Electronics

The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons using electronic devices. Electronics uses active devices to control electron flow by amplification and rectification, which distinguishes it from classical electrical engineering, which only uses passive effects such as resistance, capacitance and inductance to control electric current flow.

Electronics has hugely influenced the development of modern society. The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the subsequent invention of the vacuum tube which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age.Practical applications started with the invention of the diode by Ambrose Fleming and the triode by Lee De Forest in the early 1900s, which made the detection of small electrical voltages such as radio signals from an radio antenna possible with a non-mechanical device. The growth of electronics was rapid, and by the early 1920s commercial radio broadcasting and communications were becoming widespread, and electronic amplifiers were being used in such diverse applications as long distance telephony and the music recording industry.

The next big technological step took several decades to appear, when Solid-state electronics emerged with the first working semiconductor transistor which was invented by William Shockley, Walter Houser Brattain and John Bardeen in 1947. The vacuum tube was no longer the only means of controlling electron flow. The MOSFET (MOS transistor) was subsequently invented in 1959, and was the first compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced. This played a key role in the emergence of microelectronics and the Digital Revolution. Today, electronic devices are universally used in Computers, telecommunications and signal processing employing Integrated circuits with sometimes millions of transistors on a single chip.

Electronic devices and components:

An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system. Components are generally intended to be connected together, usually by being soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB), to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator). Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits. Some common electronic components are capacitors, inductors, resistors, diodes, transistors, etc. Components are often categorized as active (e.g. transistors and thyristors) or passive (e.g. resistors, diodes, inductors and capacitors).

History of electronic components :

Vacuum tubes (Thermionic valves) were among the earliest electronic components. They were almost solely responsible for the electronics revolution of the first half of the twentieth century. They allowed for vastly more complicated systems and gave us radio, television, phonographs, radar, long-distance telephony and much more. They played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the 1980s. Since that time, solid-state devices have all but completely taken over. Vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifiers, cathode ray tubes, specialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices.

The first working point-contact transistor was invented by John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain at Bell Labs in 1947. In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market. The 608 contained more than 3,000 germanium transistors. Thomas J. Watson Jr. ordered all future IBM products to use transistors in their design. From that time on transistors were almost exclusively used for computer logic and peripherals. However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications.

Types of circuits:

Circuits and components can be divided into two groups: analog and digital. A particular device may consist of circuitry that has one or the other or a mix of the two types. An important electronic technique in both analog and digital electronics involves the use of feedback. Among many other things this allows very linear amplifiers to be made with high gain, and digital circuits such as registers, computers and oscillators.

Analog circuits:

Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits.



The number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge, especially because a ‘circuit’ can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components.

Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, modulators, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators.

Digital circuits:

Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. Digital circuits are the most common physical representation of Boolean algebra, and are the basis of all digital computers. To most engineers, the terms “digital circuit”, “digital system” and “logic” are interchangeable in the context of digital circuits. Most digital circuits use a binary system with two voltage levels labeled “0” and “1“. Often logic “0” will be a lower voltage and referred to as “Low” while logic “1” is referred to as “High“. However, some systems use the reverse definition (“0” is “High”) or are current based. Quite often the logic designer may reverse these definitions from one circuit to the next as he sees fit to facilitate his design. The definition of the levels as “0” or “1” is arbitrary.

Electronics theory :

Mathematical methods are integral to the study of electronics. To become proficient in electronics it is also necessary to become proficient in the mathematics of circuit analysis.

Circuit analysis is the study of methods of solving generally linear systems for unknown variables such as the voltage at a certain node or the current through a certain branch of a network. A common analytical tool for this is the SPICE circuit simulator.

Also important to electronics is the study and understanding of electromagnetic field theory.

Electronics lab:

Due to the complex nature of electronics theory, laboratory experimentation is an important part of the development of electronic devices. These experiments are used to test or verify the engineer’s design and detect errors. Historically, electronics labs have consisted of electronics devices and equipment located in a physical space, although in more recent years the trend has been towards electronics lab simulation software, such as CircuitLogix, Multisim, and PSpice.

Electronic systems design:

Electronic systems design deals with the multi-disciplinary design issues of complex electronic devices and systems, such as mobile phones and computers. The subject covers a broad spectrum, from the design and development of an electronic system (new product development) to assuring its proper function, service life and disposal. Electronic systems design is therefore the process of defining and developing complex electronic devices to satisfy specified requirements of the user.

Electronics industry :

The electronics industry consists of various sectors. The central driving force behind the entire electronics industry is the semiconductor industry sector, which has annual sales of over $481 billion as of 2018. The largest industry sector is e-commerce, which generated over $29 trillion in 2017. The most widely manufactured electronic device is the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), with an estimated 13 sextillion MOSFETs having been manufactured between 1960 and 2018. In the 1960s, U.S. manufacturers were unable to compete with Japanese companies such as Sony and Hitachi who could produce high-quality goods at lower prices. By the 1980s, however, U.S. manufacturers became the world leaders in semiconductor development and assembly.

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Social media

Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, interests, and other forms of expression through virtual communities and networks. While challenges to the definition of social media arise due to the variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services currently available, there are some common features:

* Social media are interactive Web 2.0 Internet-based applications.
* User-generated content such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, and data generated through all online interactions is the lifeblood of social media.
* Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization.
* Social media helps the development of online social networks by connecting a user’s profile with those of other individuals or groups

Users usually access social media services through web-based apps on desktops or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets). As users engage with these electronic services, they create highly interactive platforms which individuals, communities, and organizations can share, co-create, discuss, participate, and modify user-generated or self-curated content posted online. Additionally, social media are used to document memories; learn about and explore things; advertise oneself; and form friendships along with the growth of ideas from the creation of blogs, podcasts, videos, and gaming sites.This changing relationship between humans and technology is the focus of the emerging field of technological self-studies.Some of the most popular social media websites, with more than 100 million registered users, include Facebook (and its associated Facebook Messenger), TikTok, WeChat, Instagram, QZone, Weibo, Twitter, Tumblr, Baidu Tieba, and LinkedIn. Depending on interpretation, other popular platforms that are sometimes referred to as social media services include YouTube, QQ, Quora, Telegram, WhatsApp, Signal, LINE, Snapchat, Pinterest, Viber, Reddit, Discord, VK, Microsoft Teams, and more. Wikis are examples of collaborative content creation.

Many social media outlets differ from traditional media (e.g., print magazines and newspapers, TV, and radio broadcasting) in many ways, including quality,reach, frequency, usability, relevancy, and permanence. Additionally, social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system, i.e., many sources to many receivers, while traditional media outlets operate under a monologic transmission model (i.e., one source to many receivers). For instance, a newspaper is delivered to many subscribers and a radio station broadcasts the same programs to an entire city.

Since the dramatic expansion of the Internet, digital media or digital rhetoric can be used to represent or identify a culture. Studying how the rhetoric that exists in the digital environment has become a crucial new process for many scholars.

Observers have noted a wide range of positive and negative impacts when it comes to the use of social media. Social media can help to improve an individual’s sense of connectedness with real or online communities and can be an effective communication (or marketing) tool for corporations, entrepreneurs, non-profit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, and governments. Observers have also seen that there has been a rise in social movements using social media as a tool for communicating and organizing in times of political unrest.

History of social media :

Early computing:

The PLATO system was launched in 1960, after being developed at the University of Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation. It offered early forms of social media features with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO’s message-forum application; TERM-talk, its instant-messaging feature; Talkomatic, perhaps the first online chat room; News Report, a crowdsourced online newspaper, and blog; and Access Lists, enabling the owner of a note file or other application to limit access to a certain set of users, for example, only friends, classmates, or co-workers.

ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late-1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the network etiquette (or ‘netiquette’) described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.ARPANET evolved into the Internet following the publication of the first Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification, RFC 675 (Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program), written by Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in 1974. This became the foundation of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, and established in 1980.

A precursor of the electronic bulletin board system (BBS), known as Community Memory, appeared by 1973. True electronic BBSs arrived with the Computer Bulletin Board System in Chicago, which first came online on February 16, 1978. Before long, most major cities had more than one BBS running on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM PC, Commodore 64, Sinclair, and similar personal computers. The IBM PC was introduced in 1981, and subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the 1980s. Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to be online simultaneously. Compuserve, Prodigy and AOL were three of the largest BBS companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, BBSes numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone. Message forums (a specific structure of social media) arose with the BBS phenomenon throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. When the World Wide Web (WWW, or ‘the web’) was added to the Internet in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated to the web, becoming Internet forums, primarily due to cheaper per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people simultaneously than telco modem banks.

Digital imaging and semiconductor image sensor technology facilitated the development and rise of social media. Advances in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) semiconductor device fabrication, reaching smaller micron and then sub-micron levels during the 1980s–1990s, led to the development of the NMOS (n-type MOS) active-pixel sensor (APS) at Olympus in 1985, and then the complementary MOS (CMOS) active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor) at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 1993.CMOS sensors enabled the mass proliferation of digital cameras and camera phones, which bolstered the rise of social media.

Social impacts


Disparity

The digital divide is a measure of disparity in the level of access to technology between households, socioeconomic levels or other demographic categories.People who are homeless, living in poverty, elderly people and those living in rural or remote communities may have little or no access to computers and the Internet; in contrast, middle class and upper-class people in urban areas have very high rates of computer and Internet access. Other models argue that within a modern information society, some individuals produce Internet content while others only consume it, which could be a result of disparities in the education system where only some teachers integrate technology into the classroom and teach critical thinking. While social media has differences among age groups, a 2010 study in the United States found no racial divide. Some zero-rating programs offer subsidized data access to certain websites on low-cost plans. Critics say that this is an anti-competitive program that undermines net neutrality and creates a “walled garden”for platforms like Facebook Zero. A 2015 study found that 65% of Nigerians, 61% of Indonesians, and 58% of Indians agree with the statement that “Facebook is the Internet” compared with only 5% in the US.

Political polarization:

According to the Pew Research Center, a majority of Americans at least occasionally receive news from social media. Because of algorithms on social media which filter and display news content which are likely to match their users’ political preferences, a potential impact of receiving news from social media includes an increase in political polarization due to selective exposure. Political polarization refers to when an individual’s stance on a topic is more likely to be strictly defined by their identification with a specific political party or ideology than on other factors. Selective exposure occurs when an individual favors information that supports their beliefs and avoids information that conflicts with their beliefs. A study by Hayat and Samuel-Azran conducted during the 2016 U.S. presidential election observed an “echo chamber” effect of selective exposure among 27,811 Twitter users following the content of cable news shows.The Twitter users observed in the study were found to have little interaction with users and content whose beliefs were different from their own, possibly heightening polarization effects. Another study using U.S. elections, conducted by Evans and Clark, revealed gender differences in the political use of Twitter between candidates.Whilst politics is a male dominated arena, on social media the situation appears to be the opposite, with women discussing policy issues at a higher rate than their male counter-parts. The study concluded that an increase in female candidates directly correlates to an increase in the amount of attention paid to policy issues, potentially heightening political polarization.

Stereotyping :

Recent research has demonstrated that social media, and media in general, have the power to increase the scope of stereotypes not only in children but people of all ages.Three researchers at Blanquerna University, Spain, examined how adolescents interact with social media and specifically Facebook. They suggest that interactions on the website encourage representing oneself in the traditional gender constructs, which helps maintain gender stereotypes. The authors noted that girls generally show more emotion in their posts and more frequently change their profile pictures, which according to some psychologists can lead to self-objectification. On the other hand, the researchers found that boys prefer to portray themselves as strong, independent, and powerful. For example, men often post pictures of objects and not themselves, and rarely change their profile pictures; using the pages more for entertainment and pragmatic reasons. In contrast, girls generally post more images that include themselves, friends and things they have emotional ties to, which the researchers attributed that to the higher emotional intelligence of girls at a younger age. The authors sampled over 632 girls and boys from the ages of 12–16 from Spain in an effort to confirm their beliefs. The researchers concluded that masculinity is more commonly associated with positive psychological well-being, while femininity displays less psychological well-being. Furthermore, the researchers discovered that people tend not to completely conform to either stereotype, and encompass desirable parts of both. Users of Facebook generally use their profiles to reflect that they are a “normal” person. Social media was found to uphold gender stereotypes both feminine and masculine. The researchers also noted that traditional stereotypes are often upheld by boys more so than girls. The authors described how neither stereotype was entirely positive, but most people viewed masculine values as more positive.

Effects on youth communication:

Social media has allowed for mass cultural exchange and intercultural communication. As different cultures have different value systems, cultural themes, grammar, and world views, they also communicate differently.The emergence of social media platforms fused together different cultures and their communication methods, blending together various cultural thinking patterns and expression styles

Social media has affected the way youth communicate, by introducing new forms of language. Abbreviations have been introduced to cut down on the time it takes to respond online. The commonly known “LOL” has become globally recognized as the abbreviation for “laugh out loud” thanks to social media.

Social media has offered a new platform for peer pressure with both positive and negative communication. From Facebook comments to likes on Instagram, how the youth communicate, and what is socially acceptable is now heavily based on social media.Social media does make kids and young adults more susceptible to peer pressure. The American Academy of Pediatrics has also shown that bullying, the making of non-inclusive friend groups, and sexual experimentation have increased situations related to cyberbullying, issues with privacy, and the act of sending sexual images or messages to someone’s mobile device. On the other hand, social media also benefits the youth and how they communicate. Adolescents can learn basic social and technical skills that are essential in society. Through the use of social media, kids and young adults are able to strengthen relationships by keeping in touch with friends and family, make more friends, and participate in community engagement activities and services.

Deceased users:

Social media content, like most content on the web, will continue to persist unless the user deletes it. This brings up the inevitable question of what to do once a social media user dies, and no longer has access to their content.As it is a topic that is often left undiscussed, it is important to note that each social media platform, e.g., Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, and Pinterest, has created its own guidelines for users who have died.In most cases on social media, the platforms require a next-of-kin to prove that the user is deceased, and then give them the option of closing the account or maintaining it in a ‘legacy’ status. Ultimately, social media users should make decisions about what happens to their social media accounts before they pass, and make sure their instructions are passed on to their next-of-kin

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Don’t waste your precious time anymore!!

Time, a word consists of only four alphabets but still holds the biggest impact in life. Time is like a flow of river which is irreversible in any case. Once it’s gone, YOU’VE COMPLETELY LOST IT. Still, we let lots of our time go in vain on the daily basis. Of course, there are humans who never learn until and unless they get a hard punishment for it or they go through regrets. From study to relationships, everything has its right time to be completed on.

Even so humans waste their time in thinking how their time is wasted. It’s ridiculous. Isn’t it? They regret why they wasted their time when they could have done something better with it. Only foolish people think that time is free or granted to them. Once this thought gets stuck in their mind, then their life is OVER which will be filled with emptiness.

What to do now when you are in a phase where you don’t know even where your time is going ?

In simple words, you just wake up and do the things which are required to do at the spot and then just go to sleep. NO goals and NO satisfaction. What is the solution now?

  • Find out the leakage first

You must be wondering what kind of leakage I am talking about! I am referring to the leakage of time. Analyse your whole day and find out where your most of the time is leaking or wasting when at that period you are not even doing some productive work. Once you find out then cut that time and restrict yourselves to do that activity gradually day by day. You can not cut down an activity (unproductive) which you have been doing for a long time immediately. You will get to know that your half of the day is spent on doing insignificant things which are not gonna help you in long run.

  • Stop your leakage to turn into a disaster in the future

Now when you know in which activities your time is being leaked, try to stop them one by one. You can’t control your mind immediately. To avoid distractions, you have to stop looking at them like distraction. For example, watching Netflix is a distraction and a leakage for you. You had decided to watch  a particular series for one hour and ended up watching it completely for the whole day and these things had been repeating day by day. Believe me, in a blink of eye, your whole month will be wasted on it as on Netflix many series are going to come everyday. You need the resolution and strong determination to reduce your leakage of time gradually. Invest your time in doing something productive which is going to be helpful in your life.

  • Build a strong foundation

After allocating your time to do productive activities, you need to decide daily short goals and accomplish them. The satisfaction you will get everyday after completing the goals would be immeasurable.

This is your life whether you make it meaningful or meaningless, this all depends on you. Some use their time meticulously to become the top leaders in the world while other give mediocre efforts to live an average life. You only get one life. Why not give your best to live the life of your dreams ? Just decide for yourself what you want to do and then work tirelessly to achieve the top results with the utmost efforts!

Dukan Diet For Weight loss

Are you aware of Dukan diet ? Easy way to reduce your weight.


Dukan Diet is intaking rich protein and low carbohydrate food in order to get rid from obesity and lose weight by breaking diet into four phases. Dr.Pierre Dukan who created the dukan diet in 1970 was a French Physician,Nutritionist and Specialized in weight management. Dukan created this diet to meet the needs of his patients.After getting successful result from this diet,he published the book ” The Dukan Diet ” in 2000. The Dukan Diet attained world- wide popularity. And the book released in 32 countries ,translated into more than 14 languages.

Consult with your doctor

A person must consult with his doctor before taking the dukan diet whether his body condition is appropriate for the diet. And should start the diet with proper planning and continuing with the advise of best dietist. One should ready for the diet both mentally and physically.


Four Phases Of Dukan Diet
1) Attack phase
2) Cruise phase
3) Consolidation phase
4) Stabilisation phase
The diet phases includes 100 food items. Most of the foods are high protein and vegetables with some amount of carbohydrates. There are 68 pure proteins and 32 vegetables.

  1. Attack Phase (1-7 days)

Intake of pure protein food is the primary step in the attack phase with 1.5 tablespoon of oat bran for fibre content and minimal calories. And you can take unlimited quantities of pure protein. You have to drink 7-9 cups of water daily. Regular physical activities and exercise for 20 mins per day helps mostly. These phase helps for instant weight loss. The duration for attack phase depends on the weight of the person.

What To Consume

68 pure proteins

Lean meat : Beef tenderloin, lamp,venison, steak, filet mignon, buffalo, extra lean ham, extra lean kosher beef, lean slices of roast beef, flank, sirloin, London broilveal chops, veal scaloppini, pork tenderloin, hot dogs, reduced fat bacon.

Poultry : chicken, chicken liver, cornish hen, ostrich steak, wild duck, turkey, fat fee turkey, chicken sausages, low fat deli slices of chicken.

Fish : catfish, shark, mackerel, salmon, swordfish, redsnapper, haddock, arctic char, cod, flounder, halibut and smoked halibut, herring, mahi mahi, mink fish, orange roughy, perch, surmi, tilapia, trout, tuna, fresh or canned in water.

Shellfish : clams, crab, crawfish, crayfish, lobster, mussels, octopus, oysters, scallops, shrimp, squid.

Vegetarian Proteins : seitan, soy foods and veggie burgers, tempeh,tofu.

Fat-free dairy products : Fat-free milk, Fat-free sour cream, fat-free ricotta, fat-free cottage cheese, fat-free plain greek style yogurt.

Eggs : chicken,quail, duck.

What To Avoid

Sugars, fats, carbohydrates.


2. Cruise Phase (1-12 months)
In this phase,you have to take 100 food items including 68 pure protein and 32 Vegetables in alternative days. No limitation for intaking those pure protein and less fat vegetables. Oat bran increased to 2 tablespoon. 30-60 minutes of physical activities like exercise or walking is compulsory. The duration for cruise phase also depends on the weight that the person wants to lose.


What To Consume
32 Vegetables : Egg plant, okra, onions, mushrooms, carrot, broccoli,Watercress, turnip, tomato, pumpkin, bean sprouts, cucumber, leeks, shallots,Zucchini, artichoke, asparagus.


What To Avoid
Fruits
Starchy vegetables like potatoes and corn
Fats
Alcohol

3.Consolidation Phase (1-5 days)

It helps to prevent from regaining the weight. In this phase,the person can take unlimited foods under 100 items without any restrictions and also allowed to take a glass of wine , desert as a celebration meals each week. You can take oat bran of 2.5 tablespoon. You can add some carbohydrates during this consolidation fees and also 25 minutes of exercise.

What To Consume

Wholegrain bread, Fruit, Cheese,Entree, A glass of wine .

What To Avoid

Banana,Grapes,Figs,Sugar,Cherries.

4.Sabilization Phase

The final phase allows to eat carbohydrates more than other 3 phases. But 1 day in a week should take complete lean protein. You can take 3 tablespoon of oat bran. During this phase try to use stairs instead of an elevator. And take a brisk walk for 20 minutes.

Disadvantages Of Dukan Diet

1) Intake of less carbohydrates leads to bad breath, nausea, weakness and headaches.

2) People become so tired during the attack phase. So Dr. Dukan advises people to avoid lift heavy weights.

3) Less consumption of carbohydrates can lead to constipation.

4) It may leads to nutritional deficiency because of lack of whole grains,fruits.

5) Nutritional deficiency may leads to various problems such as cancer and heart attack to premature aging.

6) Pure protein intake may cause kidney problems and bone related diseases.

Advantages Of Dukan Diet

1) Instant weight loss makes people feel good.

2) Calories are burned easily by consumption of low carbohydrate foods.

3) It is possible to reduce weight without heavy workout.

4) Calorie-counting is not involved.

The Dukan diet has both pros and cons equally. So,people with blood pressure, sugar complaints and with other diseases practicing this diet is highly risky and may cause serious health issue.