, mostly rock. Organisms in the desert are not as diverse as those in forests but they possess adaptations that make them suited to their environment. Plants that are commonly found in the desert are CAM plants, such as cacti. Desert animals include insects, reptiles, and birds.
A Forest EcoSystem
A Grassland Ecosystem
Tundra Ecosystem
Desert Ecosystem

Freshwater ecosystems – Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earth’s aquatic ecosystems. They include lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, springs, bogs, and wetlands.They can be contrasted with marine ecosystems, which have a larger salt content.

Freshwater Ecosystem
  • Lentic ecosystem – A lentic ecosystem refers to ecosystems in still waters. Examples include the following: ponds, puddles, and lakes. Lakes, in particular, may form zonation. That is when it becomes very well established that different zones are formed. These zones are as follows: littoral, limnetic, and profundal. The littoral zone is the part that is near the shore. Here, light can penetrate up to the bottom. The limnetic zone is the zone in which light does not completely penetrate through. The part of the limnetic zone that is penetrated by light is the photic zone whereas the zone in which light cannot penetrate through, and therefore is dark, is the benthic zone. The plants and animals vary in these zones. For instance, rooted plants are found in the littoral zone but not in the limnetic zone. Rather, freely-floating plants are the ones commonly seen on the surface of the limnetic zone.
  • Lotic ecosystem – A lotic ecosystem is an aquatic ecosystem characterized by a freshwater habitat that is freely flowing. That is as opposed to the lentic that is nearly stationary. Examples include rivers and streams. Many plants and animals in these ecosystems have adaptations to help them cope with the force and the different conditions that running water brings.

Marine ecosystem – Marine ecosystems are aquatic environments with high levels of dissolved salt. These include the open ocean, the deep-sea ocean, and coastal marine ecosystems, each of which have different physical and biological characteristics. The ocean ecosystems, in particular, are an important source of atmospheric oxygen due to the vast population of autotrophic algae that release oxygen through photosynthesis. Marine ecosystems are regarded as the most abundant type of ecosystem in the world.

Marine Ecosystem

Artificial ecosystem – An artificial ecosystem is not self-sustaining, and the ecosystem would perish without human assistance. For example, a farm is an artificial ecosystem that consists of plants and species outside their natural habitat. Many man-made ecosystems are built for conservation purposes, aesthetics, and for studying biology and ecology.

An Artificial Ecosystem

Ecosystems provides a variety of goods and services upon which people depend. Ecosystem goods include the “tangible, material products” of ecosystem processes such as water, food, fuel, construction material, and medicinal plants. Ecosystem services, on the other hand, are generally “improvements in the condition or location of things of value”. These include things like the maintenance of hydrological cycles, cleaning air and water, the maintenance of oxygen in the atmosphere, crop pollination and even things like beauty, inspiration and opportunities for research.Thus the ecosystems are the integral part of our Earth. They bind the fauna & flora all together in the same environment to co-exist and thus being one dependable to the other. Our purpose is to look after our Mother Earth and therefore to preserve her so that she can be as perennial as forever.


The Ganges

The Ganges River, also known as the Ganga River, is a transboundary river that flows through India and Bangladesh. The river emerges in the western Himalayas in Uttarakhand and flows down across Northern India into Bangladesh, where it empties itself into the Bay of Bengal. It is the longest river in India and flows for around 2,525 km, and has the second greatest water discharge in the world. Its basin is heavily populated, with 400 million people living in it. Nearly 80% of the Ganges river basin is in India, and the rest is in Nepal, China and Bangladesh.

Humans have inhabited The Ganges river basin since ancient times. The first people in the region were of the Harappan civilization. They moved into the Ganges River basin from the Indus River basin around the 2nd millennium BCE. Later, the Gangetic Plain became the center of the Maurya Empire and then the Mughal Empire. The first European traveler to mention the Ganges was the Greek envoy Megasthenes in his work ‘Indica’. 


The headwaters of the Ganges River begin high in the Himalayan Mountains, where the Bhagirathi River flows out of the Gangotri Glacier in India’s Uttarakhand state. The glacier sits at an elevation of 12,769 feet (3,892 m). The Ganges River proper begins farther downstream, where the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers join. 

The Ganges River emerges from the Himalayas at Rishikesh and begins to flow onto the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Also known as the North Indian River Plain, it makes up most of the northern and eastern parts of India, parts of Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh. In addition to entering the Indo-Gangetic Plain, part of the Ganges River is diverted towards the Ganges Canal for irrigation in the Uttar Pradesh state.

As the Ganges River then flows farther downstream, it changes direction several times, joined by many other tributary rivers such as the Ramganga, Tamsa, and Gandaki Rivers, to name a few. There are also several cities and towns that the Ganges River passes through on its way downstream. Some of these include Chunar, Kolkata, Mirzapur, and Varanasi. Many Hindus visit the Ganges River in Varanasi as that city is considered the holiest of cities. 

Once the Ganges River flows out of India into Bangladesh, its main branch is the Padma River. The Padma River is joined downstream by large rivers like the Jamuna and Meghna rivers. After joining the Meghna, it takes on that name before flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Before entering the Bay of Bengal, the river creates the world’s largest delta, Ganges Delta. This region is a highly fertile sediment-laden area that covers 23,000 square miles (59,000 sq km).

The course of the Ganges River described above is a general description of the river’s route from its source where the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers join to its outlet at the Bay of Bengal. The Ganges has very complicated hydrology, and there are several different descriptions of its overall length and the size of its drainage basin based on the included tributary rivers.


The Ganges is a sacred river to the Hindus and worshipped as goddess Ganga Ma or “Mother Ganges.” According to Hindu mythology, the goddess Ganga descended from heaven to dwell in the waters of the Ganges River to protect, purify and bring to heaven those who touch it. Hindus visit the river daily to offer flowers and food to Ganga. They also drink the water and bathe in the river to cleanse and purify their sins. Hindus consider the waters of the Ganges to be pure and purifying. Regardless of scientific understanding of its waters, the river is ritually and symbolically vital in Hindu culture.

In Hindu tradition, the Ganges flows in heaven, earth, and the netherworld, and thus is a ‘tirtha’, a crossing point between heaven and earth. At a ‘tirtha’, prayers and offerings are thought most likely to reach the gods and, in the other direction, blessings can descend most readily from heaven. Hindus believe that upon death, the waters of the Ganges River will help them reach the World of the Ancestors. 


The Ganges River provides water to about 40% of India’s population across 11 states. The fertile soil of the Ganges Basin is instrumental to the agricultural economies of India and Bangladesh. The Ganges and its tributaries provide a perennial source of irrigation to a large area. Chief crops cultivated include rice, sugarcane, lentils, oilseeds, potatoes, and wheat. The swamps and lakes along the riverbank provide a rich growing area for crops such as legumes, chillies, mustard, sesame, sugarcane, and jute. There are also many fishing opportunities along the river, though it remains highly polluted.

The three towns holy to Hinduism — Haridwar, Allahabad (Prayagraj), and Varanasi attract millions of pilgrims to its waters to take a dip in the Ganges. Varanasi, Haridwar, Gangotri, Allahabad, and Rishikesh are the prime destinations that have great religious significance for Hindu devotees. Allahabad and Haridwar are renowned for organizing Kumbh Mela, a grand religious fair, and Haridwar is known as the “Gateway to Heaven.”


The Ganges suffers from extreme pollution and is the fifth most polluted river in the world. Industrial and human activities of the 400 million people living near the river contribute majorly to the state of the river. Sewage dumped from cities along the river’s course, industrial waste, and religious offerings wrapped in non-degradable plastics add large amounts of pollutants to the river as it flows through densely populated areas.  There are many tanneries, chemical plants, textile mills, distilleries and slaughterhouses along the river and many of them dump their untreated and often toxic waste into the river. Furthermore, people who rely on the river daily for bathing, cooking, and washing their laundry have worsened the situation. Varanasi, where many pilgrims visit to take a “holy dip” in the Ganges, releases around 200 million liters of untreated human sewage into the river each day. It has led to large concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria, at least 3,000 times higher than what is established by the World Health Organization as safe. The water of the Ganges has been tested to contain high levels of things like chromium sulfate, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and sulfuric acid. 

Clean-Up Efforts:

The Ganga Action Plan: (GAP)

In 1985, the government of India launched an environmental initiative, the Ganga Action Plan to clean up the river in selected areas by installing sewage treatment plants and threatening fines and litigation against industries that pollute. It was “the largest single attempt to clean up a polluted river anywhere in the world.” The initiative was a failure, owing to corruption, a lack of will in the government, poor technical expertise, environmental planning, and lack of support from religious authorities. 

National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)

National Ganga River Basin Authority is the financing, planning, implementing, monitoring and coordinating authority for the Ganges River, established by the Central Government of India. It declared the Ganges as the “National River” of India.

Namami Gange Programme:

In the budget tabled in Parliament on 10 July 2014, the Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley announced an integrated Ganges development project titled ‘Namami Gange’. As a part of the program, the government of India ordered the shut down of 48 industrial units around the Ganges. Significantly the approach is underpinned by socio-economic benefits that the program is expected to deliver in terms of job creation, improved livelihoods and health benefits to the vast population that is dependent on the river.

Importance of Exercises in Human Body

Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons, to aid growth and improve strength, prevent aging, develop muscles and the cardiovascular system, hone athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, improve health, or simply for enjoyment. Many individuals choose to exercise outdoors where they can congregate in groups, socialize, and improve well-being as well as mental health. In terms of health benefits, the amount of recommended exercise depends upon the goal, the type of exercise, and the age of the person. Even doing a small amount of exercise is healthier than doing none.

Classification of Exercises

Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would while resting.

  • The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance.
  • Examples of aerobic exercise include running, cycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, dancing, playing tennis, continuous training, and long distance running.

Aerobic exercise provides the following benefits:

  • Improves muscle strength in the lungs, heart, and whole body.
  • Lowers blood pressure.
  • Improves circulation and blood flow in the muscles.
  • Increases the red blood cell count to enhance oxygen transportation.
  • Reduces the risk of diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
  • Improves life expectancy and symptoms for people with coronary artery diseases.
  • Stimulates bone growth and reduces the risk of osteoporosis when at high intensity.
  • Improves sleep hygiene.
  • Enhances stamina by increasing the body’s ability to store energy molecules, such as fats and carbohydrates, within muscle.

Anaerobic exercise, which includes strength and resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and increase muscle mass, as well as improve bone density, balance, and coordination.

  • Examples of strength exercises are push-ups, pull-ups, lunges, squats, bench press.
  • Anaerobic exercise also includes weight training, functional training, eccentric training, interval training, sprinting, and high-intensity interval training which increase short-term muscle strength.

Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen muscles.

  • Activities such as stretching help to improve joint flexibility and keep muscles limber.
  • The goal is to improve the range of motion which can reduce the chance of injury.

Benefits of Regular Exercising

  1. Exercise has been shown to improve your mood and decrease feelings of depression, anxiety, and stress. It produces changes in the parts of the brain that regulate stress and anxiety. It can also increase brain sensitivity for the hormones serotonin and norepinephrine, which relieve feelings of depression Additionally, exercise can increase the production of endorphins, which are known to help produce positive feelings and reduce the perception of pain. Furthermore, exercise has been shown to reduce stress and improve symptoms of anxiety.
  2. Your body spends energy in three ways: Digesting food, Exercising, Maintaining body functions like your heartbeat and breathing. While dieting, a reduced calorie intake will lower your metabolic rate, which can delay weight loss. On the contrary, regular exercise has been shown to increase your metabolic rate, which can burn more calories to help you lose weight. Additionally, studies have shown that combining aerobic exercise with resistance training can maximize fat loss and muscle mass maintenance, which is essential for keeping the weight off.
  3. Exercise plays a vital role in building and maintaining strong muscles and bones. Activities like weightlifting can stimulate muscle building when paired with adequate protein intake. This is because exercise helps release hormones that promote the ability of your muscles to absorb amino acids. This helps them grow and reduces their breakdown.
  4. Exercise can be a real energy booster for many people, including those with various medical conditions. One older study found that 6 weeks of regular exercise reduced feelings of fatigue for 36 people who had reported persistent fatigue. Furthermore, exercise can significantly increase energy levels for people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and other serious illnesses.
  5. Your skin can be affected by the amount of oxidative stress in your body. Oxidative stress occurs when the body’s antioxidant defenses cannot completely repair the cell damage caused by compounds known as free radicals. This can damage the structure of the cells and negatively impact your skin.

Proper nutrition is as important to health as exercise. When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macro-nutrients while providing ample micro-nutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise. Active recovery is recommended after participating in physical exercise because it removes lactate from the blood more quickly than inactive recovery. Removing lactate from circulation allows for an easy decline in body temperature, which can also benefit the immune system, as an individual may be vulnerable to minor illnesses if the body temperature drops too abruptly after physical exercise. Exercise has an effect on appetite, but whether it increases or decreases appetite varies from individual to individual, and is affected by the intensity and duration of the exercise. Thus, Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute to maintaining a healthy weight, regulating the digestive system, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system that will lead to the increase of life expectancy and the overall quality of life.

Video Editing as a Career in India

What is Video Editing?

The whole process of making art aesthetically appealing lies in the technique of editing visualsVideo editing covers the whole process of re-arrangement and modification of the video.

What is the job of a Video Editor ?

A video & film editor’s job is to take videotapes to produce a single refined piece of video. Today, video editors are considered to be the backbone of any post-production process. The key responsibility of a video editor is to edit any visual media form, like soundtracks, film, and videos for the cable and broadcast visual media industries. Gone are the days of Linear Editing (Tape to tape), today new technology is used to edit the media.

Non-linear editing or Digital Video Editing is the buzzword in today’s digital world. Digital video editing makes use of computer technology to facilitate the whole editing process onscreen. With the Indian cinema and entertainment industry crossing all geographical boundaries, a video editing career has surely emerged as a lucrative option to many Indian youngsters.

Film editing courses will help you understand the nuances of cutting and editing videos. This is done through hands-on, practical training.

Video Editing Eligibility Criteria

There is no formal educational qualification required to enter into this profession. All one needs is training in the computer systems and programs used in digital video/film editing and interest in editing visual media.

For doing specialized courses from reputed institutes like Film and Television Institute of India, Pune, candidates must possess the qualification prescribed by the respective institutes/ colleges. In general, Digital video editors often have a bachelor’s or a master’s degree in animation or media arts.

Video Editing Personal Skills

Being Imaginative and techno-savvy are essential for this profession. You simply cannot become a good video editor if you do not have a flair for the creative. You also need to have a sharp eye for detail, an analytical mind, and the ability to work in a team.

A video editing career requires being abreast with the latest technological developments happening in his/her profession as newer technologies are being introduced quite regularly.

Video Editing Job Prospects 

Besides media houses, large film studios, electronic news channel groups, one can also find wide-ranging opportunities in various production houses scattered all across the country.

The increased popularity of online video clips has also resulted in a large number of job opportunities for competent video editors.

Video Editing Salary 

Initially, one can earn a salary between Rs. 5,000 to Rs. 10,000 per month. With some years of experience and expertise gained in video editing, a video editor‘s career is on the smooth track with a high pay package and other benefits.

A creative and experienced video editor working for a large studio can earn a salary of anywhere between Rs. 25, 000 to Rs. 75,000 per month. One can also have the liberty to work as a freelance in a firm where he could be paid on an hourly basis.


The state of being extremely poor is known as poverty. The most widely held and understood definition of absolute poverty measures poverty strictly in economic terms earning less than 142 Rupees a day. Poverty can have diverse social, economic, and political causes and effects. Social forces, such as a gender, disability or race or ethnicity, can exacerbate issues of poverty with women, children and minorities frequently bearing unequal burdens of poverty. Moreover, impoverished individuals are more vulnerable to the effects of other social issues, such as the environmental effects of industry or the impacts of climate change or other natural disasters or extreme weather events. Poverty can also make other social problems worse, economic pressures on impoverished communities frequently play a part in deforestation, biodiversity loss and ethnic conflicts.

Poverty Impacts children, families and individuals in a variety of different ways through:

  1. High infant mortality
  2. Malnutrition
  3. Child labour
  4. Lack of education
  5. Child marriage

The High Infant Mortality Rate – Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the probability of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births.

  • Causes of infant mortality directly lead to the death.
  • Environmental and social barriers prevent access to basic medical resources and thus contribute to an increasing infant mortality rate; 99% of infant deaths occur in developing countries, and 86% of these deaths are due to infections, premature births, complications during delivery, and perinatal asphyxia and birth injuries.
  • Greatest percentage reduction of infant mortality occurs in countries that already have low rates of infant mortality.
  • Common causes are preventable with low-cost measures. Pneumonia, malaria and diarrheal diseases as well as chronic malnutrition are the most frequent causes of death.

Malnutrition – Malnutrition occurs when the body doesn’t get enough nutrients. Causes include a poor diet, digestive conditions or another disease. Symptoms are fatigue, dizziness and weight loss. Untreated malnutrition can cause physical or mental disability.

  • The term malnutrition covers two broad groups of conditions. One is ‘under-nutrition’ which includes stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiency (a lack of important vitamins and minerals). The other is overweight, obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer).
  • Malnutrition affects people in every country. Around 1.9 billion adults worldwide are overweight, while 462 million are underweight. An estimated 41 million children under the age of 5 years are overweight or obese, while some 159 million are stunted and 50 million are wasted.
  • Adding to this burden are the 528 million or 29% of women of reproductive age around the world affected by anaemia, for which approximately half would be amenable to iron supplementation.
  • Many families cannot afford or access enough nutritious foods like fresh fruit and vegetables, legumes, meat, and milk, while foods and drinks high in fat, sugar, and salt are cheaper and more readily available, leading to a rapid rise in the number of children and adults who are overweight and obese, in poor as well as rich countries.
Percentage of population suffering from hunger, World Food Programme, 2020

Child labour – Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful.

  • For impoverished households, income from a child’s work is usually crucial for his or her own survival or for that of the household. Income from working children, even if small, may be between 25 and 40% of the household income.
  • Roughly 160 million children were subjected to child labour at the beginning of 2020, with 9 million additional children at risk due to the impact of COVID-19.
  • Child labour compounds social inequality and discrimination, and robs girls and boys of their childhood.
  • Unlike activities that help children develop, such as contributing to light housework or taking on a job during school holidays, child labour limits access to education and harms a child’s physical, mental and social growth.
  • Especially for girls, the “triple burden” of school, work and household chores heightens their risk of falling behind, making them even more vulnerable to poverty and exclusion.

Lack of Education – Children living in poverty face many barriers to accessing an education.

  • Increasing access to education can improve the overall health and longevity of a society, grow economies, and even combat climate change.
  • Yet in many developing countries, children’s access to education can be limited by numerous factors. Language barriers, gender roles, and reliance on child labor can all stall progress to provide quality education.
  • The world’s most vulnerable children from disadvantaged communities are more likely to miss out on school. This includes young girls and children with disabilities.
  • A child cannot learn without the right environment.
  • When girls don’t have access to safe toilets, they are often harassed or attacked when looking for a private place to go. Girls also miss or drop out of school when they begin menstruating if they don’t have the sanitation facilities or sanitary products to manage their periods with pride and dignity.
  • Students with disabilities have lower attendance rates and are more likely to be out of school or leave school before completing primary education. They are suspended or expelled at a rate more than double the rate of their non-special education peers.
  • The impact of hunger on education systems is gravely under-reported. Being severely malnourished, to the point it impacts on brain development, can be the same as losing four grades of schooling. It is estimated that around 155 million children under the age of five are estimated to be stunted.

Child marriage – A patriarchal mind-set is one of the main reasons for most child marriages in India: young girls, and women in general are perceived to be natural homemakers. Their lives are to be limited within the four walls, as they are unqualified to protect themselves from the dangerous world outside. They need not be educated, nor employed, as they are born to serve and care for the men in the family. The lack of basic awareness about family planning and budgeting, we have a blazing cause for the shocking rates of child marriages in the country. The married girls grow up illiterate and unskilled to earn their own livelihood, leading to a continuation of poverty.

World population living in extreme poverty, 1990-2015


Hydrology is a branch of Earth Science. The importance of hydrology in the assessment, development, utilisation and management of the water resources, of any region is being increasingly realised at all levels. It was in view of this that the United Nations proclaimed the period of 1965-1974 as the International Hydrological Decade during which, intensive efforts in hydrologic education research, development of analytical techniques and collection of hydrological information on a global basis, were promoted in Universities, Research Institutions, and Government Organisations.


The World’s total water resources are estimated at 1.36 × 108 Μ ha-m. Of these global water resources, about 97.2% is salt water mainly in oceans, and only 2.8% is available as fresh water at any time on the planet earth. Out of this 2.8% of fresh water, about 2.2% is available as surface water and 0.6% as ground water. Even out of this 2.2% of surface water, 2.15% is fresh water in glaciers and icecaps and only of the order of 0.01% is available in lakes and streams, the remaining 0.04% being in other forms. Out of 0.6% of stored ground water, only about 0.25% can be economically extracted with the present drilling technology (the remaining being at greater depths).


The important rivers of India and their approximate water potentials are given below:

  1. West flowing rivers like Narmada and Tapti – 30.55 (M ha-m)
  2. East flowing rivers like Mahanadi, – Godavari, (M ha-m)
  3. Krishna, Cauvery and Pennar – 35.56 (M ha-m)
  4. The Ganges and its tributaries – 55.01 (M ha-m)
  5. Indus and its tributaries – 7.95 (M ha-m)
  6. The River Brahmaputra – 59.07 (M ha-m)


Hydrologic cycle is the water transfer cycle, which occurs continuously in nature; the three important phases of the hydrologic cycle are: (a) Evaporation and evapotranspiration (b) precipitation and (c) runoff. The globe has one-third land and two-thirds ocean. Evaporation from the surfaces of ponds, lakes, reservoirs. ocean surfaces, etc. and transpiration from surface vegetation i.e., from plant leaves of cropped land and forests, etc. take place. These vapours rise to the sky and are condensed at higher altitudes by condensation nuclei and form clouds, resulting in droplet growth. The clouds melt and sometimes burst resulting in precipitation of different forms like rain, snow, hail, sleet, mist, dew and frost. A part of this precipitation flows over the land called runoff and part in-filters into the soil which builds up the ground water table. The surface runoff joins the streams and the
water is stored in reservoirs. A portion of surface runoff and ground water flows back to ocean. Again evaporation starts from the surfaces of lakes, reservoirs and ocean, and the cycle repeats.


  1. Drizzle — a light steady rain in fine drops (0.5 mm) and intensity (<1 mm/hr) Rain the condensed water vapour of the atmosphere falling in drops (>0.5 mm, maximum size—6 mm) from the clouds.
  2. Glaze — Freezing of drizzle or rain when they come in contact with cold objects.
  3. Sleet — Frozen rain drops while falling through air at subfreezing temperature.
  4. Snow — Ice crystals resulting from sublimation (i.e., water vapour condenses to ice)
  5. Snow flakes — Ice crystals fused together.
  6. Hail — Small lumps of ice (>5 mm in diameter) formed by alternate freezing and melting, when they are carried up and down in highly turbulent air currents.
  7. Dew — Moisture condensed from the atmosphere in small drops upon cool
  8. Frost — A feathery deposit of ice formed on the ground or on the surface of exposed objects by dew or water vapour that has frozen.
  9. Fog — A thin cloud of varying size formed at the surface of the earth by condensation of atmospheric vapour.
  10. Mist — Avery thin fog.


The study of hydrology helps us to know;

  • The maximum probable flood that may occur at a given site and its frequency; this is required for the safe design of drains and culverts, dams and reservoirs, channels and other flood control structures.
  • The water yield from a basin—its occurrence, quantity and frequency, etc; this is necessary for the design of dams, municipal water supply, water power, river navigation, etc.
  • The ground water development for which a knowledge of the hydro-geology of the area, i.e., of the formation soil, recharge facilities like streams and reservoirs, rainfall pattern, climate, cropping pattern, etc. are required.
  • The maximum intensity of storm and its frequency for the design of a drainage project in the area.

A hydrologist is often posed with lack of adequate data. The basic hydrological data required are:

  • Climatological Data.
  • Hydro meteorological data like temperature, wind velocity, humidity, etc.
  • Precipitation records and Stream-flow records.
  • Seasonal fluctuation of ground water table and evaporation data.
  • Cropping pattern, crops and their consumptive use water quality data of surface streams and ground water
  • Geomorphologic studies of the basin, like area, shape and slope of the basin, mean and median elevation, mean temperature (as well as highest and lowest temperature recorded) and other physiographic characteristics of the basin; stream density and drainage density; tanks and reservoirs

Hydro-meteorological characteristics of basin:

  • Depth-area-duration (DAD) curves for critical storms.
  • Isohyetal maps—Isohyets may be drawn for long-term average, annual and monthly precipitation for individual years and months.
  • Cropping pattern crops and their seasons.
  • Daily, monthly and annual evaporation from water surfaces in the basin.
  • Water balance studies of the basin
  • Soil conservation and methods of flood control

Hydrology means the science of water. It is the science of the water that deals with the occurrence , circulation and distribution of water of the earth and earth’s atmosphere. As a branch of earth science, it is concerned with the water in the streams and lakes, rainfall and snow fall, snow and ice on the land and water occurring below the earth’s surface in the pores of rocks ans soils.


The artificial reproduction, rearing and transplantation of fish is called pisciculture. It is also called fish farming. The term pisciculture is specific to aqua farming or the raising of fish inside of tanks or in house ponds. Pisciculture is a form of aquaculture as aquaculture is the scientific rearing and management of all aquatic animals. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species’ natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. Global demand is increasing for dietary fish protein, which has resulted in widespread overfishing in wild fisheries, resulting in significant decrease in fish stocks and even complete depletion in some regions. Fish farming allows establishment of artificial fish colonies that are provided with sufficient feeding, protection from natural predators and competitive threats, access to veterinarian service, and easier harvesting when needed, while being separate from and thus do not usually impact the sustainable yields of wild fish populations.

Aquaculture vs Pisciculture

Intensive Aquaculture

An intensive fish farming system is the well-managed form of fish farming, in which all attempts are made to achieve maximum production of fish from a minimum quantity of water.

  • This system involves small ponds/tanks/raceways with very high stocking density (10-50 fish/m3 of water).
  • Although intensive aquaculture is completely mechanized and self-contained it can have a detrimental impact on the environment.
  • The biggest problem caused by intensive aquaculture is the difficulty in properly dealing with the nutrient rich effluent.
  • Effluent contains high levels of both organic and inorganic nutrients like ammonia, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus.
  • If not disposed of correctly the effluent could cause a number of problems including eutrophication, and hypernutrification
  • Ingenious solutions have been developed to reduce the negative effects to the environmental caused by this effluent. The most effective solution is the advent of aquaponics.
Aquaculture fish farming of salmon and mackerel in the Chilean fjords about 6 km south from Castro, on March 16, 2019. Fish pens and crew scow can be moved.

Aquaponics is the combination of Intensive aquaculture (fish farming) and hydroponics (growing plants without soil). Aquaponic systems use the nutrient rich effluent from fish tanks as fertilizers for produce. The advent of aquaponics has made the aquaculture industry into a sustainable and Eco-friendly business.

Extensive Aquaculture

Extensive aquaculture is the other form of fish farming. It is more basic than intensive aquaculture in that less effort is put into the husbandry of the fish.

  • Extensive aquaculture is done in the ocean, natural and man-made lakes, bays, rivers, and Fiords.
  • Fish are contained within these habitats by multiple mesh enclosures which also function as trapping nets during harvest.
  • Since fish are susceptible to the elements, site placement is essential to ensuring rapid growth of the targeted species.
  • The drawback of these facilities is that they depend on the surrounding area for good water quality in order to reduce mortality and increase the survivorship and growth rate of the fish.
  • Fish chosen for extensive aquaculture are very hardy and often do well in high densities.Seaweed, prawns, muscles, carp, talapia, tuna and salmon are the most prominent forms of extensive aquacultured seafood .

Extensive Aquaculture – Drawbacks

Extensive aquaculture facilities have negative impacts on the environment as well. Natural habitats are destroyed in the development of man made ponds used for extensive aquaculture. In the Philippines, shrimp aquaculture is responsible for the destruction of thousands of acres of mangrove fields which serve as nurseries and living habitats for many marine organisms. Benthic habitats are being depleted due to the high amount of organic waste produced by the fish which settles below their pens. Phytoplankton and algae breakdown fecal matter and residual fish meal reducing the amount of available oxygen in the water column,which chokes and kills the Benthic organisms. Another serious problem acquainted with extensive aquaculture is the introduction of invasive species into ecosystems. Escaped fish increase the competition between organisms for limited resources. Also, when foreign fish interbreed with wild species, they upset the genetic variability of the species, making them more prone to disease and infection. The high density of fish in these mesh tanks is very tempting for predators of the sea and air. To protect the harvest from predators protective netting is set up at a high cost. Often times predatorial fish and mammals like seals, sharks, and tuna get caught in these barrier nets and die. Some farmers protect their stocks from predatorial birds such as pelicans and albatross by shooting these sometimes endangered creatures.

Pisciculture Complex, outside Rio Branco, Brazil

Today, only industrialized nations have the funds to invest in intensive aquaculture. Mass produced aquacultured fish has lowered the wholesale price of fish, thus drawing customers away from the already poor fishermen. Today, the only form of aquaculture available to small time fishermen is in the form of grow out pens for juvenile fish. Research is being done to create more complex and affordable forms of extensive aquaculture for subsistence fishermen in order to increase their standard of living, and more importantly, act as an incentive to protect endangered species.

World capture fisheries and aquaculture production by production mode, from FAO’s Statistical Yearbook 2020

National Unity Day – 31st October

National Unity Day is celebrated in India on 31 October. It was introduced by the Government of India in 2014. The day is celebrated to mark the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel who had a major role in the political integration of India.

Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31st October 1875 – 15th December 1950), endeared as Sardar, was an Indian statesman. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1950. He was an Indian barrister and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress who played a leading role in the country’s struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. He was one of the conservative members of the Indian National Congress. In India and elsewhere, he was often called Sardar, meaning “chief” in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian. He acted as Home Minister during the political integration of India and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.

As the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India, Patel organised relief efforts for partition refugees fleeing to Punjab and Delhi from Pakistan and worked to restore peace. He led the task of forging a united India, successfully integrating into the newly independent nation those British colonial provinces that formed the Dominion of India. Besides those provinces that had been under direct British rule, approximately 565 self-governing princely states had been released from British suzerainty by the Indian Independence Act of 1947. Patel persuaded almost every princely state to accede to India.

  • His commitment to national integration in the newly independent country was total and uncompromising, earning him the sobriquet “Iron Man of India”.
  • He is also remembered as the “Patron saint of India’s civil servants” for having established the modern All India Services system.
  • He is also called the “Unifier of India”.

Father of All India Services

He was also instrumental in the creation of the All India Services which he described as the country’s “Steel Frame”. In his address to the probationers of these services, he asked them to be guided by the spirit of service in day-to-day administration. He reminded them that the ICS was no-longer neither Imperial, nor civil, nor imbued with any spirit of service after Independence. His exhortation to the probationers to maintain utmost impartiality and incorruptibility of administration is as relevant today as it was then. “A civil servant cannot afford to, and must not, take part in politics. Nor must he involve himself in communal wrangles. To depart from the path of rectitude in either of these respects is to debase public service and to lower its dignity,” he had cautioned them on 21 April 1947. He, more than anyone else in post-independence India, realized the crucial role that civil services play in administering a country, in not merely maintaining law and order, but running the institutions that provide the binding cement to a society.The present-day all-India administrative services owe their origin to the man’s sagacity and thus he is regarded as Father of modern All India Services.

There is no alternative to this administrative system… The Union will go, you will not have a united India if you do not have good All-India Service which has the independence to speak out its mind, which has sense of security that you will standby your work… If you do not adopt this course, then do not follow the present Constitution. Substitute something else… these people are the instrument. Remove them and I see nothing but a picture of chaos all over the country.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

In his twilight years, Patel was honoured by members of Parliament. He was awarded honorary doctorates of law by Nagpur University, the University of Allahabad and Banaras Hindu University in November 1948, subsequently receiving honorary doctorates from Osmania University in February 1949 and from Punjab University in March 1949. Previously, Patel had been featured on the cover page of the January 1947 issue of Time magazine.

After suffering a massive heart attack (his second), Patel died on 15 December 1950 at Birla House in Bombay. In an unprecedented and unrepeated gesture, on the day after his death more than 1,500 officers of India’s civil and police services congregated to mourn at Patel’s residence in Delhi and pledged “complete loyalty and unremitting zeal” in India’s service. In homage to Patel, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru declared a week of national mourning. Patel’s cremation was planned at Girgaum Chowpatty, but this was changed to Sonapur (now Marine Lines) when his daughter conveyed that it was his wish to be cremated like a common man in the same place as his wife and brother were earlier cremated. His cremation in Sonapur in Bombay was attended by a crowd of one million including Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Rajagopalachari and President Rajendra Prasad.

Statue of Unity

The Statue of Unity is a colossal statue of Indian statesman and Independence activist Vallabhbhai Patel. Patel was highly respected for his leadership in uniting 562 princely states of India with a major part of the former British Raj to form the single Union of India. The Statue of Unity is the world’s tallest statue, with a height of 182 metres (597 feet). It is located in the state of Gujarat, India, on the Narmada River in the Kevadiya colony, facing the Sardar Sarovar Dam 100 kilometres (62 mi) southeast of the city of Vadodara and 150 kilometres (93 mi) from the city of Surat. Kevadia railway station is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the statue. The project was first announced in 2010, and construction of the statue started in October 2013 by Indian company Larsen & Toubro, with a total construction cost of 2700 crore (27 billion; US$422 million). It was designed by Indian sculptor Ram V. Sutar and was inaugurated by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 31 October 2018, the 143rd anniversary of Patel’s birth.

Patel was a selfless leader, who placed the country’s interests above everything else and shaped India’s destiny with single-minded devotion. The invaluable contribution of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in building a modern and unified India needs to be remembered by every Indian as the country marches ahead as one of the largest economies in the world. His enduring fame rests on his achievement of the peaceful integration of the princely Indian states into the Indian Union and the Political unification of India.

Agricultural Machinery

Agricultural machinery relates to the mechanical structures and devices used in farming or other agriculture. There are many types of such equipment, from hand tools and power tools to tractors and the countless kinds of farm implements that they tow or operate. Agricultural machinery and equipment help farmers produce the goods that consumers want and need. Without the proper machinery and equipment, farmers would not be efficient enough to provide the food, clothing, and shelter that we need. Hundreds of years ago, the population was made up of primarily farmers and ranchers. Now, a very small percent of the population is responsible for producing the food and fiber used today. Machinery and equipment allow this to be possible. Because of the high technology with machinery and equipment, in some countries one farmer produces enough food to feed over 100 people.
Using power only from humans or horses would not produce nearly this amount. Machinery and equipment reduce the amount of hard labor needed for farmers to do their work. Jobs are easier and take less time when machinery and equipment are used. Machinery and equipment also help farmers produce larger amounts of higher quality livestock and grain products.

Different types Machinery and Equipments are used in every Sector of the Agricultural Industry. Some of them are in-

  1. Livestock production
  2. Horticulture
  3. Forestry
  4. Crop production

Livestock production

Machinery and equipment can be used to help producers care for and manage their livestock. Milking machines, automated feeding and watering systems, incubators, egg candlers, tractors, computers, and many other types of machinery and equipment can be used by the producer to improve efficiency and quality of products.

Automated Watering System


Machinery and equipment are very important in the horticulture industry. Lawnmowers, tillers, sprayers, spreaders, irrigation systems, wood chippers, lawn rollers, leaf blowers, computers, and tractors are all vital pieces of machinery and equipment used by horticulturalists.

Pesticide Sprayer
Lawnmower with Utility Cart
Greenhouse Irrigation System
Wood Chipper
Rotary Tiller
Rotary Spreader


The forestry industry relies on machinery and equipment to function. Log trucks, skidders, loaders, cutters, harvesters, chainsaws, computers, and surveying equipment are all necessary for efficient forestry operations.

Log Truck

Crop production

Without the proper machinery and equipment, large-scale crop production would be impossible. Tilling, planting, applying pesticides and fertilizers, and harvesting all require specialized machinery and equipment. Plows, planters, drills, sprayers, spreaders, combines, balers, computers, tractors, grain trucks, and many other types of machinery and equipment are necessary to produce crops effectively.


Some other Machineries and Equipments used in producing crops are-

  1. Tractor
  2. Tillage equipment
  3. Planting equipment
  4. Application equipment
  5. Harvesting equipment
  6. Global Positioning System
  7. Geographic Information System

Tractor – A tractor is a motorized vehicle that is used to pull heavy loads and to provide power to operate implements. There are two main types of tractors — wheeled and crawler.

  • A wheeled tractor is a tractor that usually has four or more wheels that turn and move the tractor.
  • A crawler tractor is a tractor that has steel or rubber tracks fitted around the wheels that make the tractor move.

Tillage equipment – It is a equipment used to plow or till the soil. It slices, breaks, or cuts the soil in order to prepare the ground, control weeds, or create mulch. The tillage equipment used depends on the type of soil and the crop that is to be grown. Tillage equipment includes plows, harrows, and cultivators.

  • A plow is an implement used to cut, lift, and turn over soil. It is commonly used to prepare the soil for planting. There are various types of plows and the one most commonly used in many countries is the moldboard plow.
  • A harrow is an implement with spikes or disks that is used to cultivate the soil by pulverizing and smoothing it.
  • A cultivator is an implement used to loosen the soil and control weeds between rows of growing crops..

Planting equipment – It is a equipment used to place seeds in the soil for germination. It must be properly adjusted so the right amount of seed is planted at the proper depth in the soil. Planting equipment includes planters and drills.

  • A planter is an implement used to place seeds in the soil at the proper rate, depth, and spacing.
  • A drill is an implement used to plant seeds for germination.

Application equipment – It is a equipment used to apply fertilizer, pesticides, growth regulators, and other materials to crops. It must be properly calibrated and operated so the right amount of material is delivered. The equipment may use dry or liquid materials. Application equipment includes sprayers and dusters.

  • A sprayer is a piece of equipment that uses tanks, pumps, and nozzles to apply liquid materials.
  • A duster is a piece of equipment used to apply dry powder materials..

Harvesting equipment – It is a equipment used to pick, reap, or otherwise gather crops. Different types of crops require different types of equipment. Harvesting equipment includes combines, pickers, balers, and mowers.

  • A combine is a machine used to harvest crops as it moves across a field
  • A picker is a machine used to harvest crops by picking. Cotton is the most common crop harvested with a picker.
  • A mower is a piece of equipment used to cut standing vegetation. Mowers are used to harvest forage crops, such as grass and alfalfa. After mowing, the crop may be left in rows to dry and be picked up by a baler.
  • A baler is a piece of equipment used to harvest forage crops that have been cut, dried, and placed in rows. The baler is pulled behind a tractor and picks the dried vegetation up off the ground.

Global Positioning System (GPS) – It is a system that uses satellites and computers to tell a farmer his or her exact location in a field. The earth is continually circled by 24 GPS satellites. At least four of these satellites are visible from any one point on Earth.
GPS uses three satellites that are connected by an electronic signal with a receiver on the ground. (A fourth satellite is used to verify that the information is accurate.) Distances from satellites to the receiver can be quickly measured. Computers calculate the exact location of the receiver. GPS receivers are generally located on equipment that moves over a field. GPS systems can precisely guide tractors and equipment through a field and program computers to deliver precise amounts of seed, fertilizer, or herbicide to plants in variable amounts.

Geographic Information System (GIS) – It is a system used with GPS to make maps or grids of a field. These maps give a farmer data about soil conditions, crop yield, and other information so he or she can make decisions needed to improve the crops in the field.

Maintenance of Farm Machinery

  1. During the repair of any machinery, appropriate protective clothing should be worn. This includes helmets, goggles, gloves, hearing protection, and safety shoes.
  2. Do not wear baggy clothing, and keep long hair tied back. Loose-fitting clothing and hair can easily catch in rotating machinery parts.
  3. All machinery should be maintained regularly. Any worn or broken parts should be replaced immediately, not fixed in a temporary manner. When repairs are made, the machine should be fixed according to manufacturers’ specifications.
  4. When repairs are made, any guard removed during repair must be replaced before the equipment is used.
  5. Check tire inflation and tread periodically to prevent flats and blowouts.
  6. Whenever preparing to work on a piece of equipment, block wheels to prevent movement. Any jacks used should be stable and in good condition.
  7. Inspect brakes, hitches, safety chains, springs, and shackles regularly for wear, broken or missing parts, and cracks in the welds.
  8. Inspect hydraulic and air lines regularly for wear and cracks. Replace lines that show any sign of damage.
  9. Caution should be taken when working on hydraulic systems. Make sure all pressure in the system is relieved and that the fluid is cool before loosening any fittings or removing lines. Wear leather or rubber gloves.