DATA SCIENCE

Introduction:-

Data science is an interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from noisy, structured and unstructured data, and apply knowledge and actionable insights from data across a broad range of application domains. Data science is related to data mining, machine learning and big data.

Data science is a “concept to unify statistics, data analysis, informatics, and their related methods” in order to “understand and analyze actual phenomena” with data. It uses techniques and theories drawn from many fields within the context of mathematics, statistics, computer science, information science, and domain knowledge. However, data science is different from computer science and information science. Turing Award winner Jim Gray imagined data science as a “fourth paradigm” of science (empirical, theoretical, computational, and now data-driven) and asserted that “everything about science is changing because of the impact of information technology” and the data deluge.

A data scientist is someone who creates programming code, and combines it with statistical knowledge to create insights from data.

Foundations:

Data science is an interdisciplinary field focused on extracting knowledge from data sets, which are typically large (see big data), and applying the knowledge and actionable insights from data to solve problems in a wide range of application domains.The field encompasses preparing data for analysis, formulating data science problems, analyzing data, developing data-driven solutions, and presenting findings to inform high-level decisions in a broad range of application domains. As such, it incorporates skills from computer science, statistics, information science, mathematics, information visualization, data integration, graphic design, complex systems, communication and business.Statistician Nathan Yau, drawing on Ben Fry, also links data science to human-computer interaction: users should be able to intuitively control and explore data.In 2015, the American Statistical Association identified database management, statistics and machine learning, and distributed and parallel systems as the three emerging foundational professional communities.

Relationship to statistics :


Many statisticians, including Nate Silver, have argued that data science is not a new field, but rather another name for statistics. Others argue that data science is distinct from statistics because it focuses on problems and techniques unique to digital data.Vasant Dhar writes that statistics emphasizes quantitative data and description. In contrast, data science deals with quantitative and qualitative data (e.g. images) and emphasizes prediction and action.Andrew Gelman of Columbia University has described statistics as a nonessential part of data science. Stanford professor David Donoho writes that data science is not distinguished from statistics by the size of datasets or use of computing, and that many graduate programs misleadingly advertise their analytics and statistics training as the essence of a data science program. He describes data science as an applied field growing out of traditional statistics.In summary, data science can be therefore described as an applied branch of statistics.

Etymology:

In 1962, John Tukey described a field he called “data analysis“, which resembles modern data science. In 1985, in a lecture given to the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, C.F. Jeff Wu used the term Data Science for the first time as an alternative name for statistics.Later, attendees at a 1992 statistics symposium at the University of Montpellier II acknowledged the emergence of a new discipline focused on data of various origins and forms, combining established concepts and principles of statistics and data analysis with computing.

The term “data science” has been traced back to 1974, when Peter Naur proposed it as an alternative name for computer science.In 1996, the International Federation of Classification Societies became the first conference to specifically feature data science as a topic. However, the definition was still in flux. After the 1985 lecture in the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, in 1997 C.F. Jeff Wu again suggested that statistics should be renamed data science. He reasoned that a new name would help statistics shed inaccurate stereotypes, such as being synonymous with accounting, or limited to describing data.In 1998, Hayashi Chikio argued for data science as a new, interdisciplinary concept, with three aspects: data design, collection, and analysis.

During the 1990s, popular terms for the process of finding patterns in datasets (which were increasingly large) included “knowledge discovery” and “data mining”.

Modern usage:

The modern conception of data science as an independent discipline is sometimes attributed to William S. Cleveland. In a 2001 paper, he advocated an expansion of statistics beyond theory into technical areas; because this would significantly change the field, it warranted a new name.”Data science” became more widely used in the next few years: in 2002, the Committee on Data for Science and Technology launched Data Science Journal. In 2003, Columbia University launched The Journal of Data Science. In 2014, the American Statistical Association’s Section on Statistical Learning and Data Mining changed its name to the Section on Statistical Learning and Data Science, reflecting the ascendant popularity of data science.

The professional title of “data scientist” has been attributed to DJ Patil and Jeff Hammerbacher in 2008. Though it was used by the National Science Board in their 2005 report, “Long-Lived Digital Data Collections: Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century,” it referred broadly to any key role in managing a digital data collection.

Market:

Big data is becoming a tool for businesses and companies of all sizes. The availability and interpretation of big data has altered the business models of old industries and enabled the creation of new ones.Data scientists are responsible for breaking down big data into usable information and creating software and algorithms that help companies and organizations determine optimal operations.

The end…

Financial literacy

There are people in the world who are having high income but are still living petty lives as they don’t know how to manage their finances.

Can you be financially secure even if you are not making a lot of money?

Can ordinary people invest in the stock market with manageable risks?

Answers to these questions are YES if you are well versed with Financial literacy.

Today managing money in a beneficial way has become a skill. It all starts with the income or money you are making in present. It can be through your salary or investments.

INCOME-

Your first step towards becoming a financial literate is to have enough money to manage. How can you make money now? For making money, you have to create your own value in the market. Employers would never hire YOU but they will hire your SKILLS. When you are imparting skills in yourself then you are creating your value. The more and better skills you have the more the value you would have.

EXPENSES-

When you get your income then what is the first thing you do?

Of course you either save it or spend it. In most of the times, you spend your income first. Now, how, when and on what to spend your income are the important aspects of financial literacy. Do you even know where your all money goes?

There is a 50:30:20 rule where 50% of your income goes to your urgent costs that can’t be delayed for example monthly bills including housing or rent other 30% of your income goes to Debt or savings and the rest 20% goes to your entertainment or the things you like to do or buy. If you don’t manage your expenses carefully then the repercussions only contain the regrets. People should note down their financial priorities every month then spend the income accordingly.

ASSETS-

Assets are the things on which you have the ownership. Everything from your house and saving accounts to your car are regarded as your assets. It is advised to develop the habit of saving from as earlier as possible while earning. Even if you save a very little amount then also this is not the problem. The thing is you should save and get into the practice of saving. Save regularly for any upcoming unexpected expenditures. Save as much to build more and more assets. After saving, make a diverse financial plan through which you can efficiently use your income.

STOCKS-

Investment nowadays has become  a necessity. Your one portion of your income ought to be used to buy a stock as to open multiple ways to earn money. There is always some amount of risk while buying a stock as the company in which you are investing may get profits in future or maybe not. So, you have to choose the company wisely in which you are investing. For a beginner, it is advised to invest in index funds or mutual funds. A mutual fund is a professionally managed portfolio for investment  that pulls money from all sorts of investors especially for those who are looking for diversifying their investments. Index funds are which are able to manage the performance for a group of companies like a group of tech companies or group of consumer goods company etc. An index basically consists of a basket of companies related to a particular niche. There are a lot of indices out there which can grab your attention. There comes the role of financial literacy which helps you to understand the tools required for achieving the short- term goals, intermediate goals or long-term goals.

LIABILITIES –

Liability is basically the debt you owe to  a person or a business. Buying something with credit that is an asset and consuming something with credit has a vast difference. Using your student loan to go for a trip or investing your student loan to build assets and to hone your skills create a big impact in your life. Whether you use your money to invest on yourself or spend it on having fun, it all depends on you and your mindset. The worse repercussions of more debt than your income have all been emotional. They suck all the joy of one’s life. Try to limit your expenses and liabilities. In the end, it all depends on you whether you make right choices or wrong. These choices can be related to money , education and relationships etc. Every choice you make has an impact in your life. It does not matter whether the impact is large or small. So, choose wisely!

Ways to Make Your Podcast Sound More Professional

A podcast is an episode of series of spoken digital audio file. Podcasting is one of the most significant tools accessible to build your brand and your audience. when it comes to creating a podcast, the real magic happens when you’re recording.

Here are few ways to make your podcast sound more professional are enlisted below:

1.Start with an introduction:

Always start with an intro. It’s nice for stigmatization functions, however there are alternative ways to approach it. this is your show. You can do whatever it is that you want to do with it. You have a lot of freedom here. Now, like any podcast, video, or perhaps a live presentation, the simplest factor you’ll do at the start is to inform your listeners or readers what they’re about to experience. This helps them perceive what to expect, and provides them one thing to seem forward to. Then I pay a couple of minute going over about what I’m reaching to observe and who I actually have on the show as a guest that episode.Intro is an important step taken into consideration.  

2. Attract the audience with an outro:

Always keep this one quick and sweet. In addition, in your intro, your outro could be very essential. And frankly, I see a variety of podcasters lacking in this one. your outro is the closing component humans pay attention and bear in mind whilst they are paying attention to you. So placed it to precise use.

3. Remove Interruptions during podcasting:

Ambient noises have an area in suggests however must be deliberate and now no longer left to chance. You don’t need your listener to listen a baby within side the subsequent room, a truck noise outside, or a noisy air conditioner.  

          It makes the whole listening enjoy unpleasant, and also you need to keep away from it in any respect costs. Customer enjoy is one of the primary elements whilst Clients purchase and pay, so that you need to take note of how does your podcast sound.

            Podcasts are regularly listened to in cars, perks or gym, in the course of a commute, etc. Those aren’t ideal listening situations and are complete of noises. you must make your audio crystal clean to assure your podcast sound more professional. Another simple way is to record in a better condition simply is to observe patterns in the neighborhood whenever you are recording. In most places, it is the quietest during morning hours.

4. Adjust your tone:

There are many ways for podcasters, you ought to put in force to make your podcast sound professionally.

  • How could you want to sound: Is your podcast extra appropriate for a quicker and enthusiastic sports activities commentator voice, or perhaps you ought to goal for a easy late-night time radio DJ style.
  • Be friendly. If you’ve got got an academic podcast, use phrases like “you” and “I.” It minimizes the space and makes you sense extra like a listener’s friend.
  • Eliminate vocal inflection via way of means of understanding what you’re going to say.
  • Eliminate filter phrases.
  • Pauses are the subsequent essential detail of accurate pacing. It simply makes your podcast sound expert because it allows with lively listening and captures the eye of your audience.
  • Master your tone to get ultimately in the end of professional show.

5.Submit Social Proofs:

If you have clients, submit their genuine testimonials. The people you have helped submit their positive testimonials if your product resolved their issues. Simply raise and share it.

When you don’t have customers yet, present the benefits of your product in a larger context. Build your credibility on the basis of years of unique work, knowledge, certifications, qualifications and experience.

          Over 50 to 70 % of audiences read reviews before making a buying decision.
And nearly 63% of consumers are more likely to buy from a site that has ratings and reviews.

For instance, if you have a podcast about electric vehicles and not be an engineer. always make sure your podcast sounds professional, it shows how reputable companies are implementing the technologies. Proving that someone with authority did what you are talking about shows that you know your topic. When you teach something, try to show how it works for others.

4 Jaw Dropping Saree Looks of Katrina Kaif You Must Have In Your Closet 

India is a land known for the amalgamation of cultures, and always an inspiration to textile and fashion industry in India. Sarees are traditional wear of our country.

Sarees have established a permanent status of being the official bearer of magnificence and are climbing up the style ladder to prove it is a true blue member of the ethnic style. Sarees and katrina kaif a perfect match made in heaven.

Here are 4 saree looks of Katrina kaif enlisted below:

Look #1

Katrina kaif looks Breathtaking in pretty pink saree. Katrina Kaif looked lovely in a exceedingly peach saree which she wore for the Diwali celebrations. The saree featured a significant rose gold border with intricate design.  Katrina Kaif looked beautiful with simple makeup. Katrina kept her hair simple. The beautiful saree is from Manish Malhotra label collection. The embroidered saree was adorned with many signature style.

  Katrina Kaif in blush pink saree for Diwali celebrations

                   

The blush pink sheer saree was decked in gold and silver sequined borders in an exceedingly triangular pattern and floral style. The actress had carried the saree of elegance with a sleeveless blouse embellished in gold and silver sequins matching the saree’s borders and that includes neckline.

Katrina was last seen in the recently released, which marks her onscreen reunion with Akshay Kumar after a decade.

Look #2

Katrina kaif was spotted wearing this gorgeous number from Sabyasachi Mukherjee collection during the promotion of her latest movie Sooryavanshi which marks her onscreen reunion with Akshay kumar.

Katrina Kaif for promotion of Sooryavanshi in burnt orange saree

The actress was styled by celebrity fashion stylist Ami Patel in a rusted orange drape that featured multi-coloured embroidered border and gold sequins. It also entailed patches of gold floral embroidery. Katrina’s saree was teamed with a full-sleeved blouse with Teardrop earrings. She looked stunning with soft, shimmer makeup and light jewellery. Katrina is a desi vision and looks beautiful as the colour beautifully complements her.

Look # 3

This recent saree inspiration was delivered by Katrina Kaif was in Dubai attending the HSBC Global Indian Pulse Survey at Expo 2020 Dubai. The saree with floral embroidery, this Aaina saree came with the loveliest work peppered with multiple hues. The scalloped hem, mini chaandbaalis, and gold bangles aren’t one thing to be incomprehensible.

Katrina Kaif looks ethereal in a pink organza saree for an event in Dubai

    

      

Look – 4

Katrina wore a plain pastel blue chiffon saree for the promotion of sooryavanshi promotion at Bigg Boss and teamed with the semi-sheer six yards with an embroidered blouse of the identical color. The spaghetti-strapped blouse came adorned with floral sequined embroidery and a plunging neck. Katrina accessorized her saree with a pair of floral drop matching earrings, and silver stacked bracelets. Her make-up featured metallic blue eye shadow, glowing skin, center-parted wavy locks, a dainty bindi, and nude pink lips.

              Katrina Kaif looks graceful look in a powder blue saree for Sooryavanshi promotions

          

In a recent interview to Cosmopolitan India,

Katrina said, “I grew up thinking that there is just one kind of beauty—it was what you saw in the magazines, and if you didn’t conform to that, then you didn’t cut it. I used to be rather conscious about the way I looked because I felt like I didn’t quite fit in. Today, people might find that admission a little strange, but back then, I felt that there were things about my features that were not ‘perfect’. I realize now that I was the one putting this pressure on myself ”. said the actress.