The Concept of Ikigai

Ikigai is a Japanese concept which add meaning to life or finds purpose of this life. The book Ikigai was written by Hector Garcia and Francesc Miralles. They both bring out the secret of Japan’s centenarians to you and gives you a tool to find your own ikigai. People those who wants to find their Ikigai and if they discover, have everything they need for a long and joyful journey throughout their life.

Japanese believing that everyone has their own Ikigai. Our Ikigai is hidden deep inside each of us to find out we need patience in us. In Okinawa (island) people with the most centenarians in the world hopes that Ikigai is their only reason for wake up in morning. People who knows their Ikigai will brings them satisfaction, happiness, and meaning to oru lives. People living Japan will remain active after they retire. In fact, many Japanese people never really retire they keep doing what they love for as long as their health allows.

The Blue Zones:

Okinawa (Japan) holds first place among the world’s Blue Zones. A research clearly says that the Okinawan’s focus on ikigai gives a sense of purpose to each and everyday and plays an important role in their health and longevity. Sardinia (Italy) this island as in Okinawa, the cohesive nature of this community is another factor directly related to longevity. Sardinia (Italy) this island consume plenty of vegetables and a glass of wine. Loma Linda (California) a group of seventh day Adventist who are among the longest – living people in the United States. Among these Blue Zones, paying special attention to Okinawa and its so-called Village of Longevity.

Key features of their longevity is their ikigai. Members of these communities manage their time well in order to reduce stress, consume little meat and they take alcohol in moderation. People always involves them in low-intensity movement, they all practice in common. Ikigai thought us life has some purpose do. It always awoke a question why are we doing this? what’s the reason? Answer is when you get to know your Ikigai. This book will get you to your purpose (Ikigai).


How to read efficiently

“Reading maketh a full man” states the great English essayist Francis Bacon. Indeed, reading habbit can even be considered as virtue, as it gives us immense knowledge and pleasure. But nowadays our reading is getting diminished because of the advent of mobile phones. Even if you are a beginner or someone who reads daily, sometimes you may find it hard to read or lack interest. Don’t be bothered, this article will aid you in such cases.

If you are a beginner in reading, you must find your genre of books. Each person have seperate tastes so they may like fiction or non-fiction. You must find what interests you the most either fiction or non-fiction. Non-fiction and fiction is like an umbrella term in reading, because there different types inside this division. For example, non-fiction consists of self-help books, journals, autobiographies and biographies whereas fiction consists of fantasy, horror, romance etc.., so find out what you likes the most and begin your reading.

This tip is for beginners too, you should start off with small amount, which means don’t burden yourself with books that have large number of pages, start reading small books. For example, don’t start with novel but with a short story collection. You can finish short stories early and it won’t bore you soon. And again don’t go for classics at the start, you may find the language hard, so start with a book of contemporary age.

Parallel reading is the best way in reading. It has two benefits, first you can read a lot and the next is that, you don’t have to stress over completing a book which makes you skim through the pages. Read two books at a time, as you can switch over to the books, if one book gets little dry. Habitual readers can try this way to cover more books at a time.

The foremost rule is that you have to put your mobile away. When you are reading, you should concentrate on the subject, but if you have mobile phone near you, you will get easily distracted by means of notifications and your fear of missing out won’t leave you at peace. I understand, you may need your phone to check on the words you can’t understand while reading, use a dictionary in that situations, don’t use your phones.

The next biggest question after you start off your reading journey is that what to read next. If you happen to have that question, get suggestions from your friends or colleagues or anyone who reads a lot. Not happy with their recommendations? Don’t worry there are enormous Youtubers, tiktokers and instagrammers who create content based on reading. Watch their videos and find what to read next.

Consistency is the key, not just for reading, but for anything that you do in your life. Make time for reading exclusively in your schedule, and set goals so that you could read accordingly. These are the tips that will help you to read efficiently. What’s your read now? And what is your favourite book of all time? Mention them in the comments below.


Sphinx, a mythological creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion. It is a prominent figure in Egyptian, Greek and Asian mythology.

1.Sphinx of Egyptian Mythology

Ancient Egyptian culture has introduced the sphinx first. Egyptian built sphinx as a defender to guard crucial areas such as temples and tombs. Then Greek and Asian cultures adopted the concept of sphinx to enhance their mythology. The Sphinx represents the king’s intelligence and lion’s strength.

The Great Sphinx of Giza

The Great Sphinx of Giza located in Giza, near Cairo, Egypt. The most famous and the oldest statue in the world. Lion’s body and a human head of Great Sphinx represents Ra- Horakhty , powerful sun god and it built as a protector for the doors of the temples. It was called Horus of the Necropolis and Horus of the Horizon, god of sun that stands above the horizon. According to archaeologist , it was built in 2500 BC and 4500 years old . And it would have taken the time of 3 years for 100 workers. The Sphinx , made from a massive piece of limestone with 240 feet long and 66 feet high.

Some believe, Khafre , fourth king of the dynasty of Egypt built the great sphinx. Some believe , Redjedef (Khafre’s older brother)built the great sphinx to commemorate their father, Khufu (who built the second great Pyramid). According to some theorists, the sphinx face resembles closely with the Khufu’s face than Khafre.

Alec Derwent Hope, in his poem, Australia, mentioned about Sphinx. He symbolises Sphinx for intelligence and power.

Those endless, outstretched paws

Of sphinx demolished or stone lion worn away (4).

2. Sphinx of Greek Mythology

Sphinx in greek mythology has the haunches of a lion and head of a woman with wings of a bird . She is considered merciless, cruel creature. It is believed that the Greek sphinx killed many passers-by if they failed to answer for the riddle of the sphinx.

Death of the Sphinx

The Sphinx killed herself after Oedipus , the King of Thebes , correctly answered for her riddle. Travelling towards Thebes , he encountered that Thebes plagued by tha Sphinx . When Oedipus solved the riddle , the Sphinx killed herself.

Sphinx’s Riddle:

Question: What goes on four feet in the morning, two feet at noon, and three feet in the evening ?

Answer : a person , a person as a baby in the morning of their life crawls on four feet (hands and knees). As an in the noon of their life, they walk on two feet. But when they are old, in the evening of their life, they walk with a cane , on three feet.

3. Sphinx of Asian mythology

Asian sphinx has its influenced on Egyptian sphinx but with some difference. The Sphinx of Asian mythology appeared with wings in the leonine body.

The Sphinx is known as Purushamriga or Purushamirukam (human beast) in South India. It is found in temples and palaces in sculptural art form. It is believed that Sphinx ward off evil and take away sins of the devotees.

The Sphinx is known as narasimha or man- lion in Sri Lanka and considered as the fourth reincarnation of Mahavishnu (deity).

Some archaeologist believe that there are chambers underneath the Sphinx. Zahi Hawass , Egyptian archaeologist affirmed the presence of tunnels in the Sphinx.

Therefore, the Sphinx has its many unsolved mysteries that evokes the curiosity of archaeologists to do research on Sphinx.

Top Recruiting Softwares to Use

Recruiting software is a category of human resources management (HRM) that handles the process of posting jobs and attracting top talent for vacant positions within a company. From posting jobs to reviewing resumes and interviewing candidates, recruiting software streamlines the entire candidate search and hiring process, automating when possible to lessen workloads. By eliminating paperwork and offering powerful resume and candidate search functions, the software makes it easier for organizations to find and hire employees.

Recruiting software are equipped with the tools to attract, engage, hire, and retain the talent that drives success. Looking for a complete recruiting solution? Read this full article to learn more.

Top Recruiting Softwares to Use

What Is Recruiting Software?

Recruiting software is software that helps organizations optimize the hiring process, from finding and attracting candidates to screening resumes and sending out offer letters. Recruiting software is often called an applicant tracking system or ATS, though these two are not exactly the same. Recruiting software is a broader category that encompasses applicant tracking systems as well as other tools that focus on individual phases of the hiring process.

What Is CRM Recruiting?

CRM (candidate relationship management) recruiting uses another type of recruiting software similar to an ATS. However, while an ATS manages applications for any given job, a CRM is a tool for nurturing relationships with potential job candidates. In other words, an ATS is more focused on active job applicants, while a CRM is used to build a pool of talent eligible for future job openings.

Functions of Recruiting Software

Most recruiting software can do some or all of the following:

  • Sourcing: Sourcing helps recruiters find and attract candidates; it can be especially valuable for identifying passive candidates who may not otherwise see an organization’s job ads.
  • Engagement: Candidate engagement functions help streamline communication between recruiters and candidates to keep candidates engaged and informed throughout the hiring process, which in turn can improve an organization’s hiring rate.
  • Selection: Screening and selection capabilities can help speed up the process of choosing qualified candidates from among a pool of applicants. This kind of software may offer features such as artificial intelligence screening, assessments and evaluations, central collaboration for hiring managers, and more.
  • Hiring: Finally, some organizations may use recruiting software that manages the actual step of hiring and bridges the gap between candidate experience and employee experience. Some of these platforms may even dip into elements of onboarding to make the transition as smooth as possible for new employees exiting the hiring funnel.

How Does Recruitment Software Work?

Typical recruitment software tracks applicants throughout the screening and interview process. For example, hiring managers and recruiters will be able to create a job posting, send it out to the appropriate platforms, and view all relevant job applications through the recruitment software portal. Updates can be made in the portal once the candidates have been interviewed. The recruitment software can also be used to send out job offers, handle paperwork related to onboarding the new employee, and create reports relating to the hiring process. This makes the entire process more efficient and organized, giving everyone involved more time to handle other tasks.

Benefits of Using Recruiting Software

As we said, organizations use recruiting software to optimize the hiring process. This optimization can improve the hiring experience for both recruiters and candidates alike.

For hiring organizations, recruiting software can make the hiring process faster and more efficient. Not only does this save managers and recruiters time, but it also makes it easier for an organization to hire top candidates who may be weighing multiple offers.

For candidates, recruiting software can simplify the application process and open up communication channels, both of which contribute to a positive candidate experience. And when candidates have a positive experience with an organization’s hiring process, regardless of the outcome, they are more likely to endorse the company to  their friends and family or even apply again themselves.

Top Job Aggregators

Job boards and job aggregators are central to the recruiting ecosystem because direct applicants make up 48% of all hires.

  1. Indeed, with its database, is the biggest source of external hires by far. In 2020, it was credited with an incredible 75% of all job applications and 47% of all hires in the US
  2. LinkedIn, primarily known for its professional social networking platform, connecting professionals globally, also provides a Job Search Tool allowing users to find job opportunities. These opportunities are based on location, industry, and recommendations based on your employment profile on LinkedIn. 
  3. Google For Jobs, designed to be a direct competitor to Indeed, may prove to be a game-changer. It recently added four new features: accessing salary information, applying location filters, bookmarking saved jobs, and selecting which job board applicants job seekers want to use to apply.
  4. ZipRecruiter, with over 25 million job seekers a month visiting the site, became a popular choice for employers as well as job seekers because it posts job listings to multiple job boards, as opposed to just one

Top Recruitment CRMs

With the rise of recruitment marketing, candidate relationship management (CRM) software has become central for attracting, engaging, and nurturing candidates.

  1. Yello, with features that include, schedule automation, video interviewing, employee referrals, and integrations with ATSs and HRISs, has a talent acquisition platform that provides a variety of recruiting solutions. 
  2. Beamery,  the London-based startup, ranked 10th fastest growing company in the UK in the 2020 Deloitte Technology Fast 50. It offers self-styled recruitment marketing software targeted at fast-growing companies.
  3. Avature, founded by Dimitri Boylan, co-founder and former CEO of, Avature is a highly flexible enterprise SaaS platform for Global Talent Acquisition. Avature has over 650 customers of which 110 are Fortune 500 organizations.

Top Testing & Assessment Tools

The use of pre-hire assessments to test the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other qualifications are on the rise. Surveys show that more than 80% of Fortune 500 companies are using pre-hire assessments.

  1. Criteria Corp, a pre-assessment tool that seamlessly integrates with current ATS and HRIS processes provides a variety of assessments to measure candidates across a variety of dimensions, such as cognitive aptitude, personality, emotional intelligence, etc. 
  2. Berke Assessment, founded in 2004, creates tests that help employers predict job behaviours such as teamwork, communication, customer service, and problem-solving. 
  3. HackerRank, creates coding and technical assessments to help recruiters assess the skills of developers and software engineers. It also offers an online interviewing tool.
  4. Traitify, with more than 200 current customers provides an image-based, mobile-first personality assessment. Traitify’s assessments are quick and effective taking an average of only 90 seconds to complete with a completion rate of 90% or higher.
  5. SHL, providing science-based assessments, along with expert training and consulting for the last 40 years, was awarded the 2020 HR Tech Award for Best Innovative Tech Solution for their Virtual Assessment and Development Center


Walt Disney, a name that would forever be in the history, was born on 5 Dec., 1991 in Chicago. He was a very creative child and he started selling his creative paintings to his neighbors. He started his company name Laugh-O-Gram which went bankrupt later during Alice Wonderland project. He went through a lot of hard-work. Disneyland started on 17 July, 1955.  

Not only we have spent our childhood while watching the movies made by Disney but we have been spending our current time while watching the movies made by Disney which are making everyone crazy all over the world.

Have you heard of the name of the movies like Black Panther and Avengers: Infinity war?

Of course, you would have, after all who doesn’t?

These movies are made by the Disney itself. They have a very higher market share in comparison to other studio. Disney has been growing like crazy over the past few years. In the recent years, Disney’s revenue has grown so much. In 1993, they bought up like$8.5 billion and in 2020, it went up to $65 billion.

Isn’t it amazing?

Disney is 8.5 times bigger than they were 25 years before. A big part of their growth can be assumed from their strategic acquisitions. One of them was of $71 billion acquisition involving Fox’s assets that was finalized in March, 2019.

In 1993, Disney bought Miramax, a movie company, for $60 million and really turned them into something. After running it for 17 years, they decided to sell in 2010. They ended up selling it for 660 million dollars.

In 1995, Disney spent $19 billion for Capital Cities. Capital cities had bought the TV network called ABC who was already the owner of ESPN. In 2001, Disney acquired Fox Family for about $2.9 billion. They quickly renamed it as ABC Family. In 2004, they bought Pixar for $7.4 billion, at that point Pixar had yet to create anything that could blow up the audience’s mind. In 2009, they bought Marvel for $4 billion and this acquisition is being continued to talk about the people. But before the acquisition, Marvel already sold a lot of character like Spider-man but Disney did get some good ones. In February 2015, Disney, Marvel Studios, and Sony made a deal to share the Spider-Man film rights. In 2012, Disney paid $4 billion dollars to buy Lucasfilm which is the owner of the Star Wars franchise.

Disney will continue to be dominant in the movie and streaming industry and would provide us with some marvellous movies in upcoming years.

How to optimize your Blog Content

                                     How to Optimize your Blog Content through SEO Strategy?

         The Process of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) aims to improving the quality of website to a website and a web page to a search engines. Strategy of SEO content marketing is not an appropriate for every website where else other Internet marketing strategies are more effective.

SEO Targets on Unpaid Traffic:

  • Unpaid Traffics are known to be organic results.   
  • There are Billion searches in a single day, many people for specific product and this searches are commercial intent and leads to immense amount of specific, high-intent traffic.
  • This focus rather than the paid traffic, because unpaid traffics are originates, different kinds of searches.
  • Which includes; video search, academic search, image search, news search, and industry-specific vertical search engines. 

Internet Marketing Strategy:

  • This Strategy mainly focuses on how search engines work, the in-build algorithms in computer dictate search engine behaviour.
  • It instructs what people search for, the actual search terms, search engines are performed under the targeted audience.
  • When websites ranked higher on Search Engine Results Page (SERP), the SEO content marketing has to perform because websites receives more visitors from a search engine.
  • The most successful Internet marketing campaign depends on high-quality web pages to improvise their sites and allows the site owners to measure the rule.

Optimizing search engine for Blog Content:

  • SEM (Search Engine Marketing) is a practicing of designing and optimizing search engine. 
  • Search engine marketing focuses on excellence more than the relevance.
  • Difference form SEO content marketing is, between the paid and unpaid priority ranking in search results.
  • Most of the organic search traffics are not paid for search engines.
  • In addition, the accessibility of web crawlers, user web accessibility has become immensely important for SEO, this is considered to be a wise business.

How to Optimize your Blog posts for SEO?

  • The best way to optimizing the blog post is depend on how we creating it, SEO perform to get more traffic for your blog.
  • As a beginner, we have to plan for actual keyword search, what the real audience look for.
  • The keyword technique is mostly used by SEO experts and content creators, this helps to plan for content strategy.
  •  Topic plays a vital role for your blog it makes users to click your website to see the article.
  • If we were using single all in one SEO plugin have to focus on keyword in your article’s setting.

 The Evolution of SEO:   

  • In last two years with Computer-programmed algorithm updates and changes to Google search results page. 
  • Now SEO evolves dramatically, so it requires more great content.
  • In 2021, investing in organic traffic is a viable marketing. 
  • SEO becomes most important in digital marketing.
  • According to Bright Edge’s study, organic traffic is responsible for more than 51% of visitors to the websites.

How to Increase the Traffic for your Blog Content?

  • As a Blogger, we have to know about the audience preference to increase website traffic.
  • To succeed in SEO, you need understand the user intent.
  • Have to use keyword attractively to grab the viewers to your website, such as; t-shirt sale, instead we can put Amazing t-shirt sales Hurry!!!
  • To get high CTR (Click Through Rate), have to use unique keywords to gain a high position among all websites.

Real story of Beauty and the Beast

Jeanne Marie Leprince d Beaumont published Beauty and the Beast in 1756. Her story, a short and sweet tale with a small cast of archetypal characters, loving yet helpless father, the protective brothers and jealous sisters, and the hideous but noble hearted hero. Beauty, the youngest, as she was handsomer, was also better than her sisters. The two eldest had a great deal of pride, because they were rich. They gave themselves ridiculous airs, and would not visit other merchants daughters nor keep company with any but persons of quality. They went out every day to parties of pleasure, balls, plays, concerts, and so forth, and they laughed at their younger sister because she spent the greatest part of her time in reading good books. One day her father mistakenly got shelter at Beast’s castle which made Beauty to come their to save her father. Beast, a prince, lost his father at young age. Selfish prince who along with his castle servants is cast under a curse by a wicked enchantress. The prince is turned into a beast, and sentenced to live as a beast until he learns to love and accept love in return. After Beauty comes into his life everything changes and later he becomes human by getting love from Beauty.

Petrus Gonsalvus, Spanish, Pedro Gonzalez, lived during the period 1537 to 1618c, referred to by Ulisse Aldrovandi as ‘the man of the woods’, was born in 1537 in Spain. His life has been well chronicled as he became famous during his lifetime because of his condition, hypertrichosis. Gonsalvus first came to the court of Henry II, King of France in 1547, and was sent from there to the court of Margaret of Parma, regent of the Netherlands. He married while there, later he was moved into the court of Alexander Darnedest, Duke of Parma. Four of his seven children were also afflicted with hypertrichosis universal is and painted. His family became an object of medical inquiry by Ulisse Aldrovandi among others. Despite living and acting as a nobleman, Gonsalvus and his hairy children were not considered fully human in the eyes of their contemporaries. But the power of strength came from his better half, his wife. Gonsalvus eventually settled in Italy with his wife. It is believed that marriage between Petrus Gonsalvus and Lady Catherine may have partially inspired the the fairy tale Beauty and the Beast. The greatness of a lady made history and romance.

Korean food from kdrams

When you watch a movie or series, what interest you the most? Yeah it depends on each person, some may like the plot or music, some may like the characters or actors, some may like the locations or setting, some may like the fashion or outfit, but for the foodies like me, what matters or interest the most is the food shown in that movie or series. If you are a foodie, then this article interest you a lot. Korean dramas are famous for their OST, plot, fashionable actresses, good looking actors but it also famous for the korean food. You guessed it right, let’s look into some of the korean food that I found amusing while watching Korean dramas.

Kimchi is the popular side dish of Korea which is made of fermented cabbage, radish and other vegetables. You might have noticed this dish a lot in Korean dramas. Boys over Flowers, in which we could see Gu Jun Pyo (Lee Min Ho) make this with Geum Jandi’s family and in large number of dramas. It could make a great side dish for ramen and some soju.


Gimbap (seaweed wrap), which looks like sushi roll but differs from it. As gimbap is made of rice mixture consists of sesame oil whereas sushi is made of rice mixture consists of vinegar. Gimbap is on the go food, we get it even in the conventional stores of korea and it is the picnic food. It is showed in lot of dramas like She was pretty and Pinocchio etc..

Ramen, you might have heard this word a lot. There is this slang in Korean dramas that goes like, “want to eat some ramen in my house?”, it has a different context than a literal meaning. Our concern is on food, so let’s look into it alone. Ramen means noodles, there are different kinds of noodles in Korean cuisine like cold noodles, meat broth based noodles etc., It shown in every other dramas. You might have noticed it in Boys Over Flowers and What’s wrong with Secretary Kim.

Korean fish cake (Odeng or Eomuk) are mostly seen in the streets of Korea. Skewered fish cakes are popular Korean street food. This is made of fish and vegetables deep fried in oil and then put in skewers with broth. In Weight Lifting Fairy Kim Book Joo, our Kim Book Joo eats this fish cake skewers a lot which really tempts us to taste it.

Fish cake

Tteok-bokki (spicy rice cakes) is also the most popular street food of Korea. This dish basically made of boiled rice cakes added in spicy sauce. In Vincenzo, there is one lady who have this Tteok-bokki shop, when Vincenzo tries to eat it got splattered all over him. It is seen in other dramas like Sweet Revenge 1 and even in Squid game. Sometimes it is too spicy, so people finds it hard to eat.

Korean BBQ and Korean fried chicken, have this distinct flavour than the normal BBQ and fried chicken. Korean BBQ contains meat, marinated meat, vegetables and noodles. Kim Book Joo gives us the rule to follow while eating Korean BBQ, and her father owned Korean fried chicken shop in Weightlifting Fairy Kim Book Joo. In addition to that, we could find Korean fried chicken in other dramas like Crash Landing On You and School 2017.

There other foods like Mandu (dumplings), Jajangmyeon (black bean noodles), Miyeok-guk (seaweed soup), Korean bread toast, rolled eggs, soju and Makgeolli (rice wine) which grabbed our attention. Okay, I’ll stop making your mouth watery by all these food. Comment below your favourite Korean food that facinated you while watching Korean dramas.


I couldn’t even tell you how much time I’ve spent watching Netflix.

Today everyone thinks of it as a video streaming service but I’m sure many of you remember that they actually started out by renting DVDs.

There were two people who started Netflix together, they were Marc Randolph and Reed Hastings. Before founding Netflix, they were working in the software industry in the Silicon valley.

In 1991, Reed Hastings was the co-founder and the partial owner of a company named pure software. Within five years, that same company became so big which made it involved in a near billion dollar merger to a company named Atria that further made a new company called Pure Atria.

Soon after that, they acquired a small start-up with only nine people in it and Mark Randolph was one of those people. He became the Head of the Marketing where he soon started working with Reed.

They became quite good friends as they used to live close together. After one year of that big merger, Rational software acquired Pure Atria. This transition led them to leave the company for the better. They had the money, experience and the time to think of a new business. They used to research on ideas for their new business in the big portion of the day.

They knew that internet community was growing at an excessive limit and will continue to grow in the future as well but they didn’t know what products to sell.

They were gravitated towards the ideas of movies but then they extract the exact potential of DVDs. For them, DVDs could bring them a profitable business. DVDs were released in early 1997 in United States and these two started testing them immediately.

They test these with CDs and the test went well. In April of 1998, they started NETFLIX. It is a startling fact that if DVDs would not have been released at that exact moment then Netflix was most likely would never been existed. So, starting of something can lead to the generation of something more marvellous phenomenon and only a starting push is required to do so.

When the service first started, they offered DVDs for a 7 days rental period. They procured more money by selling them rather than renting them.

In 1999, they completely stopped selling movies and it was kind of a bold move to cut off their main source of the revenue. For that year, their sales accounted for only 3%. They were getting sales due to lack of competition but once the competitions start their sales could have gone down. So, they came up with the idea of monthly subscriptions…

They called it as Marquee Program where some one can four rentals for $15.95 per month which also included shipping in it. In February, 2000, they extended their subscription to unlimited rentals at $19.95 per month with the limit of 4 at a time.

There were no due dates or late fees in Netflix which people hated in other rental shops. They always thought of a strategy for a long term. Basically, they were never concerned about making quick money. They wanted their product to be known for the better.

For their first five years, Netflix made about nil money and they sacrificed something to get much better in the further future.

Reed Hastings keep investing his money on Netflix for a long period of time. Even though the company was facing the losses, it had believers.

In 2002, they raised 82 million dollars through a public stock offering. Netflix went crazy with their marketing budget.  They would run advertisements all over the internet. They would run radio commercials, prints, mails and they even had the free trials to promote Netflix every place they could get into. Needless to say, all that hard work actually got paid off.

In 2004, they announced their partnership with TIVO saying that they would work together to develop an effective way of streaming movies over the internet. Everyone was excited about this. In reality, it was in 2007 when Netflix actually started its first streaming through their watch now service.

Today the streaming service make up of 98% of their total revenue and Netflix has become a leader of its own in the streaming of movies.


Nebula, a cloud of dust and gas inside a galaxy. If the gas glows, Nebulae become visible, or if the cloud reflects starlight or obscures light from more distant objects.

Nebula, the term refers exclusively to interstellar medium. All nebulae that appeared in the Milky way galaxy are forms of interstellar matter. Solid grains of cosmic dust accompanied with gas between the stars. Depending on the spatial situation, temperature and density of the material appearance differs.

Fairy uniform chemical composition that corresponds to the composition of universal atoms, 90 percent hydrogen, and remaining are nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, neon and other elements.

Nebulae are divided into two broad classes : Dark Nebulae and bright nebulae.

Dark Nebulae

Nebulae that appear with irregular shape of dark patches in the sky , known as dark Nebulae. Dark Nebulae are high in density and with cold molecular clouds. Edward Emerson Barnard , the American Astronomer was the first one who record dark nebulae systematically by using long exposure photography. Barnard categorised 370 dark nebulae all over the sky.

Dark Horse Nebula

From Earth’s perspective, dark horse nebula is a large dark nebula. It is also known as Great dark horse. Region of dark nebulae is dark horse that appear as silhouettes because they block out light from shining nebulae or stars behind them.

Bright Nebulae

Dense clouds of gas when compared to dark nebulae within the interstellar medium. Bright Nebulae also called as Galactic or diffuse nebulae. Several subclasses of bright nebulae are

  1. Reflection nebulae
  2. Planetary nebulae
  3. Supernova remnants

Reflection nebula :

It shines due to the reflection of nearby stars. It does not create its own light. Because of the dispersion of blue light efficiently than the red colour, reflection nebulae mostly appears in blue colour. It corresponds to the effect, responsible for the blue colour of the sky.

Planetary Nebula :

Planetary Nebula is the beautiful nebula in the universe. It consists plasma and glowing gas shell . A planetary nebula forms when a stellar core dies. Core of the low madd stars becomes a ” white dwarf ” and also called a ” degenerate dwarf ” and the outer envelope of the star is ejected and the ejected envelop expands away from the central star and creates the nebula. Elements such as oxygen, carbon, helium are present in the planetary nebula.

Supernova remnants :

A Supernova remnants (SNR) is born as the result of violent disruptions of stars and it consists ejected material of the stars. Major source of galactic cosmic rays is supernova remnants. Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky, suggested the connection between cosmic rays and supernovas.

Nebulae play s crucial role in the chemical evolution of the galaxy. Studying Nebulae helps to understand how a star evolves during its lifetime.

Guide to Korean Dramas

Dalgona candy, red light blue light, glass bridge, marbles have become the talk of the town, no not just town, but the whole world recently, after the epic success of Squid game. If you are a movie buff or someone who is interested in good movies and series, you should invest some time in Korean dramas. As it has lot of content in it which was unknown before but now it is on limelight, thanks to squid game. You may be a diehard fan of kdramas or you may be a rookie, don’t worry this article is for you.

What is korean dramas without Rom-Coms about school life. Let me recommend you some of the best school based kdramas of all time. First, School 2013, School 2015, School 2017 and School 2021. No they are not anthologies, each drama has different story line which will amuse you. There are other notable school dramas like Boys Over Flowers, The Heirs, True Beauty, Reply 1988, Sweet Revenge 1, Sweet Revenge 2, Love so Beautiful and Sky Castle which have covered real problems like bullying, high school pressure, class differences etc…

Then comes the fantasy, Korean dramas consists of a wide range of fantasy stories and they all make a great hit as well. For example, Goblin, Hotel Del Luna and My love from the star are the proclaimed fantasy dramas. If you love fantasy mixed with reality, then kdrams will entertain you a lot. Other dramas like Strong Woman Do Bong Soon, Tale of the nine tailed, my roomate is a Gomiho, Korean Oddessy, King Eternal Monarch, Between the Worlds or W, Doom at your service, Bride of the water god and Angel’s last mission love etc…

There is a stereo type prevailed that korean dramas are just Rom-com but there are violent and action dramas are there in it too. For example, Vincenzo, the story of a mafia which contains a lot of action in it. There are Psychopath dramas like Stranger from hell, Mouse trap, Blood, Penthouse 1 and 2 and It’s okay to be not okay which are disturbing to watch. Squid game is the best one which broke that stereo type.

Historical dramas are fun to watch too. It helps us to know the history, tradition and culture of Korea. If you like history genre, you can try watching, Hwarang (people watch this just because of V from BTS is starred in it), Moon Lovers: Scarlet Heart Ryeo, Tale of Nokdu and River where the moon rises etc..

There are some professional based kdramas like Pinocchio which depicts the politics in media and journalism. Sports based drama like Weightlifting Fairy Kim Book Joo and Fight for my way. Army based dramas like Crash Landing on You and Descendents of the Sun are fabulous to watch. Doctor playlist 1&2, doctor which is based on medical field. Itewon Class and Start-up depicts entrepreneurship. Secret life of my Secretary, What’s wrong with Secretary Kim, Her Secret life shows about corporate company. And some extreme comedy dramas like Laughter in Waikiki 1 & 2 and Mr.Queen are there too.

Hometown Cha Cha, Yumi Cells, Happiness, Beloved Summer and Silent Sea are some of the recently released and ongoing kdrams. These are the list of Korean dramas of different genres. What is your stand on Korean dramas? Do you like them? If so, what’s your favourite kdrama?

Women penned by women

Ever wonder why fictional women are always someone who looks beautiful, whose sole work is to attract men and always the one who aids men, it’s because most of those character are written by men. But we could see a lot of difference in women characters if it is created by a women. This is what gyno criticism concerned about, the search of essential difference in women’s writing. But let’s not get deep into it, in this article we generally view some of the great women characters created by women writers.

One of the classic women writers is Jane Austen. Emma is the novel written by her. In this novel, the protagonist is a woman. The titular character Emma Woodhouse is the young woman who in need of doing something starts a matchmaking service to find partners for her friends. Though it went not well at the beginning, she understands a lot about love and marriage. From analysing Emma, we could understand how Jane Austen created Emma as an aspiring young woman who wants to do something in her life and as the person who learn from her mistakes.

Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte is again a classic novel of 19th century. Jane is the orphan who lived in her aunt’s house. From her abusive aunt Reed, her strict Lowood school to her mysterious lover Rochester, everything in her life was miserable. But with her stern heart she faced everything bravely. She wanted to live independently that’s why she became a governess. Her love life was not a peaceful one, but she find what is right for her. Bronte had written Jane as a woman who is strong enough to change the fate of her unhappy life.

Little women by Louisa May Alcott, which is undoubtedly the masterpiece. The full novel is about a set of sisters and their journey from childhood to adulthood. Each character from this story is effective and important. But our concern is on Jo March and Amy March. Jo is the wannabe writer in this story, in the course of story, her writing career is discussed and how she finds her path in her career as well as in her love life. Then Amy, she is an artist with great skills, from being a mischievous girl, she becomes a respectable woman. These two women in the story are the women of today’s world. Alcott prophetically created these two characters in her story back in 1868.

Harry Potter by J. K. Rowling, one could never surpass the greatness of this novel. It is one of the greatest fantasy novels ever made. Though this novel is about Harry, there are prominent women characters who awed the readers. First, Hermione Granger, the girl of golden trio, she is the brain behind the success of Harry. She helped him whenever he is lost. Apart from that, she is ambitious, witty and powerful. Then Harry’s mother, Lily Potter who bravely fought Voldemort to save his son. There are lots of women characters like Ginny Weasley, Luna Lovegood, Molly Weasley and Professor Mcgonagall etc…

These are the women characters that I love which were created by women writers. They are timeless and eternal in the history of literature who are different from the stereotypical women characters. Who is your favourite women writer? Tell me in the comments.

Shakeapearean women

What’s important for a story to last long? You may think plot and action, but the most prominent and efficient thing in a story is character. We may forget the plot, setting and action of a story but we never forget the character. Shakespeare, the most important figure in English literature was not just capable of making great plays but of creating timeless characters. His characters like Romeo and Juliet is still stands as an epitome of love. But what we are going to look upon is Shakespeare’s women character. He showed women in a different perspective even in sixteenth century.

Shakeapearean women

Portia from Merchant of Venice, Shakespeare designed her as a driving force for the action of play. To woo Portia, Bassanio went to Antonio for help, which made Antanio to get money from Shylock. But the real weightage of Portia’s character is revealed when she wins the case of Antonio and Shylock by arguing intelligently in the court. She is the example of Shakespearean witty women character.

Roselind from As You Like It, she is a courageous women who left the palace to find her love Orlando. She disguised herself and went to the forest. She even tests Orlando of his love towards her. She is an example of courageous Shakeapearean women character.

Desdimona from Othello is the meek women who died just because of her husbanb’s suspicious thoughts. She didn’t do any wrong, but accused of love affair and at last killed because of misunderstanding. She comes under the meek women characters of Shakespeare.

Goneril and Regan from King Lear are the evil and manipulating women. They are the reason for the downfall of King Lear and the death of their sister Cordelia. Cleopatra from Antony and Cleopatra also the awe-inspiring women who manipulates the great emperors like Julius Caesar and Antony and shattered the great Rome empire. One should not present the positive side alone but also the negative side, which might be the reason why Shakespeare created this manipulating and evil women characters.

To phrase it nice, we could name Shakespeare as the lowkey feminist. He created such women character to explain that women are capable of everthing, they are witty and intelligent and they are full of knowledge. What is your favourite women character of Shakespeare? Let me know in the comments.

A Fairy- Tale Wedding of Katrina Kaif and Vicky Kaushal

Bollywood’ newest couple have dismayed and surprised the globe within the most pleasant way. we tend to are talking regarding none nevertheless the attractive couple – Katrina Kaif and Vicky Kaushal, who have world discussing the wedding ceremony and windstorm romance. The duo tied the knot on Thursday amid tight security and surveillance in Sawai Madhopur district of Rajasthan and no prizes for guess they created the foremost royal couple. however, a glance at the images and that we can’t deny Mesmerizing Katrina looked on her wedding day, therefore here is everything you would like to grasp about her near-perfect wedding look. Vicky kaushal and Katrina kaif are now husband and wife. They got married in an intimate ceremony at the Six Senses Fort Barwara in Rajasthan on Thursday. While the first pictures of them as newlyweds were shared online by the couple on their Instagram accounts.

             Until now, Vicky and Katrina were secretive about their relationship. During an appearance on Koffee with Karan in 2018, she said they ‘might look nice together’ on screen. When Vicky was told about Katrina’s comment during his episode, he pretended to faint.

            Vicky and Katrina reportedly began dating in 2019. While they did not admit to being in a relationship, they attended parties together and even went away on romantic getaways.

Here’s a look at fairy tale wedding of Katrina and Vicky Kaushal:

1.The Wedding Venue: Six Senses Fort Barwara in Rajasthan:

Six Senses Fort Barwara in Rajasthan is wonderful and spectacular destination wedding location for Katrina and Vicky’s wedding.A beautiful 14th-century fort sensitively regenerates to become a Six Senses sanctuary of well-being. Originally closely-held by a Rajasthani Royal Family, it faces the Chauth Ka Barwara Mandir temple. the numerous conservation effort incorporates 2 palaces and two temples among the walled fort.

                The historic fort has been sensitively preserved and converted, and enjoys a sensational view of the lake and temple. The landscaping integrates purely endemic plants and water features.

2. wedding outfits:

The bride Katrina Kaif wears a classic Sabyasachi red bridal lehenga in handwoven matka silk with fine tilla work and meticulously embroidered revival zardozi borders in velvet. In homage to the groom’s Punjabi roots, her veil is custom-trimmed with handmade kiran in hand-beaten silver electroplated in gold.

              The groom Vicky Kaushal wears an ivory silk sherwani with intricate marori embroidery and iconic Sabyasachi handcrafted gold plated Bengal Tiger buttons, with a silk kurta and churidar. The shawl is a tussar georgette with a zari marori embroidered pallu and borders.

3. Wedding Jewelry:

Katrina’s   lehenga is paired with bespoke bridal jewellery of uncut diamonds in 22k gold detailed with hand strung pearls from Sabyasachi Heritage Jewellery.

         Vicky’s wore a gold Benarasi silk tissue safa is paired with a handcrafted kilangi and statement necklace studded in emeralds, brilliant cut and rose cut diamonds, quartz and tourmalines in 18k gold from Sabyasachi Heritage Jewellery.

4. The kaleeras:

Katrina wore Multiple layer of Kaleeras keeping the tradition alive.
Smaller tasseled Kaleeras along with Pretty gold & Red tasseled long Kaleeras exclusively designed by  raabtabyrahul. Keeping gold as the main element, Kaleeras were sketched & curated with handmade tassels/Balls gold beads with multiple chattar handcrafted in gold & Red enamelled.

5. The choodas:

The kaleeras were done both by Rahul Luthra and Mrinalini Chandra. Mrinalini offered handmade messenger doves for her custom kaleeras, while Rahul gave her kaleeras with red detailing.

6. The Engagement rings:

Katrina’s engagement ring is from the legendary Tiffany’s. It’s a sapphire and diamond ring reminiscent of one worn by Late Princess of Wales, Diana. We are just in love with this blue sapphire ring on her finger. The ring is in platinum with a cushion-cut tanzanite and a double row of round brilliant diamonds. The ring costs close to ₹7.5 lakhs.

7. Sojat Mehendi:

Katrina’s Sojat mehendi, which was sourced from Rajasthan looked beautiful on her hands as she exchanged the garland with Vicky Kaushal.

8. Mangalsutra:

Katrina’s mangalsutra. It’s a version of Sabyasachi’s Bengal Tiger Mangalsutra.

9.Wedding invites:

The wedding invitation looks beautiful with pink and cream color combination that the couple has reportedly sent out to their 120 guests. The wedding invitation has floral borders and Vicky and Katrina’s names printed in gold in the center. 

10. The Mehendi Ceremony:

For the mehendi ceremony, Katrina Kaif wears a multi-colored matka silk lehenga with a patchwork blouse and an embroidered tulle dupatta inspired by Sabyasachi’s graduation collection Kashgaar Bazaar.
The lehenga is paired with eclectic Navratan inspired jewellery that pays homage to the celestial gems in emeralds, uncut diamonds, multi-coloured sapphires, pearls, spinels, tourmalines and rubies in 18k gold from Sabyasachi Heritage Jewellery.

                     Vicky Kaushal wears an embroidered raw silk bandhgala jacket with coromandel chintz prints, a mint silk kurta with embroidered butis and a Bangalore silk ivory salwar.

11. The Haldi ceremony:

In the pictures, both Vicky and Katrina are having a gala time with their family and friends. In one picture, Katrina is applying Haldi on Vicky and the picture definitely made us go aww.

            For the Haldi ceremony, Katrina Kaif wears a Sabyasachi ivory organdy lehenga with gota and tilla embroidery, and an organza dupatta in gota and marori embroidery, trimmed with kiran.

           Vicky Kaushal wears a Sabyasachi embroidered khadi kurta and salwar.

12. Pre- wedding festivities:

We are in love with Katrina Kaif’s look from her pre-wedding festivities. This look is her tribute to her British heritage. According to the designer Sabyasachi as well as the stylist Anaita Shroff Adjania, the silhouette of the outfit represented a whitw wedding gown. Sabyasachi Mukherjee gave the details of the outfits. He wrote, “Katrina Kaif pays tribute to her mother’s British heritage during the pre-wedding festivities. Sabyasachi conceptualised and created a vintage-inspired couture sari with a trailing veil. Silhouetted like a white wedding gown, the pastel tulle sari is embellished with hand-cut English flowers, embroidered by craftswomen from Bengal and liberally sprinkled with semi-precious gems and crystals. The ensemble took 40 artisans over 1800 hours to handcraft.”

                  The jewellery was also by Sabyasachi Mukherjee. “The sari is paired with a statement uncut diamond choker detailed with opals and pale Russian emeralds, with matching earrings from Sabyasachi Heritage Jewellery,” he wrote.

13. Traditional Matha Patti And Nath:

Katrina took the traditional route as she wore an exquisite dual matha patti on her head along with a nath. Both of these elements are considered to be a part of Hindi customs. A nath is worn by the brides in order to honour Devi parvati, the Hindu goddess of marriage.

14. Katrina’s sisters as Bridesmaid’s:

While Katrina dressed up in an traditional red bridal lehenga   by Sabyasachi, her sisters opted for pale pink lehengas. The pastel hue made for a wonderful contrast with Katrina’s vivid red. Her sisters can be seen holding the phoolon ki chaadar over Katrina’s head as she walks towards the mandap.


#katrina kaif

#vicky Kaushal



Twitter has become a new way to break the hot news everyday. Almost 83% of world leaders are on Twitter and it has become the method of disseminating the news. But the road of evolution of Twitter was not filled with all cherry blossoms.

It was filled with thorns of controversy and scandals. You can undoubtedly find more about Evan Williams, Biz Stone and Jack Dorsey as the founders of Twitter but there was another man besides them who started this revolutionary company that is NOAH GLASS.

His twitter account has somewhat 45k around subscribers with a short bio in which he wrote that “ I started this”.

What were the behind the scenes of the growth and the fame of Twitter??

This story starts in early 2000s in San Francisco, Noah Glass created a product where a user would dial a number and the service would turn your voice message into an mp3 message which would be hosted on the internet.

Noah turned this idea into a company named Odeo. One of the early investors of Odeo was former Google employee , friend and the neighbour of Noah who was Evan Williams.

Evan sold his company named BLOGGER to Google and he had a ton of cash. The company work for turning mp3 voice messages into podcasting platforms transferred into a big office. Company started hiring more and more employees. One of them was a web designer named Jack Dorsey.

He was a university dropped out and was living in a tiny apartment in San Francisco. He had turned down his job in a  shoe store. Apple announced iTunes would include a podcasting platform which made them realize that Odeo was now doomed as the customers started drifting from their platform. Now, Evan Williams was the CEO of the Odeo believed that Apple had crushed them without warning.

For a comeback, all the employees of Odeo started working on the new ideas they could come up to bring Odea the success.  Jack and Noah became good friends meanwhile, Jack was not at all happy with the work he was doing back then. He then introduced the idea of status which could act as a lifesaver plan.

One day in February 2006, Noah and Jack presented their idea of status in front of the company. Through this you could send your message to all your friends in one go and you could add more friends via that text message.

They called this whole thing “TWITTER”. Noah took the charge of this project while Jack did the coding.

 After the February presentation, Evan Williams was skeptical about the potential of twitter but regardless, he put Noah as the in-charge of the project.

In August, an earthquake shook San Francisco and then the usefulness of Twitter was seen by the world that was “NEWS”.

Twitter is more of an information network rather than a social network. At that time, the company started to divide into two factions, one with the original audio tasks and other who were obsessed with twitter.

Evan Williams who was now the CEO of Odeo was regarded as a calculating person by the employees of the company.

Noah presented the idea of Twitter to Odeo investors but no one seemed interested in and couldn’t understand the point of it. Later, Evan wrote to Odeo investors that the company is going nowhere so to reduce the losses they should give all the stocks back to him which included Odea and Twitter both. The value of the assets the investors got through this deal was $5 million and after 5 years, those assets were worth of $5 billion, 1000 times more.

The question arises if Evan knew about the worth of Twitter and wanted to snatch all the assets to himself. Well, it’s normal to happen in Businesses but the betrayal to the person who had the original idea first came as a shock to the world.

Evan and Noah’s preferences started to clash as Evan wanted Twitter to get separated from Odeo and wanted to become the CEO. Noah share his insecurities to Jack but he only sympathized to it and said that it’s going to be okay. After that Evan told Noah that he was fired. The actual person who wanted Noah to get out from the company was Jack Dorsey whom Noah thought of as a friend and the reason for this was never been revealed. Jack soon became the CEO of the company and Evan went to a chairman position.

According to many employees and investors, Twitter could not have been created without Noah Glass. He was quite shocked by the betrayal he got by his friends and his company.

From then, Twitter became the platform for the millions of people to get the news instantly in their hands and the world leaders to make people know about what’s happening in their countries.

Not only politicians but now entertainers made their accounts on Twitter. Though Twitter recently has became a house of controversies and toxicity but it surely has taken a huge space in our mobile phones as a daily activity.


In the era of fast foods, one can not resist talking about Pizza at all. After all, Who doesn’t like PIZZA?

A slice of Pizza with topping of gold leaf and  caviar can cost you up to $400. But this dish has much humble origins in comparison to its costly personality. It first appeared in Naples, Italy in the 1700s  as food for the lower class.

When Italians migrated to U.S. , so did pizzas. New York people started to perfect the dish for good. If you go to that time period for Pizza then you would most likely be surrounded by the Italian Americans. To became a mainstream favourite, pizza needed a lot of help from the restaurant chains popping up in the mid-west.

Coming back to Domino’s, it was not founded by someone from Italian Heritage. In 1960, Toma and Jim Monahan , two Irish American brothers borrowed 900 dollars to buy a pizzeria called Dominic’s.

Within a few months, Jin gave his half of the business to Tom in exchange for Volkswagen Beetle, the same car they were using for the delivery for the Pizzas.

Now, the company was of all Tom’s and he changed the name of the company from Dominic’s to Dominos.

In 1967, Monahan started franchising the restaurants.

New franchises didn’t have to pay an initial fees to open their own stores. Instead of that, they had to manage the existing Domino’s restaurants for a whole year. The company decided to open these stores near colleges and the military bases as both of them had a lot of customers.

Domino’s ovens had rotating racks. It had standardized the delivery box and all of the pizzas started to look the same too. Around the same time, pizza hut and little Caesars were also getting their start in the Midwest. Little Caesars had 50 stores by 1969 but pizza hut was far and away the fastest growing chain of the 1960s.

Unlike domino’s, they wanted customers to eat their pizza inside their restaurants and it had more options.

Just 12 years after it was founded, pizza hut opened its 500th location but domino’s was doing its best to catch up. By 1978, it had 200 stores and the chain just kept growing from there. The pizza chain’s 30 minutes or less delivery promise help set it apart from the competition.

Domino’s created the guarantee in 1984 and for nearly a decade, the incentive worked but the company dropped it in 1993.

By 1998, domino’s had thousands of stores and 3.2 billion dollars in annual sales. Monahan decided to sell the company so he could focus on philanthropy instead.

He retired from Pizza biz with the money from the sale of his company.

David Brandon became the CEO of the company in 1999.

In 2004, Brandon took Domino’s in Public. Pizza wars started heating up in the late 1990s. The different brands for Pizza were having a fierce competition during that time line. Pizza Hut even sued Papa John’s for the false advertising.

In the early 2000s, China and India have become the new battlefield for the pizza wars. As major American Pizza players started opening their franchises in these countries.

You know that these countries are the most populous countries in the world, so all the pizza players started to dominate the people with the magic of their own pizza.

Domino’s couldn’t boost sales by hiking prices, so starting around 2003, sales unsurprisingly flattened.

Another big problem for domino’s was that its pizza became forgettable as it cut corners on ingredients in order to keep its pizzas cheap.

Domino’s used frozen canned and pre-made ingredients to cut down on costs as the economy started to slip.

In late 2009 , it launched an ad campaign that admitted what customers already knew that Domino’s pizza wasn’t good as it had cardboard crust and ketchup like sauce.

The commercials told customers that they had totally reformulated its recipe with a brand new sauce and a garlic infused crust. As folks realize that this really is an improved product from what domino’s had for years and years.  It’s kind of been a snowball effect that continues

to benefit domino’s to this day. In the middle of its relaunch in 2010, Domino’s appointed Patrick Doyle as CEO, he had been with the company for more than a decade as an executive.

Now, he was entrusted to lead its turnaround.

Customers were buying the ad campaign and domino’s pizza. In fact the campaign was so successful that pizza hut later mimicked it in 2014 when it changed its own pizzas recipes.

In 2017, it overtook pizza hut as a market leader in the quick service pizza sector. Since 2010 , its stock has risen up more than 3, 200 percent. Even after Ritch Allison took over as CEO in June 2018, Domino’s tech focus has continued.

In early 2019, the company incorporated artificial intelligence into its loyalty program.

Users just had to take a picture of pizza to get points to redeem for a free pizza. But Allison isn’t just focusing on tech, he also has a big plan to revolutionize

the chain’s delivery strategy. Third-party delivery services have made it possible to deliver any kind of food that means that consumers options are virtually limitless.

Now, Domino’s is hoping that it will help the pizza chain reach 25 billion dollars in sales by 2025!!


In the year 2021, Apple is recorded as the most valuable brand in the whole world with an estimated brand value of about 263.4 billion U.S. dollars. It is followed by Amazon, the second most valuable brand, with the brand value of about 254.2 billion U.S. dollars.

Apple screams to whole world that it is here to dominate the tech market.

How Apple got the honour of becoming a King in this industry?

The birth of Apple began in the mid 1970s as an assembled circuit board Apple 1 invited by the co-founder Steve Wozniak. The Apple 1 did not have any keyboard or a monitor, it was just a circuit board.

Steve Wozniak was an Albanian inventor who was born in 1950. He met Steve Jobs while designing the calculators. Jobs was five years younger than Wozniak.  At that time, while working for the arcade game company Atari in the 1970s, Atari gave Steve Jobs the assignment of creating a circuit board for one of their video games.

Jobs having limited knowledge and experience of circuit boards made a deal with Wozniak to share the pay if he could design the circuit board. Though Wozniak designed the circuit board, it wasn’t accepted by Atari. The same invention that would later lead him to the Apple one.

Just two years later, Wozniak designed , developed and tested his first prototype by 1976. The Apple 1 was completed.  It was Steve Jobs idea to sell the Apple 1 themselves. They sold most of their belongings and assembled the first Apple 1 boards at Steve Jobs’s house. They sold the Apple 1 for 666 dollars and their first 50 system boards were sold to a new computer shop called The Byte Shop in California. Apple computers now called Apple Inc was founded.

One thing they lacked was money, though they had an order for 50 system boards with a

byte shop, they didn’t have the resources to fulfil the order. They were both turned down by banks and Atari where Jobs worked and wanted payment for any components.

Steve Jobs convinced Intel executive and multi-millionaire Mike Markkula to invest two hundred and fifty thousand dollars into Apple.

The next three years Apple saw an incredible growth as sales grew approximately 118 million dollars . However, during that time, other companies began to emerge .IBM launched its own personal computers and took full advantage when Apple was facing losses.

Due to the lack of interest, the apple also faced a lot of in-house issues as Wozniak decided to leave Apple in the 80s. He was simply no longer interested in running Apple computers. Steve Jobs then brought on John Sculley to be the President.

Jobs became the interim CEO and immediately began implementing his plans to revitalize Apple. One of his first acts was forming an alliance with

Microsoft to create a version of their office suite software for Apple. This would help them to retain their current customers as well as gain those that

previously didn’t use Apple.

Steve Jobs launched the iMac in 1998. Its unique design and use of modern technology made it a favourite and Apple sold approximately 800,000 units in five months. Not long after that he reimagined, the personal computer and introduced the iBook.

Three years later, Apple launched their iPod a digital music player freeing up customers from portable cassettes and CD players, giving them the capacity of taking more music with them.

Steve Jobs in 2007 he showed the world the shift Apple was making in the direction of consumer electronics even further by launching the iPhone with phenomenal success.

Apple continues to launch innovative yet modern and stylish looking products that always come with a new assortment of upgrades.

Apple has also made shopping for their products and experience at their 506 branded retail stores worldwide. Apple believe that traditional retail stores would not provide the experience they wanted.

Tim Cook, the current CEO of Apple, shared at Apple’s annual meeting that there’s a long great roadmap of fantastic products on the horizon.

Apple has begun developing its services category, there have been improvements to Apple music, the App Store and they may be launching a new streaming TV service with original television series.  Netflix may have something to worry about especially as consumers who subscribe to Netflix through their iPhone or iPad app, 30% goes to Apple every month for a year. Situations such as these are key factors in Apple’s growth.

It’s clear that Apple’s long term profitability is due to control and not allowing their products to be standardized. However, unless Apple creates the next iMac or iPhone, recreating some of their

historical profits may be quite a task especially with a trade war between the US and China.

In, 2018 Apple recorded its highest annual revenue of approximately 265.6 billion dollars. 218 billion was generated by iPhone sales.

Apple has been a pioneer in the computer industry on several occasions throughout history.

It believes in innovation and removing any boundaries that limit creativity in order to produce valuable products for its consumers. It is undeniable that Apple has provided immeasurable value and made an impact on technology influencing how we use it in our daily lives!!


K-pop, the South Korean music industry, this is name which has been ringing in the heads of music lovers from the recent years.

K-pop or should I say Korean Pop has taken Korea in top 10 in the music market. Not only Korea has achieved a successful acceptance from all over the world through their amazing dramas but also the music they produce has been making a chaos over the world.

BTS (internal screaming), yeah we all have heard this name, right? BTS  is one of the K-POP groups who made Korean music more popular in the western countries. BTS is the only group which brings in nearly 5 billion dollars to the Korean’s economy.

Shocking, right?

Well, they didn’t have an easy life tho. Working from a very young age, being a trainee who trains day to night, dedicated solely to dance, rap and singing, all these things are not easy to master. But BTS and all other K-pop groups did that and the results of their hard work can be seen by the love of the fans from different corners of the world.

Even though people can not speak Korean but they surely do enjoy their music. It is proven that music has no language and barrier.

But How did it start?

How did K-POP become a billion dollar industry?

The beginning of K-POP was accelerated in 1990s. The music at that was not like the Korean music we hear today. Trot music used to be popular during that timeline of music. A group was formed and called to be Seo Taiji and boys.

Seo Taiji and boys were formed from the breakup of a metal band called Sinawe. While Sinawe was metal,

Seo Taiji and boys went in a totally different route and introduced Korea to hip-hop. While Seo Taiji and boys was heavily inspired by the American hip-hop.

They turned around and made it their own . But when Seo Taiji and boys debuted, they weren’t met with praise.

Actually, they were met with criticism.

The older and previous generation saw this music as deteriorating the minds of the youth. Yet Seo Taiji and boys were able to succeed by being the highest selling group of their generation with over 8 million albums sold and regarded as legends in Korean music history.

So the beginning of K-pop wasn’t all bright and cheerful as many of us know what it is today. But in order to break the chains of Conservative Korea. Seo Taiji had to be the to pave the way for the first K-pop idol group, which was H.O.T.

H.O.T. was the first look at the real vision of a K-pop group created by Lee Soo-man , the founder of SM Entertainment which is  one of the three biggest K-pop companies in Korea.  H.O.T. had a brighter image than their predecessors , producing a more pop sound,

choreography and catchy songs. Unlike Seo Taiji and boys, H.O.T. was beloved by the public when they

debuted. They went on to be quite successful and led to the creation of more first generation K-pop idol groups like G.O.D and S.E.S. .

While the first generation was inspired by American pop, the second generation had to create something new and which they did too.

This is where we see Big Bang, Girls Generation, 2ne1, SHINee, Wonder Girls, BoA. When someone would ask K-pop fans today what caught them into K-pop, most will respond with one of these groups. The second generation of K-pop became the most influential and known by many as the the GOLDEN ERA of K-pop.

BoA was a solo artist who was known to do it all dancing, singing and the looks.

She was a top Idol even at a young age. Wonder Girls would be the first to break ground in America coming from JYP entertainment which is the another company from the big three. Wonder Girls adapted and created an English version of their breakout hit “nobody”.

They were even performing on US television and going on tour with the Jonas Brothers.

YouTube is an undeniable reason K-pop made it to people’s ears. Groups like BIGBANG, 2ne1 and girls generation would have music videos that surpassed millions of views in a day.

Steam was building up and on the verge of bursting in the form of one song “GANGNAM STYLE”. Everyone has caught wind of a viral video by PSY a solo artist in Korea.

His new song Gangnam style found overnight success.

For some reason, people were intrigued by a comedic odd yet catchy song. Most people didn’t know PSY

was a singer in Korea for years before Gangnam style.

He was considered one of the top performers in the country, but no one knew who he was internationally.

Gangnam style was meant to just be a new song by PSY but it grew out of control becoming the most viewed video on YouTube at the time with 800 million views and out today with over 3 billion views, with this PSY was all over the world radio, TV even New Year’s Eve shows.

PSY without knowing it opened the first window for K-pop with times dying down a

A second wave was on the horizon in the form of groups NCT 127, Monsta X, Black pink and of course BTS .

While PSY opened a window, BTS kicked down the front door.

BTS origins were a humble one, coming from BIGHIT entertainment.

They were practically unknown at debut. Similarly debuting with a hip-hop style like Seo Taiji but BTS was able to explode in Korea with lyrics that spoke to the youth and music that spoke to everyone. BTS made the history as the first K-pop group to attend and be nominated at the Billboard Music Awards in 2019 and then made history the same night as they won social artists of the year.

BTS couldn’t be stopped, breaking music video views, record number of streams and a lot more first for a K-pop act including selling out stadiums.

BTS  performed for over 1 million fans on the latest tour as people are, more importantly, companies saw the numbers and support BTS.

This led them finding interest in the next group that is BLACKPINK. BLACKPINK was the first K=pop group which performed in Coachella in 2019 when they perform.

Why is K-pop a billion-dollar industry?

Well, there are a number of factors.

One is Tourism.

K-pop is so beloved by fans that many of them dream of the day to make the pilgrimage to Korea.

It isn’t just to see if they can find their favourite idol on the streets, many fall in love with the music first.

Another thing is, if you sit with a person down and have them watch a music video.

The first thing they’ll say is “wow“.

This music video itself is amazing.

The color, dancing, outfits, the effects. One thing that many people admire is attention to detail.

It is something people are missing in other music videos. Likewise the physical album sales are in a decline across the world except Korea.


Well in K-pop, an album is much more than just a CD, a K-pop album will come with a CD, of course, but also random photo cards of a member from that group and a poster. K-pop is able to market and advertise everything to a max, they will sell anything from shirts, hats, cups, bag, stickers, pants, figures and even trash cans.

Groups have their own lightsticks.

Lightsticks are these devices that light up and sync to others at a concert and flashed with the rhythm of the music.

It is designed with the group’s colors which makes a fan to be more involved. It’s truly an amazing device.

There is just something special about K-pop . To put it simply , K-pop was able to utilize each and every technology and opportunity to grow.

K-pop is able to be more than a music.

It’s a niche community where people looking for something different and can learn a whole new culture a music where so much time effort and dedication are invested.

That’s why K-pop is a billion-dollar industry and will continue to expand to infinity in the upcoming future.

Emile Durkheim

David Emile Durkheim(15 April 1858-15 November 1917) was a French sociologist. He played a great role in development of sociology as an academic discipline. He played a great role during the period of enlightenment. He inherited the conservative tradition. Durkheim legitimized sociology in France,his work ultimately became a dominant force in the development of sociology in general and of sociological theory in particular. 

He was politically liberal and feared social disorders. He viewed social disorders as an unnecessary part of modern world and stated that social reforms can be used to reduce them.

Major works:

1.The Rules of Sociological Method 

He stated that the main aim of sociology is to study social facts. Social facts are the ways if thinking,acting and feeling which are external,coercive and outside individuals. He reasoned that if he could link individual behavior to social facts then it would become easy to understand sociology as an academic discipline. Durkheim differentiated between two types of social facts, ie, material social facts and non material social facts. Material facts include bureaucracy, governance and economy etc whereas non material facts include religion, culture, ethics etc. Durkheim mainly focused on the study of non material social facts.

2. The Divison of Labour in the Society.

In this work, Durkheim basically focused on the comparative analysis of what held old and modern societies together. He stated that primitive societies were held together by non material social facts  or strongly held common morality or what he called collective conscience. But as the world grew so did the complexities and this resulted in the weakening of collective conscience. The initial bond in the modern world was an detailed division of labour which held people together in dependency relationship but the modern division of labour brought with it several pathologies and proved to be an insufficient technique of holding the society together. Durkheim did not favour a revolution to solve these problems instead he suggested a variety of reforms that could patch up the modern system and keep it stable.

3. Suicide 

Durkheim adopted a very scientific approach in investigating the matter of suicide. He stated that suicide was not committed only by psychological or personal reasons but it also involved various social as well as economic reasons. Suicide was not a doing of an individual but it had collective efforts of various elements. Rather than focusing on individuality of suicide he focused on the rate of suicide and incidence. He noticed that suicide rates were different among different caste,class,sex,society, ethnicity etc. Thus he proved that suicide is affected by various other reasons including psychological factors. 

4.The Elementary Forms of Religious Life

Durkheim examined primitive society in order to find the roots of religion and he found out that society was the source of religion. Society defined certain things as religious and others as profane. He also studied totemism. Durkheim concluded that society and religion were same, religion was the way society expressed itself in the form of non material social facts.

Emile Durkheim’s works contributed a lot in development of sociology, he cleared the initially vague facts and matters. He also set up a journal devoted to sociology named L’annèe Sociologique, this made sociological understanding more easy. Sociologists and the students of sociology will forever be grateful to him  for his enormous and intricate contributions

Basics Of Interior Designing

What is interior designing:

  • Interior designers work closely with architects, civil engineers, mechanical engineers, and construction laborers and helpers  to determine how interior spaces will function, look, and be furnished. Interior designers read blueprints and must be aware of building codes and inspection regulations.
  • Although some sketches or drawings may be freehand, most interior designers use computer-aided design (CAD) software for the majority of their drawings. Throughout the design process, interior designers often use building information modeling (BIM) software to create three-dimensional visualizations that include construction elements such as walls or roofs.
  • Many designers specialize in particular types of buildings, such as homes, hospitals, or hotels; specific rooms, such as bathrooms or kitchens; or a specific style. Some designers work for home-furnishings stores, providing design services to help customers choose materials and furnishings.
  • Some interior designers produce designs, plans, and drawings for construction and installation. These may include construction and demolition plans, electrical layouts, and plans needed for building permits. Interior designers may draft the preliminary design into documents that could be as simple as sketches, or as inclusive as construction documents with schedules and attachments.

The following are examples of types of interior designers:

  • Corporate designers create interior designs for professional workplaces from small office settings to large-scale corporations within high-rise buildings. They focus on creating spaces that are efficient, functional, and safe for employees. They may incorporate design elements that reflect a company’s brand in their designs.
  • Healthcare designers use the evidence-based design process in designing and renovating healthcare centers, clinics, doctors’ offices, hospitals, and residential care facilities. They specialize in making design decisions based on credible research to achieve the best possible outcomes for patients, residents, and the facility.
  • Kitchen and bath designers specialize in kitchens and bathrooms and have expert knowledge of the variety of cabinets, fixtures, appliances, plumbing, and electrical solutions for these rooms.
  • Sustainable designers use strategies to improve energy and water efficiencies and indoor air quality, and they specify environmentally preferable products, such as bamboo and cork for floors. They may obtain certification in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) from the U.S. Green Building Council. Such certification indicates expertise in designing buildings and spaces with sustainable practices in mind.
  • Universal designers renovate spaces in order to make them more accessible. Often, these designs are used to renovate spaces for elderly people and people with special needs; however, universal designs can benefit anyone. For example, an entranceway without steps may be necessary for someone in a wheelchair, but it is also helpful for someone pushing a baby stroller.

2) What is the role of a designer:

Interior designers typically do the following:

  • Search for and bid on new projects
  • Determine the client’s goals and requirements for the project
  • Consider how the space will be used and how people will move through the space
  • Sketch preliminary design plans, including electrical and partition layouts
  • Specify materials and furnishings, such as lighting, furniture, wall finishes, flooring, and plumbing fixtures
  • Create a timeline for the interior design project and estimate project costs
  • Place orders for materials and oversee the installation of the design elements
  • Oversee construction and coordinate with general building contractors to implement the plans and specifications for the project
  • Visit the site after the project is complete, to ensure that the client is satisfied

3) What is the design process:

Interior Design Process

The design process is the road map to realizing our vision for each of our clients, in a planned, organized, and coordinated documentation of all design elements, selections, and decisions made along the way. It ensures the contractor thoroughly understands the design plan and specifications.


This is our design exploration and brainstorming phase. The starting line for any interior design project. During this phase, we learn everything about YOU. Your lifestyle, your preferences, likes and dislikes, your needs, goals, and wishes for your new space. It’s important for us to see through your eyes if we want to create something you love.

Throughout the programming process we:
• Discuss your project in detail, document all areas involved,
• Discuss your style preferences and ideas. ( We encourage you to gather tear sheets from a magazine or online sources to better communicate your ideas.)
• Conduct a site visit to measure, photograph and record existing conditions.
• Establish a preliminary budget
• Obtain, if available, a set of architectural plans from you or your architect.


Space planning is a prerequisite of any well-designed space. We meet and talk many times throughout this phase of the project. Meetings are held with clients to discuss various elements of the design.

Throughout this phase we:
• Establish interior design concept and overall creative direction.
• Create sketches and gather tear sheets to communicate and clarify design intent.
• Create preliminary floor plans
• Select the finishes we will be using.


During the design development phase, the approved design concept is refined and developed into more detailed drawings to include:
• Floorplans
• Elevations
• Reflected ceiling plans
• Selection of materials and finishes
• Furniture Plans
• Selection of furniture and furnishings


Once the design plans have been approved, we will start preparing final design drawings and specifications.

This phase includes:
• Making all required changes or revisions to drawings
• Generating final drawings with all specifications
• Creating all material and finishing schedules.


The final stage of the project. After all of the planning, sketching, and meetings, we finally begin construction and remodeling work on the space! We turn our concepts and pictures into the real thing. This phase of the design project can vary in length depending on the extent of the work needed.

Throughout this phase, we:
• Review drawings with the builder or general contractor that we choose
• Review all orders with clients. If required, we place orders on their behalf
• Visit job sites periodically to address any problems arising, answer any questions related to design or drawings, and ensure that the construction is proceeding in general conformity with the approved design drawings,
• Schedule and coordinate delivery and installation of wallpapers, window treatments, area rugs/carpeting, furniture, accessories, and artwork.

The beginning of Art: Visual arts history

Expressing oneself through art seems a universal human impulse, while the style of that expression is one of the distinguishing marks of a culture. As difficult as it to define, art typically involves a skilled, imaginative creator, whose creation is pleasing to the senses and often symbolically significant or useful. Art can be verbal, as in poetry, storytelling or literature or can take the form of music and dance. The oldest stories, passed down orally may be lost to us now, but thanks to writing, tales such as the epic of Gilgamesh or the Lliad entered the record and still hold meaning today. Visual art dates back 30,000 years, when Paleolithic humans decorated themselves with beads and shells. Then as now, skilled artisans often mixed aesthetic effect with symbolic meaning.

In an existence that centered on hunting, ancient Australians carved animal and bird tracks into their rocks. Early cave artists in Lascaux, France, painted or engraved more than 2,000 real and mythical animals. Ancient Africans created stirring masks, highly stylized depictions of animals and spirits that allow the wearer to embody the spiritual power of those beings. Even when creating tools or kitchen items, people seem unable to resist decorating or shaping them for beauty. Ancient hunters carved the ivory handles of their knives. Ming dynasty ceramists embellished plates with graceful dragons. Modern pueblo Indians incorporates traditional motifs in to their carved and painted pots. The western fine arts tradition values beauty and message. Once heavily influenced by Christianity and classical mythology, painting and sculptures has more recently moved toward personal expression and abstraction.

Humans have probably been molding clay- one of the most widely available materials in the world- since the earliest times. The era of ceramics began, however, only after the discovery of that very high heat renders clay hard enough to be impervious to water. As societies grew more complex and settled, the need for ways to store water, food, and other commodities increased. In Japan, the Jomon people were making ceramics as early as 11,000 B.C. by about the seventh millennium B.C.; kilns were in use in the Middle East and china, achieving temperatures above 1832°F. Mesopotamians were the first to develop true glazes, through the art of glazing arguably reached its highest expression in the celadon and three color glazes of the medieval china. In the new world, although potters never reached the heights of technology seen elsewhere, Moche, Maya, Aztec, and Puebloan artists created a diversity of expressive figurines and glazed vessels.

When Spanish nobleman Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola described the paintings he discovered in a cave in Altamira, contemporizes declared the whole thing a modern fraud. Subsequent finds confirmed the validity of his claims and proved that Paleolithic people were skilled artists. Early artists used stone tools to engrave shapes into walls. They used pigments from hematite, manganese dioxide, and evergreens to achieve red, yelled, brown, and black colors. Brushes were made from feathers, leaves, and animal hair. Artists also used blowpipes to spray paint around hands and stencils.

The end…

Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Prevention

Juvenile delinquency is an act wherein a minor commits a crime or involves themselves in any immoral or anti social activities. Such minors are called juveniles or juvenile delinquents. This term not only involves legal facts but it also involves moral,social as well psychological issues. Juvenile detention centers and courts etc are included in the juvenile legal system. With the help of data and statistics it is clearly portrayed that the rate of crimes committed by minors is increasing at a sharp rate  so it becomes important to understand the causes and prevention of juvenile delinquency.

 Causes of juvenile delinquency:
A behavioural study conducted by psychologists on juveniles tells that minors commit crimes because their mind tells them to do so and in doing that they feel satisfied and contented. 
Another factor leading to minor crimes is a dysfunctional family. As it is known that family plays the greatest role in anyone’s life and it not only affects how people behave in society but it also determines how people view and analyse life. In some cases children feel neglected when they have working parents and this isolation leads them into doing wrongful acts. Sometimes families collectively fail in passing on the values,ethics and morals of life to their kids making them hostile and toxic. Sometimes being in bad company or being in touch with inappropriate people also leads to juvenile delinquency. For example,being in touch with smugglers motivates kids to commit such crimes. Unnecessary ostracism is also contributing in juvenile crimes. For instance when a child is ridiculed for belonging to a particular or so called community,they might start feeling criminal instincts in them. And apart from all these things the major factor promoting juvenile delinquency in wide spread poverty,income gap and economic inequality. When a economically poor child commits a crime like theft for the first time there is a moral element involved in the act, he knows it’s wrong and might as well promises himself not to do such thing again but the next day also,he has to fight for survival so he chooses the easier path and slowly and gradually it becomes his habit and his system gets conditioned to it. Mental health and psychological factors also affect the rates of juvenile delinquency.

Prevention of juvenile delinquency:-Education is the major prevention mechanism of juvenile delinquency. There are various programs which teach children about the ills of drugs,gangs,weapons etc. There various programs focusing the needs of parents educating them how to raise children,how to provide healthy space to them etc. Education provides an opportunity to people of all age to open up. Recreational activities also surprisingly prevent juvenile crimes. These activities build up stronger communities and they spread positive and optimistic thoughts in children’s lives. These actives may include singing,dancing,acting etc. Various socially concerned organizations carry out parent-child interaction training programs,the objective of these programs is to provide a safe and desirable space to parent and children so that they can work things out. Prevention of ruthless bullying and making children feel safe is also a good way to reducing crimes committed by children. Apart from these,the legal systems of various countries are trying to deal with the problem of juvenile delinquency. 

Although it is true that minors must be given a second chance but if not handled carefully and intricately, juvenile delinquency can become humanity’s worst nightmare. 


Music, an art, which has mesmerized all of us in this monotonous life. Music has become a part of our life which cannot be denied. Today, Not only Music but music artists are also getting recognized by millions of people through various mediums.

Music has been alive for hundreds of years. Streaming music online has become a common and a very popular practice nowadays.

What started out as Music piracy became an 11 billion dollar industry, making 56% of global music industry’s revenues in 2019.

And one company has become the clear winner globally in terms of paid subscribers, that’s none other than ‘SPOTIFY’.

Spotify has dominated the music streaming industry with about 130 million premium subscribers worldwide.

Despite being in number two behind Apple Music in U.S. in 2019, Spotify has been on a winning streak recently with the acquisition of Joe Rogan’s incredibly popular podcast, along with exclusive deals with Kim Kardashian and DC Comics, all in an attempt to broaden its scope from music streaming to audio giant.

The man behind the popularity of the name ‘SPOTIFY’ is Daniel Ek.

Daniel Ek is the reason behind that we know the name “Spotify” now. He was into programming way back then. He was earning thousands of money by designing websites. He co-founded the company back in 2006 and has been in charge as the CEO ever since. He’s from Sweden, by the way, Spotify is a Swedish company.

He was a genius programmer and businessman with the exact impressive background.

He went to college but only for a few weeks before dropping out and quickly becoming tremendously successful working at various tech companies. His big payoff was in 2006 when he sold his online marketing company for over a million dollars and briefly retired directly after. All of this happened before the age of 23 so he decided he wasn’t quite ready to retire especially considering he perceived a great opportunity for a new business.

They spent a couple years getting everything together and in September of 2008, they officially launched Spotify. Initially the service was only available in six large countries throughout Europe but by 2011, it was finally available in the United States and as of 2019 they claim to have reach in 79 different countries and territories

There are some reasons behind its success. First of all, the music Catalog that was their first big hurdle back in 2006 and it remains a huge risk for them today. this relates to what I talked about in the beginning a core difference between

Spotify and Napster (music file sharing site)  and all those other crazy illegal sites is that Spotify pays for the rights to stream the songs they have to make all these deals with record labels and original artists.

Spotify provided a potential solution as it was a cheap and easy way for the users to access the music but still have the labels and artists and everyone else get compensated.

After two years of making those deals, they had secured enough European streaming rights to launch their service in Europe. Their growth after the launch made them even more attractive to record labels. They made new deals with Universal Sony Warner and by 2011 had secured enough US streaming rights .

They’ve existed for over a decade in a way that they were the first of their kind predating any competitor that uses this model. Their biggest competitor Apple music didn’t exist until 2015.

They had a seven-year head-start.  In the United States, the two are very similar.

As far as paid subscribers are concerned, Apple music passed Spotify in April of 2019 The difference comes internationally which leads into the next reason. Spotify is more focused internationally. Not surprisingly, most of the revenue comes from outside of the US. They started in Sweden, focused solely on Europe for years and as a result are dominating the international market

Spotify is really good at figuring out what you want to listen. Many people agree that their recommendations are among the best in the industry. This may be related to their continued investment in research and development and the fact that they had that jump start in collecting the data and in perfecting their system.

The biggest reason of their success might be their free option. It’s got to be the biggest difference from Apple music.

Spotify has this option where you can listen to everything they have to offer for free. This version of Spotify has so many limitations and it allows to skip a few songs at a time that forces people into listening to things. Then the ads came on every few songs which you have to expect but it gets annoying.

The three-month trial for the premium is so much better. When the three months end, No one can go back and end up paying $10 a month.

As of September of 2019, they have 113 million premium members compared to 141 million members on the free plan. The money they make from those ads is almost insignificant but that’s a group of people that are very likely to upgrade.

More than 60% of their new premium members come from the free service and they have a very specific path to make it happen. Around 75% of those people who engaged in the free trial ended up converting to a paid premium subscription because it’s hard to go back .

This is a controversial yet effective way of attracting customers as being a big reason for their success.

Spotify took advantage of the conditions of the industry and later on their size to build up an impressive music catalog. With just about every song you can ever want to hear take an advantage of a head start over all their competitors in the US and internationally. Part of that includes their data collection resulting in sophisticated recommendations and playlists. The unique free service providing a path for millions of people to sign up for their premium service that they really care!!

Kisan Diwas

“If agriculture goes wrong, nothing else will have a chance to go right in the country” -MS Swaminathan

Kisan diwas or farmers day in India is celebrated every year on 23rd December which is also the birth anniversary of India’s fifth Prime Minister Chaudhary Charan Singh.

This day is dedicated to all the farmers across India and to observe their efforts and sacrifices towards taking Indian economy to higher and advanced levels. This day is also marked to celebrate the efforts and ideas of Shri chaudhary charan Singh towards betterment of Agriculture sector in India. This year kisan diwas comes after the end of year long protests carried out by the farmers mainly from Punjab and Haryana following the rollback of three farm laws by the central government. 

India has been celebrating Kisan Diwas aka Shri Chaudhary Charan Singh’s birthday since year 2001.

Chaudhary charan singh was born on 23rd December, 1902, in Uttar Pradesh, in a middle class peasant family. He was a socialist and was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi’s ideas of non-violence etc. He was also a part of country’s freedom struggle.He was the main brain behind land reforms in Uttar Pradesh. He took massive efforts in the formulation and finalisation of the Debt Redemption  Bill 1939. This was one of the very significant advancement in Agricultural sector as this act brought great relief to rural debtors.For his efforts towards agricultural advancement Charan was given the title of “Champion of India’s peasant’s”.

He designed a transformation bill known as Land Holding Act of 1960 which came into force while he was the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh and he also worked for Zamindari Abolition Act of 1950. Chaudhary charan singh died on January 14th,1980. India will forever be grateful and debted to him for his efforts and endeavours.

Farmers are the pride of our nation,we don’t realise how much they contribute in the growth of Indian economy. They are the ones who put their soul and blood in the soil to bring forth its fortunes,they are the ones who give it life. Without them India would collapse as an economy as well as a nation. This farmer’s day let us pledge and promise to recognize and appreciate the efforts of our farmers as they are one of the real heroes of our nation.


The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system. The brain consists of the cerebrum, the brainstem and the cerebellum. The cerebrum, the largest part of the human brain, consists of two cerebral hemispheres.It controls most of the activities of the body, processing, integrating, and coordinating the information it receives from the sense organs, and making decisions as to the instructions sent to the rest of the body. The brain is contained in, and protected by, the skull bones of the head.

There are three types of brain fore brain, midbrain,hindbrain.The hindbrain includes the upper part of the spinal cord, the brain stem, and a wrinkled ball of tissue called the cerebellum.Brains are made of soft tissue, which includes gray and white matter, containing the nerve cells, non-neuronal cells which help to maintain neurons and brain health, and small blood vessels. They have a high water content as well as a large amount nearly 60 percent of fat.


* Attention and concentration.

* Self-monitoring.

* Organization.

* Speaking (expressive language).

* planning and initiation.

* Awareness of abilities and limitations.

* Personality.

* Mental flexibility.

* Inhibition of behavior.

The human brain color physically appears to be white, black, and red-pinkish while it is alive and pulsating. The brain itself does not feel pain because there are no nociceptors located in brain tissue itself. This feature explains why neurosurgeons can operate on brain tissue without causing a patient discomfort, and, in some cases, can even perform surgery while the patient is awake.Brain controls vital functions such as breathing, swallowing, digestion, eye movement and heartbeat, there can be no life without it. But the rest of the brain is obviously capable of some remarkable feats, with one part able to compensate for deficiencies in another.

The end…


In the world of sneakers and sportswear, ADIDAS ranks two and Of course the number one is NIKE. According to Forbes, it is 68th biggest brand in the whole world. Their sales have been growing from the last five years and now ADIDAS has become a very big name.

How did ADIDAS became so big??

Most of the people who do sports or watch sports shows definitely know about ADIDAS. Even you know nothing about sports, there is a big chance that you know the name ADIDAS. You can take my example, I know a little about sports but I am familiar with the name ADIDAS. That’s how this name has become big within past years.

Like most companies, it didn’t start out big. In the 1920s, in a small town in Germany, Adi Dassler and his brother Rudolf Dassler started the company when they began producing shoes in their mother’s laundry room. At that time, it wasn’t even called ADIDAS yet it was called the Dassler brothers shoe factory. Now, obviously there’re numerous factors that are responsible for transforming that little business into the giant one that we know today.

There are three things that have made the greatest impact and are most responsible for their growth.

The First thing is a man named Jesse Owens. Jesse Owens was an American Athlete. In his time, he probably was the fastest man on the planet.

 In the 1936 ,Olympics held in Berlin, Germany. He won four gold medals and track events breaking records along the way. A very impressive performance. You know ,how in every Olympics there tends to be one or two people who become really famous and are just the star of the whole thing well in 1936, it was Jesse Owens.

These Olympics were in 1936 held in Germany, at the time the country was led by Adolf Hitler. He was planning for these Olympics to prove how the Aryan race was superior and obviously Jesse Owens ruined that Plan.

These Olympics took place in Germany and the Dassler Brothers shoe company was from Germany. Somehow, Adi Dassler convinced Jesse Owens to wear a pair of shoes during his historic races and it looks like he didn’t specifically target Owens rather he was just kind of trying to convince all the athletes but the one that paid off was Jesse Owens.

You can imagine the demand that it created for them and it really helped bring the small shoe company to the next level.

After the second world war, the two brothers that were running the company found it impossible to work together and they split apart.

Rudi left so that he can form his own shoe company. The company he started is now known as Puma that you probably know.

Adi stayed put and redesigned the existing company that’s where the name was changed to ADIDAS and he came up with the three stripe signature look and it really just started taking shape and to the company that we are familiar with today.

In 1954 World Cup final it’s been called the miracle in Bern that took place in Bern , Switzerland and showcased a very strong Hungarian team against the underdog team from West Germany. The game started with two early goals from Hungary which solidified their victory in the minds of many people but Hungary didn’t score for the rest of the game while Germany scored three times making them the winner by three to two. There were a lot of politics tied to this game as well. It was the second World Cup following the war. The first one was held in Europe since the war. It was held in Switzerland because they were neutral during the war and mostly unaffected. It involved a newly formed and weak German team.

The Winning German team was famously wearing ADIDAS shoes.

They called it “dassler boot” , with all its features that make it superior to the traditional boot.

You can imagine how being attached to such a big event like this could help the brand. The success with Jesse Owens was linked to the old brand before all the changes. So this helped bring the new brand into the mind of the public. It was where many people first saw their signature stripes and learn the name ADIDAS.

The third thing that I’d like to highlight may not be as significant as the first two but it’s worth mentioning Run DMC, it’s a really popular rap group from the 1980s. They were pioneers in the genre. They had a song called my adidas.

It was one of their most popular songs. They sang about how they wore adidas and they were known for wearing adidas.

Unlike the first two contributors to their success, this one started independent from adidas meaning Run DMC wasn’t approached by them to create the song or anything like that.

They made it on their own. The story goes that they invited an Adidas executive to one of their concerts and before they sang their song, they asked the crowd to raise their Adidas sneakers in the air and thousands of people did it showing the executive how influential they were.

It motivated them to sign Run DMC to an Endorsement  deal which is said to be the first-ever endorsement deal in rap.

Here we have a popular rap group singing about them and wearing them not just the shoes a head to toe adidas and they were obviously influencing their fans to buy them or at the very least familiarizing them with the brand.

All three of these contributors have something in common. It was someone famous and influential wearing their shoes which is a very common practice for companies like these.

ADIDAS continues to be reliant on their marketing and continues to be aggressive with this type of marketing a few years ago they had a big campaign labelled “Impossible Is Nothing” involving David Beckham and Muhammad Ali .

Today they have some of the top athletes in each sport signed to endorsement deals.

For soccer, they have Lionel Messi. For Basketball, they have James Harden. For Football, they have Aaron Rodgers. For baseball ,they have Kris Bryant.

Almost half of their marketing budget every year goes to paying all these players from different sports to wear and endorse their shoes.

Today, ADIDAS is the largest sportswear manufacturer in whole Europe and the second largest in the world with nearly 20 billion Euros in annual revenue!!



Subhash Chandra Bose
Subhash Chandra Bose is fondly remembered as one of the greatest freedom fighters of India, and popularly known by the name of ‘Netaji’ (Respected Leader). He was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda’s teachings, and also believed that the Bhagavad Gita was a great source of inspiration for the struggle against the British. Bose was an Indian nationalist, and a prominent figure of the Indian independence movement. He was superior head for Indian National Army during World War II. He always pitched for complete and unconditional independence of India from the British Rule.


Subhash Chandra Bose was born to Prabhavati Devi and Janakinath Bose on January 23 in 1897 in Odisha. He took admission into the Protestant European School which was run by the Baptist Mission. He did B A in Philosophy from the Presidency College in Calcutta, and was later expelled for assaulting Professor for the latter’s anti-India remarks. After the incident, Bose was considered as one of the rebel-Indians.During his college days, he gradually developed nationalistic temperament, and became socially and politically aware.


18 Subhash Chandra Bose Books Which Prove Massively Impactful
After a few years, Bose returned to India as he resigned from his civil service job in April 1921, and later joined the Indian National Congress to fight for the independence of India. Subhash Chandra Bose started the newspaper known as ‘Swaraj’, and took charge of publicity for the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee. In 1923, Bose was elected as the President of All India Youth Congress and as the Secretary of Bengal State Congress. He was also editor of the newspaper called ‘Forward’, founded by his mentor Chittaranjan Das, and he served as the CEO of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation. By December 1927, Bose was appointed as the General Secretary of the INC.

In November 1934, he wrote the first part of his book ‘The Indian Struggle’, which was about nationalism and India’s independence movement during 1920–1934, but the British government banned the book. By 1938, he agreed to accept nomination as the Congress President, and presided over the Haripur session. However, due to his strong differences with Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, he resigned in 1939.


S C Bose was always in favour of armed revolution in order to expel the Britishers from India. During the time when the Second World War took place, Bose form the Indian National Army (INA) with the help of the Imperial Japanese Army, and also founded an Indian Radio Station called ‘Azad Hind Radio’.

A few years later, he travelled to Japan, where more soldiers and civilians joined the INA. Even when faced with military reverses, Bose was able to maintain support for the Azad Hind movement. In Europe, S C Bose sought help from Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini for the liberation of India. Bose had struck an alliance with Japan and Germany as he felt that his presence in the East would help India in the freedom struggle against the British.


Bose was featured on the stamps in India from 1964, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2016 and 2018.Bose was also featured in ₹2 coin in 1996 and 1997, ₹ 75 coin in 2018and ₹125 coin in 2021. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose international Airport at Kolkata, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Island, formerly Ross Island and many other institutions in India are named after him. On 23 August 2007,Japanese Prime minister visited the Subhas Chandra Bose memorial hall in Kolkata. Abe said to Bose’s family “The Japanese are deeply moved by Bose’s strong will to have led the Indian Independence Movement from British rule. Netaji is a much respected name in Japan.

In 2021, the Government of India declared 23 January as Parakram Divas to commemorate the birth anniversary of Subhas Chandra Bose. Political party, Trinamool Congress and the All India Forward Bloc demanded that the day should be observed as DESHPREM Divas.


“JAI HIND” this slogan is said by Subhas Chandra Bose .

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Stephen Hawking’s final theory of black holes -The Hawking radiation

When a massive star dies, it leaves a small but dense remnant core in its wake. If the mass of the core is more than 3 times the mass of the sun, the force of gravity overwhelms all other forces and a black hole is formed. Imagine the size of a star is 10 times more massive than our sun being squeezed into a sphere with a diameter equal to the size of New York City. The result is a celestial object whose gravitational field is so strong that nothing, not even light can escape it. The history of black holes was started with the father of all physics, Isaac Newton. In 1687, Newton gave the first description of gravity in his publication, Principia mathematica, that would change the world.

Then 100 years later, John Michelle proposed the idea that there could exist a structure that would be massive enough and not even light would be able to escape its gravitational pull. In 1796, the famous French scientist Pierre-Simon Laplace made an important prediction about the nature of black holes. He suggested that because even the speed of light was slower than the escape velocity of black hole, the massive objects would be invisible. In 1915, Albert Einstein changed physics forever by publishing his theory of general relativity. In this theory, he explained space time curvature and gave a mathematical description of a black hole. And in 1964, john wheeler gave these objects the name, the black hole.

The Gargantua in Interstellar is an incredibly close representation of an actual black hole
In classical physics, the mass of a black hole cannot decrease; it can either stay the same or get larger, because nothing can escape a black hole. If mass and energy are added to a black hole, then its radius and surface area also should get bigger. For a black hole, the radius is called the Schwarzschild radius. The second law of thermodynamics states that, an entropy of a closed system is always increases or remains the same. In 1974, Stephen hawking– an English theoretical physicists and cosmologist, proposed a groundbreaking theory regarding a special kind of radiation, which later became known as hawking radiation. So hawking postulated an analogous theorem for black holes called the second law of black hole mechanics that in any natural process, the surface area of the event horizon of a black hole always increase, or remains constant. It never decreases. In thermodynamics, black bodies doesn’t transmit or reflect any radiation, it only absorbs radiation.

When Stephen hawking saw these ideas, he found the idea of shining black holes to be preposterous. But when he applied the laws of quantum mechanics to general relativity, he found the opposite to be true. He realized that stuff can come out near the event horizon. In 1974, he published a paper where outlined a mechanism for this shine. This is based on the Heisenberg uncertainty Principe. According to the principle of quantum mechanisms, for every particle throughout the universe, there exists an antiparticle. These particles always exist in pairs, and continually pop in and out of existence everywhere in the universe. Typically, these particles don’t last long because as soon as possible and its antiparticle pop into existence, they annihilate each other and cease to exist almost immediately after their creation.

In the event horizon that the point which nothing can escape its gravity. If a virtual particle pair blip into existence very close to the event horizon of a black hole, one of the particles could fall into the black hole while the other escapes. The one that falls into the black hole effectively has negative energy, which is, in Layman’s terms, akin to subtracting energy from the black hole, or taking mass away from the black hole. The other particle of the pair that escapes the black hole has positive energy, and is referred to as hawking radiation.

The first-ever image of a black hole by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), 2019
Due to the presence of hawking radiation, a black hole continues to loss mass and continues shrinking until the point where it loses all its mass and evaporates. It is not clearly established what an evaporating black hole would actually look like. The hawking radiation itself would contain highly energetic particles, antiparticles and gamma rays. Such radiation is invisible to the naked eye, so an evaporating black hole might not look like anything at all. It also possible that hawking radiation might power a hadronic fireball, which could degrade the radiation into gamma rays and particles of less extreme energy, which would make an evaporating black hoe visible. Scientists and cosmologists still don’t completely understand how quantum mechanics explains gravity, but hawking radiation continues to inspire research and provide clues into the nature of gravity and how it relates to other forces of nature.

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Rape culture

Rape culture is a setting in which crimes like rapes, sexual assault and sexual abuse are normalized because of the attitude and reaction of the society towards gender and gender inequalities. Rape culture basically includes victim blaming, misogynistic remarks, slut shaming,objectification of genders,not supporting sexual assault victims and not considering the trauma of rape on anyone etc. 

Rape culture not only affects the psyche of a victim but it also damages the concept of social cohesion.It is one of the reasons why rapes and sexual assaults are increasing at a faster rate all over the world. The term ‘Rape Culture’ was first used in the 1970s in the USA during the second wave of the feminist movement.

Rape culture gives birth to a lot of rape myths like women ask for it,women who were short dresses get raped more often etc. Society also uses the aggressiveness of men as an excuse of rape thus normalizing rape. In promoting rape culture sexual objectification of women also play a massive role and in objectifying women media plays the main role. The way women are portrayed in movies creates a worng perception in the minds of men that women are some toys and men have all right over them.

Another factor promoting rape culture is victim blaming. It is a phenomenon where a victim is partially or completely held liable for the crime that was committed against  them. For example, saying that a women was raped because of the length of her dress and because she was drunk is victim blaming. It can happen among a victim’s peers or other people in the society. Victim blaming is one of the reasons why women are afraid to come out as rape or sexual assault victims,they are scared of being ostracized by the society. Victim blaming has serious consequences as it helps for the perpetuate a pervasive rape culture. Due to this phenomenon rape victims suffer from various mental illnesses like depression, anxiety etc,this also increases the suicide rate.

Slut shaming is another factor promoting rape culture. This phenomenon is very similar to the phenomenon of victim blaming. It is the practice of disparaging women for violating the “appropriate sexual behavior” norms. For instance,being criticized for wearing short clothes is a most common example of slut shaming. 

Rape culture not only affects women but it also affect the psyche of men. It is linked with gender roles thus it deeply affects the psychological condition of all the genders. It has created a worng perspective in the minds of people, ie,if a women gets raped or sexually assaulted then she is supposed to be looked down upon and she becomes a disgraceful person. On the contrary,it is the men that need to learn the importance of controlling themselves. Women and men both are same,they have the right to decide what they want in their life,how should they dress up etc and no can hinder that. One of the most common rape myths is “she was asking for it” ,to be very clear and specific there is no gravity in this phrase. In moments like these,we need to use common sense and ask ourselves a question that why would a woman ever ask for mental as well as physical pain and discomfort. 

Rape culture also hides away the importance of consent as it normalizes various inappropriate sexual behaviors like passing bad comments on a women’s body and clothes. After a sexual assault has taken place women find it difficult to come out and report the crime because they fear that the authorities might not trust their claims. Some victims don’t come out and hide the crimes because they think that they have lost all the respect,grace and honour in the society. It is not their fault because these futile norms and myths have been conditioned in them by the society.

To conclude,it can be said that the problem of rape culture is very deep rooted in our society and it is affecting each and every person with different gravity. It is a disease that is making us all ill. Victim blaming and slut shaming needs to be stopped before it’s too late. Put your common sense and empathy before your toxic masculinity. Stop anyone and everyone who jokes about sexual assault and rape and most importantly listen and support the survivors. 


Human rights day celebrated in 10th December.The National Human Rights Commission of India defines human rights as provided under the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993, as Rights Relating To Life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the constitution or embodied in the international covenants and enforceable by courts in India.Human Rights Day is observed on December 10 every year, since it was on this very day in 1948 that the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a milestone document that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings.The international document also commits nations to recognise all humans as being “born free and equal in dignity and rights” regardless of “nationality, place of residence, gender, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status

7 human rights in India:-

* Origins.

* Significance and characteristics.

* Right to equality.

* Right to freedom.

* Right against exploitation.

* Right to freedom of religion.

* Right to life.

* Cultural and educational rights.

An Act to provide for the constitution of a National Human Rights Commission, State Human Rights Commissions in States and Human Rights Courts for better protection of human rights and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Ministry: Ministry of Home Affairs. Department: Department of States.Protection of human rights is essential for the development of the people of the country, which ultimately leads to development of the national as a whole. The Constitution of India guarantees basic human rights to each and every citizen of the country.The Constitution of India guarantees to all Indian women equality (Article 14), no discrimination by the State (Article 15(1)), equality of opportunity (Article 16), equal pay for equal work (Article 39(d)) and Article 42.

Human rights are important because no one should be abused or discriminated against, and because everyone should have the chance to develop their talents. Unfortunately, many people around the world don’t have these basic rights and freedoms.It is constitutional mandate of judiciary to protect human rights of the citizens. Supreme Court and High Courts are empowered to take action to enforce these rights. Machinery for redress is provided under Articles 32 and 226 of the constitution.

The most significant human rights issues included police and security force abuses, such as extrajudicial killings, disappearances, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, rape, harsh and life-threatening prison conditions, and lengthy pretrial detention.

In India, a child has the right to be protected from neglect, exploitation, and abuse at home and elsewhere. Children have the right to be protected from the incidence of abuse, exploitation, violence, neglect, commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking, child labour, and harmful traditional practices.

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The meaning and importance of Self Love

“To fall in love with yourself is the first secret of happiness”

-Robert Morley

This quote magnifies the importance of loving, trusting and nourishing ourselves. So the question arises that what does self love actually mean?

Self love is a mental condition when a person loves themself and recognizes their value and importance.Self love is not only a basic necessity but it also helps in all round development and growth of human beings. Self love is a subjective issue it can refer from one person to another because we all have different ways of loving and treating ourselves. Self love has various components some of them are mentioned below:-

1.Believing in yourself 

2.Prioritizing yourself over others

3.Not being harsh on yourself

4.Being ruthlessly and completely honest to yourself 

There can be various other ways of loving oneself.To talk about the history of self love, it was first promoted by the Beat generation of the 1950 and in the early years of the Hippie era of the 1960. As and when human Civilization grew the emergence and importance of self love was witnessed by people all around the globe.

In today’s modern and complex world where everyone is always trying to be better than others,the significance of self love gets ignored. People make excuses that they are too busy to take out time for themselves and to love themselves but it is very important to give yourself a break and tell yourself that you are very proud of yourself. We can’t accomplish anything if we don’t recognize our importance and efforts. And so is the case with self love, a person madly in love themself is in a mentally better position than a person who doesn’t recognize their value. People are mostly  trying to be perfect version of theirselves but according to me perfectionism in itself Is a flawed ideology, there is nothing that is totally perfect. Being perfect is just a futile concept created by people to satisfy themselves. Trying to be perfect can turn into your worst nightmare,in the process you might become hostile,unsympathetic,toxic and mentally unstable. Slowly and gradually these mental Illnesses will start affecting your physical as well as spiritual health. You might inherit eating disorders etc.self love makes you a happy and well adjusted person, it makes you more comfortable with others as it removes the element of jealousy. It helps in reducing stress be in academic, professional or personal. In our day to day lives there are various stressful moments, it has become almost impossible to be completely stress free but when we love ourselves then we can comfort  and manage ourselves in a much better way. In a health psychology meta-analysis of 15 studies, researchers found that when people accept themselves as they are they are motivated towards making positive changes in their lives.So basically self love motivates and pushes is to make healthy choices and decisions. It also improves emotional and mental strength. In tough and dark times,it is easy to give up hope, but then self love converts the negative things into positive ones. It helps you in critically communicating with yourself thus helping you to come out of tough times quickly and easily. 

There is a saying that you cannot love and unless you love yourself thus loving yourself also strengthens your relationships. It helps you in creating healthy boundaries and protect you from going into toxic and emotional stressful relationships. Self love makes you a more confident person.You believe in you abilities and you know how capable you are. It makes you realise you strengths,worth and value and this way it make you a more confident person. Self love helps you enhance and develop all the qualities  that are required for being successful.It helps you in inspiring others and having an optimistic outlook in life.

Easy as it may seem it is not exactly simple to love yourself. Most people find it quite difficult  to love themselves. Accept the way you are,don’t try be totally perfect because  it is not possible. It’s completely alright to take breaks when you feel like because you definitely deserve breaks considering all the hard work you do.most importantly  don’t compare yourself with others rather try competing with yourself,this kind of competition is considered to be healthy. Loving yourself might take time initially but it is totally worth it and you before anyone else deserve all your love and affection. 


A hope,

to live those moments again….

A hope,

To see your grin,

On my foolish talks again…..

Lure me to stay,

one more day….

A hope,

To be like earlier,

The way we were……

Sway me to feel like,

You will come again….#ktr

The Journey of YOUTUBE

If someone would ask me which is the biggest learning app out there ?

I would instantly answer that it’s YouTube. You can learn anything and everything using YouTube, be it cooking, dancing, technical skills, singing, painting and writing etc.

You can even study through YouTube as well. There are a lot of entertainment and sports related videos on YouTube which get trending every now and then.

How the idea of creating such an amazing video app came up?

Not only, one can learn through YouTube but also can help others to learn new skills. It is the era of social media influencers where people have different platforms in front of them to share their creativity with millions of people through online media.

YouTube is the world’s largest video streaming website and the second largest search engine after Google.

The creators behind this wonderful innovation were Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim who just not made their mission possible but also  created a phenomenon that is everlasting and never gonna end anytime soon.

After college Chad Hurley worked in PayPal division where he met Steve Chen and Jawed Karim who later came together to create YouTube in 2005.

Hurley worked in PayPal till it got acquired by eBay in 2002 and after that he started working in Silicon Valley as a Consultant.

In January 2005, Steve hosted a party for his friends and Hurley was one of his guests. Both Steve and Harley recorded the party on a camcorder and digital camera but were not able to send the recording to their friends and guests because of the massive file size.

It was then they came up with an idea of creating a site which would help people to share their videos.

They wanted to do something like the concept of Flickr which was one of the new websites back then that facilitated the sharing of the photographs.

After a few days, the team came up with a memorable and consumer-friendly logo. The website was launched on February 14, 2005.

A sneak peek was offered to interested parties in May , 2005. However, potential youtubers had to wait for another six months to be able to freely enjoy the site.

YouTube employees had to work from home and even from the garages where many start-ups used to work. It had roughly 8 to 10 employees who were enthusiasts and were working without any pay.

The first video published by the YouTube was titled “me at the zoo” by one of the co-founders of YouTube who was Jawed Karim.

In no time, YouTube became a huge success.

Later in September, 2005, YouTube got its first one million hit video. The video was a NIKE ad which went viral. YouTube acquired $3.5 million funding from Sequoia Capital and made an official launch in November, 2005.

In July, 2006, the company relieved that 65,000 videos were getting uploaded on YouTube every day. It slowly became the 10th most popular website all around the world.

This much success in such a short time was unbelievable. In the later year, YouTube witnessed another huge success.

This tech video start-up got acquired by tech giant GOOGLE  for a whooping $1.65 billion. The idea of two technically inclined pioneers turned out to be a revolutionary milestone in the history.

In May 2007 , YouTube launched its partner program which allowed the creators with the viral videos to get paid. Now, people started to get paid due to their hobbies, only thanks to YouTube.

In August 2007, Google decided to introduce Ads on YouTube.

In 2007, Usher introduced the world to Justin Bieber via a YouTube video which got hit and made JB one of the greatest singers in the history of music. With Gangnam Style becoming viral on YouTube also was a huge event in the YouTube history. A lot of artists made their careers through YouTube. Not only artists but also videos related to education are getting popular among the people. YouTube also helped many K-pop groups like BTS and BlackPink etc. to be popular worldwide.

Now, It has become impossible to imagine a world without having YouTube in it!!


Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale for industrial purposes.


Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on a near-atomic scale to produce new structures, materials and devices. Nanotechnology is generally defined as engineered structures, devices, and systems. Nanomaterials are defined as those things that have a length scale between 1 and 100 nanometers.


* Food security. Nanosensors in packaging can detect salmonella and other contaminants in food.

* Medicine.

* Energy.

* Automotive.

* Environment.

* Electronics.

* Textiles.

* Cosmetics.


Nanotechnology is an emerging science which is expected to have rapid and strong future developments. It is predicted to contribute significantly to economic growth and job creation in the EU in the coming decades. According to scientists, nanotechnology is predicted to have four distinct generations of advancement.


Nanomedicine the application of nanomaterials and devices for addressing medical problems has demonstrated great potential for enabling improved diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of many serious illnesses, including cancer, cardiovascular and neurological disorders, HIV/AIDS, and diabetes.

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Politics work with inthe constitution of India.India is a parliamentary democratic republic in which the president of India is the head of state and the prime minister of India is the head of government.


As per 23, September 2021 the election commission of India total number of parties registered was 2858, with 8 national parties, 54 state parties and 2796 unrecognised parties.


* Executive.


* Judiciary.


Executive type of Indian government include,

* president of india.

* prime minister of India.

* union cabinet.

* council of ministers.

* Bureaucrats.


President of India is the highest post and is the constitutional head of the country. According to our constitution, President is the first citizen of our country and a symbol of unity and integrity.President is also responsible for appointing other executives and judicial members in the country like the Chief Justice of India, Judges of all the High courts, the Election Commissioner of India and states too. President of India is also the Commander in Chief of all the Indian forces i.e. Indian Army, Indian Navy, and Indian Air force.


Prime Minister is the chief of the Central government of India and also acts as the advisor of President. He is also head of the Council of Ministers and is responsible for appointing or dismissing any minister from the council. In case Prime Minister resigns from his office or dies during his tenure then the cabinet will automatically dissolve.


Union Cabinet consists of the Prime Minister and Cabinet Ministers. This is the decision making body in the central government.The Cabinet Minister cannot make a law concerning his department on its own, he can only propose the decision and then the Union Cabinet will make the final law.


Council of Ministers works under the Union Cabinet. All the members of the Union Cabinet are members of the Council of Ministers and here the Minister of States appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.


Bureaucrats are selected and appointed by Union Public Service Commission and for states there is a State Public Service Commission. They are responsible for implementing the laws and all the other functions of government. Bureaucrats consist of IAS, IPS, IFS and other officials leading various government agencies.


Legislative type of government include president,lok sabha also known as lower house,Rajya sabha also known as upper house.


Lok Sabha is more powerful in both the houses. Members of Lok Sabha are elected directly by citizens of India. There are total 530 members from the states and 20 members from the union territories. They are elected in general election. Their term is five years.


There cannot be more than 250 members in the Rajya Sabha. Members of Rajya Sabha are elected by state legislative assemblies out of which 12 members are directly appointed by President who come from different backgrounds like Literature, Art, Social Services etc.


Judiciary type of government includes supreme court,high court and district court.


Supreme Court is the highest judicial body of the country. The decision by Supreme Court of India is acceptable by all judicial bodies and no other judicial body has the power to change a decision by Supreme Court. Indian judiciary is an independent body and is not affected by Legislature or Executive. Supreme Court has the power to question any decision made by Legislative Bodies or Executive if the decision is not in accordance with the Constitution of India.supreme court of india consists of 34 judges maximum in which there can be a Chief Justice and 33 other judges.


The High Court is the highest judicial body of a state. High court functions under Supreme Court. High court maintains the rule of law in the particular state and in case of two small states there can be one common High court.


District court or sub-ordinate courts function under High court. They maintain rule of law in a particular district or locality in which they function. They look after the civil and criminal matters of that particular region.


* Bahujan samaj party.

* Bhartiya Janata party.

* Communist party of India.

* Communist party of India (Marxist).

* Indian National Congress.

* Nationalist Congress party.

The end…

The success of NIKE

The world’s biggest and the most popular sportswear company – NIKE . In just 50 years, one man’s dream of better shoes turned into a global corporation worth over a $100 billion.

What did NIKE had that others didn’t? How come NIKE achieved the spot where it is right now??

The year is 1962 and Phil Knight was just graduated from Stanford.  Becoming a successful entrepreneur is a difficult task if you don’t have an idea which can make a bigger impact in this world.

He was a distance runner back in the university. In one of his business classes, he wrote in a paper title:

Can Japanese sports shoes do the same to German sports shoes that Japanese cameras did to the German cameras?

He was aware of the fact that Japanese cameras replaced German cameras and was pondering if Japanese shoes could do the same to Puma and Adidas which were domineering in America at that time.

He got so conscious of that idea of bringing Japanese shoes to U.S.A.

He could not find much exposure to Japanese shoes, so he decided to contact the Japanese company in order to import the goods in America. But he had zero experience in it.

As a determined man who created NIKE, we all know he actually did it.

In November 1962, he flew over to Japan like a tourist and just started exploring. In a beautiful city of Kobe, he laid his eyes on a shoe store that caught his eyes.

It belonged to the company called Onitsuka Tiger and the shoes they were producing at that time were of very high quality that Phil got tempted to import them to America.

He proposed to the company to let him import the shoes to America and became the distributor. Surprisingly, the company accepted the offer. He received his shipment of 12 pairs of Tiger shoes in 1963 and he started selling them at every running track he could get into.

Obviously, his strategy was not that scalable, so he approached the right person he knew at that time who was his former coach at the University of Oregon, Bill Bowerman. Bill was one of the famous coaches in America at that time. He had in fact trained multiple Olympic Athletes.

He liked the Tiger shoes so much that he wanted to partner up. Thus, in January 1964,  Bill and Phil incorporated Blue Ribbon Sports, each investing $500 into it.

They spent all that money on their first order, which at $3.33 a pair, amounted to 300 pairs of shoes.

The shipment came through in April, 1964 and thanks to Bill’s connections it was sold out by July.

In their first year, BRS sold $8,000 worth of shoes and with that money Phil started hiring salesmen for his company.

In 1965, their revenue had increased to $20,000 and pretty soon they opened their very own store in Santa Monica.

But while Phil was handling the business side of the operation, the actual innovation was

coming from Bill.

He was the guy who single-handedly brought jogging to America.

In 1966, he wrote a book about it that sold over a million copies, and of course his company was among the first to start marketing the Tiger shoes for jogging.

Bowerman was all about innovation and with every new shipment from Onitsuka, he’d cut open a few shoes to see how they were made, and he’d always try to improve them, for example adding to the cushion or using more lightweight materials.

He’d constantly sent his notes to Japan requesting changes; he was effectively designing Onitsuka’s shoes for them.

It was one of Bill’s designs that catapulted BRS into the mainstream: the Cortez, as he

called it, became one of the best-selling shoes in 1968, undoubtedly thanks to the 1968 Olympics, held in Mexico.

Thanks to the Cortez, BRS sold $300,000 worth of shoes in 1969.

But they had a big problem: the Cortez was so successful that they couldn’t keep up

with the demand.

Every new shipment they received sold out faster than the one before, but Onitsuka kept sending them at the same glacial pace.

What Onitsuka were actually doing was satisfying their local demand in Japan first and then sending whatever was left to America.

Phil and Bill knew that to expand they would have to evolve beyond being just a simple

distributor. Then they realized that they held all the cards: the Cortez was Bowerman’s design

so as soon as their contract with Onitsuka expired, they were free to start making it for themselves.

Luckily for them, their contract would end in 1972, just before the Olympics in Munich.

Thus, Phil had plenty of time to prepare for his big move.

In 1971, he started working on the branding: his first employee suggested calling the brand Nike, after the Greek goddess of victory.

Then, Phil needed a logo, so he went to a nearby university, snatched the first graphic design student he could find and told her to make him a logo.

For the impressive sum of $35 he got this: the swoosh.

In hindsight, that was money well spent and with his branding now complete, Phil was ready

for the Olympics.

This time, instead of locking himself into exclusive agreements, Phil established a network of subcontractors across Japan.

With production under his control, Phil could finally spread his wings.

You can see in this graph of Nike’s sales exactly when Phil started importing shoes from his Japanese subcontractors, and yes he started before his contract had even expired in 1971.

From then on, the story of Nike became one of growth.

They became the largest sportswear company in America in 1989 on the back of brilliant marketing like the “Just Do It” campaign and by signing rookie athletes that would eventually become famous across the world!!


What Is Bitcoin?

Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency created in January 2009. It follows the ideas set out in a white paper by the mysterious and pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto. The identity of the person or persons who created the technology is still a mystery. Bitcoin offers the promise of lower transaction fees than traditional online payment mechanisms do, and unlike government-issued currencies, it is operated by a decentralized authority.

Bitcoin is known as a type of cryptocurrency because it uses cryptography to keep it secure. There are no physical bitcoins, only balances kept on a public ledger that everyone has transparent access to (although each record is encrypted). All Bitcoin transactions are verified by a massive amount of computing power via a process known as “mining.” Bitcoin is not issued or backed by any banks or governments, nor is an individual bitcoin valuable as a commodity. Despite it not being legal tender in most parts of the world, Bitcoin is very popular and has triggered the launch of hundreds of other cryptocurrencies, collectively referred to as altcoins. Bitcoin is commonly abbreviated as BTC when traded.

Understanding Bitcoin
The Bitcoin system is a collection of computers (also referred to as “nodes” or “miners”) that all run Bitcoin’s code and store its blockchain. Figuratively speaking, a blockchain can be thought of as a collection of blocks. In each block is a collection of transactions. Because all of the computers running the blockchain have the same list of blocks and transactions and can transparently see these new blocks as they’re filled with new Bitcoin transactions, no one can cheat the system.

Anyone whether they run a Bitcoin “node” or not can see these transactions occurring in real time. To achieve a nefarious act, a bad actor would need to operate 51% of the computing power that makes up Bitcoin. Bitcoin has around 13,768 full nodes, as of mid-November 2021, and this number is growing, making such an attack quite unlikely.

But if an attack were to happen, Bitcoin miners the people who take part in the Bitcoin network with their computers—would likely split off to a new blockchain, making the effort the bad actor put forth to achieve the attack a waste.

Balances of Bitcoin tokens are kept using public and private “keys,” which are long strings of numbers and letters linked through the mathematical encryption algorithm that creates them. The public key (comparable to a bank account number) serves as the address published to the world and to which others may send Bitcoin.

The private key (comparable to an ATM PIN) is meant to be a guarded secret and only used to authorize Bitcoin transmissions. Bitcoin keys should not be confused with a Bitcoin wallet, which is a physical or digital device that facilitates the trading of Bitcoin and allows users to track ownership of coins. The term “wallet” is a bit misleading because Bitcoin’s decentralized nature means it is never stored “in” a wallet, but rather distributed on a blockchain.

Peer-to-Peer Technology:
Bitcoin is one of the first digital currencies to use peer-to-peer (P2P) technology to facilitate instant payments. The independent individuals and companies who own the governing computing power and participate in the Bitcoin network Bitcoin “miners” are in charge of processing the transactions on the blockchain and are motivated by rewards (the release of new Bitcoin) and transaction fees paid in Bitcoin.

These miners can be thought of as the decentralized authority enforcing the credibility of the Bitcoin network. New bitcoins are released to miners at a fixed but periodically declining rate. There are only 21 million bitcoins that can be mined in total. As of November 2021, there are over 18.875 million Bitcoin in existence and less than 2.125 million Bitcoin left to mine.

Bitcoin Mining:

Bitcoin mining is the process by which Bitcoin is released into circulation. Generally, mining requires solving computationally difficult puzzles to discover a new block, which is added to the blockchain.

Bitcoin mining adds and verifies transaction records across the network. Miners are rewarded with some Bitcoin; the reward is halved every 210,000 blocks. The block reward was 50 new bitcoins in 2009. On May 11, 2020, the third halving occurred, bringing the reward for each block discovery down to 6.25 bitcoins
Early Timeline of Bitcoin
Aug. 18, 2008
The domain name is registered. Today, at least, this domain is WhoisGuard Protected, meaning the identity of the person who registered it is not public information.

Oct. 31, 2008
A person or group using the name Satoshi Nakamoto makes an announcement to the Cryptography Mailing List at “I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.” This now-famous white paper published on, entitled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System,” would become the Magna Carta for how Bitcoin operates today.

Jan. 3, 2009
The first Bitcoin block is mined Block 0. This is also known as the “genesis block” and contains the text: “The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks,” perhaps as proof that the block was mined on or after that date, and perhaps also as relevant political commentary.

Jan. 8, 2009
The first version of the Bitcoin software is announced to the Cryptography Mailing List.

Jan. 9, 2009
Block 1 is mined, and Bitcoin mining commences in earnest.

Bitcoin employment opportunities:
Those who are self-employed can get paid for a job related to Bitcoin. There are several ways to achieve this, such as creating any internet service and adding your Bitcoin wallet address to the site as a form of payment. There are also several websites and job boards that are dedicated to digital currencies:

Why Is Bitcoin Valuable?
Bitcoin’s price has risen exponentially in just over a decade, from less than $1 in 2011 to more than $68,000 as of November 2021. Its value is derived from several sources, including its relative scarcity, market demand, and marginal cost of production. Thus, even though it is intangible, Bitcoin commands a high valuation, with a total market cap of $1.11 trillion as of November 2021

Is Bitcoin a Scam?
Even though Bitcoin is virtual and can’t be touched, it is certainly real. Bitcoin has been around for more than a decade and the system has proved itself to be robust. The computer code that runs the system, moreover, is open source and can be downloaded and analyzed by anybody for bugs or evidence of nefarious intent. Of course, fraudsters may attempt to swindle people out of their Bitcoin or hack sites such as crypto exchanges, but these are flaws in human behavior or third-party applications and not in Bitcoin itself.

How Many Bitcoins Are There?
The maximum number of bitcoins that will ever be produced is 21 million, and the last bitcoin will be mined at some point around the year 2140. As of November 2021, more than 18.85 million (almost 90%) of those bitcoins have been mined.18 Moreover, researchers estimate that up to 20% of those bitcoins have been “lost” due to people forgetting their private key, dying without leaving any access instructions, or sending bitcoins to unusable addresses.

Where Can I Buy Bitcoin?
There are several online exchanges that allow you to purchase Bitcoin. In addition, Bitcoin ATMs internet-connected kiosks that can be used to buy bitcoins with credit cards or cash have been popping up around the world. Or, if you know a friend who owns some bitcoins, they may be willing to sell them to you directly without any exchange at all.

The end…


LinkedIn is a very famous employment oriented online service where various professional corporate workers and job seekers get connected with each other. It provides the best networking opportunity in this online era.

How the idea of creating this kind of site came up?

How Reid Hoffman built LinkedIn?

Reid Hoffman was born on 5th August, 1957 in California. When he was only 12, he wrote the suggestions for the gaming company and then the game developer asked him if he wanted to do something with the game, after that he started working there and received his first pay-check. After graduating from high school, Hoffman graduated from Stanford University. At Stanford, he met Peter Thiel who became his good friend from then. While being at Stanford, he pondered about influencing others at a large scale. He wanted to make a big impact in the world. Hence, he started to invest his time in making software which can be used by billions of people.

He tried to get funding from various company but got rejected each and every time. Hoffman joined Apple Computer in 1994 through the reference he got from his room-mate at Stanford. At Apple, he worked at eWorld which soon got stopped due to heavy losses.

He left Apple and join Fujitsu and overtook project management field. In July 1994, he resigned from Fujitsu and took a big step of opening his venture on his own. He named that venture!

SocialNet was focused mainly on online dating although you can connect with people for different purposes as well on it. It was a good venture from the beginning but it didn’t last in long run. It started to look scattered due to lack of a clear purpose. Online dating and making friends was a new idea back then which was not accepted by the people at that time.

He learnt a great lesson from this failure that the product distribution strategy is as important as the quality of the product itself.

After that he joined PayPal, where he was responsible for the external affairs department. In 2002, PayPal went public, Hoffman was a real contributor in the success of PayPal. After that he achieved the financial freedom by becoming a millionaire.

He though of taking a long break after a huge success but he got back to work only after the break of three weeks. He founded LinkedIn in December, 2002 with his teammates from PayPal and Socialnet.

He founded LinkedIn on his idea that the people would have two identities on the internet . One is their social identity which people want to show others to befriend them and the other one is the real identity which is for their achievements, educational background and works till that date.

LinkedIn is a professional networking site which connects professional people and job seekers from all over the world to help them in getting better opportunities and the better insights of real corporate world.

Initially, they invited the people they already knew about. From there, the things began to grew. In first month of operation, a total of 4500 users joined the platform. Some of them found jobs and new clients through LinkedIn which itself was fulfilling the purpose of the platform.

 People started to recommend the platform and more people started to join in. By the time, LinkedIn was a year old, it already bagged about 5,00,000 users on its platform.

Meanwhile, Sequoia Capital invested in this venture. By the year 2004, the platform managed to have a million users already.

Hoffman pointed out two major problems with LinkedIn in 2006. One was its user base which was comparatively low and the other was the product itself.

He resigned from the post of CEO and appointed Dan Nye as the new CEO of LinkedIn.

He worked as CEO for two years and helped LinkedIn to grow more and more. During those two years, the site reached to 35 million users and sales jumped over 900%.

A mobile version of LinkedIn was introduced on February, 2008. In January 2011, LinkedIn filed for an Initial Public Offering.

Over the years, LinkedIn acquired many small start-ups to increase the quality of the product and make it more useful for their users.

On 13th June, 2016 , nearly 14 years after starting the company, Microsoft acquired LinkedIn for $26.2 billion.

This was the largest acquisition made by the Microsoft till date. This deal made Hoffman and his teammate billionaires!

Today, LinkedIn is the world’s largest professional networking site with over 706 million users all around the world.


There are some most important cities in India,

* Mumbai.

* Delhi.

* Banglore.

* Kolkata.

* Chennai.


Mumbai formerly called Bombay is a densely populated city on India’s west coast. A financial center, it’s India’s largest city. On the Mumbai Harbour waterfront stands the iconic Gateway of India stone arch, built by the British Raj in 1924.India’s share market is also in mumbai.Mumbai is also called as city of dreams.Mumbai is the seventh cheapest city in the world Mumbai is a huge and populous city, the level of crime is high. Travelers can easily become victims so they need to avoid traveling alone on public transport or in taxis, especially at night. There have been reports of British tourists becoming the victims of a scam by taxi drivers.


New Delhi is the capital of India and an administrative district of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is the seat of all three branches of the government of India, hosting the Rashtrapati Bhavan, Parliament House, and the Supreme Court of India.New delhi is a union territory.It is situated alongside River Yamuna and bordered by Haryana state on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh state to the east.Delhi is relatively safe in terms of petty crime, though pickpocketing can be a problem in crowded areas so keep your valuables safe. Roads are notoriously congested.New Delhi is best known as the location of India’s national government. New Delhi has great historical significance as it was home to powerful people, such as the Pāṇḍavas and the Mughals. The city has many historical monuments and tourist attractions as well as lively marketplaces and great food, such as chaat.The world wonder taj mahal also present in a New delhi.


Bengaluru also called Bangalore is the capital of India’s southern Karnataka state. The center of India’s high-tech industry, the city is also known for its parks and nightlife. By Cubbon Park, Vidhana Soudha is a Neo-Dravidian legislative building.It has a population of more than 8 million and a metropolitan population of around 11 million, making it the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India.The current estimation of economy of Bangalore and its metropolitan area is US$ 110 billion making it India’s fourth richest metropolitan area.


Kolkata formerly Calcutta is the capital of India’s West Bengal state. Founded as an East India Company trading post, it was India’s capital under the British Raj from 1773–1911. It is known for its grand colonial architecture, art galleries and cultural festivals. It’s also home to Mother House, headquarters of the Missionaries of Charity, founded by Mother Teresa, whose tomb is on site.Kolkata has gained the top spot in the list of the country’s safest cities for the year 2020.Kolkata is also known as the Black City.


Chennai, on the Bay of Bengal in eastern India, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu. It is also called Madras.The Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest municipal economies of India. More than one-third of India’s automobile industry being based in the city. Home to the Tamil film industry, Chennai is also known as a major film production centre. It is one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission.The world second largest beach is in Chennai and The zoological park.There is many place to visit in Chennai.

Test Bank – One Bank for All Exams

What is a question bank?

A question bank can be two things: a list of all your questions created with an exam software (including all exams) and a list of all the questions in one exam.

The last definition is the one we are going to focus on. How does it work? Basically, it works like this: you create an exam and add a number of questions to it. Let’s say, 100 questions. But you don’t want your students to answer all these questions, so you set them up in a way that the exam software picks, say, 30 questions from this question bank with 100 questions, at random, every time someone takes the exam. This means every student will get a different set of 30 questions when taking the same exam. Awesome, right? ✨

Why should I use a question bank in my online exam?

Using a question bank like this helps prevent cheating, since no group of students will get the same questions, at the same order, while taking the same exam. It also lets you add more content to the exam material, since you can cover a lot more ground with a bigger set of questions (even though the students are not getting all of them) than with just a few questions.

Photo by RODNAE Productions on

“Knowledge is of no value unless you put it into practice.” -Anton Chekhov. 

Test Banks gives you a unique opportunity to test your knowledge as you get access to all 500+ Govt Exam Mock Tests available on the Career Launcher platform. These Tests are prepared by the Finest Faculty team under the supervision of Career Launcher Mentors. Every Mock Test is followed by a Detailed analysis which helps you to find your areas of improvement.

I understand that instructors vary in their testing preferences. Some prefer to test learning by the student”s ability to apply the material to a case. Often this is done through assigned papers. Others like objective formats. Many use a combination of objective tests/quizzes and papers. Generally I regard test-making/taking as another teaching/learning opportunity.

This test bank attempts to provide a variety questions in different objective formats as students vary (recall, recognition, compare/contrast, critical thinking essay) in how they can best demonstrate that they have learned the material. Some of the same content has been asked in different objective formats, therefore the instructor must be careful in selecting the questions they use to create a quiz or exam. Instructor must also decide how many points to assign to the questions they select. I recognize that developing a test bank is not an exact science. Sometimes students have a take on a question that was not anticipated by the test-maker. 


A Test bank is a ready-made electronic testing resource that can be customized by lecturers for their teaching.

Written by an OUP author, it is tailored to the contents of an individual textbook. Feedback is often provided on answers given by students, containing page references to the book.

Questions can be any of the following types:

  • Multiple choice
  • Multiple response
  • True/false
  • Fill in the blank
  • Matching
  • Essay/short answer

Test banks are available in a number of software formats to cater for a wide range of users, and are password-protected to ensure that only lecturers gain access.

Online test banks are used worldwide. They are prepackaged online resources meant for lecturers creating tests and sometimes provided through educational institutions. Online test banks are attractive because they are often created by the same publisher that produced the corresponding textbook for that course and thus centered around the main topics of that individual textbook. The test banks offer a diverse selection of questions and can include feedback on a specific answer given directly by students, often accompanied with exact page references to the textbook.

2. How do they manifest in student work?

The initial use for test banks was as a time-saving resource for instructors crafting tests for their courses. They evolved into tools for students preparing for an upcoming exam, offering a curated selection of questions directly related to the topic. These days, online test banks are no longer limited to questions chosen by a textbook publisher; they now include collections of actual exams uploaded to the internet. 

One such example was, which started in 2007. At that point, it was somewhat common practice amongst sorority and fraternity houses in university settings across North America to share exams as a study tool. Alex Baldwin thought making the exam content more easily accessible to students beyond the fraternity and sorority scene was a type of “public service, leveling the academic playing field by giving non-Greeks access to the same test banks while providing students insight into how individual professors structure their exams.” 

Fratfolder is no longer accessible online, but many other sites are, begging the question: how does an instructor know when/if a student has used an online test bank? They may manifest in student work in a variety of ways:

  • Answers to an exam from a group of students that are all exactly alike, hinting at the shared use of an online test bank.
  • Answers to an exam that are exactly the same as or highly similar to answers given by students in semesters/years past, alluding to the access of an actual test from previous terms.
  • Surprisingly detailed answers to questions related to material that was only lightly covered in the course, which may show that the student(s) had a chance to look at a specific course’s exams in a series, anticipating what material would be covered next.

3. How do they impact academic integrity?

 With such a focused study tool, students may feel that the time they spend preparing for the exam is not only efficient, but convenient, with everything they need in one place. Online test bank material is often marketed as “study material” and an “additional resource” for students with busy schedules. What is also true is that sometimes instructors themselves will choose to hand out previous exams as a study resource for their students. One professor from Wichita State University stated: “If this is something that I want my students to learn, why won’t I give them as much practice information as I can?” 

Unfortunately, an online collection of previous tests blurs the line between copyright law and academic integrity. Exams or test questions that are uploaded without an instructor’s consentmeans that they did not willingly share their course’s content, nor their original exam material. Most educators are up in arms about the increased use of online test banks because it means their tests—truly, their intellectual property—are available online without their permission. 

Furthermore, if a student or set of students simply memorizes answers to a previous test, are they actually exhibiting knowledge, applying learned concepts to a new setting? Professors may not see that a student or an entire class needs additional support or coverage on a challenging topic because the exams do not accurately reflect their learning. And if exams are simply passed from one student to the next, then the deep value of attending the course, absorbing the information, engaging in class discussions, and asking questions, are all lost.  

4. Ways to mitigate online test banks

Luckily, there are several ways to reduce the negative impact of online test banks on student learning. 

  • Establish a policy. First and foremost, instructors and institutions should have a specific and written rule around the use of online test banks in the syllabus, the Honor Code, and/or the institution’s academic integrity policy. If there is no clarity from the top level, then there is wiggle room at the student level to utilize tools unproductively or dishonestly. 
  • Change test questions frequently. This ensures that even if previous exams are somehow accessed and viewed, that the unique questions on the upcoming exam will demand independent thought from the test-taker.
  • Embrace item analysis. You can evaluate the quality of your exams with item analysis, which means analyzing students’ responses to individual exam questions. This process allows for a deep look at exam efficacy and keeps exams up-to-date. 
  • Apply thoughtful assessment design. Assessment design should provide variety in assessment formats to address different learning styles and measure different facets of learning. It can uphold integrity when done purposefully and can lessen the impact of online test banks on student learning.
  • Limit time for test-taking. A good way to ensure that students are applying their own knowledge to exams and not repurposing others’ answers is to offer the exact amount of time needed to complete a test. Unless discussed beforehand by the student and instructor for official reasons, additional time can sometimes provide the opportunity for a student to utilize a non-approved resource. 

In the end, talking to students openly about online test banks may be the perfect deterrent for the misuse of this resource. And while most situations involving study materials are likely honest endeavors, knowing the evolution of online test banks and how they are being used will help everyone to ground themselves in the importance of academics and assessment with integrity.   

Financial Planning in your 20s

Money, if someone would ask what exactly money is for me then I would tell him without hesitation that it is the thing that can either make me or break me.

Pretty daring, right! When you know that without money, you can’t even survive by yourself then why not better manage it carefully. From office workers to comedians, everyone needs to manage their money.

Investing your money as early as possible is what we need in this era. When your money is sitting idle in your banks, there would be person who’ll be multiplying his assets through investment in other corner of the world.

First advice: Don’t take loans hastily

You get bound with liabilities once you take loans. Buying a house is definitely gonna help you in making assets, but buying it with the money from your loan will increase the liabilities. Taking education loan is still fine as the ROI ( Return On Investment ) in this case would not only include the money but also your overall personality . But always ensure to take the education loan under your own name. Avoid taking personal loans or loans to buy bikes or cars etc. At your 20s, it’s necessary for you to reduce and eliminate the loans as much as possible.

Second advice: Insurance

For the planning of unforeseen or any unexpected situation that might occur in your future, Insurance for that time becomes inevitable. There are two types of insurance which are highly recommended and attainable:

First is Life Insurance and

Second is Health Insurance.

In Life Insurance, choose term plan. As a working professional, to get a good idea of cover, 20 to 25 times of your current salary would surely make a good cover. If you have salary of 6 lakhs per annum then a financial cover of 1.5 crores would be a better choice which comes under a term insurance plan. If you are in twenties then you could get this cover in minimum price which is a huge benefit in itself.

Health Insurance should be taken for everyone dear to you. If you work in a company then it is most likely they would have a corporate health insurance on their own which would cover you and your family.

When should you start investing?

In your twenties, when you don’t have to pay large amount of taxes due to low income, you have the potential to invest as much as possible at that rate.

What is the right investment ratio?

Investing at least 20 percent of your income is the best choice. If you are investing 50,000 per month then investing at least 10,000 rupees is an ideal  choice. In 20s, no one expects you to be rich from the beginning of your working life. When no one expects from you then you have the less pressure on you , so why don’t you use that to be focused on doubling your assets as much as possible through investing. Having luxurious food, living in lavish places and hanging out with your friends is not necessary but having financial freedom as soon as possible is the most important thing in the 20s. If you invest 1 rupee from your twenties and if you invest the same 1 rupee from your 30s then it will make a huge difference.

In 10 years, the same rupee would lose half of its value meaning the value of 1 rupee now would be equal to 50 paise in the next ten years and that is how inflation works.

Inflation is the biggest reason for you to start investing as early as possible.

To get a satisfying return through your investment, where should you start to invest exactly?

Firstly, avoid investing in FDs (Fixed Deposits). FD is the worst investment you can make if you are in your in 20s. As you are free to take risks in your 20s then let your money to grow as much as possible than to protect it under the name of FD.

Invest and hold in stocks and equities..

Invest in the stocks of the companies which are doing great in the market but if you don’t have the knowledge of the stocks that much then invest in mutual funds. You can invest in direct stocks, portfolio stocks and in cryptocurrency (though it’s a bit risky)..

Don’t wait for your 40s to invest. Start investing your money in 20s as soon as you begin to earn!!



* SHANTI SENA is a word derived from Sanskrit.

* SHANTI means peace and SENA Means army.

* SHANTI SENA is also called as peace army.


*. Service to peoples as a volunteer at any time.

*. Give to a cause close to your heart.

*. Most important goal is to bring the non-violence.

*. No religion diverse all religions must get equal rights and respect.

All are equal





* Non violent is a personal practice to not make harm to others.

* Gandhi introduced the concept of ahimsa ( Non-violence).

*. Non violence is powerful tool for the social protest.

*. To create non violent children.It is crucial to maintain the peaceful environment.

*. It is the active out pouring of one’s whole being of another.

*. Non violence love is active not passive.


* Non violent will bring peace among the people.

* Non violent communication help us to express our feelings.

* Non violent communication means complete lack of violence in the way we communicate with others.

* To respect our people.


* Observation.

* Feelings.

* Needs.

* Requests.


* SHANTI SENA makes love and peace to the people.

* SHANTI SENA brings non violence to the people.

* SHANTI SENA is not only to maintain peace also good relationship.

* SHANTI SENA is the non weapon war of peace.

* If one should have shanti sena he should ignore annoyance.

* SHANTI SENA avoid us from the jealous and competition with the people.

* SHANTI SENA is one of the fundamental peace policy of people.

” soldiers army save country

Peace army save courtesy”.

The end…


Way back in 1992, an immigrant from Ukraine came to the U.S. in search of some opportunity. This young teenager was accompanied by his mother and they’d barely had any money for their daily expenses. Due to the limited cash on hand, he used to save his old Soviet notebooks for schools and queued up with his mom for food stamps under government subsidy.

At the same time there was another guy who had lost a small fortune in bubble and wasn’t close to finding something big. Now the friends have come together to disrupt the communication sector by merging a mobile messaging app that today has over 1.2 billion monthly active users with over 30 billion messages sent every day the friends. This journey is about Jan Koum and Brian Acton who founded the company together which is none other than the most popular mobile app currently in the world WhatsApp

Jan is no stranger to failure and as a founder who had to go through his fair share of reductions by top tech companies including the one that eventually bought their servers only to become the most valuable messaging platform on the planet.  

Jan was born in the rural areas of Ukraine this was during the Soviet era so being a Jewish and living in a rural area was definitely not easy. He lived in a house that did not even have electricity connection. Being in a country that mostly had a temperature below zero degrees, they didn’t even have hot water.

His parents also denied the usage of course because they were often tapped by the government. To worsen things more being financially unwell , they also had to go through a regularity of hardships as well. Hence, in an attempt to put an end to all the sufferings, Jan along with his mother and grandmothers decided to move to Mountain View, California in 1992. In the U.S. , they were helped by a social support program to get a small two-bedroom apartment.

During this time, Jan started learning computer network by reading manuals that he used to purchase from a used bookstore at the age of 16. He had also begun working as a cleaner at a grocery store while his mother worked as a babysitter. Just once, things began to look normal, another tragedy hit his life when his mother was diagnosed with cancer but he became more stronger and his adversities were only making him more resilient. In the next two years, he had fully trained himself all about computer networking and was all set to take the next step. This is when he gains a sudden interest in programming and got himself enrolled at San Jose State University along with that he also began working with Ernst & Young as a security tester.

After working there for roughly six Months, Jan got the biggest opportunity of his life where he got selected to work at Yahoo as an infrastructure engineer. Now this was when he was still studying at San Jose State University.

Yahoo Back then was just another start-up and was beginning to grow and since Jan loved what he was doing he dropped out of his college and moved ahead with Yahoo. However, the happiness was short-lived and his mother couldn’t out beat cancer for long and passed away in the year 2000. He was suddenly left all alone and that is when his friend from Ernst & young and Yahoo, Brian Acton helped him fight the loneliness by inviting Jan to his house for playing soccer. Together they went on to work with Yahoo for more than nine years. they got  to intake numerous amounts of priceless knowledge and experience. Later in January 2009,

Jan bought an iPhone and realized that the seven-month-old App Store was in the process of launching a whole new range of apps. This gave him a brilliant idea although the idea itself was at very nascent stages. They were very clear about three rules:

  • Their service would definitely not carry any advertiser.
  •  The service would have a satisfying experience and
  • Keeping in mind the privacy of their customers, their product would not store any messages.

Additionally it would also maintain to deliver the product without any gimmicks or signs with endless amount of readability and rich experience. Having said that, Jan quickly got the name WhatsApp incorporated on his birthday that is on 24th of February 2009 in California. Now, as the world progressed, they figured that WhatsApp kept crashing or getting stuck at a particular point, this went on for a long time. It built up a great amount of frustration. Jan at one point even lost hope and felt like giving up and started looking for a new job but Brian helped him to motivate and got his act together and asked him to invest a few more months. And finally a few months down the line, help came from Apple.

They launched their push notifications which used to pin their users whenever they were using the app. By August 2009,  WhatsApp had no significant growth. This time Jan persuaded Brian Acton to join the in.

Later, on October 2009, Brian contacted several old Yahoo buddies and got together a 250,000 dollars in seed funding. This made Brian to earn the title of co-founder and since then there was no stopping to this Tech phenomena.

By the early 2014, WhatsApp has witnessed humongous growth In its user base with millions of people across the globe using its messaging service. WhatsApp had never publicized or promoted itself anywhere and at organically growing numbers. By this time, it only had 55 employees over serving millions of people each day. Later the very next month in February 2014, Facebook declared that they were acquiring WhatsApp. It was the deal which is known to be one of the biggest acquisitions in the tech history.

Facebook acquired WhatsApp at a whooping 19 billion dollars and also offered a board member position to Jan in Facebook. Jan signed the Facebook take over contract at an unused building in Silicon Valley where he and his mother once queued for food stands in the city of Mountain View where WhatsApp was located!

Well the story of WhatsApp is yet another live example of innovation in true terms for everyone out there waiting for motivation. The journey of Jan Koum and Brian Acton is a lesson for every entrepreneur that capital jumping and marketing will not reap benefits, it is ultimately the product and service that automatically drives customers’  attraction without any need for paid publicity.

Well with billions of users addicted to WhatsApp style, it is undoubtedly a tech marvel of this era!!


Application Form, Eligibility, Syllabus Updjated On – December 13 2021 by the School Of Fashion Technology Common Entrance Exam will be conducted by the MKSSS’s School of Fashion Technology to provide admission in various Undergraduate and Postgraduate Diploma Design courses.

SOFT CET is conducted annually at the University Level. The exam is conducted in three stages which includes online test, Studio test/group discussion and personal
interview. Candidates are eligible to apply by online mode who passed class 12th or hold a minimum 2-year Diploma Degree with Class 10th. The candidates need to go through the complete article to get all the important details about SOFT CET 2022 including Application Form, Eligibility Criteria, Admit Card, etc. 

  • The application fee will be INR 3000 (for B.Design) and INR 4000 (For Industry Integrated Program with International Exposure). Check Application Process
  • The eligibility criteria for SOFT CET 2021 will be set up by the School of Fashion Technology. Check SOFT CET Eligibility
  • The exam will comprise of an Online Test (60 Marks), Studio Test/Group Discussion (140 Marks) and Personal Interview (50 Marks). 
  • As per SOFT CET Exam PatternIt will consist of 60 objective type questions (MCQs) and each question carries +1 marks. 
  • SOFT CET result will be declared at official website in May 2021.

SOFT CET 2021 Highlights Interested aspirants must go through the highlights of SOFT CET 2021 tabulated below:Conducting body School of Fashion Technology Exam Level University Exam Mode Online Stages of exam 3 – Online Test, Studio Test/ Group Discussion and Personal Interview Application Mode Online Courses B.Des, Diploma Course in Fashion Design, PG Course in FBDT and FBM

SOFT CET 2021 EligibilityThe eligibility criteria for SOFT CET 2021 will be set up by the School of Fashion Technology. Applicants must ensure that they meet the eligibility requirements before applying for the exam.The criteria for various courses are as stated below:B.DesApplicants should have passed or are appearing for class 12 exam from any stream, like Arts/ Commerce/ Science/ Home Science/ Minimum Competency Vocational Course (MCVC) including National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS).Candidates who have Maharashtra State Board of Technical Education (MSBTE) or State Government Technical Education full time diploma of minimum 2 years after class 10 are also eligible for SOFT CET 2021.NRI and international aspirants can apply if they have an equivalent certificate from Association of Indian Universities (AIU), New Delhi.Fashion Design DiplomaStudents can apply for this course if they have passed class 12 exam in any stream including National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS).PG aspirant should be a graduate from any stream (10+2+3 or equivalent) to be eligible to apply for admission.

SOFT CET 2021 Application Form

SOFT CET 2021 Application form is expected to be available online from November 15, 2020. The last date to apply for SOFT CET 2021 will be in April, 2021. Candidates can apply for SOFT CET 2021 by online mode only which will be available on the official website of the institute.

Candidates can apply for more than 1 course by submitting 2 or more application forms. Candidates can choose the time and date suitable to them and apply accordingly. Candidates can apply via online mode by following the simple steps stated below:

Step 1: Registration

  • To register for SOFT CET, applicants will be required to submit a few basic details such as Name, Date of Birth, Email-id, Mobile Phone Number, School last studied in, Test Centre, etc. and press Submit button.
  • Students must then proceed to upload scanned image of their recent, passport sized Photograph as per the specifications given on the page
  • The file should be in .jpeg format. Click on the Preview Tab to preview and verify the entire application form before ‘Final Submit’.

Step 2: Payment of Fees

  • Applicants then must proceed to pay the requisite fees which can be done through online mode.
  • Applicants must save the receipt of the transaction as proof of payment.

Step 3: Confirmation of Application

  • Candidates must print out their complete application form once the transaction is done. This page will be required for further rounds of admission.
  • After registration and successful payment of fees, a Username and Password will be provided to candidates which can be used for logging into the exam. 20 practice questions will also be provided to candidates to solve after registration.

SOFT CET 2021 Admit CardSOFT CET 2021 Admit Card will be issued to candidates who have successfully registered for the exam before the last date of registration i.e. April 2021. The admit card will be available on the official website of SOFT, Pune as the institute does not send any hardcopy of the admit card to any candidate by post.SOFT CET Hall ticket should be retained carefully as it has to be produced at the time of admission and it must be duly signed by the exam invigilator. It contains details about the individual such as the Name and Roll number, Date of SOFT CET 2021 and other details. It is an important document of the exam and no student will be allowed to enter into the exam hall without it. Follow these steps to download SOFT CET 2021 Admit CardLog on to the official website of SOFT.Go to the student’s login page. Enter username, password and security code given in the space provided. Click on ‘Login’.Admit card will appear. Save a soft copy and print it out.Participants must affix a recent, passport size photo on the admit card and carry a government issued photo ID (college ID card, PAN card, driving license, etc.) to the exam center for verification.

SOFT CET 2021 Exam PatternSOFT CET 2021 exam consists of 3 tiers – Online Test, Group Discussion/ Studio Test and Personal Interview. Candidates must note that all 3 stages of the entrance test are compulsory. The online test contains objective questions (MCQs) divided into 4 sections – Quantitative Aptitude, Verbal/ Non-verbal Reasoning, Analytical Ability and Creative Ability. Each section consists of 15 questions.Every question will be followed by 4 alternative options as answers, out of which participant will choose one that seems the most appropriate. The marking scheme is given below – Every correct answer will be awarded with +1 marks.No marks will be deducted if no response is indicated in the optical answer sheet against a question.Negative marking will not be applicable in the designing test.Mode of SOFT CET 2021 Online and OfflineNumber of questions 60Stages of exam 3Maximum marks 250 (Online Test- 60 marks, Studio Test/ Group Discussion- 140 marks and Personal Interview- 50 marks)Medium of language EnglishCheck SOFT CET 2021 Exam PatternSOFT CET 2021 SyllabusThe exam pattern will be similar to other state and national level exams for the particular courses. The exam will have questions which tests candidate’s creativity and design-related skills. The level of exam will be based on class 12th (10+2) or equivalent qualifying exam.

SOFT CET 2021 ResultSOFT CET 2021 Results will be declared on May 23, 2021(Tentative) at the official website of the institute. The result will be announced in the form of scorecard. Candidates will have to download their results by accessing their registered accounts.This can be done by following these few easy steps:Log on to the official website of SOFT, Pune.Click on the link related to ‘SOFT CET 2021 Result’.Aspirants will have to enter their username and password as given during registration. Click on ‘Submit’.The result will appear in the form of rank card. Download it and print it out for the further process of admission.SOFT, Pune will publish a merit list of candidates who qualify the exam on the website after the declaration of results. Applicants will have to send a scanned copy of their class 12 result or a screen-shot of the same and email it to as also cc it to candidature of the students will not be valid till the time the 12th Mark list is submitted and their name shall not appear in the merit list. The names of applicants will be enlisted in order of merit, according to ranks secured by them in SOFT CET 2021.NOTE: After declaration of the result candidate will be required to freeze their seat for admission within 4 days by sending e-mail to and cc it to Failing to do this, may lead to losing of seat and will be allotted to waitlisted candidates.

Social media marketing

What is social media marketing?

Social media marketing means selling or promoting the products of the company by using social media.For example social medias like Facebook Twitter Instagram Pinterest etc.

Uses of social media marketing:-

* It is used to sell or promote the products in the world level.

* With a strong social media strategy and the ability to create engaging content, marketers can engage their audience

* social media marketing allow people to get what they want.


* Facebook advertising

* Twitter advertising

* Instagram advertising

* you tube advertising

* Pinterest advertising

* LinkedIn advertising.


* Grow your sales and your fanbase.

* Use customer generated content for ads (which perform better, too!).

* Better target new and regular customers so the waste can be reduced.


* The main disadvantage of social media marketing is highly rely on ads.

* No direct interaction with the people to solve problems.

* One of main issue is security and privacy policy.Many of us can be faced.


There is no better marketing strategy for selling and promoting products than social media advertising. No other strategies can deliver consistent, scalable, quality leads and customers from day one that can supplement any promotional marketing.

Then end…


“They frame it as if the whole reason for making Facebook and building something was because I wanted to get girls or wanted to get into some kind of social institution they just can’t wrap their head around the idea that someone might build something because they like building things” – Mark Zuckerberg.

Mark Zuckerberg, the programming prodigy who turned to town for making cool things into social network dynasty the website he started in his dorm room when he was 19 years old is one of the most influential in the world with profiles for over a quarter of the world’s population. Zuckerberg became a self-made billionaire before his 24th birthday!! How is that possible that’s what we’re gonna find out…

Mark Zuckerberg was born on May 14th, 1984 in upper-middle class parents in the outskirts of New York. His father told him to go basic in the early teens and Mark really took to it. He created a program that allowed the computer at his dad’s dental office to communicate with the family computer in Colditz arcnet.

The program was an early form of messenger while in school he excelled a number of subjects from computer science to languages and literature, he transferred to Exeter prep school where he met his good friend Adam D’Angelo.

They created music software called synapse that learned what music people liked and made suggestions based on it as writer Jose Antonio Vargas said

“some kids played computer games…. Mark

created them”.  It was clear he had an entrepreneur’s mindset from an early age. Synapse was treated as a high school project but drew the attention of big software companies including Microsoft who apparently offered Zuckerberg a rumored 1 million dollars for it as well as a job before college.

Despite the job offer Zuckerberg chose to attend Harvard doing computer science and philosophy his first year of college plus without any significant creations, probably love partying. It was in his sophomore year that he began to show signs of things to come.

He created a site called Coursematch at the beginning of his second year which had led his classmates to log in and see what courses their friends. It quickly became popular which prompted Zuckerberg to try a new idea he’d recently had that he’d go on to call face masters. Facemash was created October 2003 with the intention of finding the most attractive person on campus.

Slowly a ranking was formed that created the entire thing during a tipsy eight-hour coding session that ended at 4 a.m. Despite the drunken programming, Facemash was an instant hit, been used by 450 students in one day before the Harvard admin team shut it down to new plates of sexism things.

Zuckerberg was put under probation over the incident  “I was thread with exclusion” although apparently didn’t faze him too much at the time as it’s written in David Carr Patras book the Facebook Effect “ it’s not the mark necessarily set set to break the rules… he just doesn’t pay much attention to them”.

Over the next few months, undeterred by his warning from Harvard’s, Mark worked more on computer programs simply because he enjoyed it, he created a web program that brought art images from his art in the time of Augustus class and encouraged his classmates to add comments beside them to create study aids. He then used these notes to cram for an exam far more quickly. He also created a program called six degrees of Harry Lewis, a program that created links between people and his favourite computer science professor. He also began  to work on other people’s produce , setting up a website for the association of Harvard black women and significantly helping three Harvard seniors finish coding on their web site idea the Harvard connection.

Zuckerberg was sold for the project in November, 2003 after the founders heard about Facemash through the Harvard magazine. They asked him to finish programming their social network site Harvard connection since he didn’t have much coding experience themselves Zuckerberg agreed to do it soon lost interest in favour of his own site, the Facebook. He stalled the

Harvard connection team by coding his new site and may have borrowed some ideas which led to a lawsuit and even a movie down the line although the initial idea of sourcing process may not have been entirely on the up the execution and launch of

Facebook was close to flawless. Zuckerberg bought the domain the on January 11th  for $30 and officially launched the site. On February 4th , by emailing a few of his friends to check out just four days after it launched, 450 Harvard undergrads signed up and 300 joined the following day. As previously mentioned, he had a knack for building social websites that people wanted to use.  The idea of

Facebook was to move the physical books the university issued with a picture of all the students called face books online and students to update them with more recent pictures. It also allowed students to see what other students were talking about, what their interests were and also their relationship status. Another two weeks later , Facebook had over 6,000 users which formed over three-quarters of the undergraduates as well as some alumni. Not only did thousands of students sign up but they also readily spent hours on it each day which  made it unique to every other website. Zach put a team of his roommates and friends together to handle various aspects of the project as he didn’t yet consider a business.

Eduardo Saverin handled business ,Dustin Moskovitz was a programmer, Andrew McCollum was a graphic artist and Chris shoes as a spokesman all joined the team. With the team around him that complemented his strengths and weaknesses, Zuckerberg tried to span

Facebook into other colleges starting with the Yale, Stanford and Columbia. Facebook sweat the competition and the number of people signed up kept growing.

It took them a few weeks for 80% of each of the campuses to sign up for Facebook. The team decided to rent an apartment in Palo Alto for the summer as it was where all the big start-ups seemed to come from.

After many 16-hour days, in all-nighters Facebook reached a hundred thousand users in June 2004. Just four months after its launch, a venture capital firm offered ten million dollars to buy Facebook.

He apparently didn’t even consider the offer and often said to continue drawing it for themselves. For Zach, it was never really about the money but always about really a really cool product. Over the summer, the team continued to expand Facebook’s functionality and user base. They also met Sean Parker, a Silicon Valley veteran, who became their president and introduced him to investors including

Peter Thiel who put 500k into the venture for around ten percent of the Business. All in all, a pretty solid Investment. It took Mark and his friends all of two minutes to decide to postpone their Harvard return as the social network was all about timing and they didn’t want to screw this up.

“Well that’s unclear… I am 21 but I finished my sophomore year and came out to Palo Alto fully expecting that I’d actually go back to Harvard in the fall but didn’t quite make it after Peter put his money in but started building a company instead and I got a little side-tracked but fortunately Harvard lets you take indefinite periods of time off so you know if the sever falls through… I’m back at Harvard”, he said.

They’re dropouts. The team focused on expansion, they hit many road bumps and continued to work extremely hard but it paid off for them as they reached a million users in early 2005. They continued to add more features such as the ability to share photos and post on people’s walls and their valuation kept climbing.

If we fast forward seven years, Facebookwent public in the largest tech IPO to this date and become the company over a hundred billion dollars and made all the founders billionaires while still in their early to mid-20s. While there’s no doubt Mark’s a genius. There are so many things that we can learn about him and his story so far.

Facebook was an example of a great idea at the right time with fantastic execution. They made many mistakes along the way but it all paid off in the end. One thing we have to remember is that the multi-billion dollar company that we all use today was started by a handful of forward-thinking teams in a college dorm room. With that in mind, encourage yourself to keep hustling towards your own goals!!


Gandhi first proposed a flag to the Indian National Congress in 1921. The Indian flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya.In the flag the deep saffron colour is for courage and sacrifice white colour is for honesty, peace, and purity dark green colour is for faith and chivalry and the chakra in the middle is for vigilance, perseverance, and justice.This flag was accepted in 1947.Bhikaji Rustom Cama, the fiery lady who unfurled the first version of the Indian national flag a tricolour of green, saffron, and red stripes at the International Socialist Congress held at Stuttgart

The Indian flag was designed as
A horizontal triband of India saffron, white, and India green; charged with a navy blue wheel with 24 spokes in the centre.The flag was proposed by Nehru at the Constituent Assembly on 22 July 1947 as a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron, white and dark green in equal proportions, with the Ashoka wheel in blue in the centre of the white band. From 26 January 2002, allowing private citizens to hoist the flag on any day of the year, subject to their safeguarding the dignity, honour and respect of the flag.

The end…



Global warming is defined as the global annual temperature has increased in total by a little more than 1 degree Celsius, or about 2 degrees Fahrenheit. Global warming is mainly because of the industrial revolution, burning plastics.


* Greenhouse Gases Are the Main Reasons for Global Warming.

* Another main reason for global warming is the industries.

* Deforestation is one of the reason for global warming.

* The smoke from vehicles.


* Global warming cause increase in temperature that raises sea level can cause flood.

* Global warming raises temperature in the atmosphere.

* Melting of glaciers are one of the most threat for the earth

* If global warming cause increase in temperature then there is threat for availablity of water.

* It also cause some diseases like allergies,chest pain etc.


* By decreasing deforestation and encouraging affrostration

* By making awareness programmes.

* By using natural products instead of plastics.

* By reducing burning of fossil fuels.

* By recycling the products.

The end…


Is black hole a pitch dark pit??
Want to know what a black hole is? But just give up everytime watching a typical definition soaked with physics on wikipedia about how even light can’t pass through it….Is black hole a big hole? But if it is a hole, how to get to know about its color? First of all I want to make sure it clear that a black hole is anything but empty space. Infact it is a place where huge matter is packed into a very small area…..what does that mean now??😦
Got confused🥴 okay then come with me to the wonderland of Alice where we see a magic✨ ‘gravity machine’ – a device with which we could control Earth’s gravity, by turning a dial. Initially it is at 1g, gravity that we are used to experience since childhood. Okay just turn the dial to 0g and you will see all your friends floating in the air even with the slightest motion. The tea☕ that you spilled on your beloved to make an old romantic movie scene, formed spherical globe in the air. Yes, balls of tea everywhere💦. But just to make a scene memorable I changed the dial to 1g and taadaa here you get the rain of tea🌧️ as earth got its gravity back….Now I again changed the dial to 3g to 4g…. everything becomes immoblised. Even if you want to have a normal walk under the sky with your crush, it requires enormous efforts. As kindness, I am removing you and your friend from the domain of gravity machine before I dial a higher gravity number. Okay, now I dialed 1000s, trees become squashed but beam of light is straight. Now at 1 lakh gs, rocks are crushed by their own weight but beam of light is still straight. When a gravity approaches a billion gs, something strange happens, the beam of light which was going straight to the sky starts bending. Now imagine a dial greater than billion gs, nothing, not even a beam of light can get out, it would bend back to the starting place. Such a place is called black hole. That is why it is called black: no light can escape from it. A place whose density and gravity is very high. But the question is from where it’s formed??……..(To be continued)


Cadbury, one of the biggest chocolate brands in the world with operations in more than 60 countries and billions of dollars in revenues. It is not only a brand of mouth-watering chocolates liked by Consumers of all ages, but also one with a 200 year old history filled with wonderful achievements and depressing failures.

Let’s dive into the origins and rise of Cadbury and see how they got to where they are today coming from a wealthy family of Quaker Christians in Britain, John Cadbury, just like any other member of his community was not allowed to attend Universities and his non-violent beliefs and values Kept him out from Joining the military. So, starting a business was the only option for him to make a living. That is why, in 1824 he Opened A Grocery Store In Bull Street, located in the city of Birmingham, UK.

As Alcohol was considered bad For Society by quaker community Tea, Coffee, Cocoa and drinking Chocolate were seen as healthy alternatives by them including John himself. That’s why among other things he sold high quality Cocoa and drinking Chocolate in his store, which he used to prepare using a pestle And mortar.

Due to high demand in 1831 John moved to a four-story warehouse nearby and started producing Cocoa and drinking chocolate on a commercial-scale.

Thus, the Cadbury manufacturing business was born.

Because of the high cost of production these were sold mainly to the wealthy people. By, 1842 he was selling around 11 varieties of Cocoa and 16 varieties of chocolate.

In 1847, his brother Benjamin Cadbury became a partner in the business and the company came to be known As Cadbury Brothers. The same year they rented larger factory in Birmingham which had a private canal that connected to all the major ports in Britain.

In 1854, the Cadbury Brothers of Birmingham received an exclusive royal warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and Cocoa to Queen Victoria this was a great luck for them as businesses which used to have these warrants had a better and sophisticated image among general buyers. However, just six years later in 1860, they had dissolve their partnership due to John’s wife’s Death and his declining mental and physical health. In 1861, John handed over the complete control of the business to his sons Richard and George Cadbury who were 25 and 21 at that time. During this time the market was not doing well and most chocolate manufacturers in Britain were going out of business of which Cadbury was not an exception.

Richard and George invested 4000 pounds each from their inherited money and started to work long hours to keep the business alive. But their turning point came in 1966 when they decided to buy a new type of Cocoa press developed in the Netherlands which removed much of the unpalatable Cocoa butter from the Cocoa beans. Up until this point almost all Cocoa makers including Cadbury had a high level Of Cocoa butter in it, to which they had to add starches to mask its taste and texture. But with this press, that would not be necessary anymore. However, buying this machine was a massive risk for Cadbury as it was expensive, they had very little money to invest, and no one knew if there would be enough demand for the products that came out of it.

But they decided to go for it and were the first British manufacturers to do so. Thus they introduced the Cadbury Cocoa Essence as the UK’s first unadulterated, pure Cocoa. With its high quality and extensive marketing it became extremely popular leading to dramatic sales numbers and changed the future of British Cocoa industry.

In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres of land surrounding the factory at his own expense to create a model village so that many more of their workforce could be given a healthy, pollution free And greener environment where they could thrive. By 1900, this was expanded to 330 acres with 313 cottages and houses along with other facilities like playgrounds, swimming pools and medical centres. Many more similar properties were built in.

The years leading up to the First World War, with smaller developments taking place later on in the 20th century. In 1897, Cadbury introduced their First Milk Chocolate bar. Although they were making milk chocolate drinks from 1849. This was a new recipe that they copied from contemporary Swiss Chocolate manufacturers.

But in terms of texture Swiss Chocolates were far superior as they added condensed milk instead of milk powder. Because of this, Swiss Companies dominated the British Market which Cadbury started to challenge. In 1904, Cadbury launched their Dairy milk bar. Developed by George Cadbury Junior, it was a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than any previous chocolate in the market. On the suggestion of a customer, it was named Dairy Milk. With a distinctive and attractive purple wrapper, gradually it became, Cadbury’s best-selling product by 1914.

Due to the shortage of supply, the British Government banned manufacturers from using fresh milk. So, dried skimmed milk was used instead. Due to these issues with essential supplies, the Dairy Milk and many other Cadbury products came Off the shelves during The War. But once the war ended, the company worked hard to restore their business did a lot of promotions, kept competitors away with a direct distribution chain and continued launching new products like Milk Tray Bars, Fudge, Toffee Buttons and Picnic. In a few years they were back to the game like before.

In 1969 ,they merged with Swiss Drinks company Schweppes and demerged again in 2008.

Then in 2010, Kraft Foods bought the brand for an astounding $19 billion but they themselves split into two companies one of which was named Mondelez International which owns the Cadbury brand till date.

In 2019, Mondelez ranked 116 in the Fortune 500 list of largest corporations by total revenue.

As of today, Cadbury is the second largest confectionery brand in the world with products ranging from chocolates, ice cream and beverages to biscuits, desserts, spread and much more.

With operations in more than 60 countries including the UK, USA, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia and India, it continues to be one of the most favoured name in the segment of chocolates, confectionaries and most probably would continue to be so for a long time!!

10 Skincare Tips To Be Followed During Winters

The harsh winter weather will cause flakiness and dryness of the skin, creating it look dull. Therefore, it becomes extraordinarily necessary to produce the skin with the correct nourishment, and keep it hydrous and protected. When weather condition arrives, humidness levels drop drastically, says a dermatologist.

During winters we have a tendency to all notice the skin going dry, rough and flaky. it’s important to require correct skin care throughout winters therefore on build your skin healthy and glowing.

Invest in a Skin. It is going to represent you for a very long time” –Linden Tyler.


Young woman applying cosmetic white cream on face

1. Opt for the proper moisturizer for your skin type:

Moisturizers act as a barrier, holding wetness in and hydrating the skin’s outer layers. If you’ve got oily skin, water-based, non-comedogenic moisturizers are the simplest choice. Dry skin desires a heavier, oil-based moisturizer to rehydrate. Moisturize your skin frequently and don’t forget to wear a lip balm.

2.  Avoid hot showers:

Hot water evaporates fast, stripping your skin of its essential moisture and damaging its natural protective barrier. Moisturize immediately after showering with a body lotion.

3.  Insert a humidifier:

Harsh winter weather creates a challenge for the skin as humidity is low each inside and out. Employ a humidifier helps replenish the top layer of the epidermis by preventing the air from becoming too dry.

Humidifiers are generally safe for all skin types to use. However, it is important that you take the time to clean and maintain your appliance.

4.Avoid use of harsh face cleansers:

During winters opt for creamy or balm based cleansers and products. Look for mild skin cleansers labeled as “fragrance-free.” And should also contain mild ingredients. Using a transparent body bar made with glycerin will clean and moisturize the skin without causing irritation. Always wash gently without scrubbing to avoid skin irritation.

5.  always wear a Sunblock:

Never ever skip a sunscreen in your skincare routine. The most necessary factor you’ll do for your skin is to wear sun screen each single day, even once it’s winter. Sun exposure can result in pigmentation issues, wrinkles and skin cancer. Sunscreen always protects your skin from harmful UV rays.

6.     Use facial oil during nighttime Regimen:

Look for ingredients such as rosehip oil, soybean oil, and jojoba oil and vitamin E, which all possess highly hydrating and moisturizing properties.

7.  Avoid using harsh physical and chemical exfoliators:

These include ingredients such as mineral oils and aggressive acid peels, using scrubs or acid peels on dry may create patches and peel off the skin causing skin damage. It damages the cells and reduce skin –barrier function resulting in trans epidermal water loss.

8.  Incorporate hyaluronic acid serum:

Hyaluronic acid is an incredible acid needed to add in your skincare routine. Hyaluronic acid serum acts as a humectant a substance helps the skin hold on to water. It helps to hydrate the skin and lockup moisture content into the skin.

9.  Stay hydrated:

Always try to stay hydrated consuming adequate amount of water during winter season. If your skin is dehydrated, it becomes flaky, dull and dry. Hydrated skin is smooth and radiant so keep up the water consumption so that winters don’t let go your skin dehydrated.

10.     Take additional care of your eye area and lips:

The skin here is thinner and has little-to-no oil glands to shield itself. Use serums, under eye creams and oils around the eyes that soothe and protect the skin. On the lips, use balms to supply a barrier against the weather and to lock in the moisture.

Tags: #skincareroutine #skincareduringwinter

Benefits of Thinking Positively, and How to Do It

Are you a glass half-empty or half-full sort of person? Studies have demonstrated that both can impact your physical and mental health and that being a positive thinker is the better of the two.

A recent study followed 70,000 women from 2004 to 2012 and found that those who were optimistic had a significantly lower risk of dying from several major causes of death, including:

* heart disease
* stroke
* cancer, including breast, ovarian, lung, and colorectal cancers
* infection
* respiratory diseases

Other proven benefits of thinking positively include:

* better quality of life
* higher energy levels
* better psychological and physical health
* faster recovery from injury or illness
fewer colds
* lower rates of depression
* better stress management and coping skills
* longer life span

Positive thinking isn’t magic and it won’t make all of your problems disappear. What it will do is make problems seem more manageable and help you approach hardships in a more positive and productive way.

How to think positive thoughts:
Positive thinking can be achieved through a few different techniques that have been proven effective, such as positive self-talk and positive imagery.

Here are some tips that to get you started that can help you train your brain how to think positively.

Focus on the good things:
Challenging situations and obstacles are a part of life. When you’re faced with one, focus on the good things no matter how small or seemingly insignificant they seem. If you look for it, you can always find the proverbial silver lining in every cloud — even if it’s not immediately obvious. For example, if someone cancels plans, focus on how it frees up time for you to catch up on a TV show or other activity you enjoy.

Practice gratitude:
Practicing gratitude has been shown to reduce stress, improve self-esteem, and foster resilience even in very difficult times. Think of people, moments, or things that bring you some kind of comfort or happiness and try to express your gratitude at least once a day. This can be thanking a co-worker for helping with a project, a loved one for washing the dishes, or your dog for the unconditional love they give you.

Keep a gratitude journal:
Studies Trusted Source have found that writing down the things you’re grateful for can improve your optimism and sense of well-being. You can do this by writing in a gratitude journal every day, or jotting down a list of things you’re grateful for on days you’re having a hard time.

Open yourself up to humor:
Studies have found that laughter lowers stress, anxiety, and depression. It also improves coping skills, mood, and self-esteem.

Be open to humor in all situations, especially the difficult ones, and give yourself permission to laugh. It instantly lightens the mood and makes things seem a little less difficult. Even if you’re not feeling it; pretending or forcing yourself to laugh can improve your mood and lower stress.

Spend time with positive people:
Negativity and positivity have been shown to be contagious. Consider the people with whom you’re spending time. Have you noticed how someone in a bad mood can bring down almost everyone in a room? A positive person has the opposite effect on others.

Being around positive people has been shown to improve self-esteem and increase your chances of reaching goals. Surround yourself with people who will lift you up and help you see the bright side.

Practice positive self-talk:
We tend to be the hardest on ourselves and be our own worst critic. Over time, this can cause you to form a negative opinion of yourself that can be hard to shake. To stop this, you’ll need to be mindful of the voice in your head and respond with positive messages, also known as positive self-talk.

Research shows that even a small shift in the way you talk to yourself can influence your ability to regulate your feelings, thoughts, and behavior under stress.

Here’s an example of positive self-talk: Instead of thinking “I really messed that up,” try “I’ll try it again a different way.”

Identify your areas of negativity:
Take a good look at the different areas of your life and identify the ones in which you tend to be the most negative. Not sure? Ask a trusted friend or colleague. Chances are, they’ll be able to offer some insight. A co-worker might notice that you tend to be negative at work. Your spouse may notice that you get especially negative while driving. Tackle one area at a time.

Start every day on a positive note:
Create a ritual in which you start off each day with something uplifting and positive. Here are a few ideas:

* Tell yourself that it’s going to be a great day or any other positive affirmation.
* Listen to a happy and positive song or playlist.
* Share some positivity by giving a compliment or doing something nice for someone.

How to think positive when everything is going wrong:
Trying to be positive when you’re grieving or experiencing other serious distress can seem impossible. During these times, it’s important to take the pressure off of yourself to find the silver lining. Instead, channel that energy into getting support from others.

Positive thinking isn’t about burying every negative thought or emotion you have or avoiding difficult feelings. The lowest points in our lives are often the ones that motivate us to move on and make positive changes.

When going through such a time, try to see yourself as if you were a good friend in need of comfort and sound advice. What would you say to her? You’d likely acknowledge her feelings and remind her she has every right to feel sad or angry in her situation, and then offer support with a gentle reminder that things will get better.

Side effects of negative thinking:
Negative thinking and the many feelings that can accompany it, such as pessimism, stress, and anger, can cause a number of physical symptoms and increase your risk of diseases and a shortened lifespan.

Stress and other negative emotions trigger several processes in our bodies, including stress hormone release, metabolism, and immune function. Long periods of stress increase inflammation in your body, which has also been implicated in a number or serious diseases.

Some of the symptoms of stress include:

* headache
* body aches
* nausea
* fatigue
* difficulty sleeping
Cynicism, stress, anger, and hostility have been linked to a higher risk of:

* heart disease
* heart attack
* stroke
* dementia

When to seek medical help:
If you’re feeling consumed by negative thoughts and are having trouble controlling your emotions, see a doctor. You may benefit from medical help, such as positive psychology or therapy. Persistent negative thoughts can be caused by an underlying psychiatric condition that requires treatment.

You won’t be able to undo years of pessimism and negative thoughts overnight, but with some practice, you can learn how to approach things with a more positive outlook.


John S. Pemberton  first produced a drink in 1866 and named it COCA-COLA.

It is a really astonishing fact that the beverage with 1.9 million daily servings was initially made as an alternative to morphine, a pain reliever.

Pemberton was working as a colonel in the confederate during the American Civil War as well as a pharmacist. He sustained a saber injury from the war in April 1865 and was prescribed morphine to relieve his pain.

He realised that gradually we was becoming addictive to morphine and decided to prepare an alternative that would not contain morphine in it. He then experimented with a lot of different pain relievers.

After a lot of trials, he finally came up with an alcoholic wine that he called Pemberton’s French Wine Coca. The drink was mixed up with cocaine  extracted from coca leaves and caffeine from kola nut. Pemberton registered this French Wine in 1885. In 1886, Atlanta and Fulton County prohibited that wine,

This led to development of a non-alcoholic version of the wine.

Pemberton relied upon the Atlanta drugstore owner Wills E. Venable to help him perfect the product.

While trying to make the beverage, he accidently mixed the base syrup with  carbonated water which eventually gave birth to the drink Coca- Cola.

Frank Mason Robinson, Pemberton’s bookkeeper and partner came up with the name Coca-Cola which is the hybrid of the coca in Cocaine and cola ad in kola nut spelled as ‘cola nut’ at that time. Robinson also hand wrote, using the standard writing script for business correspondence in the U.S. at that time; Spencerian script on the bottles and ads, which are still in use until today.

The Coca-Cola was first sold at Jacob’s Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia on the 8th of May, 1886 at 5 cents per glass at soda fountains, which were popular at that time in U.S. due to the belief that the carbonated water was good for the health.

Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola as a brain tonic which could cure many diseases such as morphine addictions, headaches, nerve disorders and impotence. It sold 25 US gallons the first year. By 1888, three versions  of Coca- Cola were produced and sold by three separate businesses. Years later Asa Griggs Candler, an Atlanta Pharmacist and businessman stated in the testimony that he had acquired stakes for $2,300 in Pemberton’s company as early as 1887. Candler sold products called ‘yum yum’ and ‘koke’ which he prepared with the same formula while Charley Pemberton, the son of John Pemberton, kept selling cruder syrup under the name of Coca-Cola. After the death of Pemberton, Candler bought the name ‘ Coca-Cola’ for $300.

By 1888, Candler had the full control over the ‘Coca-Cola’ company. In 1889, Benjamin Thomas and Joseph Whitehead, two entrepreneurs from Chattanooga, Tennessee suggested bottling and offered to be in charge of the procedure. They were so compelling that Candler agreed to a contract of only one dollar granting

them exclusive rights to bottle and sell the Coca-Cola.

Candler never collected his one dollar.

The first bottling of Coca-Cola was done in Biedenharn Candy Company in Vicksburg, Mississippi

in 1894 with John Biedenharn as proprietor.

In 1899, the first Coca-Cola bottling company was set up in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

The contract came with many issues for the Coca-Cola Company.

It stated that each bottle was to be sold at 5 cents without stating a specific period.

As a result, a bottle of Coca-Cola was sold at 5 cents from 1886 to 1959.

The first outdoor wall advertisement of Coca-Cola was painted in Cartersville, Georgia in 1894.

Coca-Cola from 20th Century In 1910, the papers of the old Coca-Cola Company

were burned during a move to New Corporation offices and surprisingly in 1914, Margaret

Dozier, came out to profess that her signature on the Coca-Cola company bill of sale was


Analysis of certain similar transfer documents showed that John Pemberton’s signature was

forged and some accounts show that Charley Pemberton did it.

However, on September 12, 1919, a group of investors purchased the company for $25 million

and proceeded to release five hundred thousand shares to the public with each share costing

about $40.

In the same year, the company merged with Johnston Coca-Cola Bottling Group Inc. and

in 1986, the Coca-Cola company merged with two of its bottling companies, owned by HTL

corporation and BCI Holding company, to become Coca-Cola Enterprises Inc.

The longest running soda fountain that sold Coca-Cola was Fleeman’s pharmacy, established

in 1914 and existed for 81 years until 1995.

On July 12, 1944, the one-billionth gallon of Coca-Cola syrup was produced.

In 1955 the Coca-Cola cans were first introduced.

On April 23, 1985, Coca-Cola tried to change the formula of the syrup by preparing “New


Subsequent taste tests showed that people loved the taste of New coke better than Coke

or Pepsi and the company went on to produce more of it.

Soon after, the public wanted the old Coca-Cola soda back.

The Coca-Cola Company granted the wish of the public and produced the old drink with

a slight variation in the main sweetener; using high fructose corn syrup instead of

cane sugar.

This new drink was produced under the name Coca-Cola Classic on July 10, 1985.

Coca Cola in Recent Years On July 5, 2005, it was announced that Coca-Cola

would resume production in Iraq for the first time since the Arab league refused its use

in 1968.

By April 2007, Canada removed the “Classic” from the name, as New Coke was no longer in

production, so there was no need to differentiate between the two kinds of coke.

In 2009, Coca-Cola introduced the 7.5-ounce mini can.

Also in 2009, the “Classic” was removed from the 470 ml bottles of Coca-Cola sold in the

South Eastern United States and in 2011; “Classic” was removed from all Coca-Cola products.

In September 2011, the Coca Cola Company announced price reductions asking retailers to sell

eight packs at $2.99.

That same day, the company announced that the 12.5 ounces would sell at 89 cents and

the 16 ounces would sell at 99 cents.

In 2012, Coca-Cola resumed operations in Myanmar after 60 years of absence due to investment

sanction imposed on the US.

In 2013, the company announced that Coca-Cola Life would be introduced to Argentina and

other parts of the world.

This drink contained stevia and sugar but the production of Coca-Cola Life was discontinued

in Britain in June 2017.

Coca-Cola together with its investors is working to invest $5billion in their operations in

India by 2020.

Presently, The Coca-Cola Company owns several outlets around the world with the headquarters

situated as a 29 story; 403-foot tall building in Atlanta, Georgia called the One Coca-Cola


As of 2017, the company employed 61,800 members of staff with Muhtar Kent as the Chairman

of the Board and James Quincey as the President and Chief Executive Officer.

The net income in 2017 estimated around $1.4 billion with total assets worth $87.8 billion

and estimated net worth around $180 billion.


What is Education? The first thing that strikes in our minds when we think about education is gaining knowledge. Education is a tool which provides people with knowledge, skill, technique, information, enables them to know their rights and duties toward their family, society as well as the nation. It expands vision and outlook to see the world. It develops the capabilities to fight against injustice, violence, corruption and many other bad elements in the society.

Education gives us knodwledge of the world around us. It develops in us a perspective of looking at life. It is the most important element in the evolution of the nation. Without education, one will not explore new ideas. It means one will not able to develop the world because without ideas there is no creativity and without creativity, there is no development of the nation.

Importance of Education in Our Society
Education is an important aspect that plays a huge role in the modern, industrialized world. People need a good education to be able to survive in this competitive world. Modern society is based on people who have high living standards and knowledge which allows them to implement better solutions to their problems.

Features of Education

Education empowers everyone. Some of the areas where education helps are:
1. Removing Poverty
Education helps in removing poverty as if a person is educated, he can get a good job and fulfill all the basic needs & requirement of his family.

2. Safety and Security against Crime
If a person is well-educated, he will not be fooled by anyone easily. An educated person is less prone to involve in domestic violence & other social evils. They enjoy healthy relationships in life. This means people are less susceptible to being cheated or becoming a victim of violence.

3. Prevention of Wars and Terrorism
To lead a safe & secure life, one needs to understand the value of education in our daily life. One needs to take an active part in various educational activities. These types of productive activities provide knowledge to live a better life.

4. Commerce and Trade
A good education doesn’t simply mean going to school or college & getting a degree. Trade & commerce of the country will also be flourished easily if its citizens are well-educated. Education helps to become self-dependent and build great confidence among them to accomplish difficult tasks. On getting an education, their standard of life gets improved.

5. Law and Order
Education enables the process of the Nation’s Fast Development. If you have a good education, you can serve your country well. It develops a good political ideology.

6. Women Empowerment
Education also helps in empowering women. Certain old customs like Not Remarrying Widows, Sati Pratha, Child Marriage, Dowry System etc. can be demolished with the power of education. Women, if educated, can raise voice against the injustice done to her. This will bring a lot of development in society as well as in the nation. In short, Right to Freedom of speech & expression can be used in the right way if all women will become educated.

7. Upliftment of economically weaker sections of society
Education is the most important ingredient to change the world. Due to lack of education, many illiterate people suffer the hardships of discrimination, untouchability & injustices prevailing in the society but with the advancement of a good education. If all the people will be educated; this ultimately leads to the upliftment of economically weaker sections of society.

8. Communications
The relation between education & communication is apparent. Good education helps to communicate better with other people. It also improves our communication skills such as speech, body language etc. A person who is educated feels confident within him to confront or give a speech in front of a large public or can held a meeting or seminar.

One of the most important benefits of education is that it improves persnal lives and helps the society to run smoothly. By providing education, poverty can be removed and every person can provide their contribution to developing the country.

The first thing that strikes in our minds when we think about education is gaining knowledge. Education is a tool which provides people with knowledge, skill, technique, information, enables them to know their rights and duties toward their family, society as well as the nation. It expands vision and outlook to see the world. It develops the capabilities to fight against injustice, violence, corruption and many other bad elements in the society.

Education gives us knowledge of the world around us. It develops in us a perspective of looking at life. It is the most important element in the evolution of the nation. Without education, one will not explore new ideas. It means one will not able to develop the world because without ideas there is no creativity and without creativity, there is no development of the nation.

Importance of Education in Our Society
Education is an important aspect that plays a huge role in the modern, industrialized world. People need a good education to be able to survive in this competitive world. Modern society is based on people who have high living standards and knowledge which allows them to implement better solutions to their problems.

Features of Education

Education empowers everyone. Some of the areas where education helps are:
1. Removing Poverty
Education helps in removing poverty as if a person is educated, he can get a good job and fulfill all the basic needs & requirement of his family.

2. Safety and Security against Crime
If a person is well-educated, he will not be fooled by anyone easily. An educated person is less prone to involve in domestic violence & other social evils. They enjoy healthy relationships in life. This means people are less susceptible to being cheated or becoming a victim of violence.

3. Prevention of Wars and Terrorism
To lead a safe & secure life, one needs to understand the value of education in our daily life. One needs to take an active part in various educational activities. These types of productive activities provide knowledge to live a better life.

4. Commerce and Trade
A good education doesn’t simply mean going to school or college & getting a degree. Trade & commerce of the country will also be flourished easily if its citizens are well-educated. Education helps to become self-dependent and build great confidence among them to accomplish difficult tasks. On getting an education, their standard of life gets improved.

5. Law and Order
Education enables the process of the Nation’s Fast Development. If you have a good education, you can serve your country well. It develops a good political ideology.

6. Women Empowerment
Education also helps in empowering women. Certain old customs like Not Remarrying Widows, Sati Pratha, Child Marriage, Dowry System etc. can be demolished with the power of education. Women, if educated, can raise voice against the injustice done to her. This will bring a lot of development in society as well as in the nation. In short, Right to Freedom of speech & expression can be used in the right way if all women will become educated.

7. Upliftment of economically weaker sections of society
Education is the most important ingredient to change the world. Due to lack of education, many illiterate people suffer the hardships of discrimination, untouchability & injustices prevailing in the society but with the advancement of a good education. If all the people will be educated; this ultimately leads to the upliftment of economically weaker sections of society.

8. Communications
The relation between education & communication is apparent. Good education helps to communicate better with other people. It also improves our communication skills such as speech, body language etc. A person who is educated feels confident within him to confront or give a speech in front of a large public or can held a meeting or seminar.

One of the most important benefits of education is that it improves personal lives and helps the society to run smoothly. By providing education, poverty can be removed and every person can provide their contribution to developing the country.

The end…


With more than 30,000 cafes around the globe, Starbucks has become a well known name across the world. From its iconic and popular cups with espresso inside them, Starbucks evolved from on coffee bean shop in Seattle to a brand with $80 billion business over 48 years. Starbucks cover total of 57% sales in the cafe market.

You heard it right!!

57% is not a small number. Nearly 2/3 of the coffee sold in the U.S. comes from Starbucks. But this itself has come with real pains. With 14,000 locations in U.S. alone, Starbucks has spread itself too thin.

Having too many stores out there led to fewer transactions in individual stores. To compensate the loss of fewer transactions, the company tried to increase the prices of their products. Doing this frequently can drive the customers away.

So, what strategy did Starbucks use to attract its customers ?

This was the time of 1970. Three college friends Zev Siegl, Jerry Baldwin and Gordon Bowker decided to go for a coffee business. They found a mentor in Alfred Peet, founder of Peet’s coffee and the man behind the custom coffee roasting to the U.S. So, with the help of Peet, the three friends founded Starbucks , a coffee bean shop and roastery at Seattle’s famous Pike Place Market in 1971. Peet helped those young entrepreneurs with coffee beans and helped them to connect with coffee brokers to provide the source to get their own roasted coffee beans until they could set up their own roastery. For the first decade, the founders opened the branches of Starbucks at 5 locations. At that time, the conventions coffee consumers found out a glaring absence that was actual coffee drinks or the actual cups made especially for coffee. There was no actual bars and no such demand for espresso based drink at that period of time. People usually take coffee beans their homes and just with simple method, they used to brew the coffee. No one had the thought of getting a beverage at a Starbucks coffee shop until 1980. Initial focus of Starbucks was the high quality coffee as customers were more focused on the canned coffee.  The company hired its first Director of Marketing and Sales, Howard Schultz. That man was very professional to the level where he became the CEO of Starbucks later.

In 1983, Schultz went To Italy and returns with an idea that was turning the coffee bean stores into cafes. Starbucks launched its first latte the next year. That experiment was a success and four years later Schultz partnered with the investors and bought Starbucks with $3.8 million. Schultz proposed a strategy of aggressive expansion.

By 1996, the company had opened the cafes in the more than thousand  locations including the international cafes in Japan and Singapore.

Growth was too rapid in the case of Starbucks that in just three years later, the company opened the café in 2000th location as well.

Schultz switched from CEO to Executive Chairman at 2000. Between 2000 and 2007, Starbucks witnessed the extreme growth that the number of its cafes got more than quadrupled like 3,500 to 15,000 cafes directly.

Sales hot up from $2 billion to $9.4 billion in that period. But then Starbucks hit a wall.

The 2007 financial crash:

The growth from that year remained constant. The stock price fell by 50 percent. So Starbucks brought back Howard Schultz.

This news alone raised the Starbucks stock by 9 percent. He laid off 6,700 baristas in the café. He wanted customers to remember his brand. Schultz ordered all the cafes in the U.S. locations to call off in the afternoon so that he could show the baristas how to make the signature espresso. He wanted to make the customers to experience real life coffee in the stores to let it remember fresh in their minds. Schultz even ordered to remove automatic espresso machines.

Schultz’s strategy worked and the company stock price soared up by 149 percent in 2009. The company has been gaining positive reviews since then.

Starbucks took the big step of opening the new kind of stores that are Starbucks Reserve Roasteries. These massive foot stores are designed to be a tourist destination. Here, Starbucks baristas experiment new and different brewing methods to come up with delicious beverages. With this , Starbucks decided to come up with something new for the customers every now and then.

Wireless PANs


Wireless PANs (WPANs) have caused the latest revolution in wireless technology. WPAN’s are short to very short-range (from a couple of centimeters to a couple of meters) wireless networks that can use to exchange information between devices within reach of an individual. WPANs can be used to replace cables between computers and peripherals; share multimedia content amongst devices; build an infrastructure for sensor networking applications, or establish various location-aware services. The best example represents Wireless Personal Area Networks in the industry-standard Bluetooth found in many consumer electronics such as cell phones, PDAs, wireless headsets, wireless mouse, and wireless keyboards.

Why Wireless PANs ?

Personal Area Networks(PAN’s) was first demonstrated by IBM researchers in 1996 that utilized the human body to exchange digital information. Engineers use picoamp currents through the body at very low frequencies of around 1MHz. The low power and frequencies prevented eavesdropping and interference to neighboring PAN’s. In this way, they created a new way to communicate between body-borne appliances by using the human body as a channel. The only Limitation was that some form of human contact between devices is required, which may not always be desirable or possible. To get around this problem of human contact, other alternatives such as IR(Infrared) or Far-field (radio) communications have been considered. Using wireless methods such as IR or radio frequency (RF) for PAN’s is known as WPAN, which are typically smaller, operate on battery power, and either worn on a human body or carried personally. The main design goal of WPANs is to allow either stationary or moving devices that are close to communicating and exchanging information without wires. WPANs should allow devices to create or provide data/voice access points is within a Personal Operating Space(POS) of up to 10 meters in all directions and envelops a stationary or a mobile person.

Chapter 15 Wireless LANs and PANs Outline n
The scope of various WLANs and WPANs

The WPANs systems are currently expected to provide secure modes of operation, allowing groups of personal devices to interconnect while excluding connectivity to other non-essentials. They should not affect the primary function, the form factor, and power consumption of the devices in which they are embedded. As WPANs primarily use the license-free radio frequencies (e.g., ISM band), they have to coexist with other RF technologies that make of these frequencies. A WPAN is functionally similar to a WLAN while it differs in power consumption, coverage range rate, and cost.

Advantages Of WPANs :

  • In PAN no extra space is required.
  • It is secure.
  • Connect to any device at nay time.
  • It is reliable.
  • It is easy to use.
  • It is portable.
  • It is used in TV remotes, AC remotes and so on.
  • Data can be synchronized between different devices.

Disadvantages Of WPANs :

  • It can operate only in short range of areas
  • It is slow data transfer.
  • It has limited range.
  • Infrared signal travel only in a straight line.
  • It use microwave signals in some digital devices which have and effect on the human body like rain and heart problems may occur.
  • It is more expensive.

Maroju Sanjana


Pluto (minor-planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. It was the first and the largest Kuiper belt object to be discovered. After Pluto was discovered in 1930, it was declared to be the ninth planet from the Sun. Beginning in the 1990s, its status as a planet was questioned following the discovery of several objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt and the scattered disc, including the dwarf planet Eris. This led the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 2006 to formally define the term planet excluding Pluto and reclassifying it as a dwarf planet.

Pluto is the ninth-largest and tenth-most-massive known object directly orbiting the Sun. It is the largest known trans-Neptunian object by volume but is less massive than Eris. Like other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto is primarily made of ice and rock and is relatively small—one-sixth the mass of the Moon and one-third its volume. It has a moderately eccentric and inclined orbit during which it ranges from 30 to 49 astronomical units or AU (4.4–7.4 billion km) from the Sun. This means that Pluto periodically comes closer to the Sun than Neptune, but a stable orbital resonance with Neptune prevents them from colliding. Light from the Sun takes 5.5 hours to reach Pluto at its average distance (39.5 AU).

Pluto has five known moons: Charon (the largest, with a diameter just over half that of Pluto), Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Pluto and Charon are sometimes considered a binary system because the barycenter of their orbits does not lie within either body.

The New Horizons spacecraft performed a flyby of Pluto on July 14, 2015, becoming the first and, to date, only spacecraft to do so. During its brief flyby, New Horizons made detailed measurements and observations of Pluto and its moons. In September 2016, astronomers announced that the reddish-brown cap of the north pole of Charon is composed of tholins, organic macromolecules that may be ingredients for the emergence of life, and produced from methane, nitrogen and other gases released from the atmosphere of Pluto and transferred 19,000 km (12,000 mi) to the orbiting moon.

Orbit :

Pluto was discovered in 1930 near the star δ Geminorum, and merely coincidentally crossing the ecliptic at this time of discovery. Pluto moves about 7 degrees east per decade with small apparent retrograde motion as seen from Earth. Pluto was closer to the Sun than Neptune between 1979 and 1999.

Pluto’s orbital period is currently about 248 years. Its orbital characteristics are substantially different from those of the planets, which follow nearly circular orbits around the Sun close to a flat reference plane called the ecliptic. In contrast, Pluto’s orbit is moderately inclined relative to the ecliptic (over 17°) and moderately eccentric (elliptical). This eccentricity means a small region of Pluto’s orbit lies closer to the Sun than Neptune’s. The Pluto–Charon barycenter came to perihelion on September 5, 1989, and was last closer to the Sun than Neptune between February 7, 1979, and February 11, 1999.

Although the 3:2 resonance with Neptune (see below) is maintained, Pluto’s inclination and eccentricity behave in a chaotic manner. Computer simulations can be used to predict its position for several million years (both forward and backward in time), but after intervals much longer than the Lyapunov time of 10–20 million years, calculations become unreliable: Pluto is sensitive to immeasurably small details of the Solar System, hard-to-predict factors that will gradually change Pluto’s position in its orbit.


Pluto’s rotation period, its day, is equal to 6.387 Earth days. Like Uranus, Pluto rotates on its “side” in its orbital plane, with an axial tilt of 120°, and so its seasonal variation is extreme; at its solstices, one-fourth of its surface is in continuous daylight, whereas another fourth is in continuous darkness.The reason for this unusual orientation has been debated. Research from the University of Arizona has suggested that it may be due to the way that a body’s spin will always adjust to minimise energy. This could mean a body reorienting itself to put extraneous mass near the equator and regions lacking mass tend towards the poles. This is called polar wander. According to a paper released from the University of Arizona, this could be caused by masses of frozen nitrogen building up in shadowed areas of the dwarf planet. These masses would cause the body to reorient itself, leading to its unusual axial tilt of 120°. The buildup of nitrogen is due to Pluto’s vast distance from the Sun. At the equator, temperatures can drop to −240 °C (−400.0 °F; 33.1 K), causing nitrogen to freeze as water would freeze on Earth. The same effect seen on Pluto would be observed on Earth were the Antarctic ice sheet several times larger.


Pluto has a tenuous atmosphere consisting of nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4), and carbon monoxide (CO), which are in equilibrium with their ices on Pluto’s surface. According to the measurements by New Horizons, the surface pressure is about 1 Pa (10 μbar),roughly one million to 100,000 times less than Earth’s atmospheric pressure.

It was initially thought that, as Pluto moves away from the Sun, its atmosphere should gradually freeze onto the surface; studies of New Horizons data and ground-based occultations show that Pluto’s atmospheric density increases, and that it likely remains gaseous throughout Pluto’s orbit. New Horizons observations showed that atmospheric escape of nitrogen to be 10,000 times less than expected.Alan Stern has contended that even a small increase in Pluto’s surface temperature can lead to exponential increases in Pluto’s atmospheric density; from 18 hPa to as much as 280 hPa (three times that of Mars to a quarter that of the Earth). At such densities, nitrogen could flow across the surface as liquid.Just like sweat cools the body as it evaporates from the skin, the sublimation of Pluto’s atmosphere cools its surface.The presence of atmospheric gases was traced up to 1670 kilometers high; the atmosphere does not have a sharp upper boundary.


Pluto has five known natural satellites. The closest to Pluto is Charon. First identified in 1978 by astronomer James Christy, Charon is the only moon of Pluto that may be in hydrostatic equilibrium. Charon’s mass is sufficient to cause the barycenter of the Pluto–Charon system to be outside Pluto. Beyond Charon there are four much smaller circumbinary moons. In order of distance from Pluto they are Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Nix and Hydra were both discovered in 2005, Kerberos was discovered in 2011,and Styx was discovered in 2012.The satellites’ orbits are circular (eccentricity < 0.006) and coplanar with Pluto’s equator (inclination < 1°),and therefore tilted approximately 120° relative to Pluto’s orbit. The Plutonian system is highly compact: the five known satellites orbit within the inner 3% of the region where prograde orbits would be stable.


Pluto’s origin and identity had long puzzled astronomers. One early hypothesis was that Pluto was an escaped moon of Neptune knocked out of orbit by Neptune’s largest current moon, Triton. This idea was eventually rejected after dynamical studies showed it to be impossible because Pluto never approaches Neptune in its orbit.

Pluto’s true place in the Solar System began to reveal itself only in 1992, when astronomers began to find small icy objects beyond Neptune that were similar to Pluto not only in orbit but also in size and composition. This trans-Neptunian population is thought to be the source of many short-period comets. Pluto is now known to be the largest member of the Kuiper belt,a stable belt of objects located between 30 and 50 AU from the Sun. As of 2011, surveys of the Kuiper belt to magnitude 21 were nearly complete and any remaining Pluto-sized objects are expected to be beyond 100 AU from the Sun. Like other Kuiper-belt objects (KBOs), Pluto shares features with comets; for example, the solar wind is gradually blowing Pluto’s surface into space.It has been claimed that if Pluto were placed as near to the Sun as Earth, it would develop a tail, as comets do.This claim has been disputed with the argument that Pluto’s escape velocity is too high for this to happen. It has been proposed that Pluto may have formed as a result of the agglomeration of numerous comets and Kuiper-belt objects.

The end….


sensor is a device that produces an output signal for the purpose of sensing of a physical phenomenon.

In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem that detects events or changes in its environment and sends the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. Sensors are always used with other electronics.

Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base, and in innumerable applications of which most people are never aware. With advances in micromachinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the traditional fields of temperature, pressure and flow measurement, for example into MARG sensors.

Analog sensors such as potentiometers and force-sensing resistors are still widely used. Their applications include manufacturing and machinery, airplanes and aerospace, cars, medicine, robotics and many other aspects of our day-to-day life. There is a wide range of other sensors that measure chemical and physical properties of materials, including optical sensors for refractive index measurement, vibrational sensors for fluid viscosity measurement, and electro-chemical sensors for monitoring pH of fluids.

A sensor’s sensitivity indicates how much its output changes when the input quantity it measures changes. For instance, if the mercury in a thermometer moves 1 cm when the temperature changes by 1 °C, its sensitivity is 1 cm/°C (it is basically the slope dy/dx assuming a linear characteristic). Some sensors can also affect what they measure; for instance, a room temperature thermometer inserted into a hot cup of liquid cools the liquid while the liquid heats the thermometer. Sensors are usually designed to have a small effect on what is measured; making the sensor smaller often improves this and may introduce other advantages.

Technological progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a microscopic scale as microsensors using MEMS technology. In most cases, a microsensor reaches a significantly faster measurement time and higher sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches. Due to the increasing demand for rapid, affordable and reliable information in today’s world, disposable sensors low-cost and easy‐to‐use devices for short‐term monitoring or single‐shot measurements have recently gained growing importance. Using this class of sensors, critical analytical information can be obtained by anyone, anywhere and at any time, without the need for recalibration and worrying about contamination.

Classification of measurement errors:

A good sensor obeys the following rules:

* it is sensitive to the measured property
* it is insensitive to any other property likely to be encountered in its application, and
* it does not influence the measured property.
Most sensors have a linear transfer function. The sensitivity is then defined as the ratio between the output signal and measured property. For example, if a sensor measures temperature and has a voltage output, the sensitivity is a constant with the units [V/K]. The sensitivity is the slope of the transfer function. Converting the sensor’s electrical output (for example V) to the measured units (for example K) requires dividing the electrical output by the slope (or multiplying by its reciprocal). In addition, an offset is frequently added or subtracted. For example, −40 must be added to the output if 0 V output corresponds to −40 C input.

For an analog sensor signal to be processed, or used in digital equipment, it needs to be converted to a digital signal, using an analog-to-digital converter.

Sensor deviations :

Since sensors cannot replicate an ideal transfer function, several types of deviations can occur which limit sensor accuracy:

* Since the range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually reach a minimum or maximum when the measured property exceeds the limits. The full scale range defines the maximum and minimum values of the measured property.[citation needed]
* The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity error. This is an error in the slope of a linear transfer function.
* If the output signal differs from the correct value by a constant, the sensor has an offset error or bias. This is an error in the y-intercept of a linear transfer function.
* Nonlinearity is deviation of a sensor’s transfer function from a straight line transfer function. Usually, this is defined by the amount the output differs from ideal behavior over the full range of the sensor, often noted as a percentage of the full range.
* Deviation caused by rapid changes of the measured property over time is a dynamic error. Often, this behavior is described with a bode plot showing sensitivity error and phase shift as a function of the frequency of a periodic input signal.
* If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured property, this is defined as drift. Long term drift over months or years is caused by physical changes in the sensor.
* Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in time.
* A hysteresis error causes the output value to vary depending on the previous input values. If a sensor’s output is different depending on whether a specific input value was reached by increasing vs. decreasing the input, then the sensor has a hysteresis error.


The sensor resolution or measurement resolution is the smallest change that can be detected in the quantity that it is being measured. The resolution of a sensor with a digital output is usually the numerical resolution of the digital output. The resolution is related to the precision with which the measurement is made, but they are not the same thing. A sensor’s accuracy may be considerably worse than its resolution.

For example, the distance resolution is the minimum distance that can be accurately measured by any distance measuring devices. In a time-of-flight camera, the distance resolution is usually equal to the standard deviation (total noise) of the signal expressed in unit of length.

The sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties other than the property being measured. For example, most sensors are influenced by the temperature of their environment.

Chemical sensor:

A chemical sensor is a self-contained analytical device that can provide information about the chemical composition of its environment, that is, a liquid or a gas phase. The information is provided in the form of a measurable physical signal that is correlated with the concentration of a certain chemical species (termed as analyte). Two main steps are involved in the functioning of a chemical sensor, namely, recognition and transduction. In the recognition step, analyte molecules interact selectively with receptor molecules or sites included in the structure of the recognition element of the sensor. Consequently, a characteristic physical parameter varies and this variation is reported by means of an integrated transducer that generates the output signal. A chemical sensor based on recognition material of biological nature is a biosensor. However, as synthetic biomimetic materials are going to substitute to some extent recognition biomaterials, a sharp distinction between a biosensor and a standard chemical sensor is superfluous. Typical biomimetic materials used in sensor development are molecularly imprinted polymers and aptamers.


In biomedicine and biotechnology, sensors which detect analytes thanks to a biological component, such as cells, protein, nucleic acid or biomimetic polymers, are called biosensors. Whereas a non-biological sensor, even organic (carbon chemistry), for biological analytes is referred to as sensor or nanosensor. This terminology applies for both in-vitro and in vivo applications. The encapsulation of the biological component in biosensors, presents a slightly different problem that ordinary sensors; this can either be done by means of a semipermeable barrier, such as a dialysis membrane or a hydrogel, or a 3D polymer matrix, which either physically constrains the sensing macromolecule or chemically constrains the macromolecule by bounding it to the scaffold.

Neuromorphic sensors :

Neuromorphic sensors are sensors that physically mimic structures and functions of biological neural entities.[8] One example of this is the event camera.

MOS sensors :

Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology originates from the MOSFET (MOS field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor) invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng in 1959, and demonstrated in 1960. MOSFET sensors (MOS sensors) were later developed, and they have since been widely used to measure physical, chemical, biological and environmental parameters.

Biochemical sensors:

A number of MOSFET sensors have been developed, for measuring physical, chemical, biological and environmental parameters. The earliest MOSFET sensors include the open-gate field-effect transistor (OGFET) introduced by Johannessen in 1970, the ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) invented by Piet Bergveld in 1970, the adsorption FET (ADFET) patented by P.F. Cox in 1974, and a hydrogen-sensitive MOSFET demonstrated by I. Lundstrom, M.S. Shivaraman, C.S. Svenson and L. Lundkvist in 1975. The ISFET is a special type of MOSFET with a gate at a certain distance, and where the metal gate is replaced by an ion-sensitive membrane, electrolyte solution and reference electrode. The ISFET is widely used in biomedical applications, such as the detection of DNA hybridization, biomarker detection from blood, antibody detection, glucose measurement, pH sensing, and genetic technology.

Image sensors:

MOS technology is the basis for modern image sensors, including the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the CMOS active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor), used in digital imaging and digital cameras. Willard Boyle and George E. Smith developed the CCD in 1969. While researching the MOS process, they realized that an electric charge was the analogy of the magnetic bubble and that it could be stored on a tiny MOS capacitor. As it was fairly straightforward to fabricate a series of MOS capacitors in a row, they connected a suitable voltage to them so that the charge could be stepped along from one to the next. The CCD is a semiconductor circuit that was later used in the first digital video cameras for television broadcasting.

The MOS active-pixel sensor (APS) was developed by Tsutomu Nakamura at Olympus in 1985.The CMOS active-pixel sensor was later developed by Eric Fossum and his team in the early 1990s.

Monitoring sensors:

MOS monitoring sensors are used for house monitoring, office and agriculture monitoring, traffic monitoring (including car speed, traffic jams, and traffic accidents), weather monitoring (such as for rain, wind, lightning and storms), defense monitoring, and monitoring temperature, humidity, air pollution, fire, health, security and lighting.MOS gas detector sensors are used to detect carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and other gas substances.Other MOS sensors include intelligent sensors and wireless sensor network (WSN) technology

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You got your pay-check in the end of the month. Congrats!! But now what? Either spend it or save it. Now, you know the things on which you want to spend the money. But a lot of people don’t know how to save money in such a way where the money they saved does not lose its value but in reality let it increase. Now, you must have this in your mind – How?

Simple, through investing it. There are four different areas where people usually invest in our country. First is Savings Account, second is Fixed Deposit, third is Gold or Jewellery and the last is real estate. Another way is investing in the stock market where the risk is comparatively higher.

Every investment contains three aspects viz. Return, Time and Risk.

Return is basically the profit you actually get through your investment and make sure that the profit percentage is higher than the inflation rate in your area otherwise the investment that you make would not make any sense.

Risk is about the chance of how much money can you lose through your investment. What are the chances of going in loss after investing in certain area , this mainly come under the risk aspect.

Time is about for how long are you planning to invest.

Savings account has the minimum risk with no restriction. You can take or save your money at any time. But the return is something in savings account which you have to compromise. In simply words, ROI ( Return In Investment ) in this case is low.

Fixed deposit is also another less risky option but there is a time limit here in which you can not take your money out. But the return here is slightly higher than that of savings account.

There is no risk in investing in Gold and Jewellery but ROI is not confirmed as their prices fluctuate a lot.

Investing in real estate depends on a lot of factors especially the area. There is a low to moderate risk in investing it. As the fluctuation of prices prevail here as well. You need a lot of capital as well in order to invest in the real estate.

Investment into the stocks may lead to higher return and higher loss as well. It depends on the stock in which you are investing.

It is advised to invest in multiple arenas in order to avoid higher risks.

What are Mutual Funds?

It is a special kind of investment through which you can invest on different types together. It is a better way of diversifying your investments by investing in a one place.

An asset management company collects money from different investors. Afterwards, it invests that money in different places. The collectively return that it gets is given to you after deducting small percent of it for the company itself. A lot of organisations have their own asset management companies. The risk and return all depends on which kind of mutual funds you are investing in.

Types of mutual funds:

There can be different types of mutual funds according to the places on which asset management company is investing.

Equity Mutual funds:

In equity mutual funds, money is invested in the stock market. In this category, generally risks and return both are high. If the investment in big company then it is called large cap equity fund and so on.

Diversified Equity Fund:

Here the investment is done in the large cap, medium cap and small cap companies simultaneously or it is done in different companies.

Equity Linked Saving Scheme (ELSS):

In this scheme you can save your tax that you get in the profit. The fund manager purposedly invests in the places where there is large return and large risks.

Index Funds:

Index funds are passively managed fund where no agent of asset management company looks for the places to invest. The return on these funds depend on the market price.

Debt Investment:

These are mutual funds which are invested in debt instruments like bonds, debentures and certificate of deposits.

What are bonds?

When government borrows money from people as loans then that is called a bond. The government will return the money to you with a fixed interest.

Hybrid Mutual funds:

 In this type, the money is invested in both equity and debt mutual funds.

For investing the money, you should gather the complete information about the type of investment you want to make first. Afterwards, make the right decision. But don’t let your money to sit idle in the banks.



Data science is an interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from noisy, structured and unstructured data, and apply knowledge and actionable insights from data across a broad range of application domains. Data science is related to data mining, machine learning and big data.

Data science is a “concept to unify statistics, data analysis, informatics, and their related methods” in order to “understand and analyze actual phenomena” with data. It uses techniques and theories drawn from many fields within the context of mathematics, statistics, computer science, information science, and domain knowledge. However, data science is different from computer science and information science. Turing Award winner Jim Gray imagined data science as a “fourth paradigm” of science (empirical, theoretical, computational, and now data-driven) and asserted that “everything about science is changing because of the impact of information technology” and the data deluge.

A data scientist is someone who creates programming code, and combines it with statistical knowledge to create insights from data.


Data science is an interdisciplinary field focused on extracting knowledge from data sets, which are typically large (see big data), and applying the knowledge and actionable insights from data to solve problems in a wide range of application domains.The field encompasses preparing data for analysis, formulating data science problems, analyzing data, developing data-driven solutions, and presenting findings to inform high-level decisions in a broad range of application domains. As such, it incorporates skills from computer science, statistics, information science, mathematics, information visualization, data integration, graphic design, complex systems, communication and business.Statistician Nathan Yau, drawing on Ben Fry, also links data science to human-computer interaction: users should be able to intuitively control and explore data.In 2015, the American Statistical Association identified database management, statistics and machine learning, and distributed and parallel systems as the three emerging foundational professional communities.

Relationship to statistics :

Many statisticians, including Nate Silver, have argued that data science is not a new field, but rather another name for statistics. Others argue that data science is distinct from statistics because it focuses on problems and techniques unique to digital data.Vasant Dhar writes that statistics emphasizes quantitative data and description. In contrast, data science deals with quantitative and qualitative data (e.g. images) and emphasizes prediction and action.Andrew Gelman of Columbia University has described statistics as a nonessential part of data science. Stanford professor David Donoho writes that data science is not distinguished from statistics by the size of datasets or use of computing, and that many graduate programs misleadingly advertise their analytics and statistics training as the essence of a data science program. He describes data science as an applied field growing out of traditional statistics.In summary, data science can be therefore described as an applied branch of statistics.


In 1962, John Tukey described a field he called “data analysis“, which resembles modern data science. In 1985, in a lecture given to the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, C.F. Jeff Wu used the term Data Science for the first time as an alternative name for statistics.Later, attendees at a 1992 statistics symposium at the University of Montpellier II acknowledged the emergence of a new discipline focused on data of various origins and forms, combining established concepts and principles of statistics and data analysis with computing.

The term “data science” has been traced back to 1974, when Peter Naur proposed it as an alternative name for computer science.In 1996, the International Federation of Classification Societies became the first conference to specifically feature data science as a topic. However, the definition was still in flux. After the 1985 lecture in the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, in 1997 C.F. Jeff Wu again suggested that statistics should be renamed data science. He reasoned that a new name would help statistics shed inaccurate stereotypes, such as being synonymous with accounting, or limited to describing data.In 1998, Hayashi Chikio argued for data science as a new, interdisciplinary concept, with three aspects: data design, collection, and analysis.

During the 1990s, popular terms for the process of finding patterns in datasets (which were increasingly large) included “knowledge discovery” and “data mining”.

Modern usage:

The modern conception of data science as an independent discipline is sometimes attributed to William S. Cleveland. In a 2001 paper, he advocated an expansion of statistics beyond theory into technical areas; because this would significantly change the field, it warranted a new name.”Data science” became more widely used in the next few years: in 2002, the Committee on Data for Science and Technology launched Data Science Journal. In 2003, Columbia University launched The Journal of Data Science. In 2014, the American Statistical Association’s Section on Statistical Learning and Data Mining changed its name to the Section on Statistical Learning and Data Science, reflecting the ascendant popularity of data science.

The professional title of “data scientist” has been attributed to DJ Patil and Jeff Hammerbacher in 2008. Though it was used by the National Science Board in their 2005 report, “Long-Lived Digital Data Collections: Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century,” it referred broadly to any key role in managing a digital data collection.


Big data is becoming a tool for businesses and companies of all sizes. The availability and interpretation of big data has altered the business models of old industries and enabled the creation of new ones.Data scientists are responsible for breaking down big data into usable information and creating software and algorithms that help companies and organizations determine optimal operations.

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