Cadbury, one of the biggest chocolate brands in the world with operations in more than 60 countries and billions of dollars in revenues. It is not only a brand of mouth-watering chocolates liked by Consumers of all ages, but also one with a 200 year old history filled with wonderful achievements and depressing failures.

Let’s dive into the origins and rise of Cadbury and see how they got to where they are today coming from a wealthy family of Quaker Christians in Britain, John Cadbury, just like any other member of his community was not allowed to attend Universities and his non-violent beliefs and values Kept him out from Joining the military. So, starting a business was the only option for him to make a living. That is why, in 1824 he Opened A Grocery Store In Bull Street, located in the city of Birmingham, UK.

As Alcohol was considered bad For Society by quaker community Tea, Coffee, Cocoa and drinking Chocolate were seen as healthy alternatives by them including John himself. That’s why among other things he sold high quality Cocoa and drinking Chocolate in his store, which he used to prepare using a pestle And mortar.

Due to high demand in 1831 John moved to a four-story warehouse nearby and started producing Cocoa and drinking chocolate on a commercial-scale.

Thus, the Cadbury manufacturing business was born.

Because of the high cost of production these were sold mainly to the wealthy people. By, 1842 he was selling around 11 varieties of Cocoa and 16 varieties of chocolate.

In 1847, his brother Benjamin Cadbury became a partner in the business and the company came to be known As Cadbury Brothers. The same year they rented larger factory in Birmingham which had a private canal that connected to all the major ports in Britain.

In 1854, the Cadbury Brothers of Birmingham received an exclusive royal warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and Cocoa to Queen Victoria this was a great luck for them as businesses which used to have these warrants had a better and sophisticated image among general buyers. However, just six years later in 1860, they had dissolve their partnership due to John’s wife’s Death and his declining mental and physical health. In 1861, John handed over the complete control of the business to his sons Richard and George Cadbury who were 25 and 21 at that time. During this time the market was not doing well and most chocolate manufacturers in Britain were going out of business of which Cadbury was not an exception.

Richard and George invested 4000 pounds each from their inherited money and started to work long hours to keep the business alive. But their turning point came in 1966 when they decided to buy a new type of Cocoa press developed in the Netherlands which removed much of the unpalatable Cocoa butter from the Cocoa beans. Up until this point almost all Cocoa makers including Cadbury had a high level Of Cocoa butter in it, to which they had to add starches to mask its taste and texture. But with this press, that would not be necessary anymore. However, buying this machine was a massive risk for Cadbury as it was expensive, they had very little money to invest, and no one knew if there would be enough demand for the products that came out of it.

But they decided to go for it and were the first British manufacturers to do so. Thus they introduced the Cadbury Cocoa Essence as the UK’s first unadulterated, pure Cocoa. With its high quality and extensive marketing it became extremely popular leading to dramatic sales numbers and changed the future of British Cocoa industry.

In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres of land surrounding the factory at his own expense to create a model village so that many more of their workforce could be given a healthy, pollution free And greener environment where they could thrive. By 1900, this was expanded to 330 acres with 313 cottages and houses along with other facilities like playgrounds, swimming pools and medical centres. Many more similar properties were built in.

The years leading up to the First World War, with smaller developments taking place later on in the 20th century. In 1897, Cadbury introduced their First Milk Chocolate bar. Although they were making milk chocolate drinks from 1849. This was a new recipe that they copied from contemporary Swiss Chocolate manufacturers.

But in terms of texture Swiss Chocolates were far superior as they added condensed milk instead of milk powder. Because of this, Swiss Companies dominated the British Market which Cadbury started to challenge. In 1904, Cadbury launched their Dairy milk bar. Developed by George Cadbury Junior, it was a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than any previous chocolate in the market. On the suggestion of a customer, it was named Dairy Milk. With a distinctive and attractive purple wrapper, gradually it became, Cadbury’s best-selling product by 1914.

Due to the shortage of supply, the British Government banned manufacturers from using fresh milk. So, dried skimmed milk was used instead. Due to these issues with essential supplies, the Dairy Milk and many other Cadbury products came Off the shelves during The War. But once the war ended, the company worked hard to restore their business did a lot of promotions, kept competitors away with a direct distribution chain and continued launching new products like Milk Tray Bars, Fudge, Toffee Buttons and Picnic. In a few years they were back to the game like before.

In 1969 ,they merged with Swiss Drinks company Schweppes and demerged again in 2008.

Then in 2010, Kraft Foods bought the brand for an astounding $19 billion but they themselves split into two companies one of which was named Mondelez International which owns the Cadbury brand till date.

In 2019, Mondelez ranked 116 in the Fortune 500 list of largest corporations by total revenue.

As of today, Cadbury is the second largest confectionery brand in the world with products ranging from chocolates, ice cream and beverages to biscuits, desserts, spread and much more.

With operations in more than 60 countries including the UK, USA, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia and India, it continues to be one of the most favoured name in the segment of chocolates, confectionaries and most probably would continue to be so for a long time!!


10 Skincare Tips To Be Followed During Winters

The harsh winter weather will cause flakiness and dryness of the skin, creating it look dull. Therefore, it becomes extraordinarily necessary to produce the skin with the correct nourishment, and keep it hydrous and protected. When weather condition arrives, humidness levels drop drastically, says a dermatologist.

During winters we have a tendency to all notice the skin going dry, rough and flaky. it’s important to require correct skin care throughout winters therefore on build your skin healthy and glowing.

Invest in a Skin. It is going to represent you for a very long time” –Linden Tyler.


Young woman applying cosmetic white cream on face

1. Opt for the proper moisturizer for your skin type:

Moisturizers act as a barrier, holding wetness in and hydrating the skin’s outer layers. If you’ve got oily skin, water-based, non-comedogenic moisturizers are the simplest choice. Dry skin desires a heavier, oil-based moisturizer to rehydrate. Moisturize your skin frequently and don’t forget to wear a lip balm.

2.  Avoid hot showers:

Hot water evaporates fast, stripping your skin of its essential moisture and damaging its natural protective barrier. Moisturize immediately after showering with a body lotion.

3.  Insert a humidifier:

Harsh winter weather creates a challenge for the skin as humidity is low each inside and out. Employ a humidifier helps replenish the top layer of the epidermis by preventing the air from becoming too dry.

Humidifiers are generally safe for all skin types to use. However, it is important that you take the time to clean and maintain your appliance.

4.Avoid use of harsh face cleansers:

During winters opt for creamy or balm based cleansers and products. Look for mild skin cleansers labeled as “fragrance-free.” And should also contain mild ingredients. Using a transparent body bar made with glycerin will clean and moisturize the skin without causing irritation. Always wash gently without scrubbing to avoid skin irritation.

5.  always wear a Sunblock:

Never ever skip a sunscreen in your skincare routine. The most necessary factor you’ll do for your skin is to wear sun screen each single day, even once it’s winter. Sun exposure can result in pigmentation issues, wrinkles and skin cancer. Sunscreen always protects your skin from harmful UV rays.

6.     Use facial oil during nighttime Regimen:

Look for ingredients such as rosehip oil, soybean oil, and jojoba oil and vitamin E, which all possess highly hydrating and moisturizing properties.

7.  Avoid using harsh physical and chemical exfoliators:

These include ingredients such as mineral oils and aggressive acid peels, using scrubs or acid peels on dry may create patches and peel off the skin causing skin damage. It damages the cells and reduce skin –barrier function resulting in trans epidermal water loss.

8.  Incorporate hyaluronic acid serum:

Hyaluronic acid is an incredible acid needed to add in your skincare routine. Hyaluronic acid serum acts as a humectant a substance helps the skin hold on to water. It helps to hydrate the skin and lockup moisture content into the skin.

9.  Stay hydrated:

Always try to stay hydrated consuming adequate amount of water during winter season. If your skin is dehydrated, it becomes flaky, dull and dry. Hydrated skin is smooth and radiant so keep up the water consumption so that winters don’t let go your skin dehydrated.

10.     Take additional care of your eye area and lips:

The skin here is thinner and has little-to-no oil glands to shield itself. Use serums, under eye creams and oils around the eyes that soothe and protect the skin. On the lips, use balms to supply a barrier against the weather and to lock in the moisture.

Tags: #skincareroutine #skincareduringwinter

Benefits of Thinking Positively, and How to Do It

Are you a glass half-empty or half-full sort of person? Studies have demonstrated that both can impact your physical and mental health and that being a positive thinker is the better of the two.

A recent study followed 70,000 women from 2004 to 2012 and found that those who were optimistic had a significantly lower risk of dying from several major causes of death, including:

* heart disease
* stroke
* cancer, including breast, ovarian, lung, and colorectal cancers
* infection
* respiratory diseases

Other proven benefits of thinking positively include:

* better quality of life
* higher energy levels
* better psychological and physical health
* faster recovery from injury or illness
fewer colds
* lower rates of depression
* better stress management and coping skills
* longer life span

Positive thinking isn’t magic and it won’t make all of your problems disappear. What it will do is make problems seem more manageable and help you approach hardships in a more positive and productive way.

How to think positive thoughts:
Positive thinking can be achieved through a few different techniques that have been proven effective, such as positive self-talk and positive imagery.

Here are some tips that to get you started that can help you train your brain how to think positively.

Focus on the good things:
Challenging situations and obstacles are a part of life. When you’re faced with one, focus on the good things no matter how small or seemingly insignificant they seem. If you look for it, you can always find the proverbial silver lining in every cloud — even if it’s not immediately obvious. For example, if someone cancels plans, focus on how it frees up time for you to catch up on a TV show or other activity you enjoy.

Practice gratitude:
Practicing gratitude has been shown to reduce stress, improve self-esteem, and foster resilience even in very difficult times. Think of people, moments, or things that bring you some kind of comfort or happiness and try to express your gratitude at least once a day. This can be thanking a co-worker for helping with a project, a loved one for washing the dishes, or your dog for the unconditional love they give you.

Keep a gratitude journal:
Studies Trusted Source have found that writing down the things you’re grateful for can improve your optimism and sense of well-being. You can do this by writing in a gratitude journal every day, or jotting down a list of things you’re grateful for on days you’re having a hard time.

Open yourself up to humor:
Studies have found that laughter lowers stress, anxiety, and depression. It also improves coping skills, mood, and self-esteem.

Be open to humor in all situations, especially the difficult ones, and give yourself permission to laugh. It instantly lightens the mood and makes things seem a little less difficult. Even if you’re not feeling it; pretending or forcing yourself to laugh can improve your mood and lower stress.

Spend time with positive people:
Negativity and positivity have been shown to be contagious. Consider the people with whom you’re spending time. Have you noticed how someone in a bad mood can bring down almost everyone in a room? A positive person has the opposite effect on others.

Being around positive people has been shown to improve self-esteem and increase your chances of reaching goals. Surround yourself with people who will lift you up and help you see the bright side.

Practice positive self-talk:
We tend to be the hardest on ourselves and be our own worst critic. Over time, this can cause you to form a negative opinion of yourself that can be hard to shake. To stop this, you’ll need to be mindful of the voice in your head and respond with positive messages, also known as positive self-talk.

Research shows that even a small shift in the way you talk to yourself can influence your ability to regulate your feelings, thoughts, and behavior under stress.

Here’s an example of positive self-talk: Instead of thinking “I really messed that up,” try “I’ll try it again a different way.”

Identify your areas of negativity:
Take a good look at the different areas of your life and identify the ones in which you tend to be the most negative. Not sure? Ask a trusted friend or colleague. Chances are, they’ll be able to offer some insight. A co-worker might notice that you tend to be negative at work. Your spouse may notice that you get especially negative while driving. Tackle one area at a time.

Start every day on a positive note:
Create a ritual in which you start off each day with something uplifting and positive. Here are a few ideas:

* Tell yourself that it’s going to be a great day or any other positive affirmation.
* Listen to a happy and positive song or playlist.
* Share some positivity by giving a compliment or doing something nice for someone.

How to think positive when everything is going wrong:
Trying to be positive when you’re grieving or experiencing other serious distress can seem impossible. During these times, it’s important to take the pressure off of yourself to find the silver lining. Instead, channel that energy into getting support from others.

Positive thinking isn’t about burying every negative thought or emotion you have or avoiding difficult feelings. The lowest points in our lives are often the ones that motivate us to move on and make positive changes.

When going through such a time, try to see yourself as if you were a good friend in need of comfort and sound advice. What would you say to her? You’d likely acknowledge her feelings and remind her she has every right to feel sad or angry in her situation, and then offer support with a gentle reminder that things will get better.

Side effects of negative thinking:
Negative thinking and the many feelings that can accompany it, such as pessimism, stress, and anger, can cause a number of physical symptoms and increase your risk of diseases and a shortened lifespan.

Stress and other negative emotions trigger several processes in our bodies, including stress hormone release, metabolism, and immune function. Long periods of stress increase inflammation in your body, which has also been implicated in a number or serious diseases.

Some of the symptoms of stress include:

* headache
* body aches
* nausea
* fatigue
* difficulty sleeping
Cynicism, stress, anger, and hostility have been linked to a higher risk of:

* heart disease
* heart attack
* stroke
* dementia

When to seek medical help:
If you’re feeling consumed by negative thoughts and are having trouble controlling your emotions, see a doctor. You may benefit from medical help, such as positive psychology or therapy. Persistent negative thoughts can be caused by an underlying psychiatric condition that requires treatment.

You won’t be able to undo years of pessimism and negative thoughts overnight, but with some practice, you can learn how to approach things with a more positive outlook.