LIFE IN THE 1960S OF ENGLAND-PART2.

SWINGING SIXTIES:

       A Youth Culture was emerging with a set of values that was frowned upon by the previous generation. There was a revolution in fashion, music, literature, and the arts. The sudden development of mass communication helped create and sustain this youth culture. This youth culture spread all over Europe and USA. Miniskirts and kaftans made their appearance on the streets of London and San Francisco. This was the time when two singing groups,     The Beatles and The Rolling Stones, gained worldwide popularity. The new kind of music was symbolic of young people’s rejection of parental values. The reality of change was to be perceived in every aspect of life-in fashion, in a new frankness in conversation, and print. All these were summed up under the label ‘permissiveness’. Sexual and social taboos eroded with the introduction of contraceptive pills and recreational drugs. The values of this youth culture exercised sway over half the globe as the Swinging Sixties wore on.

MAJOR EVENTS:

    In the sixties, the major cities of the world were undergoing the most dramatic transformation. Bulldozers could be seen everywhere n old buildings; and in their place, mighty skyscrapers mushroomed. The higher the skyscrapers rose, the higher seemed the people’s hope for the future. The landscape seemed to be changing faster than at any time earlier in history. In the name of welfare and development, low-cost housing was introduced. Urban motorways and hideous high-rise flats, which were becoming increasingly common, destroyed the environment. Historically, it was an important decade, witnessing the death of three great world leaders-John F Kennedy, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Martin Luther King. The Cold War was becoming more and more serious as the conflicts between the USA and the USSR increased. Tension prevailed throughout 1962 in the newly – divided city of Berlin. The Berlin Wall symbolized the East-west confrontation. Mankind reached the very pinnacle of technological advancement when Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon in 1969. Another major milestone in human history was passed when Dr. Christian Barnard performed the first-ever human heart transplant operation.

DEVELOPMENT IN LITERATURE:

    In the world of literature, a new type of drama called ‘Kitchen Sink Drama’ became popular. This type of drama focused very realistically on domestic life, family quarrels, marriage, and other matters about the ordinary courageous way of life. Another type of drama called ‘absurd drama’ was also enjoying its heyday. Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot and Edward Albee’s who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? was seen by a large number of people. Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead was a well-known play that was written in a similar style. In America, Joseph Heller’s novel catch-22 was published in 1961 and Norman Mailer’s an American Dream in 1965. It was the decade in which the all-time favorites Dr. Zhivago and Barbara Streisand’s funny girl were screened. Looking back, the sixties was a crucial period in the history of not only Great Britain, but of the whole world. Tremendous changes were taking place all over the globe.

Published by

Ayisha Shabana……

LIFE IN THE 1960S OF ENGLAND – PART 1

The Sixties of England was a decade of tremendous change in international, social, and cultural affairs. It was a decade in which man walked on the moon and the first-ever human heart transplant was carried out. Human life seemed to reach the very pinnacle of civilization. After a long time, England emerged into a period of remarkable stability and prosperity. The two world wars had caused havoc in Great Britain. The forties and fifties witnessed a crippled country slowly limping back to health. After facing so many trials, the people of Britain were finding life easier in the sixties. The society of the late sixties was relatively freewheeling and differed remarkably from the strait-leaded and traditionalist society of the forties and fifties.

What is the Political,Social and Economic life in 1960s of England?

In 1964, Harold Wilson became the Prime Minister, ending thirteen years of conservative rule. The new Prime Minister promised a ‘classes dynamic New Britain’. The Labour Party remained in power till 1970. Trade unions were becoming quite active in the sixties and would dominate politics in the seventies.

The sixties witnessed a new attitude towards class. One cannot call the decade’s society completely ‘classless’, but the differences between the upper and lower classes were beginning to become almost indistinguishable. The working class enjoyed increased spending power in a way that it had never done before. This was due to their high wages. Back in 1951, the average weekly earnings of men over twenty-one were £8.20; by 1968, the figure had jumped to £23 per week. Though there was an increase in the price of food and other necessities, the cost of small cars, television sets, and washing machines was much lower. By 1961, nearly 75 percent of homes in Great Britain had television sets. Next in popularity were refrigerators and washing machines.

A new kind of social divide was emerging in the sixties. Until1950, America was the preferred new home for migrant west Indians. But in 1952, the USA banned West Indian immigration. As a result, they turned to Britain. The new immigrants settled in the poor sections of London. Violent race riots broke out between the local whites and the West Indian Immigrants.

What is the education system of 1960s of England?

An important aspect of the liberation of the 1960s was the major progress in the sphere of higher education. Colleges devoted to the study of art and design were founded. Teacher Training colleges were upgraded and their importance was recognized. Certain colleges of higher technology became full universities, and new universities, such as the universities of Sussex, York, and Kent, were created. Primary Schools also underwent a metamorphosis. The primary school curriculum, which was under the shadow of Victorian values, was made more flexible and enjoyable. For a long time, the main focus of primary education was teaching the three R’s (‘reading,[w]riting and [a]rithmetic’) to little children. In 1964, the Schools Council for Curriculum and Examinations was set up. It was this council that brought about several innovations to make primary education imaginative and imaginable.

Will be continued……

Published by Ayisha Shabana. M

COPYWRITING VS CONTENT WRITING

When companies need written material, they typically use either a copywriter or a content writer. These types of writers specialize in creating marketing content for business. Understanding the difference between the two roles can help your company decide which one they need for your written content.

WHAT IS COPYWRITING?

Copywriting is the creation of text for the advertisement or marketing of one specific company. It aim to raise brand awareness and persuade an audience to take a particular action, such as purchase an item. To do this, copywriters make their content interesting and memorable. Copywriting highlighting a product’s features by structuring it in the best possible perspective through brainstorming creative ideas. Some forms of copywriting include brochures, billboards, email campaigns, taglines, magazine advertisements, press releases, etc. The common job responsibilities of a copywriter is writing copy to follow the brand’s voice and style, collaborating with public relations team and other professionals on marketing projects, editing and proofreading copy to ensure accuracy and speaking with stakeholders to determine their content needs and requirements.

WHAT IS CONTENT WRITING?

Content writing is the production of written materials to inform reader. These professionals strive to generate web traffic, using search engine optimization(SEO). Content writer also try to increase customer engagement with persuasive language and relevant content. They generate specialized materials for websites and other digital medium. During the process, content writers often research their topics to provide necessary facts for readers to understand topics fully and provide credibility. Some forms of content writing include blogs, newspaper articles, webpages, email newsletters, magazine feature, etc. The common job responsibility of a content writer is conducting research on industry related topics to create content, editing and proofreading content to improve readability for viewers, researching keywords and using SEO practices to improve web traffic to the company’s website, generating interesting headlines to attract readers and completing projects within designated deadlines.

COPYWRITING VS CONTENT WRITING

  1. OVERALL GOAL- A copywriter creates content to persuade their readers, whereas a content writer produces content to inform their readers. Since copywriters are trying to sell a product or service, their copy ends with a call to action. Content writers have a more subtle goal of encouraging brand loyalty through writing articles that educate and entertain.
  2. LENGTH OF CONTENT- Typically, a copywriter writes short form copy and a content writers long form. Copywriters keep their text brief to engage their readers. However, content writers often write more in depth explaining a process or topic.
  3. ROLE WITHIN A COMPANY- A copywriter is a professional whose primary job is to create copy. Content writer often have other roles beyond writing. They may be an author, blogger, executive, software engineer or other individuals.
  4. TONE OF WRITING- Copywriters use a conversational tone when speaking to their viewers. Because content writers are more informative, their tone is often more formal.
  5. DEADLINES- Copywriters work on strict deadlines to meet their client’s requests. Since copywriters write longer content, their deadlines are usually more flexible to allow time for research.
  6. WORK ENVIRONMENT- Copywriters typically work for an advertising agency marketing for a company. Content writers work for a variety of companies from various industries. copywriters often work directly with a company, whereas content writers work through a third party.

SKILLS FOR COPYWRITING-

  • Copywriters work for a variety of sectors, making it helpful to have experience writing for different fields, such as healthcare or technology.
  • To attract users, copywriters are empathetic in their writing to make their audience feel good.
  • Since copywriters work closely with marketing teams, it’s helpful for them to be a team player and work well with others.

SKILLS FOR CONTENT WRITING-

  • Since content writers are trying to generate traffic to a business’s website, they use SEO and keywords to direct users.
  • To generate informative copy, content writers conduct research from other sources to back up their claims and facts.
  • In order to attract readers, content writers produce captivating headlines that make viewers want to read their articles.

Trend Story- The Journey of a Flying Sikh


Overview and Early Life

Milkha Singh, a legend in the history of Sports and Athletics was an Indian track and field sprinter born on 20th November, 1929. He was born in a Sikh family in Govindpura, a village 10 km from Muzaffargarh city in Punjab Province. He had 14 other siblings, eight of them died during the partition of India. Milkha was orphaned during the partition, when his parents were killed by a Muslim mobs in violence. He witnessed the killings.
After seeing the deadly situation in Punjab, he decided to escape and came to Delhi, India in 1947 and lived with the family of his married sister for a short period of time. He was imprisoned in Tihar Jail for travelling in Train without ticket. His sister, Ishvar helped him in getting released. He spent his further some time at Refugee Camp , at Purana Quila and at a resettlement colony in Shahdara, both in Delhi.  
Milkha was discontented with his life and decided to become a dacoit, but was instead persuaded by his brother, Malkhan, to attempt to the recruitment to the Indian Army. He successfully gained entrance on his fourth attempt, in 1951, and while stationed at the Electrical Mechanical Engineering Centre in Secunderbad he was introduced to athletics. He had run the 10 km distance to and from school as a child and was selected by the army for special training in athletics after finishing sixth in a compulsory cross-country run for new recruits.  Singh has acknowledged how the army introduced him to sport, saying that “I came from a remote village, I didn’t know what running was, or the Olympics”.  
International Career      
He was introduced to athletics and sports when he was recruited in Indian Army, at the Electrical Mechanical Engineering Centre in Secundarbad. He represented India in the 200 and 400 m competitions held in Olympics at Melbourne in 1956. In 1958, Singh set records for the 200m and 400m in the National Games of India, held at Cuttack, and also won gold medals in the same events at the Asian Games. He then won a gold medal in the 400m


(440 yards at this time) competition at the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games with a time of 46.6 seconds. This latter achievement made him the first gold medalist at the Commonwealth Games from independent India. Before Vikas Gowda won the gold in 2014, Milkha was the only Indian male to have won an individual athletics gold medal at those Games.
Jawaharlal Nehru tried to convince Milkha Singh to set aside his memories of his past during the Partition era, to focus on the to race successfully in 1960 against Abdul Khaliq in Pakistan, where a post-race comment by the then General Ayub Khan led to him acquiring the nickname of The Flying Sikh. At the 1962 Asian Games, held in Jakarta, Singh won gold in the 400m and in the 4 x 400m relay. He attended the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo, where he was entered to compete in the 400m, the 4 x 100m relay and the 4 x 400m relay. He did not take part in either the 400m or the 4 x 100m relay and the Indian team of Milkha Singh, Makhan Singh, Amrit Pal and Ajmer Singh were eliminated when they finished fourth in the heat stages of the 4 x 400m.
There have been claims that Singh won 77 of his 80 races, but these are spurious. The number of races in which he participated is not verified, nor is the number of victories, but he lost a 400m race at the 1964 National Games in Calcutta to Makhan Singh and he did not finish first in any of his four races at the 1960 Olympic Games or the aforementioned qualification races at the 1956 Olympics.
Singh’s time in the 1960 Olympics 400m final, which was run on a cinder track, set a national record that stood until 1998 when Paramjit Singh exceeded it on a synthetic track and with fully automatic timing that recorded 45.70 seconds. Although Singh’s Olympic result of 45.6 seconds had been hand-timed, an electronic system at those Games had determined his record to be 45.73.
Later Life  
Milkha was promoted from the rank of sepoy to junior commissioned officer in recognition of his successes in the 1958 Asian Games.  He


subsequently became Director of Sports in Punjab Ministry of Education, a post he retired from in 1998.
Milkha was awarded the Padma Shri, India’s fourth-highest civilian award, following his success in 1958. In 2001, he turned down an offer of the Arjuna Award from the Indian government, arguing that it was intended to recognize young sports people and not those such as him. He also thought that the Award was being inappropriately given to people who had little notable involvement as active sports people at all. He said that “I have been clubbed with sportspersons who are nowhere near the level that I had achieved” and that the award had become devalued. While sharing his wealth of experience in a college in Goa on 25 August 2014, he also said, “The awards nowadays are distributed like ‘prasad’ in a temple. Why should one be honored when he or she has not achieved the benchmark for the award? I rejected the Arjuna I was offered after I received the Padma Shri. It was like being offered an SSC [secondary school] certificate after securing a Masters degree.”
All of Singh’s medals have been donated to the nation. They were displayed at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in New Delhi and later moved to a sports museum in Patiala, where a pair of running shoes that he wore in Rome are also displayed. In 2012, he donated the Adidas shoes that he had worn in the 1960 400m final to be sold in a charity auction organized by actor Rahul Bose.
Milkha was admitted to the intensive care unit at Fortis Hospital in Mohali on 24 May 2021 with pneumonia caused by COVID-19. His condition was, for a while, described as stable, but he died on 18 June 2021 at 11:30 PM IST. His wife, Nirmal Kaur, had died a few days earlier on 13 June 2021, also due to COVID-19.  



3 / 3subsequently became Director of Sports in Punjab Ministry of Education, a post he retired from in 1998.
Milkha was awarded the Padma Shri, India’s fourth-highest civilian award, following his success in 1958. In 2001, he turned down an offer of the Arjuna Award from the Indian government, arguing that it was intended to recognize young sports people and not those such as him. He also thought that the Award was being inappropriately given to people who had little notable involvement as active sports people at all. He said that “I have been clubbed with sportspersons who are nowhere near the level that I had achieved” and that the award had become devalued. While sharing his wealth of experience in a college in Goa on 25 August 2014, he also said, “The awards nowadays are distributed like ‘prasad’ in a temple. Why should one be honored when he or she has not achieved the benchmark for the award? I rejected the Arjuna I was offered after I received the Padma Shri. It was like being offered an SSC [secondary school] certificate after securing a Masters degree.”
All of Singh’s medals have been donated to the nation. They were displayed at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in New Delhi and later moved to a sports museum in Patiala, where a pair of running shoes that he wore in Rome are also displayed. In 2012, he donated the Adidas shoes that he had worn in the 1960 400m final to be sold in a charity auction organized by actor Rahul Bose.
Milkha was admitted to the intensive care unit at Fortis Hospital in Mohali on 24 May 2021 with pneumonia caused by COVID-19. His condition was, for a while, described as stable, but he died on 18 June 2021 at 11:30 PM IST. His wife, Nirmal Kaur, had died a few days earlier on 13 June 2021, also due to COVID-19.  


You must know this, before getting VACCINATED!!

As we all are aware, coronavirus affects different people in different ways. Some people suffer from serious symptoms like shortness of breath, chest pain while some people suffer from mild symptoms like loss of taste or smell, sore throat, headache etc.

Even after COVID recovery, people are getting infected by new fungal infections like Black fungus and White fungus. As the immunity of the body takes some time to recover, COVID patients are becoming easy targets for these fungal infections.

The only way to be safe from this coronavirus and its after harms, is to get VACCINATED.

Now, coming to the point of vaccination, people are having various misconceptions. Like,

  • Which vaccine should be preferred?
  • What will be the side-effects of taking vaccine?
  • Can vaccination guarantee protection against COVID?
  • Can anyone get corona after vaccination?

And so on.

All the vaccines , COVISHIELD, COVAXIN, SPUTNIK V have passed the standard approval of WHO(WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION). All are efficient and preventive against corona. These vaccines are made available free of cost at government institutions and hospitals.

Side effects:

Any side effects after taking vaccine are an indication of the working of vaccine inside the body. People can have side-effects like headache, body pain, low grade fever and fatigue. However, these side-effects will resolve in a matter of 2-3 days.

Lastly, vaccination does help in protection against COVID, but it can be ensured only after taking both vaccine doses.(1 & 2). People who have taken only 1st dose of vaccine, should follow the same guidelines of wearing masks, maintaining social distances in public, frequently sanitizing your hands.

Unforgettable Bollywood Songs

There’s something majestic about every moment when listening to Hindi cinema music. Song and dance have long been a part of Bollywood films. Despite the fact that much has changed since the black-and-white era, present Bollywood films have stayed close to the spirit of the past. Bollywood, or the Hindi film business in Mumbai, generates an incredible amount of films each year. In India, these songs are extremely popular. While these songs have long been popular in India and its subcontinents, Bollywood has only recently become a global sensation.

The following lines feature a wide range of Bollywood songs from the 2000s and 2010s. You will have something to say if you are a Bollywood fan. Please feel free to express yourself in the comments area.

Tu jaane na from “Ajab prem ki Ghazab Kahani”

Tera hone Laga Hoon “Ajab prem ki Ghazab Kahani”

Ajj din chadheya from “love aaj kal”

Tujh mein rab dikhta hai from “ rab ne Bana Di Jodi”

Jiya dhadak dhadak jaaye From “kalyug”

Tu hi Haqeeqat from “tum mile”

Chaand sifarish from “fanaa”

Main jahaan rahoon from “Namaste London”

Tu hi meri shab hai from “gangster”

In dino from “ life in a metro”

Mere haath mein from “fanaa”

Agar tum mil jao from “zeher”

Dooriyan from “ love aaj kal”

ya ali from “Gangster”

Desi Girl from “Dostana”

Kabhi alvida naa kahena from “kabhi alvida naa kahena

Main agar kahoon From “om shanti om”

Afsana banake Bhool na jana

Zara sa from “jannat”

Haan tu hai from “jannat”

Khudaya Khair from “Billu Barber”

Woh Lamhe woh baatein from “ zaher”

Tum se hi from “ jab we met”

Ye ishq hai from “ jab we met”

Mitwa from “ kabhi alvida na kahena”

Kaise mujhe tum mil gaye- Ghajini

Doorie Atif Aslam.

phirta rahoon darbadar.

Tera mera rishta Purana.

sajde from “khatta meetha”

Zindagi from “Kites”

Marjawan mitjawan from “Aashiq banaya Aapne”

Khuda Jaane “Bachna Ae Haseeno”

Salam Aaya “Veer”