The Indian Navy Day will be observed on December 4 every year to recognize their sacrifices, efforts and achievements. At forth India was first celebrate it’s Navy day at 21st October 1944. After World War II(1945) it was celebrated on December 1 later it was celebrated on 4th December. During the Navy week celebrations lot of performance will be inaugurated such as open sea swimming competition, ships are open for visitors and school children, there is an veteran sailors launch. Symphonic Orchestra take place and an Indian Navy Inter school competitions, Navy-half marathon also happens. Indian Navy Day is about commemorate Operation Trident (attack on Karachi harbor during Indo-Pakistan war).

Indian Navy was established by East Indian Company in 1612. This year (2021) Navy plans to celebrate in the theme of swarnim Vijay varsh to celebrate 50th anniversary of India’s victory in the 1971 war. Our Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi who twitts “we are proud of exemplary contributions of the Indian Navy. Our Navy is widely respected for it’s professionalism and outstanding courage. Our navy personnel have always been at the forefront of mitigating crisis situation like natural disasters”, he says. Indian Air Forces also extended it’s warm wishes and greetings to all personnel and families of @indiannavy on the occasion of 43rd Navy day.

Every year they propose different theme last year theme was “Indian Navy Combat Ready”. This year is ‘Swarnim Vijay Varsh’ which significe 50 years of India’s victory in the Indo-Pakistan war that took place in 1971. There are some quotes which represents Indian Navy 2021, “We are safe because we have our Navy protecting us each and every moment. Salute to our Navy and best wishes on Indian Navy Day”. “Let us celebrate Indian Navy Day by saluting all the women and men in the Navy for their bravery, dedication and patriotism “. It goes like….


All you need to know about Stock Market

The story begins around the time of 17th century when Dutch East India Company employed hundreds of ships to make the trade of various products like gold, porcelain, spices and silks around the globe. Trading of these things required a lot of money with good business plans. Things being not cheap, company came up with a wonderful idea. In order to have money for their expensive voyages, company started to target the private citizens. They targeted those group of people who could invest in their business.

In exchange, they agreed to share a certain part of the profit from their business with them. This practice allowed them to make large amount of profits not only for themselves but also for their investors. Selling their shares in various kind of places, Dutch East India Company unknowingly invented the world’s first Stock Market. With their first step towards the stock market, till now the company has been collecting the large amount of money in form of shares to support their different businesses.

Stock basically refers to the part of ownership of investors in one or several companies. Modern Stock Market is definitely more complicated than the prior one.

How do companies and investors use stock market nowadays?

 When a company decides to launch in a market, then it first proposes its central or main idea in front of the big investors. If the investors like the company’s plan and ideas then they offer their sponsorship to it which is called Initial Public Offering (IPO).

Afterwards, company advertise itself in the official public market where any company or the individual who thinks the plan can be profitable starts to invest in the stocks of the company. Investing in the stocks make the investors partial owners in the business. With increment in the growth of the company, more investors see the potential of it and start to invest in the company.

With increase in the demands of the stocks, the price of them also increases which further raises the value of the stocks that people already own. This also increases the market value of the company. If the company seems to be less profitable in future then the demand of its stocks also decline leading to a loss for the investors if they not sell their stocks prior to when their value declines.

These situations occur due to unavoidable circumstances of market forces i.e. demand and supply. Demand and supply are totally dependent upon people’s preferences and contentment. Some other factors which also influence these situations are change in production technology, shifting costs of labor and fluctuating price of materials etc. It is highly unpredictable to get success in each and every investment due to the changing of circumstances. That’s why, various experts are building different tools to predict high chance of success in investment. With the help of internet, now in each and every part of the world, there are people from rich to poor who are ready to dive in the sea of investment. While earning income, it has become a duty to invest some money in stocks in order to pursue long-term financial goals.


Why freedom of press is important? A fundamental need for a democratic society is free press. Freedom of speech is a universal human right. Without fundamental right India would just be another one of the countries like Syria, North Korea and cretain African countries, where there is still dictatorship and one party rule. Jawaharlal Nehru said “I would rather have a completely free press, with all dangers involved in the wrong use of that freedom,than the suppressed or regulated press.” In union of India vs association for democratic reforms the supreme court observed that freedom of speech and expression includes right to impart and receive information which includes freedom to hold opinion. Freedom of press has three essesntial elements.
              1. Freedom of access to all sources information
              2. Freedom of publication
              3. Freedom of circulation.
    The constitution of India gives us the ability to express what we want to say. This is called freddom of speech and expression.But it doesn’t really mean that what we can say or do whatever we want.Freedom of press is not specifically mentioned in article 19(1)(a). However it was made clear by the drafting committee that the press and an individual or a citizen were the same as far as their expression was concerned. In fact the constitution of India enforces a few terms and conditions that come along with this called “reasonable retrictions” This is expressed in article(19)(2) which lists eight restrictions that limits this freedom.
          Speeches which insite or encourage the commission of violent crimes comes under threat to the security of state. Eg: for rebellion, war against the state, breaches of pubic safety etc
           To prohibit unrestrained malicious propaganda against a friendly state which could jeopardize the good relations between the two states.
             Implies absence of violence and an orderly state of affairs in which citizens can peacefully pursue their normal avocation of life. Thus creating internal disorder or rebellion would affect public order. Law punishing utterences made with the deliberate intention to hurt the relegious feelings of any class of person is valid because it imposes a restriction on the right of free speech in the interest of public order. Since such kind of speech or writing has the tendency to create public disorder
           Sections 292 and 294 of Indian penal code provides instances of restrictions on the freedom of speech amd expression in the interest of decency or morality. These sections prohibit the sale or distribution or exhibition of obscene words etc in public places.
            Restriction on the freedom of speech and expression can be imposed if it exceeds the reasonable and fair limit and amounts to contempt of court.
           A statement which injures a man’s reputation, amounts to defamation. Defamation consists in exposing a man to hatred, ridicule or contempt.
            Freedom of speeech and expression cannot confer a right to incite people to commit offences.
             The main purpose is to guard the freedom of speech and expression from being used to assail the sovereignty and integrity of the state.
           A free press has a huge responsibility of reporting the truth and shaping people’s opinions. Responsible Journalism must be practiced to stop people from spreading hate and maintaining the harmony of a country.

Fashion and lifestyle journalism

Can you imagine this, what will happen, if you don’t know the things happening around you? And what’s going on in your region? It can be anything like a weather report, government policies, crimes etc. You will be isolated and outdated. There comes journalism for your aid. Journalism helps us to know what’s happening around us, it gives us information about everything going on in earth and even in the outer space. Without it, our life don’t operate properly. On considering journalism, there are enormous things to be covered. But now our concern is on fashion and lifestyle journalism.

Fashion journalism concentrate on the current trends and styles. It comprise of writing related to fashion trends and photojournalism which plays major role in this field. There are lot of people who love to dress up or to act accordingly to the current trends, fashion journalism is for them. It helps us to know the designs or styles which is on trend today, keep us updated day to day and educate people about the fashion shows, events and new trends.

Let’s look at the job of fashion journalists and what they are doing in this field. Fashion journalists write and edit articles related to fashion. They conduct interviews with the celebrities and fashion icons as celebrities rule the world of fashion, nowadays all the people want to look like a celebrity, so they try to impersonate celebrities by knowing the secret of their fashion from these interviews. Other than this, fashion journalists cover the fashion shows and events and research about the upcoming trends. They have to work along with photographers, designers and fashion specialists. Like any other journalists, fashion journalists should have good communication skills to conduct interviews and should have the pre acquired knowledge of fashion and trends.

Magazines are the main outcome of fashion journalism. There are enormous fashion magazine like Vogue, Elle, Cosmopolitan, Femina. Most of them got it’s digital portal as it is needed for today’s world. Apart from these magazines, YouTube became the next fashion promoting platform, it have these particular Youtubers who propagate the current trends and fashion in their videos.

Fashion is the part of life but not the life itself. Fashion and lifestyle journalism is similar but lifestyle journalism covers lot more than fashion. Lifestyle journalism concentrate on travel, fashion, food, well-being, health, fitness etc. The target of lifestyle journalism is consumers, so they give contents according to the needs of customers and also directed to audience of it’s own. Lifestyle journalism consists of the bloggers who write blogs about certain products or on topics which are in trend now.

Fashion and lifestyle journalism comes under soft journalism. The term soft journalism means the type of journalism which don’t affect the society directly and it is not the subject of human interest. Fashion and lifestyle is soft journalism because it don’t affect the public in general as not everyone is interested in fashion and it won’t disturb them in anyway like a crime news or a government policy which have greater effect in their life. It may not be the mainstream, but fashion and lifestyle journalism have it’s own audience who made it evolved this greatly.