Why old age homes ?

We can see as our society is becoming nuclear more old age homes are increasing you parents and family members are very much important you are also their life. And if you do such things like leaving them alone. And gaving them a life they do not accepted. I feel very sorry for those parents. We as a child is very brutal if we think so. Even you are busy that doesn’t gave you right to leave them your other family is also living than why not them. And from a childhood we have seen everyone around than why are children do not have right to live with their grandparents. And why they do not have right to live with their grandchildren.

I always wanted to do something for my family only. Because they are giving me immense love and making me strong and independent. So that I can fight for myself and achieve something which is more important and valuable in my life. All you need is love and support and encouragement. And these all are not given by anyone expect parents. When they are with you when you needed them most than why they you can’t be there part when they needed you the most. It is not give and take process but it is the love for each other which make your bond and build a connection between you both. When you realise each other pain and also be part of it. Than you definitely got to know what you are doing to them. Time can heal everything this quote is true’ but you will definitely suffer alot when you realise the importance of family and when you needed them the most they will be gone very far.

Do not make such mistakes as you are the future and we know the life is tough but we can solve it together than leaving each other in the middle and continue. In that case if we win also than also you will be not happy and complete because you other members are not there with you to celebrate the joy and happiness with you. Unity has always been a drawback in our country but why we all are same but still we do not trust each other but we can trust those whom we don’t know and believe what they said but it is actually right that we loose someone special just because of a misunderstanding. And who are not important giving them more importance.


Forgiveness comes from the heart

This is true you cannot forgive someone so easily it’s difficult for anyone to forget things and move on. Your relation with that person is not same as we have earlier. Because cheating is very painful and forgiving them is not that easy. We think we can do it but we can’t is just that time heals that part and your heart take times to forgive someone. But the special word of this is that when we forgive someone with our heart our all anger and grunge or haterate come to end. Because know you genuinely forgive them.

I know it took time to forgive someone but if you have that patience and time than you will definitely get that person back. They will understand you and try to make out what was wrong. And they will try to solve and forgive you for your deeds. Misunderstanding can be their so don’t have to clear them all the time. When their is a right time you will get the chance to speak. If you are true than other person will value you. Be it today or tomorrow that’s the case your patience only decides how you will shine as a worrier in front of people. Who always have problems. But one thing they also know they could not able to down you if you have that power to shut others mouth up.

Your heart can be big enough but if you don’t clear ,confused or in a doubt don’t forget untill you get sure about it. Because you will not get peace and never justify your actions towards the forgiveness you want to gave them. It will give you peace for few time but you will never get over by this because you still have something inside you which is eating you daily. This is because you don’t take time to solve and think about it and than take a decision. So your heart should be clear with the fact than only you can give peace to others as well as yourself.

Mental health is Still avoided.

I have seen that people are talking about mental health but not following the same. We have to take steps as it is high time to Stop people. From the things which are making them disturb or depressed. I don’t know why people don’t talk about all these things. If they try to talk. why others do not want to understand them. Your small efforts can make their life better. Things could be solved but we don’t want to do it. We just want to focus on society and how they are approaching us. But in that case. We forget what a child wants. We cannot ignore such things. Understand and try to talk about all the things which you feel that they are comfortable to share and make them come out of all this before it is too late.

I have seen a news were a 16 year old boy has suicide. Just because of the mental stress caused by people as their thinking is so backward that the child has to take a major step like this. Please be mature and sensible know the LGBTQ is legal know also you are not accepting them. How can you be so harsh on people just because their preferences don’t match. Why can’t you motivate them and be the reason of their smile. And you can also make them strong and independent. so that they can easily fight for themselves. Everyone has the right to live their life as they want to live. Other do not have right to interfere even though you like or don’t like the same.

But I feel we have that quality that we can accept others as they are. We have also gone through much similar things previously. Your small efforts really matters if you really do something for others. If they don’t know your value still you will be happy because your soul will definitely be happy. I think we should gave chance to our goodness and always appreciated others talent as they are equally same as you are. Who has some different qualities in them. I have seen many people who always gave me motivation and there are people who demotivated and said very bad about me. But today the fact is that I have come a long way and accept the things around me. And gave myself time to live as I want to live. Because all we need is we as worriers. Who can fight from any situation.

Choosing the Best Career

The real problem is I can never break out of this paradigm and choose subjects that are a combination of different streams. The reason streams are a challenge for us is that they directly affect our career. I cannot pursue economics in a good Delhi University college if I don’t have math as one of my subjects in Class XII. Even if I excel in Economics, the math criteria will simply pull me out of the running and I won’t be able to pursue a career as an economist.

This paradigm and choose subjects that are a combination of different streams. The reason streams are a challenge for us is that they directly affect our career. I cannot pursue economics in a good Delhi University college if I don’t have math as one of my subjects in Class XII. Even if I excel in Economics, the math criteria will simply pull me out of the running and I won’t be able to pursue a career as an economist.

“You have to take care of your family one day” are the words of every parent if their child wants to pursue a career that has, in their opinion, no viability or popularity in society. Boys, in particular, are supposed to choose a career that can support their families one day. My passion and my happiness do not matter more than what society thinks about my career. For society, boys should not try for teaching, fashion designing and cooking because they are ‘feminine jobs’ and not meant for boys. Ever heard of male nurses? I am sure ‘No’.

t of this paradigm and choose subjects that are a combination of different streams. The reason streams are a challenge for us is that they directly affect our career. I cannot pursue economics in a good Delhi University college if I don’t have math as one of my subjects in Class XII. Even if I excel in Economics, the math criteria will simply pull me out of the running and I won’t be able to pursue a career as an economist.

“You have to take care of your family one day” are the words of every parent if their child wants to pursue a career that has, in their opinion, no viability or popularity in society. Boys, in particular, are supposed to choose a career that can support their families one day. My passion and my happiness do not matter more than what society thinks about my career. For society, boys should not try for teaching, fashion designing and cooking because they are ‘feminine jobs’ and not meant for boys. Ever heard of male nurses? I am sure ‘No’.

books, notebook, pen
Studying science means you are stuck in the engineering line, while studying commerce means I am stuck in the box of chartered accountancy,

As a school student, I am afraid to choose such professions because of the stereotypes and repercussions I’d have to face. Even though we are heading towards an egalitarian society, such discriminations prevail in our society. The colour of ‘pay scale’ affects the choice of career. Women are still paid less and the gender pay gap continues to widen. The career-palette is filled only with the most basic of colours, even though millions of colours exist.

books, notebook, pen
Studying science means you are stuck in the engineering line, while studying commerce means I am stuck in the box of chartered accountancy,

As a school student, I am afraid to choose such professions because of the stereotypes and repercussions I’d have to face. Even though we are heading towards an egalitarian society, such discriminations prevail in our society. The colour of ‘pay scale’ affects the choice of career. Women are still paid less and the gender pay gap continues to widen. The career-palette is filled only with the most basic of colours, even though millions of colours exist.

“You have to take care of your family one day” are the words of every parent if their child wants to pursue a career that has, in their opinion, no viability or popularity in society. Boys, in particular, are supposed to choose a career that can support their families one day. My passion and my happiness do not matter more than what society thinks about my career. For society, boys should not try for teaching, fashion designing and cooking because they are ‘feminine jobs’ and not meant for boys. Ever heard of male nurses? I am sure ‘No’.

t of this paradigm and choose subjects that are a combination of different streams. The reason streams are a challenge for us is that they directly affect our career. I cannot pursue economics in a good Delhi University college if I don’t have math as one of my subjects in Class XII. Even if I excel in Economics, the math criteria will simply pull me out of the running and I won’t be able to pursue a career as an economist.

“You have to take care of your family one day” are the words of every parent if their child wants to pursue a career that has, in their opinion, no viability or popularity in society. Boys, in particular, are supposed to choose a career that can support their families one day. My passion and my happiness do not matter more than what society thinks about my career. For society, boys should not try for teaching, fashion designing and cooking because they are ‘feminine jobs’ and not meant for boys. Ever heard of male nurses? I am sure ‘No’.

books, notebook, pen
Studying science means you are stuck in the engineering line, while studying commerce means I am stuck in the box of chartered accountancy,

As a school student, I am afraid to choose such professions because of the stereotypes and repercussions I’d have to face. Even though we are heading towards an egalitarian society, such discriminations prevail in our society. The colour of ‘pay scale’ affects the choice of career. Women are still paid less and the gender pay gap continues to widen. The career-palette is filled only with the most basic of colours, even though millions of colours exist.

books, notebook, pen
Studying science means you are stuck in the engineering line, while studying commerce means I am stuck in the box of chartered accountancy,

As a school student, I am afraid to choose such professions because of the stereotypes and repercussions I’d have to face. Even though we are heading towards an egalitarian society, such discriminations prevail in our society. The colour of ‘pay scale’ affects the choice of career. Women are still paid less and the gender pay gap continues to widen. The career-palette is filled only with the most basic of colours, even though millions of colours exist.

Hard work

We all require hard work at some point in our lives. It is difficult to reach greatness without putting in the necessary effort. In other words, if an idle individual wishes to sit and wait for something else, they will get nothing. About the other side, someone who works hard all the time will undoubtedly succeed in life, and this is precisely what the essay on hard effort will discuss.

Hard labour pays off, as history has often demonstrated. Edison used to work for many hours each day and would fall asleep on his laboratory table with only his books as a pillow.

Similarly, India’s late Prime Minister Pt. Nehru used to labour 17 hours a day, seven days a week. He didn’t take any vacations. Mahatma Gandhi, our great leader, laboured tirelessly to bring our country freedom.

Photo by Chevanon Photography on Pexels.com

As a result, we can see that all of these people’s hard work paid off. It is necessary to maintain a constant vigilance to work hard in order to achieve one’s goals. Man was created to work, as the saying goes. He sparkles in use and rusts in storage, much like steel.

We can achieve anything and overcome any difficulty in life if we work hard enough. Furthermore, knowing that we have given our all and given our best to whatever work we are doing might help us live a happier life.

Hard work is unquestionably the most important factor in achieving success. What we gain by sweating our brow brings us more enjoyment than what we obtain by chance. As humans, we aspire to accomplish a variety of goals.

To become a reality, these things require a lot of effort. Poverty isn’t the problem; ideality is. When we squander our time, time squanders us as well. Anyone can attain success with hard work. Great people were born in little houses and died in palaces.

As a result, it demonstrates how outstanding labour may lead to success. You will notice improvements in your life once you begin working hard. You’ll become more focused and disciplined in your task.

Furthermore, you will witness benefits in a short period of time. It’s proof that when you work hard, qualities like drive, focus, and concentration come naturally. As a result, nothing will be able to stop you from succeeding.

Success is more than just being well-known and wealthy. It is also a success if you work hard and live a nice life filled with love. Hard work should not be limited to the workplace, but should also be applied to your personal life. Life will prosper if you work hard at your job and in your relationships.


What Exactly Is a Blockchain?

A blockchain is a distributed database that is shared across computer network nodes. A blockchain, like a database, saves information electronically in digital format. Blockchains are well recognised for their critical function in cryptocurrency systems such as Bitcoin in keeping a secure and decentralised record of transactions. The blockchain’s novelty is that it ensures the accuracy and security of a data record and produces trust without the requirement for a trusted third party.

The way data is organised differs significantly between a traditional database and a blockchain. A blockchain accumulates information in groupings known as blocks, which store sets of data.

Blocks have specific storage capabilities and, when full, are closed and connected to the previously filled block, producing the blockchain, a data chain. All new information that follows that newly added block is assembled into a newly formed block, which is then added to the chain once it is complete. A database typically organises its data into tables, but a blockchain, as the name suggests, organises its data into pieces (blocks) that are connected together. When implemented decentralizedly, this data structure creates an irreversible temporal line of data. When a block is completed, it is set in stone and becomes a part of this timeline. When a block is added to the chain, it is given a specific time stamp.


Blockchain is a sort of shared database that differs from traditional databases in the way data is stored; blockchains store data in blocks that are then connected together using encryption. As new data arrives, it is added to a new block. Once the block has been filled with data, it is chained onto the preceding block, resulting in the data being chained together in chronological sequence. A blockchain may hold several sorts of data, but its most popular application to date has been as a transaction ledger. In the case of Bitcoin, blockchain is employed in a decentralised manner, such that no single person or organisation has power—rather, all users keep control collectively. Because decentralised blockchains are unchangeable, the data entered is irreversible. In the case of Bitcoin, this implies that all transactions are permanently recorded and accessible to anybody.

How Does a Blockchain Function?

Blockchain’s purpose is to enable digital information to be recorded and disseminated, but not modified. A blockchain, in this sense, serves as the foundation for immutable ledgers, or records of transactions that cannot be changed, erased, or destroyed. As a result, blockchains are often referred to as distributed ledger technology (DLT). The blockchain idea, initially suggested as a research project in 1991, before its first broad use in use: Bitcoin 

Since then, the usage of blockchains has grown exponentially, thanks to the development of multiple cryptocurrencies, decentralized finance (DeFi) apps, non-fungible tokens (NFTs), and smart contracts.

Assume a corporation runs a server farm with 10,000 machines that are utilized to manage a database that contains all of its clients’ account information. This corporation owns a warehouse facility that houses all of these computers under one roof and has complete control over each of these systems and all of the information they hold. However, this creates a single point of failure. What happens if the power goes out at that location? What happens if its Internet connection is lost? What if it catches fire and burns to the ground? What if a malicious actor deletes everything with a single keystroke? The data is either lost or damaged in either situation.

A blockchain allows the data in that database to be distributed across several network nodes in different places. This not only adds redundancy but also ensures the integrity of the data contained in the database—if someone tries to change a record in one instance of the database, the other nodes are not affected, preventing a bad actor from doing so. If a single user tampers with Bitcoin’s transaction record, the other nodes will cross-reference each other and readily identify the node with inaccurate information. This approach aids in the establishment of a precise and visible order of occurrences. As a result, no one node in the network may modify the information contained inside it. As a result, information and history (such as cryptocurrency transactions) are irreversible. Such a record might be a list of transactions (like with cryptocurrencies), but it is also feasible for a blockchain to store additional information such as legal contracts, state identifications, or a company’s goods inventory. To validate new entries or records to a block, a majority of the processing power in the decentralised network must agree. Blockchains are protected by a consensus method such as proof of work (PoW) or proof of stake to prevent bad actors from confirming bogus transactions or duplicate spending (PoS). These techniques allow for consensus even when there is no one node in command.


Because of the decentralised structure of Bitcoin’s blockchain, all transactions can be transparently watched by owning a personal node or utilising blockchain explorers, which allow anybody to witness transactions taking place in real time. Every node maintains its own copy of the chain, which is updated as new blocks are confirmed and added. This means that you could follow Bitcoin wherever it went if you wanted to. Exchanges, for example, have been hacked in the past, and customers who stored Bitcoin on the exchange lost everything. While the hacker may be completely anonymous, the Bitcoins they obtained are easily traceable. It would be known if the Bitcoins stolen in some of these attacks were relocated or spent someplace.

Of course, the Bitcoin blockchain (as well as the majority of others) stores records that are encrypted. This implies that only the record’s owner may decode it and disclose their identity (using a public-private key pair). As a consequence, blockchain users may stay anonymous while maintaining transparency.

Is Blockchain Trustworthy?

In numerous ways, blockchain technology delivers decentralised security and trust. To begin, new blocks are always kept in a linear and chronological order. That is, they are always added to the blockchain’s “end.” It is exceedingly difficult to go back and change the contents of a block once it has been added to the end of the blockchain unless a majority of the network has achieved a consensus to do so. This is due to the fact that each block has its own hash, as well as the hash of the block before it and the previously mentioned time stamp. A mathematical function converts digital information into a string of numbers and letters to generate hash codes. If that information is changed in any manner, the hash code will change as well. Assume a hacker, who also operates a node on a blockchain network, wishes to change a blockchain and steal bitcoin from everyone else. If they changed their single copy, it would no longer be in sync with everyone else’s copy. When everyone else compares their copies to each other, this one copy will stand out, and the hacker’s version of the chain will be discarded as invalid.

To be successful in such a hack, the hacker must simultaneously possess and change 51 percent or more of the copies of the blockchain, so that their new copy becomes the majority copy and, thus, the agreed-upon chain. . Such an assault would also need a massive amount of money and resources, since they would have to repeat all of the blocks due to the varied time stamps and hash codes. Because of the scale of many cryptocurrency networks and how quickly they are developing, the expense of accomplishing such a feat would very certainly be unattainable. This would be not only exceedingly costly, but also likely futile. Such an action would not go unnoticed by network members, who would detect such substantial changes to the blockchain. Members of the network would then hard fork off to a new version of the chain that was not impacted. This would lead the value of the attacked version of the token to collapse, rendering the attack ultimately futile because the bad actor now controls a worthless asset. The same thing would happen if a bad actor attacked the next Bitcoin fork. It is designed in this manner so that participating in the network is significantly more economically encouraged than attacking it.

Blockchain vs. Bitcoin

Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta, two researchers who aimed to develop a system where document time stamps could not be manipulated with, proposed blockchain technology in 1991. But it wasn’t until nearly two decades later, with the introduction of Bitcoin in January 2009, that blockchain saw its first real-world implementation. A blockchain serves as the foundation for the Bitcoin protocol. Bitcoin’s pseudonymous developer, Satoshi Nakamoto, described the digital currency in a research paper as “a new electronic cash system that’s totally peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.” 2

The crucial point to remember here is that while Bitcoin utilises blockchain to transparently record a ledger of payments, blockchain may theoretically be used to immutably store any amount of data items. As previously said, this might take the shape of transactions, election votes, goods inventories, state identifications, deeds to residences, and much more. Currently, tens of thousands of initiatives are attempting to use blockchains in ways other than transaction recording to benefit society—for example, as a secure means of voting in democratic elections. Because of the immutability of blockchain, fraudulent voting would become much more difficult. A voting system, for example, may be designed such that each citizen of a country receives a separate coin or token. Each candidate would then be assigned a unique wallet address, and voters would transmit their token or cryptocurrency to the address of the candidate for whom they wanted to vote.


what is an NFT?

NFTs are tokens that may be used to indicate ownership of one-of-a-kind goods. They allowed us to tokenize items such as art, valuables, and even real estate. They can only have one official owner at a time and are protected by the Ethereum blockchain — no one can change the record of ownership or create a new NFT.

NFT is an abbreviation for non-fungible token. Non-fungible is an economical word that can be used to items such as your furniture, a song file, or your computer. Because of their distinct features, some goods cannot be substituted with others.

On the other hand, Fungible goods may be swapped since their worth, rather than their unique features, identifies them. NFTs and Ethereum address some of the issues that plague the internet today. As everything becomes increasingly digital, there is a greater need to imitate physical attributes such as scarcity, uniqueness, and evidence of ownership. Not to add that digital objects frequently only function inside the context of their offering.

Characteristics of NFTs

  • NFTs are digitally unique; no two NFTs are the same.
  • Every NFT must have an owner and this is of public record and easy for anyone to verify.
  • NFTs are compatible with anything built using Ethereum. An NFT ticket for an event can be traded on every Ethereum marketplace, for an entirely different NFT. You could trade a piece of art for a ticket!
  • Content creators can sell their work anywhere and can access a global market.
  • Creators can retain ownership rights over their own work and directly claim resale royalties.

Examples of NFT

The realm of NFT is still in its infancy. In principle, NFTs can cover everything that is unique and requires verifiable ownership. Here are some current examples of NFTs to help you grasp the idea:

  • An original piece of digital art
  • A one-of-a-kind shoe from a limited-edition fashion brand
  • An item in the game
  • A paper

How do NFTs function?

NFTs vary from ERC-20 tokens such as DAI or LINK in that each token is totally unique and cannot be divided. NFTs enable the assignment or claim of ownership of any unique piece of digital data, which may be tracked using Ethereum’s blockchain as a public ledger. An NFT is a digital item that is minted as a representation of digital or non-digital assets. An NFT might, for example, represent:

  • GIFs and Collectibles: Digital Art
  • Music \videos
  • Items from the Real World:
  • Tickets to a real-world event Deeds to an automobile
  • Invoices with tokens
  • Documents of legal significance
  • Signatures

At any one moment, an NFT can only have one owner. They are not convertible with other tokens on a 1:1 basis. For example, one ETH is the same as another ETH. This is not true of NFTs. Each token has a unique owner, which is easily verified. They are Ethereum-based and may be purchased and traded on any Ethereum-based NFT exchange.

To put it another way, if you own an NFT:

You can simply demonstrate that you own it. Establishing ownership of an NFT is quite similar to proving ownership of ETH in your account. Assume you buy an NFT, and ownership of the one-of-a-kind token is transferred to your wallet through your public address. The token verifies that your digital file copy is the original. Your private key is proof that you possess the original.

The public key of the content producer serves as a certificate of authenticity for that specific digital artefact.

The public key of the originator is basically a permanent part of the token’s history. The creator’s public key can prove that the token you own was generated by a certain person, adding to its market value (vs a counterfeit).

Another technique to demonstrate ownership of the NFT is to sign messages to demonstrate ownership of the private key underlying the address.

As previously stated, your private key serves as proof of ownership of the original. A signed message may be used to prove that you control your private keys without disclosing them to anyone, as well as that you own the NFT! It cannot be manipulated in any manner. You can sell it, and in some situations, the original inventor will get resale royalties. Alternatively, you can keep it indefinitely, confident in the knowledge that your asset is protected by your Ethereum wallet. In addition, if you build an NFT:

  • You may simply demonstrate that you are the creator.
  • Scarcity is determined by you.
  • You can earn royalties on each sale.
  • You may sell it on any NFT or peer-to-peer market. You’re not tied to any platform, and you don’t require someone to act as an intermediary.
  • Scarcity
  • The creator of an NFT has the authority to determine the scarcity of their asset.

Consider purchasing a ticket to a sporting event. The author of an NFT can pick how many replicas exist, much as an event producer can choose how many tickets to sell. These are sometimes exact copies, such as 5000 General Admission tickets. Occasionally, numerous tickets that are extremely similar but somewhat different are minted, such as a ticket with an allocated seat. In another example, the designer may choose to make an NFT of which only one is minted as a very rare collectable. In these instances, each NFT would still have a unique identity (similar to a bar code on a typical “ticket”) and would be owned by a single person. The desired scarcity of the NFT is important and is entirely up to the designer. A developer may seek to make each NFT fully unique in order to promote scarcity, or he or she may have motives to build thousands of clones. Keep in mind that all of this information is available to the public.


When some NFTs are sold, they will automatically pay royalties to their inventors. This is a new notion, yet it is one of the most powerful. Every time an Euler Beats Original is sold, the original owner earns an 8% royalty. Furthermore, certain sites, such as Foundation and Zora, provide royalties for its artists. This is entirely automated, allowing authors to just sit back and receive royalties as their work is sold from person to person. Currently, calculating royalties is difficult. At the moment, calculating royalties is highly laborious and inaccurate — many creators are not paid what they deserve. You’ll never miss out if your NFT has a royalty built in. At the moment, calculating royalties is highly laborious and inaccurate — many creators are not paid what they deserve. You’ll never miss out if your NFT has a royalty built in. What is the purpose of NFTs?

Here’s additional information on some of the more established use-cases and ideas for Ethereum-based NFTs.

  • Items of digital gaming content
  • Names of domains
  • Items of physical nature
  • Capital and collateral
  • Earnings maximisation for creators

The most common use of NFTs nowadays is in the world of digital material. This is because the industry is now broken. Platforms are consuming content providers’ income and earning potential. An artist who publishes work on a social network generates revenue for the podium, which sells advertisements to the artist’s fans. They receive exposure in exchange, but exposure does not pay the bills. NFTs enable a new creative economy in which producers do not give up control of their material to the platforms that publicise it. Ownership is embedded in the material. Ethereum’s carbon footprint will be 99.95% lower once enhanced, making it more energy-efficient than many existing businesses.

To clarify further, we’ll have to get a bit more technical, so please bear with us…

Don’t blame the NFTs.

Because Ethereum is decentralised and safe, the whole NFT ecosystem functions. Decentralized means that you and everyone else can both confirm that you own anything. All without relying on or providing custody to a third party who may impose their own regulations whenever they choose. It also means that your NFT is adaptable to a wide range of products and markets. Secure means that no one can copy/paste or steal your NFT. Because of Ethereum’s characteristics, it is feasible to digitally own unique goods and receive a fair price for your content. When they sell their stuff, the money goes straight to them. If the new owner then sells the NFT, the original developer may be entitled to royalties. Because the creator’s address is part of the token’s information — metadata that cannot be changed – this is ensured every time it is sold.

NFTs’ environmental effect

NFTs are becoming more popular, which means they are being scrutinized more closely, particularly in terms of their carbon footprint.

To be clear on a couple of points:

NFTs have no direct impact on Ethereum’s carbon footprint. Ethereum’s present method of securing your cash and assets is energy-intensive, but it is going to change. But it comes at a price. Blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum are energy heavy since it requires a lot of energy to maintain these properties. If it were simple to modify Ethereum’s past in order to steal NFTs or money, the system would collapse.

The labour involved in minting your NFT

A couple things must happen when you mint an NFT:

  • It must be verified as an asset on the blockchain.
  • The owner’s account balance must be adjusted to reflect the addition of that asset. This enables it to be exchanged or verifiably “owned” in the future.
  • The above-mentioned transactions must be added to a block and “immortalized” on the chain.
  • As a result, the block must be verified by everyone in the network.

The Chernobyl nuclear disaster

On April 26, 1986, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union) erupted, resulting in what many believe to be the world’s greatest nuclear accident.

Even after many years of scientific inquiry and government investigation, many issues surrounding the Chernobyl disaster remain unresolved, particularly about the long-term health effects of the large radioactive release on people who were exposed.


According to the World Nuclear Association, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is located about 81 miles (130 kilometres) north of the Ukrainian capital, Kyiv, and about 12 miles (20 kilometres) south of the border with Belarus.

 It is composed of four reactors that were planned and constructed in the 1970s and 1980s. To provide cooling water for the reactor, a man-made reservoir around 8.5 square miles (22 square kilometres) in size and supplied by the Pripyat River was built.

Pripyat, created in 1970, was the closest town to the power plant, located little under 2 miles (3 kilometres) distant, and contained about 50,000 people in 1986. Chernobyl, a smaller and older town with a population of roughly 12,000 people, located about 9 miles (15 km) distant. The rest of the area was mostly farmland and forest.

Chernobyl vs. Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

The Chernobyl facility employed four Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear reactors, a design that is now widely acknowledged to be fundamentally defective. According to the World Nuclear Association, RBMK reactors were pressure tube designs that used enriched U-235 uranium dioxide fuel to heat water, generating steam that powers the reactors’ turbines and generates electricity.

According to the World Nuclear Association, water is also utilised in most nuclear reactors as a coolant and to regulate the reactivity of the nuclear core by eliminating excess heat and steam. The RBMK-1000, on the other hand, employed graphite to regulate the core’s reactivity and maintain a continuous nuclear reaction in the core.

As the nuclear core heated and created more steam bubbles, the core grew more reactive, not less, resulting in a positive-feedback loop known as a “positive-void coefficient” by engineers.


According to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the explosion happened on April 26, 1986, during a regular maintenance inspection (UNSCEAR). Operators intended to test the electrical systems when they shut off critical control systems, violating safety requirements. As a result, the reactor’s power and stability became dangerously unstable.

According to the Nuclear Energy Agency, Reactor 4 was shut down the day before to complete maintenance checks on safety systems during anticipated power shortages (NEA). While the exact origin of the explosions is still debated, it is widely assumed that the first was caused by an excess of steam and the second was impacted by hydrogen. The excess steam was produced by a drop in cooling water, which allowed steam to build up in the cooling pipes — the positive-void coefficient — resulting in an immense power surge that the operators were unable to shut down.

According to the NEA, the explosions happened at 1:23 a.m. on April 26, demolishing reactor 4 and igniting a raging fire. Radioactive fuel and nuclear components rained down on the region, and a fire spread from the building holding reactor 4 to surrounding structures. The blowing wind transported toxic fumes and dust, as well as fission products and the noble gas inventory of naturally occurring odourless and colourless gases.


The blasts killed two workers at the company, the first of numerous who died within hours of the catastrophe. As rescue crews worked furiously to put out the fires and radiation leaks, the death toll increased as plant workers succumbed to severe radiation illness over the next few days.

The original fire was put out by 5 a.m., but the subsequent graphite-fueled fire took 10 days and 250 firemen to put out, according to the NEA. Toxic pollutants, however, continued to be blasted into the atmosphere for an extra ten days. The majority of the radiation emitted by the failed nuclear reactor came from fission products such as iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137. According to UNSCEAR, iodine-131 has a relatively short half-life of eight days, but it is rapidly inhaled through the air and tends to localise in the thyroid gland. Cesium isotopes have longer half-lives (cesium-137 has a half-life of 30 years) and pose a risk to the environment for many years after they are released into the environment.

Evacuations in Pripyat began on April 27, around 36 hours after the tragedy. Many residents were already complaining of vomiting, headaches, and other symptoms of radiation illness at the time. By May 14, officials had blocked off an 18-mile (30-kilometer) radius surrounding the facility, evacuating a further 116,000 people. . According to the World Nuclear Association, 220,000 more households will be urged to relocate to less hazardous places during the following few years.


According to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), 28 Chernobyl employees perished in the first four months after the catastrophe, including several courageous workers who knew they were exposing themselves to lethal amounts of radiation in order to protect the site against additional radioactive breaches. Because the predominant winds were from the south and east at the time of the disaster, much of the radioactive plume drifted northwest toward Belarus. Nonetheless, Soviet officials were sluggish to communicate information to the outside world about the magnitude of the calamity. However, when radiation levels raised concerns in Sweden three days later, experts were able to determine the approximate site of the nuclear accident based on radiation levels and wind directions, prompting Soviet officials to expose the entire nature of the situation, according to the UN.

According to the NRC, 31 persons died as a result of radiation exposure or other direct repercussions of the Chernobyl catastrophe within three months of the event. According to a 2018 UNSCEAR study, as many as 20,000 instances of thyroid cancer were discovered in individuals under the age of 18 in 1986 between 1991 and 2015. While there may be additional cancer cases among emergency responders, evacuees, and residents over the course of their lives, the known total incidence of cancer deaths and other health problems directly connected to Chernobyl’s radioactive release is lower than was previously predicted. According to an NRC report, “the bulk of the five million individuals residing in polluted regions… got relatively tiny radiation doses equivalent to natural background levels (0.1 rem per year).” “As of now, the data does not firmly link the event to radiation-induced increases in leukaemia or solid cancers other than thyroid cancer.”

According to some analysts, the unfounded fear of radiation exposure caused more pain than the real calamity. According to the World Nuclear Association, many doctors throughout Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union advised pregnant women to have abortions in order to avoid having children with birth defects or other disorders, even though the actual level of radiation exposure these women experienced was likely too low to cause any problems. According to the head of UNSCEAR, the United Nations produced a study on the impacts of the Chernobyl disaster in 2000 that was “full of baseless allegations that have no validity in scientific evaluations,” and was subsequently ignored by most authorities.


The trees in the adjacent forests were destroyed by significant amounts of radioactivity shortly after the Chernobyl radiation releases occurred. Because the dead trees developed a vivid ginger hue, this area became known as the “Red Forest.” According to the National Science Research Laboratory at Texas Tech University, the trees were finally destroyed and buried in ditches. According to the NRC, the damaged reactor was quickly enclosed in a concrete sarcophagus meant to confine the leftover radiation. However, there is ongoing scientific dispute over how effective this sarcophagus has been and will be in the future. After stabilising the old sarcophagus, development on the New Safe Confinement structure began in late 2006. According to World Nuclear News, the new building is 843 feet (257 metres) broad, 531 feet (162 metres) long, and 356 feet (108 metres) tall, and is planned to totally contain reactor 4 and its surrounding sarcophagus for at least the next 100 years.

According to World Nuclear News, despite the pollution of the site and the inherent hazards of running a reactor with significant design defects, the Chernobyl nuclear facility continued to operate to supply Ukraine’s electricity demands until its final reactor, reactor 3, was shut down in December 2000. Reactors 1 and 2 were decommissioned in 1991 and 1996, respectively. The site’s deactivation is planned to be finished by 2028.

The plant, the abandoned towns of Pripyat and Chernobyl, and the surrounding countryside form a 1,000-square-mile (2600-square-kilometer) “exclusion zone” that is off-limits to almost everyone save scientists and government officials. Despite the hazards, numerous residents returned to their houses soon after the accident, with some sharing their experiences with news organisations such as the BBC, CNN, and The Guardian. In 2011, Ukraine opened the region to tourists who wanted to view the disaster’s aftermath firsthand.

isro history and development

Our country’s space research operations began in the early 1960s, when satellite applications were still in the experimental phases even in the United States. With the live broadcast of the Tokyo Olympic Games across the Pacific by the American satellite ‘Syncom-3,’ Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the founding father of India’s space programme, instantly saw the possibilities of space technology for India.

The Genesis – St. Mary Magdelene Church in Thiruvanathapuram’s fishing town of Thumba

Dr. Sarabhai was convinced and envisioned that the resources in space had the capacity to answer man’s and society’s actual issues. As Director of the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in Ahmedabad, Dr. Sarabhai assembled an army of capable and talented scientists, anthropologists, communicators, and engineers.. The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was established in 1962 under the Department of Atomic Energy to drive space research operations. In August 1969, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was founded in place of INCOSPAR. In June 1972, the Government of India formed the Space Commission and the Department of Space (DOS), and in September 1972, ISRO was transferred to DOS.

Since its start, India’s space programme has been well-coordinated, with three different elements: communication and remote sensing satellites, a space transportation system, and application programmes. The first ‘Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station (ESCES)’ was operationalized in Ahmedabad in 1967, and it also served as a teaching facility for Indian and international scientists and engineers. ISRO was clear that it did not need to wait for its own satellites to begin application development, and that foreign satellites may be utilised in the early phases to demonstrate that a satellite system can contribute to national development. However, before embarking on a full-fledged satellite system, it was determined that certain controlled experiments to demonstrate the usefulness of television as a medium for national development were required. As a result, the TV show ‘Krishi Darshan’ on agricultural information for farmers was launched, and it had a positive reaction.

The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), dubbed “the greatest social experiment in the world” during 1975-76, was the next logical step. This initiative benefitted over 200,000 people by covering 2400 communities across six states and transmitting development-oriented programmes via the American Technology Satellite (ATS-6). SITE is credited with teaching 50,000 primary school science teachers in a single year.

The Satellite Telecommunication Experiments Effort (STEP), a cooperative project of ISRO and the Post and Telegraphs Department (P&T) in 1977-79, used the Franco-German Symphonie satellite. STEP was conceived as a follow-up to SITE, which concentrated on television experimentation. STEP’s goal was to provide a system test of using geosynchronous satellites for domestic communications, to improve capabilities and experience in the design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of various ground segment facilities, and to build the necessary indigenous competence for the country’s proposed operational domestic satellite system, INSAT.  SITE was followed by the ‘Kheda Communications Project (KCP),’ which served as a field laboratory for need-based and location-specific programme transmission in Gujarat State’s Kheda area. In 1984, the KCP received the UNESCO-IPDC (International Programme for the Development of Communication) award for rural communication efficiency.

During this time, the first Indian spacecraft, ‘Aryabhata,’ was built and launched with the help of a Soviet launcher. Another significant milestone was the creation of the first launch vehicle, the SLV-3, which could place 40 kg in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and made its first successful flight in 1980.  Competence was developed for overall vehicle design, mission design, material, hardware manufacturing, solid propulsion technologies, control power plants, avionics, vehicle integration checkout, and launch operations during the SLV-3 programme. The development of multistage rocket vehicles with sufficient control and guidance systems to orbit a satellite was a significant milestone in our space programme.

During the experimental phase in the 1980s, end-to-end capability demonstration in the design, development, and in-orbit management of space systems, as well as the accompanying ground systems for users, was performed. The Bhaskara-I and II missions were pioneering advances in remote sensing, whilst the ‘Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE)’ served as a predecessor for future communication satellite systems. The sophisticated Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) development also exhibited innovative technology such as the utilisation of strap-on, bulbous heat shield, closed loop guidance, and digital autopilot. This paved the door for understanding numerous aspects of launch vehicle design for complicated missions, eventually leading to the realisation of operational launch vehicles like the PSLV and GSLV.

During the operational period in the 1990s, important space infrastructure was built in two categories: one for communication, broadcasting, and meteorology via a multi-purpose Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), and the other for Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS). During this period, important milestones were the development and operationalization of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the development of the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).

 It wasn’t until 1992 that the ASLV was successfully launched for the first time. At this point, the launch vehicle, which could only transport extremely modest payloads into orbit, had completed its mission. By 1993, the PSLV’s maiden flight had arrived. The initial launch was a failure. The first operational launch occurred in 1994, and since then, the PSLV has been a workhorse launch vehicle, putting in orbit both remote sensing and communications satellites, building the world’s biggest cluster, and providing unique data to Indian industry and agriculture. Since then, continuous performance enhancements have significantly increased the rocket’s payload power. Glavkosmos, under duress, prohibited the relocation of associated manufacturing and design technology to India. Until then, ISRO has been free of technology transfer restraints thanks to Sarabhai’s strategic acumen in indigenizing technology. However, in preparation for the Russian contract, ISRO management abandoned domestic cryogenic programmes. Instead of terminating the deal, Russia chose to send fully completed engines, and India began constructing an indigenous cryogenic engine to replace them in the GSLV-II.

There is also substantial controversy concerning the acquisition of cryogenic engines, with many citing the choice to abandon indigenous initiatives as a major blunder: if indigenous manufacture had commenced from the start, India would almost certainly have had a truly indigenous engine functioning. Despite this one unusual hiccup in an otherwise extremely successful programme, and the decade-long absence of future payload capabilities that followed as a result, ISRO persisted.

The most powerful Indian launch vehicle currently in use; the maiden GSLV production flight took place in 2001. The program’s gains were evaluated as a result of recurrent payload reductions and delays. The indigenous cryogenic engine was tested for the GSLV’s upper stage in 2007. ISRO reassessed the GSLV’s usefulness for the 2000-2010 decade and began work on an indigenous and new GSLV III heavy launch vehicle. The latter is unrelated to the GSLV-I/II and will use the tried-and-true configuration of two solid strap-on boosters and liquid main stages. It will be similar to the Ariane 5 and other contemporary launchers, with plenty of manned spaceflight payload capacity. The maiden flight is scheduled for 2008.

Chandrayaan 2008: ISRO intends to launch a tiny robotic spacecraft into lunar orbit atop a modified PSLV. It will examine the moon’s surface in more detail than ever before in order to discover tools. Countries including as the United States have indicated an interest in attaching the mission to their payloads. ISRO and NASA have agreed to send two NASA probes as payload.

AVATAR Scramjet: This is a long-term project aiming at developing a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) for satellite launches. In theory, AVATAR will be a low-cost small-satellite launch vehicle and, as a result, an economically feasible launch system. A scaled-down demonstration of the technology is scheduled for around 2008. ISRO recently successfully tested a scramjet air-breathing engine capable of reaching Mach 6 for seven seconds. ISRO will commence research on the usage of scramjets in RLVs after 2010.

ISRO has joined the competitive market for launching payloads with other nations. The Israel Space Agency, the TecSAR espionage satellite, and the Israeli Tauvex-II satellite module were all launched. CARTOSAT-2, which launched in July 2006, carried a 56 kilogramme Indonesian payload.

ISRO cooperated with Tata engines to produce a prototype hydrogen passenger vehicle for the Indian market, which is slated to hit the road by the end of 2008. ISRO used its cryogenic technology expertise to design hydrogen fuel cells for hydrogen storage and management.

On November 15, 2007, ISRO scored a significant milestone with the successful test of the indigenously constructed Cryogenic Stage, which would serve as the top stage of India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). The test was conducted on November 15, 2007, at the Liquid Propulsion test site in Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu, for a total flight time of 720 seconds. This test has completely trained the indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage on the ground. The flying stage is being prepared for the next GSLV (GSLV-D3) launch in 2008.

On April 28, 2008, ISRO successfully launched ten satellites in a single mission, enhancing its space capacity. This includes the 690 kg CARTOSTAT-2 and another 83 kg Indian mini satellite, IMS-1, as well as eight other university-based nanosatellites and research and development institutions in Canada and Germany that were provided at a reduced cost as part of the Indian Department of Space’s goodwill gesture

Anna University Satellite (ANUSAT) (20th April 2009) (Death Date: April 18, 2012): It was conceived, manufactured, and integrated by Aerospace Engineering at Madras Institute of Technology (MIT), Chromepet, Anna University. Performs amateur radio and electronics demonstration testing

GSAT-8 / INSAT-4G (May 21st, 2011): An Indian communication satellite. GAGAN’s first payload carrier satellite. Satellite for Indian communication.

RISAT-1 (Radar Imaging Satellite) (April 26, 2012): An Indian remote sensing satellite. It is India’s heaviest earth observation satellite to date.

SARAL (ARGOS and ALTIKA satellite) (February 25th, 2013): The Satellite of ARGOS and ALTIKA is a joint Indo-French satellite programme (SARAL). It takes altimetric readings to analyse ocean circulation and the level of the water’s surface.

IRNSS-1B (Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System) was launched on April 4, 2014, to offer routing, monitoring, and mapping services. The satellite is powered by two solar panels that have a ten-year lifetime and can provide up to 1,660 watts of power. Astrosat (September 28, 2015): India’s first multi-wavelength space observatory spacecraft. It uses a single satellite to take multi-wavelength measurements of several celestial objects at the same time.

SathyabamaSat (June 22nd, 2016): The Indian micro experimental satellite was constructed by students and staff at Sathyabama University in Chennai. Launched in order to collect statistics on greenhouse gas emissions.

ISRO Nano Satellite 1A (INS-1A) (15th February 2017): PSLV-launched satellites that will be followed by bigger satellites. The Surface BRDF Radiometer (SBR) and the Distressed Control Single Case were both carried as payloads (SEUM). An Indian nanosatellite produced by ISRO.

HySIS (November 29th, 2018): HysIS is an earth observation spacecraft built on ISRO’s Mini Satellite-2 (IMS-2) bus. It was launched to study the earth’s surface in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared areas of the electromagnetic spectrum This information will also be available to India’s military forces.

RISAT-2BR1 (11th December 2019): Earth Observation Radar Imaging Satellite. It offers a 0.35-meter resolution improvement.

Social media effects on people is huge.

You all have seen that we almost waste full day doing nothing just scrolling and waste entire day. Just sitting and grabbing the same information or story which we find daily. Our medium of news is also social networking sites. Which give us information which are surrounded us. We don’t watch television, hear radio or read newspaper and it is fine because all the medium is not really a good source of information. Because every information is manipulated and than reach to us. But still we have many other medium except social media who can gave us a good source of information.

I have seen many who just enjoy reals whole day. And see story of other and enjoy. But they don’t know what they are actually doing. And really don’t know what they want in their life. For a time being it’s fine but you can not make your bad habits continue and play with your career. Because when you look down you will see that your whole time which is gone. Which you could have spend it in a better manner. And once the time is gone you could not able to come back and reschedule it. So take your step wisely so that you can manage both the things and do not waste time on the things which doesn’t matter to you. Our goal should not be surfer just because of our laziness and demotivation. We should follow our passion and dreams for which we are actually living for and our life is only on us. The decision maker are only we not others. And even someone interface please listen to your words.

I really think that we are very mature and sensible person who know what is good and bad for them. Our life is lot more than what we think just we need time to explore them. Entertainment is required but making it your life is not the ultimate goal of your life. You have to make yourself capable of Living in the world. Family is not for life. And after them you all be alone. And suffering alone is more difficult than having a support. So today you have time and support. So use it properly and make yourself stand somewhere so that later you do not feel helpless. Rest is your life and your wish what you want to do in life and how your step will take you to the betterment. As i have already discuss in my previous post that every step of your is counted.

Journey of a metro train.

Have you ever experienced the same. If yes than you will surely realise that on a first we love the pleasure of metro train but slowly and gradually the craze decrease. Because now you know the fact that how the metro work. And if you are daily passenger than to you don’t feel anything new because it is your daily routine to travel. And when you see others who experience it for the first time. You realise few time back you also feel the same but now nothing excites you. And they will also realise after few time that it is nothing but a normal experience one can ever thought about and only enjoying it for a few span will give a pleasure of metro train. But when you get use too this journey will become so big wide.

Firstly we enjoyed the station we enter with excelator or lift. Than checking happens and we have to take tocken or card to take the train where we want to go. Than the journey begins and we get excited and wanted the journey to don’t end. Too soon because know we actually enjoying every bit of it. This is because all the movement is new for us and we want to enjoy every bit of it. But when the journey become daily than the excitement decrease and we feel bore and want the journey to end as know we are bore with our daily routine nothing excites know which earlier give us a pleasure. As our excitement last for sometime because we as a person want to explore more we cannot stick to one for a longer period of time. It just lasted few times. Than all the craziness go away because than we realise that there is nothing new in this journey it’s normal.

You can socialize and see people around you who are least important to see around. They are more interested in their phones and looking around that they do not give any notice to the person around them. As they are least interested in them. Because everyone enjoys their company or they already have someone with them who is giving them the pleasure to stick to the journey and enjoying their company and they don’t give a dam to others. Some are staring as they get the chance to awkward the girl sitting in front of them. Some are reading. And the journey is different for different person. Because their time pass should be there it can be anything as the metro journey is much longer when we think.

Party and enjoying is also a part of life.

I feel, we have to give importance to this section too. Our life is just surrounded by our work and family. But we forget that there is lot more than that.And that is our friends, happiness and enjoyment. You have to gave time to that also. You cannot miss that fun. Because we gets very less time to spend our day like this. These morning comes after a long time. When we actually need our Buddies who will take us far from the things which are making us bounded with. We go to lounge, club, terece and resorts for fun .

But the important thing is that we need our friends who make the party more interesting and fun for us. The craze of party is only come from the friend. We are the one when we are with friends. The journey started with the calls and meeting each other where we decided to meet. Passing comments and teasing each other on the dress or coming late after all the chit chat we decided to go inside . The fun part here is we all have given the responsibility of the entry to only one person who is most responsible one. When the tables are book. Than the menu is decided. But before that hukka and daru is must with a pack of cigarettes. After all this dance to banta hai. Than everyone knows how to dance even a non dancer. With all the drama we need to go back. But our faces are not that cool that we can able to make a eye contact with our parents. This is true and than what we need is the help of someone.

And this situation we think we have to do a night stay. And all we are staying together and helping each other and sleeping wherever we find space. And next morning we realise what actually happened last night. And trying to remember what we were doing and laughing out loud. This is true we got good and sober friends who actually help us save us and make our life easy and experience there part of party. And the non sober one is experiencing another level of joy in the party . But we all our enjoying. We just need to enjoy it doesn’t matter we are sober or non sobber if you happy than its cool. we can enjoy anywhere. Party is for you to relax and enjoy the moment which are giving you joy and happiness. So life should be interesting too. where you can get a experience of lovely people who matters alot in your life. And creating some memorable moments with them make you feel overwhelming and nice. You should love every bit of life as this is mixer of both sweet and sour. And every element plays an important role. So love your life as it is very precious.

Job is a learning experience

Yes, job helps you to grow as an individual you learn many things in a single medium. You cannot imagined that every field has so many things to experience. You can choose any field as your career. And can experience the depth and use of that thing. Basic are just to clear you with elements but when you perform you realise that there is lot more than we thought in this career. Jobs are not at all bad or making you control by others. You are a decission maker and you are the commander. But we don’t know how to use ourselves as a individual that the reason we could not able to sell ourselves in front of our buyers. Here you are a person who are giving your skills and your boss is taking your skill for his work.

You should know the give and take policy. How your skills are very much powerful and expensive. You do not need to bargain or make yourself down with the small offer. Where your skill just used by others. You have to make yourself that much confident and impactful that everyone will take you on the level you want. Because they know that they need you more than you need them. When you will understand this than you easily get the chance to showcase yourself in a better way. It’s not about money but you should know your value at what stage you are. For a beginner who is not skilled or not have any experience than you might get less money or even you are unpaid. But one thing you will definitely get that is experience and learning. Even you are doing for free but you gain alot as a person.

So value yourself. When you will value your abilities other will definitely impressed with you and will gave a require amount for your skills. You should not see jobs as a burden or you are not getting any output from it. If you think so than use yourself there where you can showcase yourself in a better way. Business is not everyone Cup of tea. But job are also not everyone Cup of tea. So your confidence, skills and experience. Gave you that Chance to grow and learn from each and every step you take. And people around you who can actually gave you a great knowledgeable experience in your field and also a lifetime lesson.

Which you grab from the opportunity you get from your work. And even business will not gave you that variation than in job you will become a personality. Where you know how can you showcase. And become a star. It doesn’t matter if you are worker or boss. Your way of talking will easily make others impressed if you have that quality you easily get name fame and success too. Because all we need is recognition. And it doesn’t matter you are small or big all the things are in your hand how to take it too that level. You will get everything if you know how to use it.



What is a contract? According to section 2(h) of the Indian contract, the definition of a contract is as follows- “An agreement enforceable by law is a contract” Now as students of law, we have all heard this statement several times, but what does it imply? We can break it down into two things: first, there should be an agreement in the first place, and second, it should be enforceable by law. Another assertion that can be made from this definition of a contract is the result of an agreement. Since an agreement has to be enforceable by law to be a contract, all agreements are not contracts as they are not enforceable by law. Still, all contracts are agreements as contracts have come into existence as they are enforceable by law, or we could say that the word “contract” itself means that it has been a result of an agreement that was enforceable by law. For example, an agreement to sell a car may be a contract, but an agreement to go out for dinner is just an agreement and not enforceable by law. So we have a simple equation or a formula for a contract – contract = agreement + enforceability at law.

Agreement and enforceability by law

But what is an agreement in the first place? The answer to that is found In section 2(e) of the Act, which defines an agreement as ‘every promise and every set of promises forming the consideration for each other is an agreement’[1] In an agreement there is a consideration from both sides for example A promises to sell his bike to B and B promises to pay a certain sum in return. The promise is the result of offer or proposal by one party to its acceptance by the other. so having discussed what an agreement means Here both are promised something is return, a contract is essentially like a symbiotic or interdependent relation where one cannot exist without the other and they are mutually benefitted by each other[2]. consideration is an essential element of a contract, it is defined in section 2(d); “when at the desire of the promisor, the promise or any other person has done something or abstained from doing, or does or abstains from doing or promises to do or to abstain from doing something, such act or abstinence or promise is called consideration for the promise.”[3] Thus we can say that agreement = offer + consideration + acceptance. Now let us look at enforceability by law. It implies that the consenting parties must be entitled to uphold their contractual rights or seek remedy in case of breach of contract; if the agreement wasn’t necessitated to be enforceable by law, it could have been enforced by illegal means like coercion, extortion, or battery, Now for an agreement to be enforceable it has to meet certain essential conditions which have been defined in section 10 of the Indian contract act in the following words, “All agreements are contracts, which are made by the free consent of the parties, competent to contract, for a lawful consideration and with a lawful object and not expressly declared to be void”,

The conditions are

  1. The agreement, i.e., offer and acceptance
  2. Capacity or competent to contract
  3. Free consent
  4. Lawful object and consideration
  5. Not expressly declared to be void

Offer and acceptance

Offer or proposal and its acceptance is the preliminary and most fundamental step to forming a contract; An offerer has to make an offer to the concerned party where he talks about his willingness to perform something or abstain from doing something to obtain the offeree’s consent. The exact definition of the term offer is given in section 2(a) of the Act- “when a person signifies to another his willingness to do or to abstain from doing something, with a view to obtaining the assent of that other person to such act or abstinence, he is said to propose.” [4]The offer must be communicated in a clear and specific manner, i.e., there shouldn’t be any ambiguity or vagueness in the offer. It may for example, be done by words or by mouth, writing or conduct. This covers not only their acts but also their omissions[5]. It is also essential to distinguish between a offer and an invitation to make an offer, invitation to offer is a  step before the actual offer itself, like advertisements in the newspapers; here, it is not an offer yet; it is up to the seller to accept or not to accept, it can also be drawn from this that offers are of two types, specific and general as the name suggests a particular offer is one which is made to a particular person or party, whereas an available offer is something which is made to the public at large.

Contractual intention

Another critical factor that exists while making an offer is an intention to contract; this means that the two parties entering into a contract must have the legal choice to do so. The intent of the parties is to be naturally ascertained from the terms of the agreement and the surrounding circumstances. To test contractual intention, the courts use an objective method in which they judge the situation based on reasonable prudence or, to put it simply, what a person with good judgment and common sense would have done. Generally, in the case of social agreements, it is understood that the two parties have no intention of entering into a contract, and it is merely s social obligation. On the other hand, the parties almost always have a legal intention to contract in business matters[6].


Acceptance is the step following a proposal; acceptance has been defined in section 2(b) in the following words “when the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted”[7]. An accepted proposal becomes a contract. For an acceptance to be valid, it must fulfill certain conditions.

 It must be absolute and unqualified, meaning the offeree has to accept the terms as they are and not change them or come up with a counteroffer, as a counteroffer doesn’t give rise to the contractual binding.

The offeree should make communication of acceptance to the offeror. The offeror has to know whether his offer has been accepted or rejected. However, this is not necessary every time as in certain cases merely acting on the terms of the offer acts as an acceptance to the same. For examples an announcement to pay a reward for finding a dog is an example of this, here the person who decided to act on the offer and find the dog doesn’t have to communicate to the offeror his acceptance explicitly. Acceptance should be made in the manner the offeror prescribes, and if it remains unspecified, it must be made reasonably. Approval must also be made within the stipulated time frame or in reasonable time, it also draws from common sense that acceptance of the offer should be communicated before the bid is revoked, as once the offer is withdrawn, the approval becomes nullified.


We have looked at how consideration is defined in section 2(d) of the Indian contract act earlier but let us dissect it further. The first sentence of this definition gives rise to a key element of consideration: it is done at the desire of the promisor.  As established earlier, consideration is like an interdependent relationship, where there is something in return for both parties, so here it moves at the desire of the promisor. For example, if A says to B; I will pay you ₹500 for this t-shirt, so in this case, the consideration for A was the shirt. Since the promisor is making the offer, he will decide what he wants in return; if B had given him a pair of socks in this scenario, the proposal wouldn’t stand since that is not what A or the promisor wanted.

The second element is that consideration can come from the promise or any other person. An excellent example of this is when we shop online from sites like Amazon and Flipkart. A buys a Samsung phone from Amazon, but the phone delivered to him is not by Amazon itself but through the third party seller here, Samsung. This element was laid down in the landmark judgment of Chinnaya vs. Ramaya.[8] It was held that although the plaintiff was a stranger to the consideration since he was a party to the contract, he could enforce the promise to the promisor.

Consideration must be real

Some other essential elements are that consideration must be real and not illusionary; for example, a promise to make the sunrise from the west for ₹ one crore is illusionary and not feasible. It need not be adequate; for example, A contracts to sell his car to B for just ₹ 10,000, and B accepts it now. This price is grossly low and disproportionate for a car, but this is a valid consideration as long as the consent of the promisor is freely given.

Consideration can be past, present, or future

Another key aspect is that consideration includes both Act and omission, and it involves past, present and future, making it very vast and all-encompassing.

When the promisor has done or abstained from doing something, this is past consideration. For example, A finds B’s purse and returns it to him. B later promises to give A ₹ 50, here the promisor has done something in the past and later is rewarded for it.

Does or abstain from doing something, the consideration is in the present, and consideration can also be for the future. Consideration must be of some value: it should be quantifiable and actionable. Something which has value in the eyes of the law shouldn’t be immoral or opposed to public policy.


The next element is free consent. The definition of “capacity to contract” is given in section 11and interpreting it can be concluded that there are three categories of people who are not competent to contract.

  1. A person who has not attained the age of majority.
  2. A person of unsound mind.
  3. A person who has been prohibited or disqualified from contracting by some law.[9]

Consent is a crucial element in forming a contract. The parties must freely consent to the agreement, i.e., it must be devoid of coercion, fraud, undue influence, misrepresentation, and mistake.

Lawful object and consideration

The consideration in an agreement is lawful unless

  1. It is forbidden by law
  2. It is of such nature that, if permitted, would defeat the provisions of law
  3. Is fraudulent
  4. Involves or implies injury to the person or property
  5. The court regards it as immoral or opposed to public policy

For example, if A promises to drop a prosecution, he has instituted against B for robber, and B promises to restore the value of the things taken. The agreement is void as the object here is unlawful.

Section 2(h) of the Act make an excellent attempt to define the word contract, to when we go on to fully understand it we see that each word has been comprehensively covered in the other sections of the Act. From agreement to enforceability by law to what constitutes an agreement, Offer and acceptance, free consent, competency to contract, and lawful consideration, all of which is clearly laid out, here every possible scenario is considered for example, what if acceptance is communicated in a manner not specified by the offeror; the solution to that can also be found in the Act itself which says that when an acceptance is communicated to the offeror in the manner not prescribed by them, then the duty is cast on the offeror to reject such acceptance in a reasonable time. And if he fails to do so, the contract becomes binding. This is an example of how holistic and well-drafted the Act is as it considers and provides a solution for every possibility. Another example of this is how silence doesn’t amount to fraud. A sells, by auction, to B, a horse that A knows to be unsound. A says nothing to B about the horses’ unsoundness. This is not fraud; but it does give room to certain circumstances where silence does amount to fraud cases where the promisor must speak, say in the above example, if the promisor and promise had been related B is A’s daughter and has just come of age. Here, the relation between the parties would make it A’s duty to tell B if the horse is unsound. this proves that the various sections of the act are in perfect harmony and cater to everything

[1] Avtar Singh. Law of Contract (a Study of the Contract Act, 1872) and Specific Relief. 12th ed. Lucknow: Eastern Book Co., 2008

[2] Fazaladdin Mandal vs. Panchanan Das, AIR 1957 Cal 92

[3] Avtar Singh. Law of Contract (a Study of the Contract Act, 1872) and Specific Relief. 12th ed. Lucknow: Eastern Book Co., 2008.

[4] Avtar Singh. Law of Contract (a Study of the Contract Act, 1872) and Specific Relief. 12th ed. Lucknow: Eastern Book Co., 2008

[5] Coffee Board v. Commr. of Commercial Taxes, (1988) 3 SCC 263

[6] Rose and Frank Co v JR Crompton & Bros Ltd, [1925] AC 445, [1924] All ER Rep 245, 132 LT 641

[7] Avtar Singh. Law of Contract (a Study of the Contract Act, 1872) and Specific Relief. 12th ed. Lucknow: Eastern Book Co., 2008

[8] L. Chinnayya vs K. Ramanna on 10 March, (1915) ILR 38 Mad 203

[9] Avtar Singh. Law of Contract (a Study of the Contract Act, 1872) and Specific Relief. 12th ed. Lucknow: Eastern Book Co., 2008

Movie theater are open

Yes know you can watch you favourite movie on theatre with your family and friends. But Still we have to follow some norms like Mask and sanitizer are to be there for your safety. You have maintain a distance between each other. And enjoy the day. We see movie in theaters so that we get a chance to eat popcorn and drink cold drink. Because movie is incomplete without all these things. We get a amazing experience to watch movies on a big screen. As television and phone could not provide that experience even we switch off lights and try to make our home as a theatre. But we fail because we could not able to match the screen which a theatre gave us. With all the effects which we cannot see in our home. The quality is more amazing than any other medium.

Not only this we get a outdoor experience and socialize with people and get a chance to see movie with so many people around us. We get a airconditioner or heaters. Which make us more comfortable to watch the movie. The service boy who bring the things to us. We do not have to left our place and can easily watch our movie and order anything we like. We got a interval between the movie so that we can fresh ourselves. That gap help us to do what we want to do before our movie start because when we watch movie we want to see every element of it. We really experience a happy and joy experience. More than movie we discuss movie. What we will happen next and if we know than we want to reveal the suspense.

I personally enjoy movie on theatre because all our expression can be noted when we watching the movie. And others can enjoyed it and make fun. Some are feeling bored so they disturb other. Or they move their chair or move their body and see others and enjoy. Few just chat on mobile with others. Some are recording the movie. And putting story is must and make other jealous or make others excited to watch the movie in theaters. Some can feel sad also because they don’t get a chance to watch on theatre. But they must have seen on their phones or television. The craze of movie has been less because of webseries. But still we miss the big screen which actually stick us till the end of the movie. We have made us edict to phones but few things we only love to watch on theatres. So book your tickets know and enjoy your movie. At first day first show. The craze of seeing movie on same day is more fun and exciting.

Understanding Financial Markets

What are Financial Markets?

Financial markets is a marketplace where buying and selling of securities like stocks, bonds, derivatives, commodities, currencies, etc. occur. These markets may include securities which are listed on an regulated exchanges or are traded Over-The-Counter(OTC). Financial markets basically provide a way for those who have excess money to invest and those who are in need to money to borrow.

Financial markets play an important role in creating liquidity for capitalist economies. Financial markets are transparent as they ensure that the prices set are efficient and appropriate.

Types of Financial Markets

Images created and referenced from Trade Nation – What time does the forex market open. All distribution rights belong to the publisher and cannot be used without written permission.

Stock Markets

Stock markets are a place where trading of equities occur. Equity is the value of shares issued by the company. In a stock market, securities are traded via Primary Market and Secondary Market. In Primary Market, securities are issued to investors directly by the issuer. Companies raise capital by an Initial Public Offering(IPO). Primary markets are also known as New Issue Markets.

Secondary markets are where investors buy and sell securities they already own. The secondary market, also called the aftermarket and follow on public offering, is the financial market in which previously issued financial instruments are traded.

The most popular stock exchanges in India are National Stock Exchange(NSE) and Bombay Stock Exchange(BSE).

Bond Markets

The Bond Market is a marketplace where participants can issue new debt, known as primary market and buy and sell debt securities, known as secondary market. A bond is an financial instrument in which an investor loans money for a specific period of time at a pre-determined interest rate. Bonds are issues by  municipalities, states, and sovereign governments to finance projects and operations. Debt securities usually include bonds, but it may include notes, bills, and so for public and private expenditures.

Money Markets

Money Markets involves trading of securities that are highly liquid and are issued for short time period with low interest rates. Money market consists of various financial institutions and dealers, who seek to borrow or loan securities. Examples of securities traded in money markets are treasury bills, commercial papers and certificate of deposits. Money markets are considered a safe place to invest as they have high liquidity.

Money markets are Over-The-Counter(OTC) markets which means that they are not regulated and not structured. Money markets give lesser returns however they offer a variety of products.

Derivatives Market

Derivatives markets are financial markets for derivatives like futures, options, forwards, etc. Derivatives are financial instruments whose value is determined by the value of the financial instruments like bonds, commodities, currencies, interest rates, market indexes, and stocks. The four major types of derivative contracts are options, forwards, futures and swaps. Futures and Options are listed and traded on stock exchanges while forwards and swaps are not.

Forex Market

The forex (foreign exchange) market is a market where people can buy, trade, hedge, and speculate on currency pairs’ exchange rates. Because cash is the most liquid of assets, the Forex market is the most liquid in the world. The currency market conducts more than $5 trillion in daily transactions, which is higher than the combined volume of the futures and stock markets. The forex market, like the OTC markets, is decentralized and is made up of a global network of computers and brokers from all over the world. Banks, commercial companies, central banks, investment management firms, hedge funds, and retail forex brokers and investors make up the forex market.

Commodities Market

Commodities markets are gathering places for producers and consumers to trade physical commodities like maize, livestock, and soybeans, as well as energy goods (oil, gas, and carbon credits), precious metals (gold, silver, and platinum), and “soft” commodities (such as cotton, coffee, and sugar). Spot commodities markets are those where tangible things are exchanged for money.

Cryptocurrency Markets

Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum, which are decentralised digital assets based on blockchain technology, have been introduced and have grown in popularity over the last few years. Hundreds of cryptocurrency tokens are now accessible and traded on a patchwork of independent online crypto exchanges throughout the world. These exchanges provide traders with digital wallets via which they can exchange one cryptocurrency for another or fiat currencies like dollars or euros.

Life lessons

We have learn lessons from are childhood. But life lessons are never ever taught they can only be learn from your mistakes. Because our life lessons cannot be explained by others. Even if you want to you can’t as it is your own experience. Even you share with others but they will not connect that much with it. As your life lessons are different from each and every person has a journey and way of watching things. so similarly hear also no one can teach us these life lessons you have to learn and follow them when you realise it.

We all have experience these lessons in the day to day life. And also improve them and try to change our ways. But we still get trouble. Because sometimes we take a right decision but sometimes we faile to choose a correct thing for us. Your maturity is also depends on your life experience. If you think you are mature and knows everything. They are mostly unknown with the world. And those who just stick to themselves and just improve the way they want these type of people knows what is good or bad for them. And also very mature and sensible. And these people had seen more difficult phase of life. And they become strong bring themselves in front of people. As a good speakers.

All are trouble with many situations. And they sometimes know or don’t know the lessons of life. But you get to experience something different from previous. I don’t know but people still behave like a kid. Even though they know the fact that you cannot be like this you have to look mature and sensible.but everyone cannot do the same. Their challenge is different towards life. We have to fight for ourselves. Even as individuals you have to prepare for the challenges this make ourselves ready to fight for us. We all do mistake as there no single man in this world who do not make mistakes. It’s just that we hide from others.but it is of no use that you hide it you have to be clear and Loud so that you can understand and than perform accordingly. I have seen many people who do not learn anything from the lessons and just roaming around here and there. The person should be self independent so that they can easily get a life lessons for basic comman sense. We don’t use it most of the time that why we lie.

Facing Interviews

“A successful interview is meeting of minds”

I am sure most of you face or might have faced anxiety before giving an interview. Various questions like what to prepare, how to conduct yourself, what are the things that will make you stand out among the candidates might come into your mind. While, there is no guaranteed method to crack an interview, however there are still some aspects you can focus on to increase your chances of getting selected. This article provides some tips to help you with your interview.

What Aspects are Tested?

  • Past relationship with boss and co-workers
    Employers want to know if you’re a team player when you’re applying for positions that require you to collaborate with others. They may ask you a series of questions to learn about your prior coworkers’ relationships with you. You should demonstrate in your responses that you can get along with everyone and work well with others to form an effective team.
  • Respect for the value of others
    In a diverse workplace, there are people from different backgrounds and have different values. Employees might not love or enjoy everyone’s personalities and not believe in their values but they must respect their work in order to fulfil their objectives and remain professional.
  • Ability to meet deadlines
    Demonstrating your ability to manage your time can help you stand out as a job prospect. It would be hard to meet deadlines and complete each project to the best of abilities if you do not have good time management skills.
  • Ability to multi task
    A hiring manager will almost always ask if you can juggle multiple tasks at once. It’s a reasonable issue, given the volume of phone calls, emails, and meetings that can occur in a single day.
  • Value oriented approach to problem solving
    Value-based interviewing (VBI) is a type of interview that focuses on the ‘how’ and ‘why’ an applicant makes decisions in the workplace and aims to uncover the reasons for their actions. It gives managers a thorough grasp of and insight into candidates’ beliefs and behaviors, as well as how they align with the company’s.
  • Other aspects that employers check are how efficiently you use time, thorough knowledge of the industry, commitment to continual learning, ability to address small problems but always focused on the bigger picture.
  • Your personal values play a key role in your selection in an interview. Personal values include your integrity, your enthusiasm, accountability, team orientation, work ethics, respect for people, etc. Also, your technical expertise matters the most.

Dealing with Pre-Interview Nervousness

  • Make sure you sleep properly the night before the interview so that you are rested well and you give the interview with a fresh mind.
  • Go easy on caffeine before the meeting.
  • Give positive affirmations to yourself to give yourself motivation and to get rid of the negative thoughts.
  • Listen to the calming music on your way to the interview.
  • Look at the job opportunity as an interview to shine.
  • Welcome the challenge
  • Breathe
  • Exhibit interest in job instead of trying to be interesting.
  • Stay focused and positive.

Ten Variables for the First Impression

  • Arrive on time for the interview
  • Dress in a professional manner
  • Take good rest and be alert
  • Be respectful to everyone you meet during the interview process
  • Be honest
  • Clearly express your clarifications for the job
  • Show your interest in job and company
  • Responses to the questions should be specific and informed
  • Ask relevant questions
  • Your personality should fit well with the organization

Offline system

We can say that the classes are back to offline and children and students are going and trying to settle in the scenarioes. Schools has changed theirs functioning. Students are back with their naughtiness. It is not completely the way we want but still from past 2 year we are bounded at homes.so it is better that schools are open and know children can get a good time to spend on studies. I was so much stuck in the house that I could not able to go out. But know we ca easily go out and enjoy a little bit. Things are changing but one thing which not change is mask and sanitizer. We have to use them even we don’t wish to use. We cannot ignore such things as the danger is still there for kids.

I feel we are very lucky that we all have come out and still fighting from the virus. Because we believe that it is very important to be motivated and positive in this situation. Kids are also understanding and following the protocol. We are trying our best to keep distance but as we got a chance to meet our friends and teachers than in the excitement we are forgetting about the COVID. It is still their cases are increasing. We have to make sure that if we are getting the opportunity to go out. Than we should also follow the rules as well. So that we could not come in this situation again. We already have done online work, classes everything was all shifted to home. That was creating more problem than the offline one. We have seen worse. And know we are over with online one we all want to do it offline only.

I really feel good after so many days. I can see that everyone get a chance to interact with each other. And healthy environment is taking place. Not only in school, college but also work space we are involved in the group and the projects. That for a moment i forget that something like this has ever happened as we are all working similarly as we use too. We personally loss someone on our hand. This COVID take away our love ones. But people moving slowly and gradually. And everything is coming back to normal. As we have to deal with time and things. We cannot stop here we have to move on and try to find ways and involved us. We should do activities which can take us away from them. We had learn from this situation at a greater level. As every incident in our life gave us opportunity to learn something out of it. COVID had also realise the importance of family and friends. And what life and death is all about. We all were scared like anything that people got so negative. But thankfully know the situation is light.



The painless killing of any person suffering from an incurable and painful disease or an irreversible coma can be defined as Euthanasia. Different practices fall under the label of “Euthanasia,” mercy killing, assisted suicide fall under the same. Here are some distinctions demarcating different versions:

Active Euthanasia: This means killing a person by active means, such as injecting a lethal drug dose. It is also known as “Aggressive Euthanasia.” Today, this practice is illegal in most countries, including India.

Passive Euthanasia: It is letting the person die by intention. It includes the removal of artificial life support. This type of Euthanasia has been declared legal in India.

Euthanasia can also be classified as:

 Voluntary Euthanasia: It means giving Euthanasia with the consent of the patient. ‘Living will’ is a written statement provided by the patient before the treatment starts to provide direction for future events they might not express. Many other times, when a person is in an inadequate space and wants to end their life, they ask for Euthanasia. 

Non-voluntary Euthanasia: It means giving Euthanasia without knowing the wishes of the person. In this situation, the decision is taken by the patient’s family. They have to sign a written contract with the hospital, and after fulfilling other formalities, Euthanasia is granted.

There can be different combinations of the types as mentioned above. This type of Euthanasia may sound morally wrong, but it is provided to end the long ordeal that the person is going through. [1]

In the early 1940s, Adolf Hitler carried out a program about exterminating children with disabilities to reduce the cost of society and improve the Aryan “race.” It is known as involuntary Euthanasia, which is performed against the will of a person.


In ethics, ‘consequentialism’ is the doctrine that says actions should be judged as right or wrong based on their consequences. According to consequentialism, it is not necessary to focus on actions every time. It focuses more on the outcomes. The simplest form of consequentialism is old-style utilitarianism, which affirms that an activity is right or wrong as indicated by whether it maximizes the net equilibrium of joy over torment in the universe.

The consequentialism of G.E. Moore, known as “ideal utilitarianism,” recognizes beauty and friendship, as well as pleasure, as intrinsic goods that one’s action should aim to maximize. As indicated by the “preference utilitarianism” of R.M. Hare, activities are correct if they maximize the fulfillment of inclinations or wants, regardless of the preferences they may be for. Consequentialists, likewise, vary about whether every individual action ought to be decided based on its results or irrespective of whether rather general principles of lead ought to be agreed along these lines and individual actions judged simply by whether they accord with a general rule. The former groups are known as “act-utilitarians” and the latter as “rule-utilitarians.”[2] Bentham’s utilitarianism theory focuses on which actions most likely make people happy; he also developed a calculator to determine which activities were better or worse, known as the ‘felicific calculus.

‘When we look at Euthanasia in the context of consequentialism, there are two aspects to it. This is because consequentialism is a result-based ethical theory. The first aspect is from the patient’s point of view. Giving Euthanasia will hold good as it maximizes the net pleasure, the patient is relieved from all the prolonged suffering and agony; The second aspect is from the patient’s family. They have lost a loved one. It is an irreplaceable loss. Consequentialism, on this side, would hold Euthanasia as a way of relief but entangled with sadness.

Physician-assisted suicide or PAS is another type of Euthanasia where a person is assisted in committing suicide by a medical practitioner with certain drugs or appropriate medication on the person’s demand. One of the most landmark case laws relating to suicide is ‘Gian Kaur vs. the State of Punjab, ‘ where Gian Kaur and her husband, Harband Singh[3], were convicted for abetment to suicide. Here, the previous ruling of P. Rantinam’s case, which dealt with section 309 of the IPC, was overruled, and it said that the right to life does not include the right to death. The Court further defended the sanctity of life, stating that the unnatural taking of life can never be justified. Constitutionalizing both Section 309 and 306 of the IPC, although attempt to commit suicide and abetment to it, is criminalized. Still, under the Mental Healthcare Act 2017, several restrictions have been put on section 306, essentially decriminalizing it.[4]

Mercy killing, i.e., Euthanasia though seems to be justified morally and is practiced in many countries like the Netherlands, Belgium, Australia, etc., because the suffering and pain of a patient due to illness is given priority over the patient’s life.[5] Still, no law can indeed provide a guarantee over the abuse concerning the lives of critically ill patients who do not desire to end their lives. 

In the Common Cause vs. Union of India[6]  the Supreme Court of India ruled that any individual has a right to die with dignity as a part of their right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution[7]. This ruling,[8] thus, permits the removal of life-support systems for the terminally ill or those suffering from incurable comas, thus proving the concept of consequentialism. The Court further allowed individuals to decide against artificial life support and recognized the need for creating a living will.

In this particular case, the Court further laid down certain propositions regarding the procedure for execution of Advance Directives and provided the guidelines thereof to effect passive Euthanasia. This verdict added on and made clarifications on the 2011 verdict of the ‘Aruna Shanbaug vs. Union of India[9]‘ case where passive Euthanasia was legalized in two cases: 1) where the patient was in a permanent vegetative state and 2) where the said patient was brain dead, and so they can be let off the ventilator, also giving the concept of next friend. According to this concept, if any family member is absent, a third person close to the patient can be the next friend. In this case, the king’s Edward memorial hospital nurse, who had attended to her after she had gone into a coma, took the position of next friend and performed the duties.[10] Appling consequentialism here, we conclude that since Aruna Shanbaug was in a coma for 42 years, it was ethically correct to relieve her of all her sufferings prolonging the life of a person who is not capable of being conscious is not only painful for the individual but for their family and close ones as well, as they are watching a loved one in such pain.[11] So, isn’t ending her life the correct thing as the consequence of this would maximize happiness for everyone? “Aruna’s prolonged existence violates her right to live with dignity.” This later expanded to include the right to die with dignity. Although Aruna died of natural death, this case clarified the issues revolving around Euthanasia in India and laid down guidelines concerning passive Euthanasia. 


“Tube fed for almost a year, feels like a dog with a leash,” said an elderly man suffering from cancer in Belgium. Belgium is one of the countries which are very liberal regarding Euthanasia. It is considered that pain is the ultimate reason that urges a patient to ask for Euthanasia, but only 1/3 times the cause is pain. Terminally ill people can have their quality of life severely damaged. There can be physical conditions such as incontinence, nausea, paralysis, and difficulty in swallowing. “I don’t want to die in a place which smells like piss,” another lady said. People don’t want the disease to take charge of when they would die; they want to take the decision by themselves.

The intention is never to put someone on the machine and run it forever. It is life support, not prevention of death[12]. We support life because we think one day it will recover and be ALIVE. But, what is to be done when life is not manifested by the body? When consequentialism comes in, how to handle this type of situations cannot be given as it is, because there are individual sensitivities. There is no particular way to act. But all we can do is let all the doors be open, judge the consequences, and take a decision accordingly. Because as Rajesh Khanna said, “Prolong life is not what matters, but the quality of life does.”  

[1]Medicine.missouri.eduhttps://medicine.missouri.edu/user/login?destination=/centers-institutes-labs/health-ethics/faq/euthanasia, (October 20, 2021)

[2]  britannica.com://www.britannica.com/topic/consequentialism ( October 18, 2021)

[3] Gian Kaur v. State of Punjab, (1996) 2 SCC 648

[4] Legalservicesindia.comhttps://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-4135-the-status-of-euthanasia-under-the-light-of-aruna-ramchandra-shanbaug-vs-union-of-india-ors-.html( October 19, 2021)

[5]bnblegal.comhttps://bnblegal.com/article/right-to-die-with-dignity-euthanasia/](october20 2021)

[6] Common Cause (A Registered Society) v. Union of India, (1996) 2 SCC 752

[7]nhrc.nic.inhttps://nhrc.nic.in/press-release/important-judgment-supreme-court-india-1#:~:text=215%20of%202005%20%2D%20Common%20Cause,execute%20an%20advance%20medical%20directive.&text=The%20judgment%20has%20paved%20the,under%20a%20%22living%20will%22. ( October 20, 2021)

[8] Vini Singh,on advance directives and attorney authorisations – an analysis of the judgment of the supreme court in common cause (a regd. society) v. union of India, CALQ Vol. 4.2,(2018),http://docs.manupatra.in/newsline/articles/Upload/E4A68ACB-DCC1-4003-88DC-F41D7AA65A59.pdf

[9] Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug v. Union of India, (2011) 15 SCC 480

[10]Economictimes.indiatimes.com thttps://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/the-aruna-shanbaug-case-which-changed-euthanasia-laws-in-india/a-landmark-verdict/slideshow/63231071.cms  (October 19, 2021)


[12]Legalservicesindia.comhttps://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-3563-euthanasia-right-to-die-with-dignity.html    (October 21, 2021) 

Nutrition advice for adults during the COVID-19 outbreak

Nutrition and hydration are essential. People who consume a well-balanced diet have stronger immune systems and are less likely to get chronic illnesses and infectious diseases. To acquire the vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre, protein, and antioxidants your body need, you should consume a variety of fresh and unprocessed foods every day. Drink plenty of water. Reduce your risk of obesity, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and certain types of cancer by avoiding sugar, fat, and salt.

Every day, eat fresh, unprocessed meals.

Consume fruits, vegetables, legumes (e.g. lentils, beans), nuts, and whole grains (e.g. unprocessed maize, millet, oats, wheat, brown rice, or starchy tubers or roots like potato, yam, taro, or cassava), as well as animal-derived foods (e.g. meat, fish, eggs and milk).

2 cups fruit (4 servings), 2.5 cups vegetables (5 servings), 180 g grains, and 160 g meat and beans (red meat 12 times per week, poultry 23 times per week) should be consumed on a daily basis.

Snack on raw vegetables and fresh fruit rather than high-sugar, high-fat, or high-salt items.

Overcooking vegetables and fruit can result in the loss of essential vitamins.


Choose canned or dried veggies and fruit that haven’t been salted or sugared.

Every day, drink plenty of water.

Water is required for survival. It distributes nutrients and chemicals through the bloodstream, controls body temperature, eliminates waste, and lubricates and cushions joints.

Every day, drink 8–10 cups of water.

Water is the best option, but other liquids, fruits, and vegetables that contain water, such as lemon juice (diluted in water and unsweetened), tea, and coffee, are also acceptable. However, excessive caffeine use should be avoided, as should sweetened fruit juices, syrups, fruit juice concentrates, fizzy and still drinks, which all contain sugar.


Consume fat and oil in moderation.

*Instead of saturated fats, consume unsaturated fats (such as those found in fish, avocado, almonds, olive oil, soy, canola, sunflower, and maize oils) (e.g. found in fatty meat, butter, coconut oil, cream, cheese, ghee and lard).

*Rather to red meat, choose white meat (e.g. poultry) and fish, which are often low in fat.

*Avoid processed meats due to their high fat and salt content.

*Select low-fat or reduced-fat milk and dairy products whenever possible.

*Avoid trans fats made in a factory. Processed foods, fast food, snack foods, fried foods, frozen pizza, pies, cookies, margarines, and spreads are all common sources.

Reduce your salt and sugar intake.

*Use less salt and high-sodium condiments while cooking and preparing food (e.g. soy sauce and fish sauce).

*Use iodized salt and limit your daily salt intake to less than 5 g (about 1 teaspoon).

*Salty and sugary foods (such as snacks) should be avoided.

*Reduce your sugar intake by avoiding soft drinks, sodas, and other sugary beverages (e.g. fruit juices, fruit juice concentrates and syrups, flavoured milks and yoghurt drinks).

*Sweet snacks such as cookies, cakes, and chocolate should be replaced with fresh fruits.


Eat at home as much as possible.

Reduce your interaction with other individuals and your chances of contracting COVID-19 by eating at home. Maintain a 1 metre gap between yourself and someone who is coughing or sneezing. In crowded social environments such as restaurants and cafes, this is not always practicable. Droplets from sick persons may land on surfaces and people’s hands (e.g., customers and employees), and with so many people coming and going, it’s impossible to detect if hands are being washed frequently enough, and surfaces are being cleaned and disinfected quickly enough.



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FM Radio

The value of FM radio is Still in the form because many people source of information is only radio. The medium is very strong and reliable. The accuracy is good enough for listeners. I love to listen radio. Because it has every type of elements which a medium should have and we often see entertainment, education , information, interaction, content etc. These are comercial and Still people hear because they impact viewer on a large scale.And all the audience are well educated and sensible. Radio are not just for uneducated or poor or old people. They are for everyone kids to youth everyone love to be a part of the Radio.

People make their own thinking on radio but radio is a great medium for youth. To reach out and express ourselves. Many people are connected to the media. And not only me and you who can put their own voice. We have actually got people who never heard or not interested in the radio. But mostly people prefer to listen commercial channel in the outdoor when they do not have internet connection. They rely on radio for their entertainment. And really you feel relax and happy with the little input you get from that medium. Than you actually realise it’s importance. I know the range can be limited but you can find most of the time radio get the access and specially without any thing other than your phone. Even in the car you play radio. So you can see radio is very powerful. Many people today also go for shows so that their voice can be heard by people. That the impact it has on people.

I personally believe radio has great scope than print and television. Because they are mostly boring and same type. But radio can be both boring and interesting at the same time. You will also feel when you listen to radio. Your feelings will automatically connect with the way radio is playing. Music is also a part to relax you. And take you to a melodious ride. And you can get very great vibes. Today people love to hear vibes which they get from the others. Like a connection builder and I too get that Vibes in radio too. Sometimes it felts like a friend. And it has all solutions of my problem and we can connect easily with it. And people really get a good space to say anything which can connect people more with it. Their are no bondation for people when they connect to people they are free to express themselves.



The only stable state is the one in which all men are equal before the law- Aristotle

Law is fundamental to any society. Since time immemorial, some of the other forms of law have always governed Society. From the Vedic civilization during ancient times to the modern-day legal system and thus it is evident that law interlinks with Society. It is rooted in social institutions and socio-economic networks. In such a dynamic and multicultural society like India, the judiciary has always played a vital role. Particularly in the post-independence era, when the British had left the country in shreds and an immediate and effective set of laws was the need of the hour as several issues such as food shortage and poverty needed redressal.

There are several functions of law. One of its objectives is to keep up stability and afford orderly life in Society. The law is an essential social control tool. The rule of law is the underpinning of democracy in any constitution. It is a tool for social control since it instills a sense of fear and obligation in people, and their behavior in a society is governed by law.  They become aware of their duties and responsibilities as a result of the use of force. Laws are in place to prevent individuals from being exploited. They protect individuals. The Indian Constitution, criminal, civil, and other laws are all geared to achieve this purpose. Laws give a framework and set of rules to assist in the resolution of specific conflicts. Individuals can bring their disputes before an unbiased fact-finder, such as a judge or jury, under the law. Here we will explore why law causes social change and how it does, with the help of several examples and supporting evidence.


Law is responsible for social change as law or the legal framework is progressive, and ahead of its time, there are several instances where laws put in place have changed Society for the better. Let us take examples from when India was under British rule when the abhorrent practice of sati was abolished in 1829. This was one of the first primary social reform legislation[1].  Law is based on impartiality or being unbiased, and this is another primary reason why law changes Society. As it does not differentiate between anyone regardless of caste, creed, and colour and everyone is equal in its eyes, it changes Society. Since the dawn of civilization, women have been at a disadvantage, having to always depend on men and not having much freedom of their own. They have been subject to harassment, abuse, and moral policing, with society always controlling their lives. However, due to laws such as the equal remuneration act (1976) and the POSH (prevention of sexual harassment in the workplace) Act, women now stand at a much better place. After the advent of the equal remuneration Act,[2] women have been able to sue for malpractices prevailing in their workplace and get closure. Under the Act, the employer must ensure no bias while hiring, and women are at par with their male counterparts. The Act has bought about significant social change wherein awareness spread, and people realized that sexual harassment at the workplace is wrong.

Another example of this is the dowry prevention act of 1961,[3] An Act under which Any person who demands dowry, directly or indirectly, from the parents, other relatives, or guardians of an As the case may be, will be punished by imprisonment for a term of not less than six months, but not more than two years, and a fine of not less than ten thousand rupees.

Abortion laws are one of the best examples that prove that law changes Society. The medical termination of pregnancy act 2021[4] is a landmark and revolutionary step that indicates evolving social norms. The Act came into force on September 24. The Act amends the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act (MTP Act) stipulates the conditions under which medical termination of pregnancy can be pursued. The primary amendments extend the upper limit of the gestation from twenty to twenty-four weeks for special categories of women, including survivors of rape, victims of incest, and other vulnerable women (differently-abled women, minors, among others). Another key amendment is the confidentiality clause. The name and other particulars of a woman whose pregnancy has been terminated cannot be revealed except to a person authorized by law. The Amendment reflects the change in definition from “pregnant married woman” to “pregnant woman” and from “her husband” to “her partner,” thereby destigmatizing pregnancies outside of marriage, changing Society for the better.

Law changes Society because it changes or has a direct effect on the lifestyle of people. Laws on pollution, narcotics, and tobacco use are some of them.  The example that comes to light here is the nationwide ban on smoking in public areas under the Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules, 2008 and COTPA[5], 2003(the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act) and Anybody who violates this law is charged with a sum of ₹5000. The sale of tobacco products within 100 yards of educational institutions is also prohibited. Hasn’t this law fundamentally caused social change? Before the advent of this law, smoking or tobacco use was highly prevalent. It was even seen as a fashion statement and was deemed “cool” even. The general public often became subjected to or became the victim to smoking and dealt with the indirect severe health risks.

Legislations on pollution are again an example of the law changing lifestyles and causing social change, The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981,[6] under which the state’s Pollution Control Board (SPCB)have the power to control and regulate emissions from automobiles, industries or for the discharge of any pollutant into the atmosphere. The law also gave states the right to inspect, examine and enforce air quality regulations set by their Pollution Control Boards. By setting these rules and regulations laws change and have a direct impact on our lifestyles. They control the way we go about our day-to-day life.

Laws lead to social change in every sector snd sphere of life. They protect the minority or vulnerable groups from exploitation and also uplift them. The Untouchability (Offences) Act and, prevention of atrocities against the SC-ST[7] Act are great examples. The caste system or stratification has existed been in existence for more than 2000 years. The present-day scheduled castes and tribes were referred to as the depressed classes and have faced gross discrimination. Ill-treatment Untouchability was the inter-human relationship between Caste Hindus and Scheduled Castes since the latter was polluting them. Such Cast discrimination has existed in our country for centuries, becoming more stratified during the colonial era. Adding on to the protection of the weaker and underprivileged sections of Society, the constituent assembly provided 22.5 %( 15%SC and 7.5%ST) reservation for the Dalits ( earlier called 87mmdepressed classes) and Adivasis or tribals[8]. The impact of this reservation has been substantial “representation of SCs/ STs has increased in all the Groups viz. A, B, C and D during last six decades.At the dawn of independence representation of SCs/STs in services was very little. As per available information, the representation of SCs in Groups A, B, C and D as on 1.1.1965 was 1.64%, 2.82%, 8.88%, and 17.75%, respectively which has increased to 12.5%, 14.9%, 15.7%, and 19.6% respectively as on 1.1.2008. Likewise while representation of STs as on 1.1.1965 in Group A, B, C and D was 0.27%, 0.34%, 1.14% & 3.39% respectively, it has increased to 4.9%, 5.7%, 7.0% and 6.9% respectively as on 1.1.2008. Total representation of SCs and STs as on 1.1.1965 was 13.17% and 2.25% respectively, which has increased to 17.51% and 6.82% respectively on 1.1.2008.”[9]

The Right to Education Act 2009,[10] also known as the RTE Act 2009, was enacted by the Parliament of India on August 4 2009. an example where the law has directly changed Society. It describes modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children aged between 6-14 years in India under Article 21 (A) of the Constitution of India. This Act came into effect on April 1 2010 and made India one of the 135 countries to have made education a fundamental right for every child; here the law has caused social change by stressing the value of education in children. In addition to making education a fundamental right, another one that follows is the Child labor prohibition and regulation act 1986 under this Act employing children below the age of 14 is declared illegal. Legally, the definition of a child is someone who has not completed the age of fourteen is a child. Adolescents aged between 14-18 can be employed, except in some hazardous occupations defined in the Act such as mining, slaughterhouses, Manufacturing of fireworks or inflammable substances, etc. such acts in place directly prove that laws change Society. The child marriage prevention 1929 act is also a great example of legislation in favour of children. The definition of “child” pertaining to this Act is a male under twenty-one years of age and a female under or has not completed eighteen years of age. Any male above eighteen but under twenty-one who contracts a child marriage will be imprisoned for up to 15 days or a fine up to rupees one thousand or both.

We have looked at several reasons as to why law changes Society. now let us take a different approach and prove how Society doesn’t change the law. Society in the first place exists because of laws. If there were no laws there would be no order and stability. There would be no difference between humans and animals. If laws didn’t exist, we would quite literally lead our lives like animals. People would cause harm to get money, resort to unfair and horrible practices, and be complete chaos. It is next to impossible to change the way people think and see the world. Especially in a country like ours which is deep-rooted in tradition and what has been taught to them, they are reluctant to change. So the argument that a change in people’s mindset and mentality is causing laws to change or develop the law is incorrect. Their thinking and mindset never fundamentally change. For example, let us look at female feticide and infanticide; why do people do this? They do it as they think that a female child is of no use and she will just have to be married off and won’t earn for them, becoming a liability. However, in the present times female infanticide and feticide rates have reduced significantly; why is that? Is it because people have realized that it is wrong to do so? That a daughter can also earn and support them? No. it is not because of a shift in the mentality of the public; it is only because laws have been put in place, the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994[11], which bans the use of ultrasound, amniocentesis and other such methods to determine the sex of the fetus. The strict implementation of this legislation has led to significant improvement of sex ratios throughout the country. This is just one of the many examples that prove that Society doesn’t change the law, but law does.

Another example is the legislation passed for women in the armed forces. The Supreme Court of India, in a historic moment for the Indian military, on February 17, 2020, allowed women officers in the Army to compete for command positions on equal ground with male officers, proving that the army’s stand was “discriminatory,” “disturbing,” and based on stereotypes.[12] The Court also stated that all women would be eligible for Permanent Commission regardless of their years of service. This shows how even when Society was backward or narrow-minded in their thinking law intervened and led to significant social change, getting rid of gender-based discrimination in the armed forces. Adding on to this is the very recent order passed by the supreme Court by which females are now allowed to sit for the NDA exams and get admission into the national defense academy. The Bench stated that this policy choice is based on “gender discrimination” and expressed displeasure with a persisting regressive mindset, clearly showing that law changes society and not vice-versa.


Laws change Society, it is not immediate, but it is persistent, but even though laws don’t change Society immediately, they at least set preconditions for social change, set a benchmark which is to be reached, for people will not accept laws that are progressive and ahead of their times. But with time, the law will eventually lead to the desired change. The Court has taken up the fight for social justice proactively and zealously, even going so far as to articulate fresh social rights such as banning the use of misogynistic practices such as the instant triple talaq or talaq-e-biddat and decriminalizing homosexuality. The Supreme Court has taken a proactive role in the social development of languishing masses. It has undoubtedly functioned as a catalyst in the process of people’s social development. It is also crucial to understand that India is still a developing country and has a lot to work on in terms of social change. Laws take time for effective enforcement and implementation. Our country is at a stage where the population is still in the process of learning how to obey laws. Given the massive population we have, it is an arduous process. Still, nonetheless, it has undoubtedly functioned as a catalyst in people’s social development, with notable examples including the dilution of caste inequities and protection measures for the weak and vulnerable.

[1] https://www.britannica.com/topic/Sati

[2] https://labour.gov.in/sites/default/files/equal_remuneration_act_1976_0.pdf

[3] https://wcd.nic.in/act/dowry-prohibition-act-1961


[5] https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/India/India%20-%20COTPA%20-%20national.pdf

[6] https://legislative.gov.in/sites/default/files/A1981-14.pdf 


[8]  1. CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS Articles 341 and 342 of the Constitution of India define as to who would be Scheduled Castes and Sc 

[9] https://persmin.gov.in/DOPT/Brochure_Reservation_SCSTBackward/Ch-01_2014.pdf 

[10] https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/readersblog/igoravsharma/what-is-right-to-education-act-rte-act-32034/

[11]. http://www.ncpcr.gov.in/view_file.php?fid=434

[12] https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/permanent-commission-to-women-implement-order-instead-of-seeking-clarifications-says-sc-to-govt-101627929389758.html

Big 5 Personality Traits

The Big Five personality traits is a proposed scientific classification, or gathering, for personality characteristics, created from the 1980s forward in psychological trait theory. At the point when factor analysis (a statistical technique) is applied to personality survey data, it uncovers semantic affiliations, which are words used to portray parts of character. These affiliations are regularly applied to a similar individual. For instance, somebody portrayed as conscientious is bound to be depicted as “arranged all of the time” rather than “untidy”. These affiliations recommend five broad aspects utilized in like manner language to portray the human personality, demeanor and psyche.

It is essential to take note of that every one of the five character factors addresses a range between two limits. For instance, extraversion addresses a continuum between extreme extraversion and extreme introversion. In reality, a many people lie some place in the middle of the two ends of each dimension.

The Big 5 personality traits are described below:


Characteristics like inventiveness and insight are present in this trait. 1 People that score well on this attribute also have a diverse set of interests. They are curious about the world and other people, and they are ready to learn new things and participate in new activities.

People with a high level of this personality trait are more daring and inventive. People that score low on this feature tend to be more traditional and may have difficulty thinking abstractly.


High degrees of thinking, good impulse control, and goal-directed behaviours are all common characteristics of this dimension. People that are highly conscientious are usually well-organized and detail-oriented. They think ahead, consider how their actions influence others, and keep track of deadlines.


Excitability, friendliness, talkativeness, assertiveness, and high levels of emotional expressiveness are all characteristics of extraversion (or extroversion).  People with a high level of extraversion are gregarious and thrive in social circumstances. They become invigorated and delighted when they are in the company of others.

People with low extraversion (or introversion) are more restrained in social situations and have less energy to exert. Introverts frequently require a period of solitude and silence to “recharge” after attending social activities.


Trust, benevolence, friendliness, affection, and other prosocial actions are included in this personality characteristic. People with a high level of agreeableness are more cooperative, whereas those with a low level of agreeableness are more competitive and even manipulative.


Sadness, moodiness, and emotional instability are all characteristics of neuroticism. Mood fluctuations, anxiety, impatience, and sorrow are common in those who score high on this attribute. Those who score low on this attribute are more emotionally stable and resilient.

contemporary surrogacy laws in India: A critical analysis


Nature has endowed every woman with the beautiful ability to generate life, and every woman treasures the experience of motherhood. However, due to specific physiological abnormalities, some mothers cannot give birth to their children. Alternative alternatives such as Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) and In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) are being sought by them. In vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine injections (IUI), and other fertility treatments have given hope to many infertile couples. Who wants for a child of their own medical science and technology have progressed to the point, particularly in assisted reproductive technologies, which has seen the introduction of treatments such as donor conception?  Insemination, embryo transfer procedures, and other reproductive technologies transform the reproductive environment.

A surrogate mother is a woman who agrees to have an embryo generated from the sperm of a man who is not her husband, and the oocyte for another woman implanted in her to carry the pregnancy to term and hand over the child to the person or persons for whom she is acting as surrogate; and a surrogate mother is a woman who agrees to have an embryo generated from the sperm of a man who is not her husband, and the oocyte for another woman (s).

Surrogacy has converted a natural biological function of a woman’s body into a business transaction. Surrogacy’s commercialization has sparked suspicions of a criminal market, baby selling and breeding farms, underprivileged women becoming baby producers, and selective breeding for a fee. Surrogacy turns a pregnancy into a service and a child into a commodity. As with any other business transaction, the ‘consumer’ establishes his or her terms before purchasing the items.

Surrogacy has converted a natural biological function of a woman’s body into a business transaction. Surrogacy’s commercialization has sparked suspicions of a criminal market, baby selling and breeding farms, underprivileged women becoming baby producers, and selective breeding for a fee. Surrogacy turns a pregnancy into a service and a child into a commodity. As with any other business transaction, the ‘consumer’ establishes his or her terms before purchasing the items. India is slowly but steadily gaining favour as a surrogacy destination for many wealthy foreigners. India’s inexpensive medical costs, superior reproductive technology, and poor socioeconomic conditions, along with a lack of regulating legislation, have made it a tempting alternative in this regard. In India, the women who perform these duties are mainly from the lower-to-lower middle classes, married, and frequently need money. As a result of competition, childless couples may usually negotiate a better price due to their financial need. The compensation given to a surrogate mother in India may appear minor from a rational standpoint; yet, it may serve as the family’s economic lifeblood, and will be spent on the family’s needs (a house, children’s education, medical treatment). These are the fundamental needs. These basic requirements may appear insignificant to affluent westerners, but they are essential. Even though a rising number of childless couples from abroad are flocking to India, legal experts have expressed reservations. Many people believe that there will be difficulties when the child is born, and that surrogacy should be carefully studied. Given that there are currently a number of clinics that provide similar services – gauged It is simple to choose a product based on the number of advertisements in local media and on the Internet. clinic. However, the true issue emerges once the child is born. In India, , Due to the lack of rules on the subject, immigrants are unable to obtain legal aid to take their children out of the country. The trade is thought to be worth over $500 million, and the number of surrogacy cases is steadily increasing. Typically, women from rural communities are chosen for pregnancy outsourcing.[1] Many couples from India and outside travel to areas like Anand, Surat, Jamnagar, Bhopal, and Indore to realise their yearning for a child. Several American, Russian, and British women have signed up for the surgery at the Akanksha Clinic in Anand and the Bhopal Test Tube Baby Centre.

Statement of problem

Lacunae in The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2020

  1. focuses only on married couples

The Bill restricts surrogacy to married couples and, as a result, excludes members of the LGBTQ community, live-in couples, and single, divorced, or bereaved parents, thus criminalising their right to reproductive choice. The right to equality is guaranteed under Article 14 of the Constitution. The bill limits and conditions surrogacy to married Indian couples exclusively, and disqualifies ot

hers based on nationality, sexual orientation, marital status, and/or age. This fails the Article’s equality requirement as well as the reasonable categorization test

  1. infringement of the right to life

While the Bill’s positives are few, its drawbacks are numerous. The right to reproductive autonomy, which includes the freedom to conception and parenthood, is enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution. Interfering with basic rights is not the state’s domain. It is up to the individual to choose the mode of parenthood, i.e., whether to have a kid born naturally or through surrogacy.

  1. Lack of awareness and Information Access:

The awareness of a right is the first and most important need for asserting it., general legal knowledge is low, This illustrates the depressing state of legal rights awareness in India, particularly among vulnerable groups such as women. Furthermore, because traditional Indian society requires women to leave their parents’ home to live with their spouse, daughters have little or no access to knowledge about their inheritance and privilege

relevance of the theme:

Surrogacy can be divided into three categories:

  1. Surrogacy determined by genetics
  2. total surrogacy
  3. gestational surrogacy

Surrogacy is traditionally accomplished by artificial insemination, in which the surrogate uses her own egg and another man’s sperm. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is used for gestational surrogacy, in which fertilised eggs from another woman are put into the surrogate’s uterus. deciding which One of the most crucial and early considerations is the path to pursue. a surrogate mother and the intended father parents will have to make some decisions. A child’s commerce is difficult to envision since a child is a sign of love, not of money, and having a child is a perspective away from the notion of marketing activities. Surrogacy, on the other hand, has become a lucrative business in countries like India. Surrogacy’s commercialization has now become a political issue in Indian culture. The surrogacy market is quickly expanding and becoming quite substantial. In a nation like India, there are “N” numbers of potential parents who want to hire other women to birth their kid. Surrogacy has grown from a simple biotic function of a woman’s body into a business contract, and as a result, surrogate services are now widely advertised. Surrogates are being recruited, and the running agencies benefit handsomely. Surrogacy is currently referred to in India as a commercial contract for a woman’s regular biological function. The reason for the burgeoning surrogacy sector in India is because surrogate women are readily accessible in a nation like India, and the whole cost of the surrogacy process is far lower than in other countries Surrogacy instances have increased dramatically in the last few years.

On September 14, 2020, the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2020 was introduced in the Lok Sabha. The bill aims to regulate Assisted Reproductive Technology services throughout the country.[2]

Assisted Reproductive Technology or (ART): The bill defines ART as any process for obtaining a pregnancy by manipulating sperm or oocytes (immature egg cells) outside the human body and transferring the gamete or embryo into a woman’s reproductive system. Gamete (sperm or oocyte) donation, in-vitro fertilisation (fertilising an egg in a lab), and gestational surrogacy are examples of ART services (the child is not biologically related to surrogate mother).[3]

Regulation of ART clinics: ART clinics and banks must be registered with the National Registry of Banks and Clinics of India, according to the bill. The Bill establishes the National Registry, which will serve as a single database containing information on all ART clinics and banks. To make the registration procedure easier, state governments will appoint registration authorities. Clinics and banks will be allowed to register if they meet specific criteria (specialised workforce, physical infrastructure, and diagnostic facilities). The registration will be valid for five years, with the option to renew for another five. If an entity violates the Bill’s terms, its registration may be revoked or suspended.

Gamete donation and supply: its conditions: Only a registered ART bank can screen gamete donors, collect and store semen, and provide oocyte donors. Males between the ages of 21 and 55 can donate semen, while females between 23 and 35 can donate oocytes. An oocyte donor should be a happily married lady with at least one living child (minimum three years of age). A woman can only contribute one oocyte once throughout her life, and she can only have seven oocytes extracted from her. A single donor’s gamete cannot be sent to more than one commissioning couple by a bank (couple seeking services).

On July 15, 2019, the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019 was introduced in the Lok Sabha. 

Regulation of surrogacy: Commercial surrogacy is prohibited under the bill; however altruistic surrogacy is permitted. In an altruistic surrogacy, the surrogate mother receives no monetary compensation other than medical expenses and insurance coverage during the pregnancy. Commercial surrogacy refers to surrogacy or similar operations conducted for a financial benefit or reward (in cash or kind) above minimum medical expenses and insurance coverage.

Why is surrogacy permitted: Surrogacy is legal for the following reasons: Surrogacy is legal if it is used for the following reasons: I intended couples with proven infertility; (ii) altruistic; (iii) not for commercial purposes; (iv) not to produce children for sale, prostitution, or other forms of exploitation; and (v) any condition or disease specified by regulations.

The intended couple must have a ‘certificate of essentiality’ and a ‘certificate of eligibility’ from the competent authority.

Essential conditions for prospective couple: A certificate of essentiality will be issued if the following conditions are met: I a certificate of proven infertility from a District Medical Board for one or both members of the intending couple; (ii) a Magistrate’s court order of parentage and custody of the surrogate child; and (iii) insurance coverage for the surrogate for a period of 16 months covering postpartum delivery complications for the surrogate. The certificate of eligibility is given to the intending couple if they meet the following criteria: I they are Indian citizens and have been married for at least five years; (ii) they are between the ages of 23 and 55 (wife) and 26 to 55 (husband); (iii) they do not have any surviving child (biological, adopted, or surrogate); and (iv) they do not have a child who is mentally or physically challenged or suffers from a life-threatening disorder

Conditions to be met for becoming a surrogate mother: The surrogate mother must be: I a close relative of the intending couple; (ii) a married woman with a child of her own; (iii) 25 to 35 years old; (iv) a surrogate only once in her lifetime; and (v) have a certificate of medical and psychological suitability for surrogacy; and (iv) be a surrogate just once in her life. Surrogate mothers are also unable to donate their own gametes for surrogacy.

Authorities responsible: Within 90 days of the Bill becoming an Act, the federal and state governments must nominate one or more appropriate authorities. The competent authority’s responsibilities include: I issuing, suspending, or cancelling surrogacy clinic registration; (ii) enforcing surrogacy clinic standards; (iii) investigating and taking action against violations of the Bill’s provisions; and (iv) suggesting rule and regulation changes. Surrogacy clinics must be registered with the relevant authority before they can perform surrogacy treatments. Clinics have 60 days from the date of the appropriate authority’s appointment to apply for registration.

National and State Surrogacy Boards: The federal and state governments will create the National Surrogacy Board (NSB) and State Surrogacy Boards (SSB), respectively. I advising the central government on surrogacy policy, (ii) developing a code of conduct for surrogacy clinics, and (iii) regulating the functioning of SSBs are all tasks of the NSB.The federal and state governments will establish the National Surrogacy Board (NSB) and State Surrogacy Boards (SSBs). The NSB’s responsibilities include: I advising the central government on surrogacy policy; (ii) establishing a code of conduct for surrogacy clinics; and (iii) overseeing the operation of SSBs. The SSBs’ responsibilities include I monitoring the Act’s implementation and (ii) examining the activities of the appropriate authorities at the state/union territory level.

Termination of pregnancy of surrogate child: A child born through a surrogacy procedure is considered the biological child of the intended couple. The surrogate mother’s written consent and the authorised authority’s approval are required for the surrogate child’s abortion. In order for this authorization to be valid, the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971 must be followed. Furthermore, the surrogate mother will have the option to withdraw from surrogacy before the embryo is implanted in her womb.

Punishments and offences:[4]

abandoning or exploiting children born through ART, (ii) selling, purchasing, trading, or importing human embryos or gametes, (iii) obtaining donors through intermediaries, (iv) exploitation of the commissioning couple, woman, or gamete donor in any form, and (v) transferring the human embryo into a male or an animal. The first breach of these offences will result in a punishment of between five and 10 lakh rupees. For repeated infractions, these offences will be punished by imprisonment for a period of eight to twelve years, as well as a fine of ten to twenty lakh rupees. Any clinic or bank that promotes or sells sex-selective ART faces a five- to ten-year jail sentence, a fine of Rs 10 lakh to Rs 25 lakh, or both. The decision to use surrogacy has no bearing on whether or not a child is aborted Abortion of the surrogate child requires the surrogate mother’s written agreement and the approval of the authorised authority. According to the bill, no one can force the surrogate mother to terminate the foetus. The kid is considered the biological child of the intending couple after delivery, and they are responsible for raising the child. Only the surrogate mother’s consent will be required to abort a child born through a surrogacy arrangement if the kid is at risk of physical or mental defects. This is a decision that will be made without the input of the intended couple. Abortion is permitted in such instances under the MTP Act of 2021, with the agreement of the ‘pregnant lady.

Literature review

Every day, around 259,200 children are born. That’s nearly three children per second. For all those concerned, the birth of a new born child is frequently a highly special and interesting occasion. Unfortunately, some couples are unable to have children of their own owing to physiological issues. About one out of every six couples struggles with infertility. This encompasses both people who have been unable to conceive after a year of trying and those who have been unable to carry a pregnancy to term. Infertile marriages have been more common since the 1970s (Winston & Bane, 1993. Social attitudes on medical procedures such as IVF have evolved throughout time. As a result, infertile couples are less hesitant to seek aid.

Infertility impacts many infertile people’s most basic thoughts about who they are and what their position in the family is. It has an impact on one’s own identity. the degree to which a goal has been met as a result, infertility is considered a serious health issue. It’s also explaining why people who are unable to produce children naturally seek for alternative methods to take up the role of a parent In the past, couples who were unable to conceive were expected to pursue adoption as a means of achieving their goals.  Parental aspirations There are several choices available today for infertile couples, as well as singles and single parents who desire to start a family. The desire to be a parent drives people to seek out alternate answers. Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART), In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), and Intrauterine Injections are just a few examples (IUI).

Despite many news articles emerging in both national and international media on commercial surrogacy in India, according to Prof. Amrita Pandey’s[5] book (Who Owns These Nine Months—- 2008), Amrita talks of little attention on the difficult problems that surround this booming sector. Most news headlines, she claims, are about “outsourcing of pregnancy” in impoverished Anand, life tales of poor, illiterate women and their inebriated husbands, and the cost disparities in surrogacy in India and the United States, as well as their win-win endings. Surrogacy is a multibillion-dollar business in India and an ever-growing medical tourism sector, she argues, yet there are no regulations regulating or controlling commercial surrogacy. She wonders why there isn’t a legislation since surrogacy is such a big business. Is it because uncontrolled surrogacy is a lucrative industry because there are no laws? Surrogacy supporters say that the arrangements benefit all parties involved since the needs of two desperate women are satisfied. The phrase “the barren gets a kid, the broke gets a bonus” is commonly used to describe the surrogacy arrangement. Surrogate moms frequently put the money they earn to good use.

Others argue that the right to procreate is a crucial one. In the United States, for example, the Constitution protects this right (Field, 1990). Given their infertility, the couple may use their right in the most feasible way possible. However, according to Cline (2008), this right is not explicitly stated in the constitution. Margaret Jane Radin (1988) claims that if males may contribute sperm and be compensated for it, then surrogacy should be permitted as a similar trade for women.

Some authors make the economic argument that free trade would increase efficiency. When there are parents who want children and women who want to be surrogates, this will happen. However, underground markets will emerge once this transaction in parental rights is forbidden. According to Posner (1987), difficult adoption procedures in many nations cause people to go to other countries to avoid the regulations, resulting in a massive black market. As a result, acknowledging the existence of such a market is preferable to better controlling and optimising it.

Surprisingly, there are strong feminists on both sides of the debate. some claim that feminists who support full legalisation of surrogacy argue that the world isn’t perfect. Men and women are not equal, and women have been restricted to a distinct domain at home, away from the marketplace, for many years. This has rendered women helpless, as the marketplace, which is dominated by males, is the source of power. Men have been liberated as a result of this power. Women, too, desire to attain this. They don’t want guys telling them what will and won’t sell. Whether or whether child sale and surrogacy are ethically reprehensible should be judged by the women themselves. Many feminists utilise this logic to support the legalisation of surrogacy. Other feminists, on the other hand, agree that women have been kept out of the market for a long time, but women have also been perceived (and treated) as baby-producing machines in the past.

Surrogacy, according to Kimbrell (1988), abuses women economically, emotionally, and physically. One key element is that the majority of women who become surrogates do it for financial reasons. Because they are in severe need of funds to keep their family afloat. Furthermore, agents are Contracts of dubious legality are frequently engaged and arranged. The ladies are obligated to do certain tasks under the terms of their contracts go through all of the tribulations of childbirth, and finally have to give the kid away (Kembrell,1988). Surrogate mothers are frequently uninformed of their legal rights and, because to their financial situation, are unable to exercise them. They cannot afford to hire an attorney in this scenario. When the surrogate mother signs the contract They will not be able to flee because of the contract.

[1] Munjal-Shankar, D. (2016). COMMERCIAL SURROGACY IN INDIA: VULNERABILITY CONTEXTUALISED. Journal of the Indian Law Institute, 58(3), 350–366. http://www.jstor.org/stable/45163396

[2] https://indianexpress.com/article/india/cabinet-approval-to-bill-for-regulation-of-reproductive-technology-6276607

[3] https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/bills-on-assisted-reproductive-technology-surrogacy-passed/article37904427.ece


[5] Pande, A. (2010). Commercial Surrogacy in India: Manufacturing a Perfect Mother‐Worker. Signs, 35(4), 969–992.

Standing With The Children

On May 28, India’s Supreme Court issued a directive to the government on the protection of children orphaned during the second wave of the Covid-19 outbreak. During the pandemic, days went by with no nourishment for the children. We don’t know how many children were affected during this time period. Orphaned children have long been at risk of sliding between the cracks of society. However, this issue has been largely disregarded, and the Covid crisis has provided us with an opportunity to revisit this issue.

The first issue emerges as a result of the child’s caste and family structure. Many times, after the death of the parents, the child’s relatives refuse to assume care for the child. Even if the child has a family, they may be unable to pay for the child’s education and well-being owing to financial constraints. In situations like these, the youngster may not receive the help and guidance he or she needs to succeed in life.


If a child enrols in an institute and finds a room in the hostel, he or she may not have someone to assist them with their concerns. A hostel could be the first and last resort for an orphaned child with no other family support. Unfortunately, many state governments prohibit children under the age of 18 from staying in a hostel. As a result, when they finish high school or college, they have nowhere to go. Many students have issues with official documents, such as Aadhar cards and Pan cards.


In this state of helplessness, kids frequently choose the wrong path, putting them in dangerous situations. Because the government is legally obligated by the Constitution to ensure the welfare of children, the state governments can be a key source of assistance. The Maharashtra government recently altered the norm, allowing orphaned youngsters to reside in hostels until they are 23 years old. Steps must be done, however, to ensure that future generations are not confronted with the same issues. The government can take the following steps in this regard: A yearly survey of orphan children will be conducted at the district and block levels. 


No child’s identity should be compromised, hence government paperwork should be delivered on time. Many government projects and initiatives that run parallel to the values of liberty, equality, and social justice should be established. A permanent fund should be established by the government and, if possible, local-level NGO’s to ensure that the child is not financially disadvantaged.

Every child has the right to an education and a happy life. The death of a parent or a loved one can have a significant impact on a child.

Because they have no one to talk to and express their grievances with, the child’s mental health may be harmed. All children should have access to counsellors via phone or one-on-one sessions with whom they can openly communicate their feelings.

Children are said to be the country’s future. So, how can we construct a positive future with 30% of children living in poverty? It’s past time to address and fix these challenges so that all children have equal chance to live a fulfilling life and contribute to society.

Photo by Agung Pandit Wiguna on Pexels.com

Yoga for Everyone

Yoga : Its Origin, History and Development

Yoga is a collection of physical, mental, and spiritual activities that originated in ancient India that aim to control and still the mind the mind by recognizing a detached witness-consciousness that is unaffected by the mind or ordinary sorrow.

The name ‘Yoga’ comes from the Sanskrit root ‘Yuj,’ which means ‘to join, yoke, or unify.’ Yoga, according to Yogic texts, leads to the union of individual consciousness with that of the Universal Consciousness, implying complete harmony between the mind and body, as well as between Man and Nature. Everything in the universe, according to modern scientists, is just a manifestation of the same quantum firmament. A yogi is someone who has experienced this oneness of existence and has attained the state of freedom known as mukti, nirvana, or moksha. As a result, the goal of Yoga is to achieve Self-realization, which leads to ‘the state of liberation’ (Moksha) or ‘freedom’ (Kaivalya).

Yoga’s beginnings may be traced back over 5,000 years to northern India. The Rig Veda, an old sacred scripture, is where the word yoga first appeared. Yoga is one of Hinduism’s six schools of philosophy, and it’s also a big part of Buddhism’s meditation practices.

Terminology of Yoga

Here are a few words you could hear during a yoga practice and what they mean:
An Āsana is a body posture that includes reclining, standing, inverted, twisting, and balancing poses. It was originally and still is a general term for a sitting meditation pose, but it was later extended in hatha yoga and modern yoga as exercise to any type of position, including balancing, twisting, and balancing poses.

In Sanskrit, Prānāyāma refers to the life energy that pervades all living things. The term Prānāyāma is used in modern-day yoga sessions to describe breathing exercises that erase physical and mental blockages in our bodies to release the breath.

Yoga Postures

When you first begin practising yoga, there will be specific postures that will form the foundation of your practice. You may receive the benefits of yoga by anchoring your practice with these postures: flexibility, greater muscle strength, spine protection, increased blood flow, and even improved happiness.

It is believed that there are 19 different types of yoga and 66 basic yoga postures. Some of the basic postures are:

    You balance on your elbows, arms, and head in this asana. The Headstand is the first in the sequence and is known as the “King of āsanas” due to its numerous benefits. “Head-stand is a panacea, a cure-all, a sovereign specific for all diseases,” Swami Sivananda said.
    With the body resting on the shoulders, this is an inverted stance. Sarvangāsana denotes totality. Sarvangāsana, also known as the “Queen of āsanas,” strengthens the entire body. Because the chin is forced on the throat in this position, the thyroid gland is regulated, which in turn balances all other glands in the body, ensuring that all bodily systems and organs function properly.
    A plough-like stance with hands and feet on the floor. Its name comes from the Sanskrit word hala, which means plough. Halasana strengthens and tones the spine, as well as correcting a pronounced lower back curvature (lordosis). As the abdominal organs are massaged, it reduces problems like indigestion and constipation.
    Matsyāsana posture is resting on the arms, arching the back and expanding the chest. The name Matsyāsana comes from the fact that it allows one to float in water like a fish. This posture promotes improved lung capacity and better breathing, which aids in the treatment of respiratory illnesses such as chronic bronchitis and asthma.
    Paścimottānāsana Posture is stretching the spine forward. This seemingly simple pose is one of the most powerful and significant of all postures. It relieves the pressure on the spine generated by standing erect. Continuous practice helps to keep the back supple, the joints mobile, the nervous system energized, and the internal organs toned. It also helps to prevent diabetes by massaging the pancreas naturally.
    This posture is arching the upper body and expanding the chest. This position enhances flexibility, rejuvenates spinal nerves, and provides a rich blood supply to the spine by arching the spine. It helps to support the neck and upper back.
    Śalabhāsana Posture is lying on the front with lifted legs. Śalabhāsana improves the operation of the intestines, strengthens the abdominal walls, and improves digestion. This posture enhances cervical flexibility and helps lower back pain and sciatica by bending the spine backwards. This posture aids in the development of willpower.
    Dhanurāsana Posture is balancing on the abdomen in the shape of a bow. The benefits of Cobra and Locust positions are combined and enhanced in Dhanurāsana. This posture increases flexibility in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions by working on the entire spine. It massages and energizes the digestive organs, which aids in the treatment of a variety of diseases. Another good āsana for women because it helps with menstrual difficulties.
    Ardha Matsyendrāsana Posture is a twist for the entire spine. This asana is named after Matsyendranath, a renowned yogi. The Half Spinal Twist increases the mobility of the spine by twisting the vertebrae in both directions. In this position, the abdominal organs receive a deep massage, which helps to relieve digestive disorders.
    Kakāsana Posture is balancing in a squatting position. Kakāsana helps to strengthen the arm, wrists, and shoulders while also stretching the hips. It improves concentration and fosters mental and physical balance, as do all balancing poses.
    Pādahastāsana is a bending forward in a standing position. Pādahastāsana stretches the spine and mobilizes the joints, making it more elastic. It improves the neurological system by increasing blood flow to the brain. Standing Forward Bend is an exercise that promotes eternal youth.
    Posture is a lateral bend resembling a triangle. Trikonansa’s lateral stretch elongates the spine and improves hip and leg flexibility. The circulatory system is stimulated, the liver and spleen are massaged, and the digestive tract’s peristalsis is boosted. Other asanas improve as the body becomes lighter.

Your every steps counts.

Your life decisions is all depends on your steps. As which decision is right for you will plays a greater impact on your future. So we have to take the steps very patiently. Because your small step will always plays a greater role in your future. And we always make that in our minds and learn from our past mistakes. But still we could not able to do that task. And miserable fail. Because we never plan and never see the situation both the ways. We just see the positive side and forget about the negative impact of that step. And their your decision makes your future good or bad. It’s all depends on you not destiny or God. There are two ways the god give you but the choice is always yours. How you want to do that thing. So all the things happening in your life is on your call and you are responsible. And also you are the one who will come out of it.

Just you need to believe in yourself. That’s it rest all the things automatically will bring a great change in your life. Everything is not planned it’s on you. How you will take that path and change your future. No one is lucky. You are lucky when you believe in yourself and bring a great change in your life. It is difficult but not impossible. The small things will always play a wide role in your life. You all are intelligent and mature people. So you know how things work. Other people are just the part of our life and believing them or not is all upto us. Things still be complicated if you trust or not. Because you have to learn from your mistakes and if you not Learn than how will you grow. so you have to make contacts and believe people for your own sake.

Wherever you go you will see yourself down. But your steps will take you on that path were you will one day get that last stair. And you will never come back on your knees again. That movement will be very far but your every step will always there for your success. And even failure. But one thing you will always learn from your every steps even you succeeded or not. But that steps will always be your own as you have made them for yourself. You will come out and outshine one day. Because you always learn from your past mistakes. And evern if you achieve the target than also you will always remember your steps. From where you have achieved this goel. You cannot forget your steps because they are the only one who actually made you stand here in front of everyone. And speak for yourself. As now you know you as an individual and what you need to do or not is only depends on you not others.

This has cleared your all doubts that you are independent. And nobody has right to interfere and place judgement or tell you better about your life. You are better person who knows you better than others. So don’t rely on anybody for your things. You very much know what you want and need in your life. So understand yourself and all the things will automatically in your favour and every step you will take for your own sake not for other. you play an important role in your life. So every step you take is your own choice as it is your life. And you have the right to live your life as you want to live.



The World Commerce Agency (WTO) is an international organisation that was founded to oversee and liberalize global trade. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the successor of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was established in 1947 with the intention that it would be quickly replaced by a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) known as the International Trade Organization (ITO). Although the ITO never materialized, the GATT was a huge success in liberalising global commerce during the next five decades. By the late 1980s, there were proposals for a more powerful multilateral agency to oversee trade and settle trade disputes. The World Trade Organization (WTO) commenced operations on January 1, 1995, following the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of international trade talks (1986–94).


The ITO, together with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, was initially envisioned as one of the fundamental pillars of post-World War II reconstruction and economic development. The UN Conference on Trade and Employment finalised a draught charter for the ITO, known as the Havana Charter, in Havana in 1948, which would have established broad laws covering trade, investment, services, and business and employment practises. The agreement, however, was not ratified by the United States. Meanwhile, on January 1, 1948, the GATT entered into force as an agreement negotiated by 23 nations in Geneva in 1947 to phase out the use of import quotas and lower tariffs on merchandise trade.

During the last round of talks in 1994, the original GATT and any revisions made previous to the Uruguay Round were called GATT 1947. This group of agreements differed from GATT 1994, which included the changes and clarifications made during the Uruguay Round (referred to as “Understandings”), as well as a dozen additional multilateral agreements on merchandise trade. GATT 1994 formed a fundamental component of the agreement that founded the World Trade Organization. 

The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which attempted to supervise and liberalise trade; the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which sought to improve intellectual property protection across borders; the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, which established rules for resolving conflict between members; and the Trade Policy Review Mechanism, which dovetailed with the GATS (though the latter two were terminated at the end of 1997 with the creation of related WTO committees). These agreements were signed in April in Marrakech, Morocco.By the 2020s the WTO had more than 160 members. 

Goals and operations

The WTO has six primary goals: (1) to establish and enforce international trade rules, (2) to provide a forum for negotiating and monitoring further trade liberalisation, (3) to resolve trade disputes, (4) to increase the transparency of decision-making processes, (5) to collaborate with other major international economic institutions involved in global economic management, and (6) to assist developing countries in fully benefiting from the global trading system. Although these aims were shared by the GATT, the WTO pursued them more completely in practise. For example, although the GATT was almost entirely focused on products (albeit most agriculture and textiles were exempt), the WTO includes all goods, services, intellectual property, and some investment regulations.

Furthermore, the permanent WTO Secretariat, which took over from the temporary GATT Secretariat, has reinforced and codified systems for assessing trade policy and resolving disputes. Because the WTO covers many more items than the GATT, and because the number of member nations and the scope of their involvement has constantly increased—the combined share of international commerce of WTO members currently approaches 90% of the world total—open access to markets has risen significantly. Both the GATT and the WTO rules fulfil at least three functions. To begin, they seek to defend the interests of small and weak countries against the unfair trade practises of large and powerful countries.

The WTO’s most-favored-nation and national-treatment provisions require each WTO member to provide equal market access to all other members, as well as to treat local and international suppliers similarly. Second, the rules compel members to regulate trade solely through tariffs and to give market access equal to or better than that established in their schedules (i.e., the commitments that they agreed to when they were granted WTO membership or subsequently). Third, the laws are intended to assist governments in resisting lobbying efforts by domestic interest groups demanding preferential treatment. Although there have been notable exceptions to the standards, their inclusion and repetition in the fundamental WTO accords were designed to guarantee that the greatest abuses be avoided. The WTO was expected to improve economic wellbeing and lessen political tensions by giving greater clarity and predictability to international markets.

Trade Dispute Resolution

The GATT offered a forum for settling trade disputes, a role that was significantly expanded under the WTO. Members have agreed not to take unilateral action against one another. They are instead required to seek redress through the WTO’s dispute-resolution system and to follow its rules and judgments. The GATT’s dispute settlement procedures have been automated and considerably simplified, and the timeframe has been tightened. Dispute resolution begins with bilateral meetings facilitated by the director-mediation, general’s or “good offices.” If this does not work, an impartial panel is formed to hear the disagreement.

The panel sends a secret draught report to the parties for feedback, and then revises it before revealing it to the whole WTO membership. In contrast to the IMF and World Bank, which both employ weighted voting, each WTO member has only one vote. However, most decisions are taken by agreement, just as they were in the previous GATT system. After 60 days, unless one or both parties file a notice of appeal or the WTO members reject the report, it is automatically approved and legally binding. The procedure is expected to take nine months, and if an appeal is filed, the WTO Appellate Body will hear and rule on any claim of legal mistake within 60 days.

The WTO also aims to raise awareness about the scope and impact of trade-distorting measures, which it does through yearly notification requirements and a policy-review system. All changes in a member’s trade and trade-related policies must be announced and made available to trading partners. This requirement was a significant step toward more transparent government for many developing nations and countries whose economy were formerly centrally managed. The WTO evaluates the trade policies of the world’s four major traders (the European Union, the United States, Japan, and China) every two years, the policies of the next 16 largest traders every four years, and the policies of the world’s smallest traders every year.

Following thorough talks with the member countries under review, the WTO Secretariat releases its evaluation, along with a companion report from the government. As a result, the process checks how well members are achieving their obligations and gives information on freshly expanded markets. It also offers a more solid foundation for forthcoming trade discussions and trade dispute settlement.


The rate of worldwide economic integration through the GATT and WTO global trade agreements has been slower and less thorough than some members would want. Some have proposed deeper integration within subgroups of (typically neighbouring) member economies, such as those parties to the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement (which has since been supplanted by the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, signed in 2018). for political, military, or other reasons—as well as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Despite the most-favored-nation clauses in the WTO’s founding agreements, the organisation does permit such preferential integration under specific situations. Despite the fact that many such integration agreements arguably do not cover “substantially all trade”—the WTO’s core condition—there has been little disagreement on the formation of free-trade zones and customs unions. Politically sensitive areas, such as agriculture, are the most prevalent exclusions from such accords. Beginning in the late 1990s, the World Trade Organization (WTO) was the object of harsh criticism. Opponents of economic globalisation (see antiglobalization), particularly those opposed to the rising influence of multinational companies, stated that the WTO violates national sovereignty and favours huge businesses at the expense of smaller local firms striving to compete with imports. Environmental and labour organisations (particularly those from wealthier nations) have complained that trade liberalisation hurts the environment and the interests of low-skilled unionised employees. Protests by these and other groups at WTO ministerial meetings, such as the 1999 demonstrations in Seattle, Washington, United States, which drew approximately 50,000 people, grew larger and more frequent, in part due to the development of the Internet and social media, which made large-scale demonstrations possible.

In response to such criticism, WTO advocates said that regulating trade is ineffective at protecting the environment and labour rights. Meanwhile, some WTO members, particularly developing nations, have resisted efforts to implement rules that would allow for fines against countries that fail to satisfy high environmental and labour standards, alleging that such regulations would amount to disguised protectionism.

Despite these objections, WTO membership remained appealing to nonmembers, as indicated by the expansion in membership after 1995. Most notably, China joined the WTO in 2001 following years of talks. The conditions for Chinese membership were in some ways more restrictive than those for developing countries, reflecting the concerns of some WTO members that the admission of such a large and still somewhat planned economy might have an overall negative effect on free trade.

Another Anime Review


Quiet after watching Death note I actually didn’t have any anime to watch so searched in google in order to get some recommendation on some goo anime’s. I actually wanted to watch a horror anime, so I got some recommendation from google such as Tokyo ghoul, Parasite and Another. When I read the summary of Another I actually was very much amused by the story so I started watching it. I really liked it and I was so thrilled by watching it that it was very scary.

So the story of Another actually starts from a place called yomiyama where a new guy called kouichi transfers and attends the yomiyama school at the 9th grade class 3. This 9th grade class 3 has its own speciality. The actual starts in the year 1972 where a boy called misaki who was quiet popular in his class died suddenly and everyone so demised by this situation in the classroom started believing that misaki is still alive and when the 1972 batch graduated they even kept an extra seat for the dead guy misaki, this is actually considered to be a trigger for the curse started by the 1972 batch. From the next year onwards students started dying because of this trigger. To stop all this situation some counter measures were taken because there was an extra student in the classroom and the students are not able to find out who this extra student and because of this extra person other students were dying. The actual story starts in the 1997 due to transfer of the extra student kouichi. In this particular year the students actually made a girl called mei as an non existent student. And kouichi decides to stop this curse by sending the dead back to dead.

I must tell you this is a must watch anime if you are an actual horror anime lover. There will be a lot of events with a lot of trigger warning. so watch it at your own risk. This anime while I was watching kind of made me think of final destination as we can see that one by one people die due to a trigger. That’s actually something happens in another anime as well. If you are a fan of horror’s this is a must watch anime for sure.

The fruit of patience is sweet.

We have listen this phrase many a times and we also know what it means. But we never applied it in our life. Because we don’t have that patient to wait and watch our results. On the right time of our life. We need Everything immediately because we never made this realise by our parents. That everything we need their is a struggle we cannot get everything so easily. We have to earn it. But parents forget these norms and gave there children everything they want. And these habits do not change with time. It increases as the time passes because know they know they will get anything they want because there parents will gave them at any cost. This practice is wrong because when we try to make them realise at that age they completely take it in opposite ways. And try to create violence and even hurt themselves for such a useless things.

We have to make our children understand the importance of time. They have to learn it at a very young age. So that these things never ever become a drawback for their family. And it’s consequences can be huge. So making them realise this will make you and your child free from so many wrong things. We as a parents want that our child get everything. But in that cases we always forget when they grow up they will never understand the importance of that thing. And they similarly demand for other things. And it will not end here. They can also choices on human being also and that can be very dangerous and harmful for anyone. We have to say no for things where we think that it is really important for our children. Than they might realise that how much the thing cost. And they will understand that why our parents Said no at that time. These thing look small but it’s effect are large. We have seen obsessed and phycho people they all have suffered from the things which had taken place in their past but they never come out of it. Because all the incidence happens in their childhood had placed a greater impact in their life.

Your childhood memories cannot be vanished. Even it is good or bad you can’t forget that moments which were a part of your life. Even if you want to you cannot do it. Because childhood is a growing state of an individual so everything happens in that stage will always be in your mind and soul. So what you have learn and observe at that stage. That will remain with you forever. You think that when the kid will be mature he will understand. But understanding do not come by age or learning. It comes by observing and watching. So what they will see in their childhood they will take that thing as a reality and believe them blindly. And make them clear that all the things will easily get immediately after you say to your parents. But that is not true. we have to understand that everything is not easy to get.

We have to struggle for each and everything. Even for a toy because parents can give you that toy very easily but you will forget it’s importance in your life. So when you get good mark and than you achieve that toy. Than you always remember that you have earn it. By giving your all time to your studies and work hard to achieve that toy. It looks normal but it is not. You can easily see a poor family were the kids get more mature because they have observed there situation and deal with them. Equally sacrifice their childhood just for their family. Whereas a rich kid who had Never seen any situations like this and get everything which they want on hand. Will never understand society and will never fight against with their troubles. Because they never see the harsh time. And they have not struggled for single thing. They all have get everything without even saying. And never ask for the money they spent or need they all will get the money when they needed.

Don’t loose hope even you wish to end.

Believe in yourself as your life is very precious than anything. Difficult time is to make you more strong and independent. Because they want you to deal with any situation. If you get all the things so easily than you will never value the importance of life. So a stom is a part of the life where we have to follow that norm. God is great. Don’t blame them for anything wrong because they are your elders. Who knows what is right and wrong for their children. How to prepare them for the world around them. Today you don’t understand what they want to do as an individual. But later you realise the importance of that time. Because that time only decide your future. Getting away from everything will not make your life easy.

People think leaving everything aside will make them achieve their targets. But they forget that it will not end there it will increase day by day for their family. And even for themselves. Because your soul will never be happy and your spirit will never in peace. Which you badly wanted after your death. And you will just roaming around in the world like an alien. So please never Suicide. Because your body will be dead but your soul will never get its way. There is lot more than exams result, boyfriend/girlfriend, loss of someone, depression,anxiety, etc. You have to live for your family as they are more important than anyone else. You have to be strong and realise that your weakness is your big strengths. And fight against it. With all your dedication and believe in you. We are personalities who can fight with anything which come across our ways. But we could not fight against the smallest dispute which happens and affect us in a bigger way. This is because we loose hope in ourselves and think we are looser and everyone will judge us. Because we are a useless person and we could not able to become as our parents or family, friends, relatives or society want us to be.

It’s ok if you could not achieve that goel. Because you have something different which will definitely make you unique and interesting in front of everyone. But you have to be patient and wait for that movement or time. where all of them will be shocked and you can see that shine in your parents eyes. which you want to see from several years. This will only happen when you will believe in yourself. And just Focus on your dreams and achieve it. And dreams do come true only you have to believe in them. And your capabilities to achieve them. Than noone can able to snatch it even they want to. so make yourself strong and dedicated towards your dreams and you definitely get successful. And your parents will be proud when they see your achievement one day. They will not understand know but when you prove them wrong they realise your skill and appreciate your talent. Wait for that one day. All your downs will automatically become your ups and than you realise the importance of that down fall in your life. And than you always remember your downs than your ups. This is true because that really matters in your life that is why it is there in our life. Everything in your life has a reason you have to fight against it and find out your ways from there.

Your weakness is your big strength.

This is reality your weakness is your big strengths. As they make you fight against many problems which you never imagined. This because you improve and see your weakness and work upon it. And slowly and gradually they become your strength. Where your weakness always be pointed to break you but people don’t know that you not breaking or putting them down but making them more strong and giving them ability to fight against it. The problem of people is to down people but they forget that putting others down will not make them weak but more ability to achieve a target. Because their inner ability will gave them that opportunity to shine.

The gold is always been seen by people as you can easily get or see it’s shine. And can significant the difference in gold or colour. Similarly you can see the strength of people easily and you could not break it. Even you want to compete you cannot achieve what you want. So people Focus on weakness so that you can do what you want to do. Firstly it seriously happens what we want to do but. Slowly and gradually we realised that it not the same we want to do. We make them more strong and independent than previously. They know have the strength to fight against anything. They want to. This is because we see the dimond but it’s shine do not gave us clear judgement as it look ordinary. As a normal stone but when we realised it cost us more than a gold. As dimond is extremely expensive. Than we realised it’s importance. Similarly we see our weakness as a ordinary thing which is useless but we do not see it’s impotance and how it is more powerful and expensive than any other strengths we have that is why we left our flaws in bottom of our heart because we don’t know it’s importance.

We do feel that we should come over our weakness and not allow others to play with it. But unfortunately these things happen and you feel leftover and could not come out. This is because you are broken as they broke your trust and use your weakness as their weapons to distroy you. But they don’t realise that it’s is very much needed as a individual to fight for yourself. When making your weakness as a power to fight against other. And your weakness make you more powerful than your strength. Because you strength will never make you grow. Their could be best thing in others and that target can be achieved . But when your weakness make you fight than you can achieve anything. Because you have learn and earn that by working very hard and fast as that fire is built by other. To make yourself stand in front every one. Even strength are also achieved by hardwork and their also a fire. But both target are different because strength shows your improving the skill you accuare. But weakness is where you don’t accuare that skill but still you prove other wrong.

Is science a boon or bane?

We live in a technological and scientific era. Science is essential to man’s survival. Science has overtaken our life to the point that nothing can happen in our day-to-day job without it. Science is intertwined with our food, transportation, education, administration, recreation, and social lives in numerous ways.
To determine if science has arrived to mankind as a blessing or as a source of destruction. It is necessary to understand what science entails. Science is defined as a method of categorising and classifying experiences. We, as males, are fascinated by the various things and events that occur around us. We have our doubts about what they are. Why are they taking place?


If such is the case, why are these questions the cornerstones of science? Then comes thinking, analysing, reasoning, synthesis, and contrast, before finally revealing the truth. According to scientists, everything has a methodology and there are always procedures to follow, such as observation, hypothesis, experiment, theory, and proofs. These steps were followed by all scientists who knew the route.

Science’s goal:

The goal of science is to seek truth and grasp previously unknown phenomena. A scientist does not accept ideas just because they have previously been accepted by others. Reasoning is the source of great discoveries. It will take a lot of patience and observation.Civilization as we know it now is the outcome of numerous discoveries made in the realm of science. Our current industry may be traced back to the creation of the simple wheel. Electricity has altered the world as a source of energy. Science has aided our revolution’s success, and we now have enough food to feed everyone. We have sufficient clothing and better housing. All of this is only possible due of science. Science has created the radio, television, and movies that entertain us. As a result, a common man must conclude that science is a blessing to humanity.

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

There is also the opposite side of the coin, in which such knowledge gave birth to destructive weapons such as guns, rifles, rockets, atom bombs, hydrogen bombs, and so on. It is science that has electric power, nuclear energy, and hydroelectric power, but atomic energy is not employed for peaceful reasons, as happened in Hiroshima and Nagasaki as a result of science, and it is humanity’s curse.

Leaving that aside, another invention of science is environmental contamination. With the help of science, industrialization has poisoned the air, food, and the entire atmosphere. The ozone layer is sending out alarming signals. As a result, a person can consider science to be a curse.



It is commonly stated that the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed in reaction to the Soviet Union’s threat. This is just partly correct. In truth, the formation of the Alliance was part of a larger strategy to dissuade Soviet expansionism, prevent the return of nationalist militarism in Europe by a strong North American presence on the continent, and encourage European political unification.

Much of Europe was destroyed in the aftermath of World War II in ways that are now impossible to imagine. The conflict had killed around 36.5 million Europeans, 19 million of whom were civilians. Rationing and refugee camps ruled daily life. In certain locations, infant mortality was one in every four. Millions of orphans roamed the charred remains.

Furthermore, Communists assisted by the Soviet Union were posing a danger to democratically elected governments throughout Europe. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia ousted the democratically elected government in that nation in February 1948, with clandestine support from the Soviet Union. In response to West Germany’s democratic consolidation, the Soviets blockaded Allied-controlled West Berlin in an attempt to strengthen their grip on the German capital. The courage of the Berlin Airlift brought some satisfaction to future Allies, but poverty remained a serious danger to democracy and security.

Fortunately, at that time, the United States had abandoned its customary policy of diplomatic isolationism. Aid supplied by the US-funded Marshall Plan (also known as the European Recovery Program) and other ways aided in the restoration of economic stability. However, before European countries could start talking and dealing with one another, they needed to be confident in their security. Military cooperation, as well as the security it would provide, would have to evolve in tandem with economic and political advancement. With this in mind, numerous Western European democracies joined together to pursue a variety of programmes aimed at increasing military cooperation and collective defence, including the establishment of the Western Union in 1948, subsequently renamed the Western European Union in 1954. In the end, only a genuinely transatlantic security accord might deter Soviet invasion while also avoiding the return of European militarism and creating the framework for political union.

As a result, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed on April 4, 1949, after considerable discussion and controversy. According to the Treaty’s legendary Article 5, the new Allies agreed that “an armed assault on one or more of them… must be regarded an attack against them all,” and that in the aftermath of such an attack, each Ally would take “such measures as may be necessary.”

Significantly, Articles 2 and 3 of the Treaty served essential functions that were not directly related to the prospect of assault. Article 3 set the groundwork for the Allies’ collaboration in military readiness, while Article 2 gave them some latitude in non-military cooperation. While the North Atlantic Treaty established Allies, it did not establish a military system capable of successfully coordinating their activities. This began to change when mounting concerns about Soviet intentions culminated in the Soviet testing of an atomic weapon in 1949 and the commencement of the Korean War in 1950. The impact on the Alliance was significant. NATO quickly established a unified command structure, with a military headquarters in the Paris neighbourhood of Rocquencourt, near Versailles. 

This was the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, or SHAPE, and the first Supreme Allied Commander Europe, or SACEUR, was US General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Soon after, the Allies formed a permanent civilian secretariat in Paris and appointed Lord Ismay of the United Kingdom as NATO’s first Secretary General.

Political stability was gradually restored to Western Europe as a result of aid and a security umbrella, and the post-war economic miracle started. Greece and Turkey joined the Alliance in 1952, and West Germany in 1955. The first tentative moves toward European political union were taken. In response to West Germany’s NATO membership, the Soviet Union and its client nations in Eastern Europe founded the Warsaw Pact in 1955. Europe fell into an uneasy truce, symbolised by the 1961 erection of the Berlin Wall.

NATO established the strategic doctrine of at the time “”Massive Retaliation” — if the Soviet Union launched an assault, NATO would react with nuclear weapons. The doctrine’s intended impact was to dissuade either side from taking risks, because any strike, no matter how little, might have resulted in a complete nuclear exchange. Concurrently, “Massive Retaliation” enabled Alliance members to concentrate their efforts on economic expansion rather than the maintenance of huge conventional armies. The Alliance also made its initial steps toward a political and military role. The smaller Allies, in particular, had urged for deeper non-military collaboration since the Alliance’s inception, and the Suez Crisis in the fall of 1956 exposed the lack of political consultation that had split certain members.

The Foreign Ministers of Norway, Italy, and Canada – the “Three Wise Men” – delivered a report to the North Atlantic Council recommending more robust consultation and scientific cooperation within the Alliance, and the report’s conclusions led, among other things, to the establishment of the NATO Science Programme.


This unhappy but steady status quo began to shift in the 1960s. As Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and US President John F. Kennedy narrowly escaped confrontation in Cuba, and as American participation in Vietnam grew, Cold War tensions resurfaced. Despite this unfavourable start, by the end of the decade, what had been essentially a defense-based organisation had come to represent a new phenomenon: détente, a reduction of tensions between the Western and Eastern blocs driven by a reluctant acceptance of the status quo. NATO and SHAPE unexpectedly relocated during this decade. France expressed its desire to withdraw from NATO’s integrated military command structure in March 1966, and demanded that all Allied headquarters be removed from French territory.

Significantly, France remained a member of the Alliance and continuously stated its determination to stand alongside its allies in the event of war. During following peacekeeping missions, France proved to be one of the Alliance’s most important force contributions. Flexibility has always been critical to NATO’s success, and France’s resignation from NATO’s integrated military command structure indicated that, unlike the Warsaw Pact, NATO could accept various points of view among its members.

As a reminder of this point, in August 1968, the Soviet Union led an invasion of Czechoslovakia that put an end to a period of political liberalisation in that country known as the Prague Spring. Like a similar invasion of Hungary in 1956 and military repression in Berlin in 1953, Soviet actions demonstrated what became known as the Brezhnev Doctrine: given the choice between short-term control of Eastern European client states and long-run political and economic reform, the Soviet Union would choose to maintain short-term control. The end of this policy would await a Soviet leader willing to choose long-run reform.Détente had many faces. West German Chancellor Willy Brandt’s Ostpolitik sought to encourage European stability through closer relations between Eastern and Western Europe. US President John F. Kennedy’s strategy of “Flexible Response” sought to replace Massive Retaliation’s absolute dichotomy of peace or total nuclear war. Adopted in the wake of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Flexible Response enhanced NATO’s conventional defence posture by offering military responses short of a full nuclear exchange in the event of conflict. Also during this time, a report entitled “The Future Tasks of the Alliance”, delivered in December 1967 to the North Atlantic Council by Belgian Foreign Minister Pierre Harmel, recommended that NATO should have a political track promoting dialogue and détente between NATO and Warsaw Pact countries. The role of NATO had become not merely to preserve the status quo, but to help change it.

The Harmel Report helped to lay the foundation for the convening of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe in 1973. Two years later, the Conference led to the negotiation of the Helsinki Final Act. The Act bound its signatories – including the Soviet Union and members of the Warsaw Pact – to respect the fundamental freedom of their citizens, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief. Soviet rulers internally played down these clauses within the Act, attaching more importance to the Western recognition of the Soviet role in Eastern Europe. Eventually, however, the Soviets came to learn that they had bound themselves to powerful and potentially subversive ideas.

The cold war

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, as well as the deployment of SS-20 Saber ballistic missiles in Europe, resulted in the suspension of détente. To counter the Soviet deployment, the Allies decided to deploy nuclear-capable Pershing II and ground-launched cruise missiles in Western Europe while continuing talks with the Soviets. The deployment was not supposed to start until 1983. Meanwhile, the Allies intended to reach an agreement on armaments control that would eliminate the need for the weapons. Lacking the hoped-for agreement with the Soviets, NATO countries endured internal conflict when deployment began in 1983. Following the ascent of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet Premier in 1985, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces

Lacking the hoped-for agreement with the Soviets, NATO countries endured internal conflict when deployment began in 1983. Following the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet Premier in 1985, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces. This is now considered the first sign that the Cold War was coming to an end. The 1980s also saw NATO’s first new member since 1955 join. A newly democratic Spain joined the transatlantic Alliance in 1982.

By the mid-1980s, most international observers believed that Soviet Communism had lost the intellectual battle with the West. Dissidents had dismantled the ideological supports of Communist regimes, a process aided in retrospect by the Soviet Union’s own ostensible adherence to human rights principles outlined by the Helsinki Final Act. By the late 1980s, the communist government of Poland found itself forced to negotiate with the formerly repressed independent trade union “Solidarity” and its leader, Lech Wałęsa. Soon other democratic activists in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union itself would begin to demand those very rights.

By this time, command economies in the Warsaw Pact were disintegrating. The Soviet Union was spending three times as much as the United States on defence with an economy that was one-third the size. Mikhail Gorbachev came to power with the intention of fundamentally reforming the communist system. When the East German regime began to collapse in 1989, the Soviet Union did not intervene, reversing the Brezhnev Doctrine. This time, the Soviets chose long-run reform over a short-run control that was increasingly beyond their capabilities, setting in motion a train of events that led to the break-up of the Warsaw Pact.

NATO endured because while the Soviet Union was no more, the Alliance’s two other original if unspoken mandates still held: to deter the rise of militant nationalism and to provide the foundation of collective security that would encourage democratisation and political integration in Europe. The definition of “Europe” had merely expanded eastward. Before the consolidation of peace and security could begin, however, one spectre haunting European politics remained to be exorcised. Since the Franco-Prussian War, Europe had struggled to come to terms with a united Germany at its heart. The incorporation of a re-unified Germany into the Alliance put this most ancient and destructive of dilemmas to rest.


In 1991 as in 1949, NATO was to be the foundation stone for a larger, pan-European security architecture. In December 1991, the Allies established the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, renamed the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997. This forum brought the Allies together with their Central European, Eastern European, and Central Asian neighbours for joint consultations. Many of these newly liberated countries – or partners, as they were soon called – saw a relationship with NATO as fundamental to their own aspirations for stability, democracy, and European integration. Cooperation also extended southward. In 1994, the Alliance founded the Mediterranean Dialogue with six non-member Mediterranean countries: Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia, with Algeria also joining in 2000. The Dialogue seeks to contribute to security and stability in the Mediterranean through better mutual understanding.

This fledgling cooperation was soon put to the test. The collapse of Communism had given way to the rise of nationalism and ethnic violence, particularly in the former Yugoslavia. At first, Allies hesitated to intervene in what was perceived as a Yugoslav civil war. Later the conflict came to be seen as a war of aggression and ethnic cleansing, and the Alliance decided to act. Initially, NATO offered its full support to United Nations efforts to end war crimes, including direct military action in the form of a naval embargo. Soon the enforcement of a no-fly zone led to airstrikes against heavy weapons violating UN resolutions. Finally, the Alliance carried out a nine-day air campaign in September 1995 that played a major role in ending the conflict. In December of that year, NATO deployed a UN-mandated, multinational force of 60 000 soldiers to help implement the Dayton Peace Agreement and to create the conditions for a self-sustaining peace. In 2004, NATO handed over this role to the European Union.

By the end of 1998, over 300 000 Kosovar Albanians had fled their homes during conflict between Albanian separatists in Kosovo and Serbian military and police. Following the failure of intense international efforts to resolve the crisis, the Alliance conducted air strikes for 78 days and flew 38 000 sorties with the goal of allowing a multinational peacekeeping force to enter Kosovo and cease ethnic cleansing in the region. On 4 June 1999, NATO suspended its air campaign after confirming that a withdrawal of the Serbian army from Kosovo had begun, and the deployment of the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) followed shortly thereafter. Today, KFOR troops are still deployed in Kosovo to help maintain a safe and secure environment and freedom of movement for all citizens, irrespective of their ethnic origin.


The 21st century will not be all about peacebuilding, however. Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea in 2014 and its aggressive actions against Ukraine have been a sobering reminder of the importance of NATO’s core task: collective defence. This, coupled with the Syrian conflict, the rise of ISIL and terrorism (and often home-bred terrorism), has become a brutal reality across many continents. Meanwhile, tensions rise as migrants seek refuge from conflict in countries that are struggling with the weight of ethnic and religious strife, demographic pressures and economic underperformance. Cyberattacks are becoming ever more frequent and ever more destructive. And through social media and other means, the opponents of liberal open societies are spreading disinformation and propaganda that seek to undermine the values that NATO has always sought to protect and promote. Altogether, the complexity of the current security environment is such that NATO’s flexibility is, yet again, put to the test.

Since its founding in 1949, the transatlantic Alliance’s flexibility, embedded in its original Treaty, has allowed it to suit the different requirements of different times. In the 1950s, the Alliance was a purely defensive organization. In the 1960s, NATO became a political instrument for détente. In the 1990s, the Alliance was a tool for the stabilization of Eastern Europe and Central Asia through the incorporation of new Partners and Allies. In the first half of the 21st century, NATO faces an ever-growing number of new threats. As the foundation stone of transatlantic peace and freedom, NATO must be ready to meet this challenge.

Love and trust is equally weighted.

Yes it completely true love and trust is equally weighted. Because you love them whom you trusted the most. And they are the only one who breaks your trust and love. We believe in love and than our trust build on other person. But when we broke than our trust and love gets chattered. Because we never expect something like this but it happens. We cannot control these things because these things happen automatically. As we know the fact still we could not get rid of this situation. All this is in emotions based. We cannot control our emotions even we have to because these are natural our anger, crying,etc are all uncontrollable even we want to we could not able to control it.

Loves is expressed and denote as a feeling that other person can connect and hear you without any conversation. And we as a person feel and easily love each other without seeing their background. And love them immensely as they are Everything for you. Your life is incomplete without them. And you as a person could not able to come out of this fever as you cannot see anything even Everything is wrong against them. As your all concentration is only on them and you can see only that person in front of you all the time. You don’t need anyone just them in your life that is the power of love. You can do anything and everything for them at your last breath. It is difficult to forget them. And also forgive them. As your love cannot be explained how much it was and it is irreplaceable. Your love is different for every person. Even you say you love them. But not love them the way you love your other persons like family, friends, relationship etc all the relation is different of every person

Trust is also built when you believe in love. And than it also broken when you deeply get stuck in it. And than you badly come across the real side. And frankly it is not acceptable as we trust someone because we believe in them. And when the trust broke than it coul not believe others who deserves them the most. And we also treat them similar as we were treated. So please be kind and love your Love ones and Never ever break their trust because you will not only loose them but you also go through the same time. Where you will be on there part. The ability to achieve someone love and trust is big thing so do not loose it. If you loose it ones. Than noone will trust you again. That’s the power of love and trust. It can make it and it can distroy l too.

Death Note Review

Death note is considered to be one of my first anime which I have watched after pokemon. All of my friends love watching anime and I was the only one who was not interested in watching one, so my friends suggested me to watch death note. Half heartedly I started watching Death note. I must say that the anime and I instantly clicked. it was one of the best anime I have watched so far. I’m sure the writer who has written death is very highly intelligent because the anime itself is a masterpiece.

Death Note is an anime which has Light yagami as the villain protagonist. and L as a detective. the anime consists of 37 episodes and I must say once you start watching it you will be desperately waiting to watch another episode. The ‘Death Note’ is so tremendous, it is so suspenseful that it will keep you thinking what will be the next. and you will be surprised with the twist. believe it or not it’s every singlw episodes has a twist. this is the best anime I have watched. the soundtrack and the animations are the best.

Light Yagami

The concept was very very unique. The story starts from a high school boy named Light yagami who is very much bored with his life gets a book named ‘death note’ where a lot of rules are written one of which is considered to be that you can kill anyone just by writing his/her name on the book. thus light starts using the book by writing the names of the criminals. Actually the book really belongs to a shinigami named ryuk. As the process of killing goes on light gets a name called kira from the mass media. to stop this process a detective is hired called ‘L’.

If you are interested in Crime, thriller, phycology and suspense you’ll surely love it. There are many jaw-dropping moments in this whole series. It’ll make you think “What just happened !!!” The story is very interesting that will make you hold up to it’s end. Sometimes, you’ll think the story is so much tangled, it’s confusing (especially in the middle part) but later when you come to finish it you’ll know everything, “Oh ! so this is it !” there are some funny moments too, as there are a few funny characters in it, if you understand it’s psychology it’s way more interesting.


So overall, It’s totally worth watching it, I’ll rate it as 10/10 I really loved it. It’s the best. You’ll feel emotions too if you watching it with all your mind and heart. I really liked the anime, any ways light is the main character I will be always sided towards ‘L’.

Kakegurui Review

Yumeko Jabami

Kakegurui is considered to be one of my favourite animes which i have watched. I actually fell in love with this anime from the very first episode itself. first of all, the characters in the show have excellent character designs and they have interesting and realistic personalities. the visuals in the show is stunning and put with effort just like any other anime you’d see.

Animation is quite good too,

All the realistic (yet quite exaggerated) expressions on the characters faces feels so real, they show so much raw emotions you’d feel quite terrified yet amused. oh well, and quite uncomfortable too. the only problem about Kakegurui is all of it is literally entirely wasted the only story plot in Kakegurui is repeated gambling.

All over and the same again, you got your unfair gambling bets, the characters break down and go crazy. But you’ll feel thrilled watching it. because I really think this show is made for one reason:

the thrill of it

anything else I like about the series is that Yumeko is a good and strong female lead. the thing is Kakegurui is two things; thrilling, exciting, and has good visuals the characters are also written well but that’s all in the first season. there are also quite a few moments in Kakegurui that makes me skip a few episodes though. the thing about Kakegurui is that it all went repeated and cliché not to mention it’s all weird as heck.

sure, the anime is meant to be “thrilling” but it’s kinda too-

I don’t know, too much?

if you’re the type of person who wants to see a bunch of people gambling and going full pshyco all over again. I’m pretty sure you’d enjoy it, if you’re the type of person who won’t like it then you won’t like it

the show is a pretty much Meh in my opinion, it’s kinda.. okay? but I surely won’t watch it again.

I would tell that it is worth watching but only once.

Understand people not judge them.

I know it’s the only things which we do all the time.we just judge them but cannot able to understand there perspective and way of perceiving things. It just that people don’t come out of themselves. That is why they forget people around them who all are very much important and valuable for them. This is the reason why people never understand each other. We have to come out of ourselves. It’s not that you will always be right or other person always be wrong. It’s just the matter of fact that we have to understand and take an opportunity to listen. And than speak if it is needed.

Noone will follow up this. As the first impression is the last impression. If you have make yourself a person who always do things improper than they will see you like that only. Even if you not done anything like that. Just because of small misunderstanding people use to broke their relationship. I know people are not good around us but simply blame and out spoke without any reason. Is not at all a right thing. Which we always do in our ego and judge them the way we want to. But what they are we are unknown with that fact. So try to see the other side of the situation because after that you will always be repent. This is the fact and people always go through this situation and never come out of it. Because of their ego they take a decision and know they don’t know how to apologise for the same.

I personally believe don’t make yourself force on people. Because you will never be appreciated by them even you do lot for them. You are special and if anyone don’t know how to respect or appreciate you. Than just move on. Because they are not capable of your love and support. Because if they never understand you than they could never feel your emotions. And value your importance in their life. We can just try to solve things. But if the other person is not ready to do the same. Than just move ahead. Because wasting your time there is your own loss. Only few people tackle and solve the problem. And rest are completely move on in their life. And the reason is they don’t want to solve or just remain in their ego. Every relationship start on understanding and trust if you don’t do that than its completely fine to rid of that relationship. Many try to solve but brutally fail in convincing. So it’s better to leave everything aside and focuss on yourself or other things which are more valuable than anything.

The Russia and Ukraine conflict: explained.


The Russia-Ukraine Border Conflict has been smouldering for over two months, with diplomatic efforts to address the matter showing little headway. Russia has over 100,000 troops stationed along its border with Ukraine, prompting Western predictions of an impending invasion. Meanwhile, NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg expressed worry that Russia will build up personnel numbers around Ukraine’s borders, especially in Belarus.


The Ukrainian border dispute began in November 2013 with protests in Kyiv over Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych’s decision to reject an agreement for closer economic integration with the European Union. President Yanukovych departed the nation in February 2014, after a harsh response by state security forces accidentally drew an even more significant number of protestors and intensified the crisis.

Russian soldiers seized control of Ukraine’s Crimean peninsula in March 2014 before legally annexing the peninsula after Crimeans decided to join the Russian Federation in a contentious local referendum. Russian President Vladimir Putin emphasised the importance of defending the rights of the Russian people and Russian speakers in Crimea and southeast Ukraine. The border war exacerbated ethnic tensions, and two months later, the pro-Russian sentiment was on the rise.

When a Malaysian Airlines aircraft was shot down over Ukrainian airspace in July 2014, the situation in Ukraine escalated into an international crisis, putting the United States and the European Union (EU) at odds with Russia.

Ukraine and the West accused Russia of providing troops and weapons to the insurgents, which Russia denied. On the other hand, Russia has sharply criticised the United States and NATO for supplying Ukraine with weaponry and conducting joint military exercises. President Putin, too, has expressed alarm over plans by certain NATO countries to create military training centres in Ukraine, which will allow military presence in the region even if Ukraine does not join NATO.

Russia stated in its security demands that it does not want Ukraine to be a member of NATO and wants all NATO drills along its borders to halt and the evacuation of NATO forces from Central and Eastern Europe. It should be mentioned that Ukraine’s accession to NATO would need the unanimous agreement of the NATO member states.

Furthermore, Russia regards Ukraine as a territory inside its “sphere of influence” rather than an independent state. However, the United States and NATO have rejected Russia’s requests. The West is backing Ukraine and has threatened Russia with financial repercussions if its forces march into Ukraine.


When the Soviet Union disintegrated in the early 1990s, Ukraine, a former Soviet country, held the world’s third-biggest nuclear arsenal. The US and Russia worked with Ukraine to de-nuclearize the nation, and in a series of diplomatic deals, Kyiv handed up hundreds of atomic weapons to Russia in exchange for security assurances that Russia would not attack it.

When Russia invaded Ukraine in 2014, such guarantees were tested. Russia seized the Crimean Peninsula and sponsored a separatist insurrection in the eastern Donbas area led by pro-Russian rebels. (Too far, the violence in east Ukraine has killed over 14,000 people.)On March 18, 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin and the Russian-installed leader of Crimea, Sergei Kasyanov, far right, attended a rally in Red Square in Moscow, Russia, following Putin’s annexation of Crimea from Ukraine

Russia’s offensive stemmed from widespread demonstrations in Ukraine that deposed the country’s pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych (partially over his abandonment of a trade agreement with the European Union). US officials visited the protests in symbolic acts that irritated Putin even more.

President Barack Obama, wary of further escalation of relations with Russia, was sluggish to assemble a diplomatic reaction in Europe and did not immediately deploy offensive weaponry to Ukrainians.


November 2021

Satellite footage indicates a massive build-up of Russian troops on Ukraine’s border, and Kyiv claims Moscow has mobilised 100,000 soldiers, tanks, and other military gear.

December 7, 2021

US Vice President Joe Biden has warned Russia that if it invades Ukraine, it will face severe economic consequences

December 17, 2021

Russia makes explicit security demands to the West, including the cessation of all NATO military activities in eastern Europe and Ukraine and the alliance’s refusal to admit Ukraine or other former Soviet republics as members.

January 3, 2022

Joe Biden promises Ukraine’s President Volodymyr Zelenskyy that the US will “act strongly if Russia invades Ukraine.”

January 10, 2022

Officials from the United States and Russia are meeting in Geneva for diplomatic talks, but tensions remain unsolved as Moscow reiterates security concerns that Washington refuses to accept.

January 24, 2022

NATO places soldiers on alert and strengthens its military presence in Eastern Europe with more ships and fighter planes. Some Western countries have begun removing non-essential diplomatic personnel from Kyiv. The United States deploys 8,500 troops on alert.

January 26, 2022

Washington issues a formal answer to Russia’s security requests, reiterating NATO’s “open-door” policy while providing a “principled and pragmatic assessment” of Moscow’s concerns.

January 27, 2022

Joe Biden predicts a Russian invasion in February. China lends its diplomatic weight to Russia, telling the United States that Moscow’s “legitimate security concerns” should be “considered seriously.”

January 28, 2022

Russian President Vladimir Putin claims that Russia’s primary security needs have not been met, but Moscow is willing to negotiate.

January 31, 2022

At a special private session of the UN Security Council, the United States and Russia dispute over the Ukraine situation.

February 1, 2022

Putin rejects any plans for an invasion and accuses the United States of disregarding his country’s security requests.

February 6, 2022

According to unidentified US sources reported in US media, Russia has completed 70% of the military preparations required to launch a full-scale invasion of Ukraine.

February 8, 2022

French President Emmanuel Macron meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow and promises reporters that Russia will not aggravate the Ukraine situation. On the other hand, the Kremlin denied that Macron and Putin reached an agreement to de-escalate the conflict. Dmitry Peskov, a Kremlin spokesperson, stated that “given the current environment, Moscow and Paris cannot make any agreements.”

February 10, 2022

In vain, foreign Secretary Liz Truss of the United Kingdom and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov meet.

February 11, 2022

According to Jake Sullivan, Biden’s national security advisor, US information indicates that a Russian invasion may begin within days before the Beijing Olympics conclude on February 20.

The United States and the United Kingdom have urged their people to flee Ukraine. President Biden announces the deployment of an additional 2,000 US soldiers to Poland.

February 12, 2022

Biden and Putin communicate via video conference. The US president stated that a Russian invasion of Ukraine would result in “widespread human misery” and that the West was dedicated to negotiation to settle the problem but was also “equally prepared for alternative possibilities.”

In the call, Putin complained that the US and NATO had not reacted adequately to Russian demands that Ukraine be barred from joining the military alliance and NATO withdraw.

February 17, 2022

Ukrainians rejected Moscow’s demands with a national display of flag-waving solidarity, as the US warned that Russia had deployed up to 7,000 troops near Ukraine’s borders, despite Kremlin declarations that forces were being withdrawn from the region.

February 18, 2022

While officials from the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization assured that communication was still possible, Russia expelled the United States’ second-highest diplomat in Moscow.

How can we learn and earn easily from internet.

Today we can learn things more easily and quickly. Than we use to learn with earlier pattern. Teaching is same but lifestyle and medium has changed everyone is taking advantage of the mediums. We can easily get to know many things. Even if you not studied that much. In today’s world most important things are skills than degree.If you have that skill you will get the job. And this all can be achieved by internet. People are dependent on gadgets. They will use it for their purpose but they do not use it in effective way. We have so many interesting things to do like Photoshop, editing tools, video editors, etc. Where you can learn so much. And can earn easily from that medium. Not only this there are many more things on internet which can help you to do something amazing and out of the box or what you want to explore as an individual. There are every type of option so that you can easily do so. We are educated and we can take a great advantage and this type of earning can also add a great value or experience which you will never do it in other ways. If you do than also you cannot achieve that Target.

If you see around you will find how many people are earning with the simple tool called internet. They just have to do there work with the help of internet. They all have achieved the success just watching and learning from the internet. Internet is vast so it has many things to do but we do not use it with full potential. If we know how to use and earn from the medium than everyone can achieve the target. We all are unknown with the fact. But all is our around just we have to focus on it and learn something which help you to earn. You have to find your skill which you can showcase and can earn out of it. It is very much easy only you need patience and time to understand the work process and if you get that than you will able to do that very easily. Learning and earning from same medium will take nothing only your skill and time. To gave away something which is in you but we’re unknown with the same. That can only be done when you explore more and find a thing related to your interest and fully focus on it. As only interest will not help you out. You have to work hard for the same.

I believe everyone has different talents and scope to do but people are very lazy. And other take advantage of it. If you make yourself active on social media and waste your entire day. Than you also be productive at the same time by learning and utilising your skill and earn out of it. Initially you will not get much but as you slowly move and achieve a target than you get a huge amount and you also get popularity and fame which will be a bonus. Connection will increase and your skill will reach out to many people. It’s the best way to come out as an individual. But even we have come a long way people still believe in the same process which they use to do for earning. Even people earn from their Money that is the power of internet. That you get to earn something. But we are still fear with the medium and loose all our hopes. Because we do not want to take any risk. But if you don’t take risk than how will you find your worth. That why we do not achieve our target because we do not have strengths to fight for it.

How jobless people find work in business ?

With job
Without job

As you can see the above picture which shows that when a person employed in the company. Than his work is different and when they got unemployed than his passion speaks for there work. And find other way to survive. So if you are jobless never mind. You can find a way in your other craft which is very much close to you and people also appreciate it. This will not only make you financial stable. But also you get the opportunity to do something creative and different from the earlier things. Which you might have been doing as passion. But know you get the chance to showcase it in front of people. Most of them would have been unknown about the same as you are.

I have seen a couple who was earlier employed in the company. But they was not satisfied with their jobs. So they find their work in those things which they liked the most and that thing was to make food. They were so innovative and creative in the work that they decided to quit their job. And open their own business as a food wender. So they first test on people whether they would liked it or not and the mission was successful. And they do what they said they leave their job and start up their own business. And it is really a successful experience and they love to serve people and enjoy cooking. Their unique talents gave them a different experience in the field of business. It was not at all easy for them to quit their jobs. But their passion towards their food is very much that they took the risk and played it well.

I feel everyone should follow up their dreams. And try to do something even you don’t have anything. Because you never know which thing will make your career in the field. We are very much unknown with our talents sometimes and think that what we are doing was great for our survival. But sometimes God gave you the opportunity to explore more in you as an individual. Because there is a alot which is hidden inside you. But you have to figure it out. only than you can come out of your comfort zone. And it is really important for you to find it as soon as possible. As it will gave you a great experience. You will learn more as an individual.



Women have faced enormous obstacles in their pursuit of opportunities to put themselves on an equal footing with men. Inequality between men and women was abundantly visible a quarter-century ago—in university courses, the workplace, and even in households. In many ways, the lives of women and girls throughout the world have improved considerably since then. Most people in most nations, wealthy and poor, go to school more, live longer, find better employment, and gain legal rights and protections.

However, significant gender disparities persist. Women and girls are more likely to die than men and boys in numerous low- and middle-income nations than in affluent countries. Almost everywhere, women earn less and are less economically productive than men. Women have fewer opportunities than males to control their lives and make decisions.

Closing gender disparities is essential for development and policymaking, according to the World Bank’s 2012 World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development. Greater gender equality can boost economic output, better development outcomes for future generations, and make institutions and policies more representative.

Why women’s role in the economy is critical

  • Economic empowerment is critical to achieving women’s rights and gender equality. Women’s economic empowerment includes the ability of women to participate equally in existing markets, access to and control over productive resources, access to decent work, control over their own time, lives, and bodies, and increased voice, agency, and meaningful participation in economic decision-making at all levels, from the household to international institutions.
  • Empowering women in the economy and closing gender gaps in the workplace is critical to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development [1] and the Sustainable Development Goals, particularly Goal 5, which promotes gender equality, and Goal 8, which supports full and productive employment and decent work for all; as well as Goal 1 on ending poverty and Goal 2 on food security.

Every aspect of gender equality—access to education and health, economic opportunities, and voice within households and society—has experienced a mixed pattern of change over the past quarter-century. In some areas, such as education, the gender gap has closed for almost all women; but progress has been slower for the poor and faces other disadvantages, such as ethnicity. In other areas, the opening has been slow to close—even among well-off women and countries that have otherwise developed rapidly.

The gender gap has closed in almost all countries in primary education, and it is shrinking quickly in secondary education. Indeed, girls now outnumber boys in secondary schools in nearly one-third of developing countries. There are more young women than men in universities in two-thirds of the countries for which there are data: women today represent 51 percent of the world’s university students (see Chart 1). Yet more than 35 million girls do not attend school in developing countries, compared with 31 million boys, and two-thirds of these girls are members of ethnic minorities.

Women have been living longer than males in all regions of the world since 1980. However, in all developing nations, women, and girls continue to die at a younger age than men and boys, compared to affluent ones. As a result of this “excess female mortality,” around 3.9 million girls and women under the age of 60 go “missing” in underdeveloped nations each year (see table). Two-fifths are never born, one-sixth die in infancy and more than one-third die within their reproductive years. Female mortality increases in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among women of reproductive age and in nations most impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  • Increasing women’s and girls’ educational attainment contributes to economic empowerment and more inclusive economic growth. Education, upskilling, and re-skilling over the life course – especially to keep pace with rapid technological and digital transformations affecting jobs—are critical for women’s and girls’ health and well-being and their income-generation opportunities and participation in participation in the formal labor market. Increased educational attainment accounts for about 50 percent of the economic growth in OECD countries over the past 50 years.[ But, for the majority of women, significant gains in education have not translated into better labor market outcomes.
  • Women’s economic equality is good for business. Companies greatly benefit from increased employment and leadership opportunities for women, which is shown to increase organizational effectiveness and growth. It is estimated that companies with three or more women in senior management functions score higher in all dimensions of organizational performance.

Gender equality and progress

Gender equality is vital in and of itself. Development is a process of increasing freedoms for all individuals, male and female (Sen, 2009). Closing the gender disparity in well-being is as important to development as lowering income poverty. Greater gender equality promotes economic efficiency and other development benefits. It accomplishes this in three significant ways:

  • First, with women currently accounting for 40% of the global workforce and more than half of all university students, total production will rise if their abilities and talents are adequately used. For example, if women farmers had equal access to productive resources like land and fertilizers as males, agricultural productivity in developing nations might increase. Eliminating obstacles to women working in specific industries or occupations might boost production by increasing women’s involvement and labour productivity by up to 25% in some countries through better allocation of their skills and ability).
  • Second, women’s increased control over household resources, whether through their earnings or monetary transfers, might improve countries’ economic prospects by shifting expenditure in favour of children. Evidence from Brazil, China, India, South Africa, and the United Kingdom suggests that when women control more household money, whether, through their employment or monetary transfers, children benefit from increased expenditure on food and education (World Bank, 2011).
  • lastly, it can make institutions more representative of a range of voices. In India, giving power to women at the local level led to the more excellent provision of public goods, such as water and sanitation, which mattered more to women (Beaman and others, 2011).

Gender disparities in legislation

Gender disparities in legislation influence both emerging and developed economies and women in all areas. Over 2.7 billion women worldwide are legally barred from having the same work options as males. Of the 189 economies reviewed in 2018, 104 still have laws prohibiting women from working in specified occupations, 59 have no laws prohibiting sexual harassment in the workplace, and husbands can legally restrict their wives from working in 18 economies. [8] Women continue to be less likely than males to engage in the world’s labor market. The labour force participation rate for women aged 25-54 is 63%, compared to 94% for males. [9] In 2018, when younger (aged 15 and up) and older (aged 55 and up) women are included,

Policy factors

To achieve gender equality, policymakers must prioritise the following actions: reducing the excess mortality of girls and women; eliminating remaining gender disadvantages in education; increasing women’s access to economic opportunity and thus earnings and productivity; providing women with an equal voice in households and societies; and limiting the transmission of gender inequality across generations.

To minimise the excess mortality of girls and women, attention must be paid to the underlying reasons at each age. Given girls’ increased sensitivity (compared to boys’) to waterborne infectious illnesses in infancy and early childhood, increasing water supply and sanitation, as Vietnam has done, is critical to lowering excess female mortality in this age range (World Bank, 2011) and improving access to health care for the underserved.

Broader access to antiretroviral medications and lowering the frequency of new infections must be prioritised in Sub-Saharan Africa’s worst afflicted areas by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. To offset sex-selective abortions, which result in fewer female births, particularly in China and northern India, the societal worth of girls must be increased, as Korea has done.

Barriers to access due to poverty, race, or location must be removed to close education inequalities in nations where they exist. More schools in remote locations, for example, can help to close the gender gap in areas where distance is a major issue (such as rural districts of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan). When tailored solutions are difficult to execute or too expensive, demand-side interventions, such as cash transfers tied to school attendance might be used. Such conditional financial transfers have been successful in raising females’ enrollment rates in nations ranging from Mexico to Turkey to Pakistan (World Bank, 2011)


A mix of measures is required to increase women’s access to economic opportunity, hence lowering the male-female inequality in incomes and economic production. Solutions include freeing up women’s time so they can work outside the home, such as through subsidised child care in Colombia; improving women’s credit access, such as in Bangladesh; and ensuring access to productive resources, particularly land, as in Ethiopia, where joint land titles are now granted to wives and husbands. Addressing a lack of knowledge on women’s productivity in the workplace and reducing institutional prejudices against women, such as instituting quotas that favour women or job placement programmes,  as in Jordan, will also open up economic opportunities to women.

Bappi Lahiri is no more.

It was a shock for everyone as Bappi Lahiri was know as a great singer. But more than that he was famous for his gold jewellery which they wore. But on Tuesday he was died. He was in the hospital for his treatment for a month. But on Monday he was discharged. But his condition was not well on Tuesday. He was taken to the hospital. He was suffering from many health issues which the doctor find. The cause of his death was obstructive sleep apnea.

Health issues are also increasing and many people are dieing. Even lata mangeshkar was also died because of health issues. We have to be careful with the things as COVID still is our part. And we have to fight from it only after when we take care of our healths. Because it is necessary to be careful for each and everything. Hope we will cover this part and move ahead with positive sign.

I feel people are taking things lightly. But the things are still critical. So we have to be safe when we are around People as it is for our safety only. And we can only protect us when we follow the precautions. Mask and sanitizer are must. We have to make distance as much as possible. And contact less. Because all we have to safe ourselves from others. Take required diet and medicine if required. If you feel ill or cough frequently so take a test and corintine yourself. Wash you hands whenever you make a contact. These small things are very much needed. And will play a wide role in decreasing the cases. The amount is good we can see how we are getting a positive side of this after a very long time.

Mysterious death of deep sidhu ?

On Tuesday a known Punjabi actor deep sidhu was died in a car accident. He was with his American friend and the driver. They were on the way and the car was moving in the speed of 100 to 110 and it hit by a truck. The people who were ther are saying that it is an accident but deep sidhu friends are not convinced as they think that it’s a planned murder. As the car was not found on the exact location. If all is accident than why the car is not there at the location. Yusuf was the person who saw the accident as he was also driving at a speed of 80. And he was the one who saw the accident and help them out he firstly took the friend out of the car. Than he could not able to manage to get out deep sidhu alone so he brings more person for help than 10 people take him out. Than they don’t know the no of ambulance. So they try at the no 112. And tell about the accident an ambulance come and after that police was also called. They took the friend statement she told that she landed today only and when the accident happened she was sleeping. Police also find the licker bottle half empty so all the case is grounded that deep sidhu drink licker. But the family is not believing know police is in the wait of postmortem and than they will get to know whether he was drinking or not.

You can imagine how prominent personalities are dragged in the mysterious death as you had seen in the sushant and many more actor who’s deaths are still a mystery till today. Why only they are targeted. The lifestyle we think these celebrities have their is also the chances of more threat and loneliness. Because these incidents are so common that everyone is in shock why these things are happening whith them only. The reasons are many but what exactly is no one knows as we know the industry. And every entertainment industry is not only involved in the matter but polititions are also not less they all have their plans to take advantage and use their money and power and killing people.

I personally don’t know who he is or what all scam he has done. Which case he was involved. He was hiding with the police and who want to take advantage of the right time to execute their task. But I can say something fishy and big is their in all the matter. Because stories are different but the mystery is same. They know how to close the chapter but they don’t know who all are involved. Just because they have that power. But can you imagine the families which go through a lot of mental and society pressure. They even don’t know how their member is dead. This is all a big game so we should stay away from it. Because this is happening from the Years but media do not highlights much that time. Know media has power and highlight all the news easily. And also gain money from the news directly or indirectly. So these are name game. All we need to stay away as an individual. Because as we go more and more inside the game.we see only dark side and we cannot be negative all the time so stay positive and do well.

Advantages and disadvantages of of living in a tree house.

Tree house

As growing up I always wanted to get away from the city areas and live in some place which is quiet and less clustered. As kids have different imaginations like some wanted to live in a jungle and some of them wanted to live in a magical place far away. but as a kid I always wanted to live in a magical place far away. but as a kid I always wanted to live in a tree house.

In the embracement of trees and chirping birds. I wanted to build a tree house with a lot of books. when we move ahead in the world everything has its own advantages and disadvantages. some of the disadvantages of living in a tree house are as follows.

mostly people who wanted to live in an isolation always wanted to go and live in a tree. so one might feel loneliness there would be network issue he/she won’t be able to get news from the outside world.

It is a tree house so there will be issues with the bugs and spiders.

Several trees go up in flames. it could be a disadvantage for eg: amazon fire

now, lets move on to the advantages:

first of all, we would be able to connect with nature.

nowadays people are always on phone so this could be an escape route and be one with nature.

Tree houses can be build at a cheap prices and it can be made moveable and customizable.

Pronam to Great Sant Ravidas Ji: Birthday Tribute

From time to time, many great saints were born in India. One of them is Sant/Saint Ravidas, also called Raidas, (flourished 15th or 16th Century), a spiritual poet and a great saint and popularly known as Sant Ravidas. Sant Ravidas ji was one of the most renowned saints of the Indian Bhakti movement.
It is believed that Guru Ravidas Ji was born on the Magh Purnima day on Sunday in the year 1433 in Kashi present Varanasi in a so-called ‘untouchable leather-working caste’, but his knowledge, wisdom, spiritual development, and humanitarian activities were at the zenith which cannot be compared with many other-caste persons. Undoubtedly, Sant was endowed with the pure and holy soul as he had proved by caste one cannot be great.
Many researchers believe that Sant met Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the founder of Sikhism, and altogether 41 of Guru Ravidas Ji’s poems were included in the Adi Granth.
Sant Ravidas ji was a prominent figure in the bhakti movement and a renowned poet of the Nirgun Bhakti tradition that valued the worship of a formless God. In this context, two foreign researchers who have carried out an extensive study on Sant Ravidas Ji’s activities may be mentioned. One is Dr. Winand Callewaert and another one is Dr. Peter Friedlander as both have published many books and articles on Sant. They have translated his songs also. One is presenting here. It may be mentioned that Prof Dr. Winand Callewaert was a scholar in Sanskrit (studied in India) and taught this subject in foreign countries. He has published many books and articles in English, Dutch and Hindi. Another scholar Dr. Peter Friedlander lived in India from 1977-1982 and learned Hindi in Varanasi. He then studied at SOAS London University and completed his Ph.D. on the life and works of Saint Ravidas in 1991. The following is a popular verse from Saint Ravidas, translated by Dr. Winand Callewaert and Dr. Peter Friedlander,
“Raidas says, what shall I sing?
Singing, singing I am defeated.
How long shall I consider and proclaim:
absorb the self into the Self?
This experience is such,
that it defies all description.
I have met the Lord,
Who can cause me harm?
Hari in everything, everything in Hari –
For him who knows Hari and the sense of self,
no other testimony is needed:
the knower is absorbed”.
(Hari here refers to God who takes away all the sorrows of his devotees).
Sant Ravidas Ji was against the caste system and in his poetry, questioned caste hegemony, valued labour of all sorts, as well as a life of simplicity and morality. He initiated dialogues with then upper-caste Hindus about caste, social justice, love, and forms of worship. He spread the message that “God created man and not man created God”, which means everyone is created by God and has equal rights on this earth. This theory in the present days no one can deny as all human beings have equal rights. It is believed that because of his wisdom, in-depth spiritual knowledge, and discourse many persons of all castes including the King and Queen of Chittoor presently in Rajasthan were his followers.
In Sant Ravidas Ji’s name, a temple has been constructed in his hometown, where Sant is worshipped every day. His songs are recited every morning and evening in the temple. His birthday is celebrated every year on Magh Purnima day. This year it has fallen on 16 February 2022.
Although Guru Ravidas Ji has passed away long ago he will be in the hearts of millions for his spiritual, devotional, and humanitarian activities generations after generations. I offer my respectful Pronam to the Great Soul, Saint, and Guru on his birth anniversary.

Vaccine bonanza: The magic behind and various kinds

What are vaccines?

Vaccines are classified into several categories, however they all act on the same premise. This is done to prime the immune system to recognise a pathogen (a disease-causing organism) or a component of a pathogen. If the immune system is educated to recognise this, the pathogen will be expelled from the body if it is subsequently exposed to it. The immune system recognises foreign ‘antigens,’ which are pathogen elements on the surface or inside the pathogen that are not ordinarily found in the body. To create protection, the earliest human vaccines against viruses used weakened or attenuated viruses. Cowpox was included in the smallpox vaccine because it was similar enough to smallpox to protect against it but did not generally cause major sickness. Rabies was the first virus to be attenuated in a lab and used to develop a vaccine for people.

Types of vaccines

Whole virus vaccines

Vaccines Topics Four images working 02

1) Viral Vectored Vaccines

Unlike most traditional vaccinations, viral vector-based vaccines do not include antigens but instead employ the body’s own cells to manufacture them. They accomplish this by delivering genetic code for antigen, in this case COVID-19 spike proteins present on the virus’s surface, into human cells via a modified virus (the vector). The vaccine simulates what happens during natural infection with some pathogens, particularly viruses, by infecting cells and commanding them to produce huge amounts of antigen, which then triggers an immune response. This has the benefit of inducing a significant cellular immunological response by T cells as well as antibody production by B cells. The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine against Ebola is an example of a viral vector vaccine.


  • Technology that is well-established
  • A powerful immunological reaction
  • B and T cells are involved in the immune response.


  • Prior exposure to the vector may limit its efficacy.
  • Manufacturing is rather difficult.
  • Replicating

When utilised as a vaccine delivery platform, replicating viral vectors maintain the potential to generate new viral particles in addition to delivering the vaccination antigen. As with live attenuated entire pathogen vaccinations, this has the natural benefit of providing a continuous source of vaccine antigen over a prolonged length of time compared to non-replicating vaccines, and hence is likely to induce a higher immune response. A single vaccination may be sufficient to provide protection. Replicating viral vectors are often chosen such that the viruses themselves are innocuous or attenuated, so that they cannot cause illness while infecting the host


During the process of delivering the vaccination antigen to the cell, non-replicating viral vectors lose their ability to generate new viral particles. This is due to the removal of crucial viral gene that allow the virus to proliferate in the lab. This has the advantage of preventing illness and reducing unpleasant outcomes associated with viral vector proliferation. However, vaccine antigen can only be generated when the first vaccination is still present in infected cells (a few days). 

VACCINE which used viral vector technique: astra Zeneca and johnson and johnson

 2) inactivated Vaccine

The first step in creating a vaccine is to inactivate or kill the disease-carrying virus or bacteria, or one that is substantially similar to it, using chemicals, heat, or radiation. This strategy employs technology that has been shown to be effective in humans – this is how flu and polio vaccinations are produced – and vaccines can be produced on a reasonable scale. However, it takes sophisticated laboratory equipment to safely cultivate the virus or bacteria, can take a relatively lengthy time to produce, and will almost certainly require two or three doses to be delivered.

example is India’s covaxin

3) Vaccine with live attenuation

A live-attenuated vaccine employs an alive but weakened form of the virus, or one that is extremely close to it. This type of vaccination includes the (MMR) vaccine as well as the chickenpox and shingles vaccine. This method, like the inactivated vaccine, employs comparable technology and can be produced on a large scale. However, such vaccinations may not be appropriate for those with impaired immune systems.

4) Subunit vaccines

Vaccines Topics Four images working 03

Subunit vaccines include purified fragments of a pathogen that have been particularly chosen for their capacity to activate immune cells rather than injecting the entire pathogen to elicit an immune response. Subunit vaccinations are regarded extremely safe since these pieces are incapable of producing illness.

There are various varieties: Polysaccharide vaccines comprise sequences of sugar molecules present in the cell walls of some bacteria; conjugate subunit vaccines attach a polysaccharide chain to a carrier protein to try to increase the immune response. Other subunit vaccinations are already being used widely. The hepatitis B and acellular pertussis vaccines, the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and the MenACWY vaccine (polysaccharides are examples

Vaccines based on Recombinant Proteins

Recombinant vaccines are created by employing bacterial or yeast cells to produce the vaccine. A little bit of DNA from the virus or bacteria that we wish to preserve is extracted and put into the producing cells. To manufacture the hepatitis B vaccine, for example, a portion of the hepatitis B virus’s DNA is incorporated into the DNA of yeast cells. These yeast cells may then manufacture one of the hepatitis B virus’s surface proteins, which is purified and utilised as the active element in the vaccine. These polysaccharides or proteins are known as antigens because they are recognised as ‘foreign’ by our immune system.

Even if the vaccine only contains a few of the thousands of proteins found in a bacteria, they are sufficient to elicit an immune response that can protect against the disease.

Toxoid vaccines

When some bacteria assault the body, they release toxins (poisonous proteins), and it is the toxins, not the germs, that we wish to be protected against. The immune system recognises these toxins in the same way that it recognises other antigens on the bacteria’s surface and can develop an immunological response to them. Inactivated forms of these toxins are used in several vaccinations. Toxoids are so-called because they resemble toxins but are not harmful. They elicit a powerful immunological response.

vaccines which use protein subunits are novovax


  • Technology that is well-established
  • Appropriate for persons with weakened immune system
  • no living components, there is no possibility of the vaccination causing illness.
  • stable


  • Manufacturing is rather difficult.
  • It is possible that adjuvants and booster injections will be necessary.
  • It takes time to find the ideal antigen mix.

5) Nucleic acid vaccines

Nucleic acid vaccines employ genetic material from a pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria, to induce an immune response against it. Depending on the vaccination, the genetic material might be DNA or RNA; in all cases, it offers instructions for producing a specific pathogen protein that the immune system will recognize as alien (an antigen). When this genetic information is injected into host cells, it is read by the cell’s own protein-making machinery and utilised to produce antigens, which subsequently activate an immune response.

Vaccines Topics Four images working 05 DNA RNA v2


  • immune response involves B cells and T cells
  • No live components, so no risk of the vaccine triggering disease
  • Relatively easy to manufacture


  • Some RNA vaccines require ultra-cold storage
  • Never been licensed in humans
  • Booster shots may be required

RNA vaccines

mRNA (messenger RNA) is used inside a lipid (fat) membrane in RNA vaccinations. This fatty coating both protects the mRNA when it initially enters the body and assists it in entering cells by bonding with the cell membrane. Once within the cell, machinery inside the cell converts the mRNA into the antigen protein. This mRNA normally lasts a few days, but enough antigen is produced during that period to induce an immunological response. The body then naturally breaks it down and eliminates it. RNA vaccines do not have the ability to combine with the human genetic code (DNA).

RNA vaccines are used in both the Pfizer BioNTech and the Moderna .

DNA vaccines

Because DNA is more stable than mRNA, it does not require the same level of protection at the start. DNA vaccines are often delivered via an electroporation approach. This method employs low-level electrical waves to allow the DNA vaccination to be absorbed by the body’s cells. Before DNA can be translated into protein antigens that elicit an immune response, it must first be translated to mRNA within the cell nucleus. There are presently no licenced DNA vaccines, although many are in the works.

how to start your own start up

start up is all depends on our choices and desires. As what we want to do and how we will reach out to our goals and this all has been in my mind everytime I thought. I use to think about it but no one actually believe it. But today you all have to believe as I have a real story of a girl who started her Start up as the way I explained to you all. But in a interesting and relatable manner. You will find it very beneficial because I also find it difficult to put the first step out. But her story make me realise that all is around us. We just have see and go with the flow destiny will take you to the roller coaster ride. Which you never imagined. It all depends on your art and work.

So she is a girl who was very shy when she a small kid. But suddenly a span of time she changed and know she is chatterbox. Her choices changes as she grow but still she don’t know exactly what she want to do. She was good in drawing. She hates maths as she score always less marks in it. She also don’t like science because of a incident happened in the school where she have to make the sprouts of the seed but she all mixed up and she could not get a single sprout but she managed to get them from her classmates. But from there she loose hopes in science.she thought to become drawing teacher as it is the simplest job but than she realised that the salary is very less and she could not manage in that. She also thought of doing journalism as her father was fond of anchor but than she realised we have to first write script. She wants to take arts as she take interest in it but unfortunately she has to take commerce she managed to pass but she want to do arts so she took an admission in ba for college and studied.

But she want to do something creative in the free time after study so she started making videos which was she performed earlier as well in school and home. And always appreciated. But it doesn’t affect her as she thought it’s normal. So as a fun and interest she just make videos and upload it. And process was repeated. Till when her one video gets viral and it spread all in the college and the family. Than she realised that her followers have increased and loved her performance. Than also she was just want to cross 10k for the button. And slowly and gradually the number increases as she started uploading on a regular bases. And one day she got an offer for show. Firstly she don’t convince but than she realised it’s real. And she move to Mumbai and do the show from their her contact increase. She got one more show. But it is not an end. The journey is much more a 20 year old girl who actually don’t think what to do she atlast thought that she will become a banker because her mom wish. But her talent reach her out in the different platforms where she never thought that she could earn as well. So never ever do what people say or the things you don’t want to do just listen to your desire and passion your destiny will take you toward your dreams. To start something is very difficulty but when you achieve something out of it you will realise it’s worth.

Role of media in modern world

The importance and also the impact of the media, written or electronic can not be marginalized within the world of today. within the modern times of quick communication and data, media plays a hugely crucial role.

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The original role of the media was and still is to relinquish the general public all relevant information about occurrences within the country and therefore the world. Now the written media includes a bunch of publications, dailies, fortnightly, weeklies, monthly all giving information about events with the supplement of suggestions and comments by learned people. Today, the medium has acquired such proportions that, there’s absolutely no avenue of data or information that’s not noted. Multifarious avenues are being touched upon, whether it local, national, or international. All avenues of stories, business, health, sports, films, and entertainment are being dwelt upon at great length. the nice advantage of this media is spreading news, knowledge, and knowledge through the length and breadth of the globe. In nowadays of awareness, even the remotest of villages of India get a minimum of one newspaper daily in their local language. This keeps them informed of the newest news and happenings of the globe. Moreover, written media is that the cheapest medium of collecting all important information of the district, city, country, and everyone on the planet. We can see how Huhle Media is playing its role in modern world.

Next in importance come the electronic media, ie. the radio and therefore the television. I call it second to the medium because it’s dearer and then, less common in far-flung areas of the country. With ever many channels on the radio and also the television, there’s no information that’s left untouched. This media specially caters more to urban areas because it is costlier to shop for and than to take care of.

Thus, the media, whatever or not it’s print or electronic media, its importance a minimum of within the present can’t be denigrated. While we are sitting in our drawing room reception, we will get all the knowledge of all happenings around the world. We get a sea of data and every one the data, relaxing reception.

So much so good, but, what we notice today, with the liberty of the press taking new proportions, the media is becoming slightly out of control and also partial. the newest trend within the media is that it’s tainted with the signs of utmost partiality.  To some extent, media is occasionally overstepping its limits and missing its freedom. the duty of the media is simply to administer the information of what happens and to not add its won partial views to the data. the work of the media should remain restricted only to reporting facts on when and the way they occur and leave the readers to create their own opinions. However, this is often no more true of the trendy trends of the media. They get news and print them as per their own personal learnings and beliefs. This I’d say isn’t correct reporting because it is probably going to paint the views of the readers or viewers. The task of the media is simply to report and not color the views of the people.

It would be good if the media restricts itself only to passing on correct and exact information, with no comments for and against any organization it’d be doing its job correctly and sincerely.  and also during this corona period, creating awareness furthermore as spreading more positivity is far needed in today’s world.


Intra-family marriages are the leading cause of uncommon genetic diseases. Intra-family marriages are far too numerous, and first-cousin marriages have a higher risk of hereditary disorders.

When close intra-family marriages occur, more than 100 ailments are passed down down the generations. Marriages between cousins are far too common, both culturally and historically, and these disorders are passed down through the generations. Around 70% of marriages are cousin or consanguineous marriages, and hundreds of cases of genetic diseases are reported each year.

Although Islam, the state’s predominant religion, does not prevent people from marrying outside of their family or caste, many families prefer to marry within their own families due to illiteracy and caste difficulties. Because of their ignorant brains, dangerous infections are permitted to spread to newborns, which is considered criminal neglect.

Doctors recommend that every couple have a genetic test before getting married because deficits are stored in particular compartments of body cells. The material that builds up in each lysosome expands and takes up a lot of room in the cell, causing a slew of other issues with cellular function, which is how illnesses spread.


According to experts, if these disorders are handed down to a child, the child would develop abnormalities. This can include mental abnormalities or organ enlargement, both of which might cause a kid to die from a serious health issue.

More than 70% of all marriages are between members of the same family. This custom is observed as if it were a religious obligation, but it is not. The predominance of Thalassemia, a blood condition, in the country is a major result of this custom. Blood transfusions and iron chelation are two options for treatment.

In a recent interview, a doctor stated that if one parent contains a gene for an illness, the condition does not transmit to the child.

However, if both parents have the same condition, which is common in intra-family marriages, the defective genes are likely to be handed down to the child.

More than 50 children have perished in recent years as a result of genetic abnormalities that have arisen from first-cousin marriages. Three brothers were admitted to a hospital last year for treatment of a handicap. It was discovered that their family members were quite superstitious and did not approve of outside-the-family weddings. The three boys were born healthy but developed a handicap later in life.

Government funds should be set aside to study genetic problems caused by intra-family marriages.

Doctors believe that more people should be informed of the consequences of marriages within families. First-cousin weddings should be prohibited since they cause a slew of ailments that are destructive to the next generation’s future. The government is being urged to take action on this critical subject, and everyone should be able to pick their life partners outside of the family.

“As children, our cousins are frequently our first friends. Even if you haven’t spoken in a long time, no one will ever understand your eccentric family like your cousins.”

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Artificial Intelligence in Japan

Artificial Intelligence, or AI, is used in our daily lives for things like navigation and automatically setting your alarm clock on workdays. Artificial intelligence is one of the most rapidly developing disciplines of technology worldwide. AI is a type of technology that combines computer intelligence with the ability to think like a human to analyse data and make predictions, recommendations, and judgments. It’s a collection of technologies, algorithms, and methods. Since 2016, AI has seen a significant shift in public attitude, with people becoming more accepting of the technology.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is exploding all over the world, particularly in Japan. With AI as one of its key components, Japan has achieved a major place in the high-tech sector. Japan intends to create the society of the future by devising a long-term strategy based on the new prospects that high-tech breakthroughs present. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a vital technology that allows for the processing of large volumes of data and the smooth translation of that data back to human users.

The Artificial Intelligence Industry in Japan
For the longest time, AI in Japan has mostly concentrated on robots as sub-domains of artificial intelligence, with AI being developed in particular in the fields of technology and medical.

According to the Nomura Research Institute, Artificial Intelligence in Japan is on the verge of exploding, with AI robots performing half of all professions in Japan by 2035. While the Japanese AI market has been focusing on robotics, other companies across the world have been focusing on software development, which is an area of opportunity for foreign companies trying to enter the Japanese AI market.

Japan’s AI Ecosystem

In Japan’s AI field, there isn’t just one sort of area that is the most important or dominant, but rather a collaboration of areas such as public, private, and research domains that are all interconnected.

The private sector, the public sector, and research facilities are the three types of areas. These three categories are interconnected, and the division between them is constructed in a highly schematic manner. As a result, the categorization into three sorts of zones is merely a simplification of the reality.

Japan’s cutting-edge AI firms
When it comes to the AI market in Japan, there are around 300 businesses. Large competitive organisations, small to mid-sized businesses, and start-ups are among them. The following are some of the significant businesses:

NEC, based in Tokyo, is a global leader in the integration of IT and network technologies, with a long history of AI research dating back to the 1980s.

NEC delivers sensors, computation, networking, and analysis to help society with technology solutions. Their active data solutions are capable of anticipating, monitoring, and resolving problems, as well as intelligently responding to bad situations.


This Japanese company is a start-up that uses artificial intelligence. It was launched in Tokyo in 2012, and it has since assisted over 150 organisations in implementing AI in a variety of industries, including manufacturing, infrastructure, logistics, and retail. Machine learning and deep learning, as well as retail shop analysis, are their key areas of focus.

Tokyo, Paris, London, San Francisco, Boston, Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Singapore, Seoul, and Sydney are among its offices. SoftBank Robotics currently has over 35,000 robots in use in over 70 countries, with new applications in retail, tourism, healthcare, finance, education, facilities management, and cleaning.

Japan has devised a strategy for creating a future civilization that incorporates AI into practically every area of daily life. The reason for its rapid growth is that Japan’s home welcoming environment for new AI approaches is founded on collaboration between the Japanese government, the business sector, and, of course, their know-how.As a result, AI will be critical in transforming the information society into the society of the future, also known in Japan as Society 5.0, which is defined as “a human-centered society that balances economic advancement with the resolution of social problems through a system that highly integrates cyberspace and physical space.”

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Father’s Day 2021

“It was my father who instilled in me a sense of self-worth.” Dawn French –

A father is the child’s male parent. Fathers may have a parental, legal, and social relationship with their children, which comes with its own set of benefits and duties.


An improved father-child relationship may contribute to a child’s social security, academic performance, and other factors. Their children may also have better problem-solving abilities. Children who are typically raised by fathers perceive themselves to be more cognitively and physically acceptable than their classmates who are not reared by fathers. Mothers who raised their children with a father had fewer disputes with their children.


Internal events and behaviours can influence fatherhood as a legal identity.

“Anyone may be a parent, but only a special person can be a father, which is why I refer to you as dad since you are so important to me. You showed me how to play the game and how to play it correctly.” Wade Boggs (Wade Boggs)

Even if your father says he doesn’t want any gifts, you know it’s impossible for you to not give him something on such a wonderful occasion. After all, he’s the guy you’ve looked up to your entire life, so it’s only right to purchase him a Father’s Day present that reflects how much you appreciate everything he does for you. It’s challenging to choose the perfect present for your father.

So, here’s a list of present suggestions:

-Fragrances and perfumes
-Cakes and Chocolates
-Wallets, Belts, and Sunglasses 
-Shirts and T-shirts 
-Customized Mugs
-Diary -Grooming kit

Fathers’ Role


As previously stated, anyone can father a child, but it takes a lifetime to be a father. Fathers can play a unique role in the lives of their children that no one else can. This job can have a significant impact on a child’s development and help form him or her into the person they become.

Fathers, like mothers, can make a significant difference in a child’s mental well-being. Children look up to their fathers for a sense of security, both physically and emotionally. Children want to be proud of their parents.

When fathers are extremely loving and helpful, their children’s cognitive and communicative development is greatly enhanced. It also gives you a general feeling of well-being and self-assurance.

Fathers shape not only who we are on the inside, but also how we interact with others as we grow up. What a father looks for in other people is determined by how he approaches his child. The patterns that a father establishes in his interactions with his children will influence how his children interact with others.

For security and emotional aid, girls rely on their fathers. A father demonstrates to his daughter what it’s like to have a terrific connection with a man.

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Biography of a business woman kalpana saroj

An inspirational woman kalpana saroj is the ladie. Who has earn her reputation and self respect. Which she might loose because of her past incidents. As she was a dalit and belongs to a very poor family. Where she was not allowed to study. As she was a girl child and even she got married so yearly at the age of 12. The problem still not end. It was the start her struggle was much more. She was trapped in domestic violence where her in-laws brutally beats her. For small things and blame her family for her condition. But her father come out as a saviour who understand and save her from her in laws. But that was not the end. Society blame his father and her for the things as their noms are against what they did. But her father wanted her to continue her studies but society did not allowed her for such act because it was restricted because she is a girl.

Is being a girl is a crime? Than why always society want the woman to be like what they want them to be. They are very much strong and independent that they can able to survive on their own. And this the spirit which kalpana saroj got when she realised that she have to live she cannot die just because of the society pressure. She have to prove them wrong and bring her self in front of people as a worrier. So she thought to shift to Mumbai. When she reach their she started working in a mill and from their her journey started she earn 2 ruppes a day and 60 in a month. Than she decided to start her own business so she took a loan. And build a boutique. And also employees people who need the job for the living. Than she also gave away building of the person who have been claiming their rights on them. She also become a brocker. But as she was a woman many people do not like it and try to step her down. And also trying to kill her. But she got to know their actions before hand and she complaint it to police officer. And they arrested them. They try to gave her protection. But she refused. Instead she requested to gave her lisence for revolver so that she could handle herself. And they do the same.

And know she is a entrepreneur who actually self-made woman and know she is the owner of 2000 crore empire which she has made own her own. By finding her way out from a dark phase to a good communicator who was not educated. She is just 9 grade pass after than she could not continue her studies. But still she becomes a queen of business. Me and you can also do the same just we need that passion and craze for the work than we can also become a personality which we desire for just focus and believe in yourself rest is destiny. And your work will speak for yourself. As your work will only bring your image in front of people.

Anime Review on ‘DORORO’

Hykkimaru & Dororo

I recently started watching anime shows so some of my friends suggested me to watch this anime called dororo. So I started watching it. After watching it completely I must tell you that it is a must watch anime show. So lets talk about the review of the anime called dororo.

Dororo anime was considered a 26 episode anime released in the year 1969. Then it was adapted into the manga and years later it was remade as ‘Dororo 2021’. So the version which I watched was of the 2021. Dororo was a 24 episode anime produced by the mappa productions and tezuka production aired in the year 2019.

So the story of dororo is considered to be a journey of a guy called hykkimaru in search of his body parts with a child named dororo. The story revolves around a king and his land facing famine. So the king keeps an offer with the devil so that his land could flourish again. Devil agrees and tells the king to sacrifice his own son. The king agrees to sacrifice his new born son to devil and the wicked devil takes away the body parts of the new born baby called hykkimaru.

Hykkimaru was left alive without any internal organs in his body. He was blind, deaf, mute and without hands and legs. So hykkimaru wore prosthetic body parts where two swords are attached to his hands so that he can slain the demons and recapture each body parts. In this journey he meets dororo. They together travel and slain the demons.

It is a must watch anime you will really like it. Its emotional as well because some scenes can make you cry and some can make you smile. According to me it’s a must watch anime.

written by, kris katelin

BRAIN DRAIN IN INDIA: the phenomenon.

What is brain drain?

The movement of educated people from one nation to another is known as brain drain.

When human resources leave their home nation to work in industrialised countries such as Europe, North America, and Australia, this is referred to as primary external brain drain.

Secondary external brain drain happens when human resources leave their home nation to work in another location.

Internal brain drain happens when human resources are not employed in their fields of competence in their home nation, or when human resources transfer from the public to private sectors or within a sector.

According to the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), over six lakh Indians have abandoned their citizenship in the last five years. Up till September 30, 2021, around 1,11,287 Indians had renounced their citizenship. Except for the 2008 financial crisis and in 2020-21 owing to Covid-19-related travel limitations, there has been a constant emigration of Indians during the last two decades. India has emerged as a significant exporter of healthcare personnel to industrialised countries, notably the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, Europe, and other English-speaking countries. According to OECD data, around 69,000 Indian-trained doctors worked in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia in 2017. In the same year, 56,000 Indian-trained nurses worked in these four nations. As a result, there is a large-scale exodus of Indian health personnel.

Recently, a considerable number of High-Net-Worth Individuals (HNWIs) have begun to relocate abroad. According to a Morgan Stanley bank analysis from 2018, 23,000 Indian billionaires have fled India since 2014. According to a recent Global Wealth Migration Review study, approximately 7,000 millionaires, or 2% of the total number of HNWIs in India, departed the nation in 2019, costing the country billions in lost tax income. Furthermore, the growing “brain drain” problem has resulted in an exodus of talented workers and professionals. According to a study published in Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, a peer-reviewed orthopedic magazine, around 30% of physicians in the National Health Services in England are of Indian heritage.

In 5 years, 5 lakh Indians gave up citizenship - Times of India

Why are Indians moving abroad?

Indian expertise, language aptitude, and a higher level of education are just a few of the draws for nations that have relaxed immigration policies in order to recruit talent. As possibilities grow increasingly rare in India, other nations are becoming more aware of the multi-talented Indian engineers, surgeons, and scientists who also speak English.

The reasons for this brain drain can be substantiated into a few key categories-

Factors that contribute to brain drain include:

  • Inadequate access to higher education: Access to higher education in India is becoming increasingly difficult due to rising cut-offs and a plethora of competitive exams. In terms of abilities and knowledge, they have an advantage over students from other nations when studying abroad. According to a study by news station WION, more than half of the top scorers in the 10th and 12th board examinations between 1996 and 2015 – the finest Indian brains – went overseas and are still employed there. In the Budget 2019-20, India committed Rs 6.43 lakh crore of public funding to education, a portion of which was used to subsidise the studies of talented emigrant Indians.
  • In this sense, investment in the Indian educational system indirectly helps to the advancement of other countries. “Padhega India, Badhega America!” is a famous social media meme that puts a hilarious spin on this underappreciated topic.
  • Lack of financial support for research: For years, India’s Gross Domestic Spending on Research has remained constant at 0.7 percent of GDP. Among the BRICS countries, India has one of the lowest GERD/GDP ratios. As a result, R&D experts tend to relocate to other nations to continue their research. In February 2020, the government said, “Out of total 103 senior research associateships awarded by the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research in 2019, 28 per cent (29) were awarded to young Indian researchers who had been working abroad.”
  • Lower-income: Developed countries pay higher wages in fields such as health care, research, and information technology. One of the primary reasons for departure from India is a lack of income.
  • Non-recognition of talents: In a population this huge, and with norms favouring the glamour world over academic aptitude, the odds of getting acknowledged in one’s specialty are slim; bright minds choose foreign nations where their work is better valued.
In 5 years, 5 lakh Indians gave up citizenship - Times of India

Why does brain drain happen?

  • Superior living standards: The industrialised nations give better living standards, incomes, tax breaks, and so on, which is a big draw for emigrants.
  • Improved quality of life: It is unarguable that the amenities offered outside have yet to be matched by developing nations, and hence migrations will continue until that level of living quality is realised.
  • Societal pressure: Indian young are growing more liberal and personal with their lives, and society has yet to adjust to this new way of life. As a result, the pressure to live a specific way in Indian culture is limiting today’s teenagers’ freedom of choice, prompting them to seek western nations where society is more liberal and non-interfering.
  • Easy migration policy: Developed countries are relaxing migration regulations in order to recruit talent and grow their economies. They especially target Asians for intellectual labour.
  • Greater remuneration: Of course, the better salary and living standards given by emerging nations are the primary reasons for emigration.

Brain Gain

The transnational migration of skilled employees signifies brain gain for the nations that reap their abilities. The young people who travel overseas have a relatively restricted skill base. They hone their abilities overseas via further education and work experience, so that when they return, they bring brainpower with them. Some call it Brain Circulation as well. Then, as a result of internal migrations of both skilled and unskilled workers, important industrial and technological centres have emerged.

Reverse brain drain

Reverse Brain Drain occurs when experts return to their home country after a few years of experience to create a business, join a research university, or work for a multinational corporation (MNC). When human capital travels in reverse order from a more developed country to a less developed or fast emerging country, this is referred to as reverse brain drain. These migrants save money, known as remittances, and learn skills that they may employ in their native country. India has a sizable diaspora all over the world. Indian skilled professionals who have been trained and located in other countries are increasingly returning home to take advantage of the country’s favourable economic growth and STEM job prospects. Various governments have encouraged Indians to go overseas, including to take up employment, over the years. Governments have taken satisfaction in the existence of a thriving 3.2 billion-strong diaspora comprised of non-resident Indians (NRIs) and Indians.

Government’s stance on Brain drain:

India does not offer dual citizenship hence people seeking citizenship in other countries must give up their Indian passport. However, Indians who renounce citizenship can still apply for an Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) card, which gives them the benefit of residing and even running a business in India. The Indian government has a simple online process for citizenship renouncing, making it clear that they are much worried about the outflow of the talented population.

schemes by the government to bring back Indian scientists like-

  • ‘The Ramanujan Fellowship, Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) Programme’ to encourage scientists and engineers of Indian origin from all over the world to take up scientific research positions in India, especially those scientists who want to return to India from abroad.
  • The Ramalingaswamy Fellowship, for providing a platform for scientists who are willing to return and work in India.
  • Vaishvik Bharatiya Vaigyanik (VAIBHAV) summit: Under this, Numerous overseas Indian-origin academicians and Indians participated to form ideas on innovative solutions to several challenges.

Suggestions and recommendations

India needs systematic adjustments to create an overall atmosphere that is favourable to the gifted enough to inspire them to stay in the country. The government should concentrate on developing policies that encourage circular migration and return migration. Policies that encourage professionals to return home after completing their training or studies, for example, would be appreciated. India might also conduct negotiations to develop bilateral agreements for a “brain-share” strategy between sending and receiving countries.

All you need to know about Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography to verify transactions, which makes counterfeiting and double-spending practically impossible. Cryptocurrencies are not regulated or facilitated by a central or regulating authority, instead it uses decentralized network called blockchain technology. Since cryptocurrency are not issued by any central authority, it makes them theoretically immune to government interference or manipulation.

Understanding Cryptocurrency

The first cryptocurrency named Bitcoin was invented by an unknown person or a group of people named Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008. It was put into use in 2009 when the currency’s implementation was released as open-source software.

Cryptocurrencies are based on the blockchain, a distributed public database that keeps track of all transactions and is updated by currency holders.

Cryptocurrency units are formed through a process known as mining, which entails employing computer processing power to solve complex mathematical problems in order to earn coins. Users can also purchase the currencies from brokers, which they can then store and spend using encrypted wallets.

You don’t possess anything concrete if you own cryptocurrency. What you possess is a key that enables you to transfer a record or a unit of measurement from one person to another without the involvement of a trustworthy third party. Although Bitcoin has been present since 2009, cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies are still in their infancy in terms of financial applications, with more to come in the future. Bonds, stocks, and other financial assets might all be traded via the technology in the future.

Types of Cryptocurrency

  • Bitcoin:
    As mentioned earlier, Bitcoin was invented in 2008 and is the first cryptocurrency that was invented. Bitcoin is still the most popular and well-known crypto currency.
  • Ethereum:
    Ethereum is a blockchain platform that has its own cryptocurrency, Ether (ETH) or Ethereum. It was created in 2015. After Bitcoin, it is the most widely used cryptocurrency.
  • Litecoin:
    This money is quite similar to bitcoin, but it has moved faster to build new innovations, such as speedier payments and processes that allow for more transactions.
  • Ripple:
    Ripple was founded in 2012 as a distributed ledger technology. Not only can Ripple be used to track cryptocurrency transactions, but it can also be used to track other types of transactions. Its creators have collaborated with a number of banks and financial institutions.

How to buy cryptocurrency?

There are 3 steps involved in purchasing of cryptocurrency. Please find them below:

Step 1: Choosing a platform
Before choosing a platform, compare various platforms on the basis of which cryptocurrencies are on offer, what fees they charge, their security features, storage and withdrawal options, and any educational resources. Typically, there are two main platforms which one can choose for trading of cryptocurrency:-

  • Traditional brokers: These are online brokers that allow you to purchase and sell cryptocurrencies as well as other financial assets such as stocks, bonds, and exchange-traded funds (ETFs). These platforms are known for having reduced trading fees but fewer crypto features.
  • Cryptocurrency exchanges: There are a variety of cryptocurrency exchanges to choose from, each with its own set of cryptocurrencies, wallet storage options, interest-bearing account options, and other features. Asset-based fees are charged by several exchanges.

Step 2: Funding your account
After you’ve decided on a platform, you’ll need to fund your account before you can start trading. Most crypto exchanges allow users to buy crypto with fiat (government-issued) currencies like the US Dollar, British Pound, or Euro using their debit or credit cards, though this varies per platform.

ACH and wire transfers are also accepted by some sites. The payment methods that are accepted and the time it takes to deposit or withdraw money vary each platform. Likewise, the time it takes for deposits to clear varies depending on the payment type.

Fees are an essential consideration. These fees could include transaction fees for deposits and withdrawals, as well as trading fees. Fees will vary depending on the payment method and platform, so do your homework ahead of time.

Step 3: Placing an order
You can use the web or mobile platform of your broker or exchange to make an order. If you wish to buy cryptocurrencies, go to “buy,” select the order type, enter the number of coins you want to buy, and confirm the order. Orders to “sell” follow the same procedure.

There are other ways to invest in cryptocurrency as well. PayPal, Cash App, and Venmo are examples of payment platforms that allow customers to buy, trade, or store cryptocurrencies. In addition, the following investment vehicles are available:

  • Bitcoin trusts: Bitcoin trusts can be purchased with a conventional brokerage account. Through the stock market, these vehicles provide regular investors with access to cryptocurrency.
  • Bitcoin mutual funds: You can select between Bitcoin ETFs and Bitcoin mutual funds.
  • Blockchain stocks or ETFs: Blockchain companies that specialize in the technology behind crypto and crypto transactions are another way to indirectly invest in crypto. Alternatively, you might invest in blockchain-related equities or exchange-traded funds (ETFs).

How to store cryptocurrency?

Once you’ve purchased cryptocurrency, you’ll need to keep it safe to avoid being hacked or stolen. Cryptocurrencies are typically stored in crypto wallets, which are physical devices or online software that securely store the private keys to your cryptocurrencies. Some exchanges offer wallet services, allowing you to store your funds directly on the platform. However, not all exchanges or brokers will automatically give you with a wallet.

There are a variety of wallet providers from which you can choose. The terms “hot wallet” and “cold wallet” are used to describe two types of wallets-

  • Hot wallet storage: “Hot wallets” refers to cryptocurrency storage that use internet software to safeguard your assets’ private keys.
  • Cold wallet storage: Unlike hot wallets, cold wallets (also known as hardware wallets) save your private keys on offline electronic devices.

Cold wallets typically charge fees, whereas hot wallets do not.

Union Budget 2022 and Cryptocurrency

  • In the Union Budget 2022-23, the government has imposed a 30 percent fixed tax rate on all crypto trading profits, with the goal of introducing the Digital Rupee in 2022–23.
  • The Digital Rupee, India’s first Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) project, will be a digital version of the rupee that would be fully regulated and overseen by the government.
  • The Finance Ministry has suggested a 30% tax on the trading of all virtual assets, including cryptocurrencies and non-fungible tokens, in these regulations. Losses on these crypto-assets cannot be offset at a later point, according to the report. This means that any losses incurred when trading these assets will not be offset by other sources of income and will be carried forward to later years.
  • Virtual currency gifts are likewise subject to taxation, with the recipient carrying the burden of any such deductions.
  • Further elaborating on the taxes approach for such virtual currencies, the Finance Minister stated that all crypto transfers exceeding a specific monetary level will be subject to a 1% TDS deduction, which will aid the authorities in keeping track of their movement in the economy.

F.R.I.E.N.D.S- A Show that makes you Love your Imperfect Life.

I am sure most of you might be aware of the famous American television sitcom named- “Friends” and for some of you( I think many of you), it might be your favorite. I, myself am a very big fan of this sitcom. I guess some of you might have this question in your mind- “Why write about a sitcom that is already well-known and loved by most?” Well, my answer would be because this show made me feel that your ordinary life is beautiful. And even if it makes me one of those cliched fans, I am fine with it.

About F.R.I.E.N.D.S

The sitcom Friends was created by David Crane and Martha Kauffman which aired on NBC for ten years from 1994 to 2004. It is a story of 6 friends starring Jennifer Aniston as ‘Rachel Green’, Courteney Cox as ‘Monica Gellar’, Lisa Kudrow as ‘Phoebe Buffay’, Matt LeBlanc as ‘Joey Tribbiani’, Matthew Perry as ‘ Chandler Bing’ and David Schwimmer as ‘Ross Gellar’ residing in the New York city. The story revolves around the lives of these 6 friends showing how they deal with their daily lives, relationship problems and career issues.

Friends was a critically acclaimed television series that went on to become one of the most successful shows of all time. The series received 62 Primetime Emmy nominations, with its eighth season winning Outstanding Comedy Series in 2002. The show was voted no. 7 on Empire magazine’s The 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time and no. 21 on TV Guide’s 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time.

F.R.I.E.N.D.S teaches its audience to get through the difficult times

  • Rachel
    Rachel Green, a woman who belonged from a rich family, who never thought of taking a job flees on her wedding day because she was not in love with her fiancée and restarts her life on her own without taking any financial support from her father. She struggles initially, working as a waitress in a coffee shop for 2 years after which she finally quits to pursue her career in Fashion. Gradually, she ends up working for good fashion companies and establishes identity of her own.

    Another striking incident in Rachel’s life was when she got pregnant with a child on a one-night-stand with her ex-boyfriend Ross. She was obviously scared and unprepared but she learns and manages to be a good single mother.
  • Monica
    Monica with her dream of opening her own restaurant or becoming head chef of one, struggles in New York City for many years until finally she becomes one.

    She also wanted to be in a committed relationship and get married one day. In the journey of finding “the guy” for her, she gets into very unusual and unstable relationships which sometimes breaks her heart until finally she falls in love with her best-friend, Chandler with whom she gets married.

    Monica also always wanted to have children and broke-up with her ex-boyfriend, Richard, whom she loved very much because he didn’t want them. After she got married to Chandler, they tried to have kids but there were some complications so they decided to adopt.
  • Phoebe
    Phoebe, the weird but kindest one in the group had a rough life since childhood as her father abandons her family and her mother commits suicide after few years. She faces all kinds of troubles- not having a shelter, food and any guardians.

    As a grown-up she works as a masseuse, always wanting a family of her own. Finally, she marries Mike and starts her new life with him.
  • Joey
    Joey, a handsome young man who pursues a career in acting struggles to make his ends meet because of his unstable career choice and not getting a good role in a movie or a show. Nevertheless, he never gives up and finally gets a show in the end.
  • Chandler
    Chandler, the sarcastic guy of the show, had commitment issues because of his parents’ divorce when we was a child. He panics during the times when he realizes that things are getting serious with his girlfriend, Monica. But because of his true love and Monica’s support he overcomes his commitment issues and lives a happily married life with her.
  • Ross
    Ross, a paleontologist marries a woman who after seven years of marriage realizes that she is a lesbian which leads to their divorce. He marries another woman, named Emily after few years and that marriage also ends because he takes the name of his ex girlfriend, Rachel during his wedding vows. The series of divorce doesn’t end here because he gets divorced again as he gets married to Rachel in Vegas while drunk and not in his senses.


No matter how difficult life got for these 6 friends, they always fought, learned and moved forward. They always kept hope of better things and worked towards their flaws. They all lived ordinary lives like we all do, faced struggles like we all do but smiled through the pain. I think that is all what we should do. Whatever is the pain or struggle in our lives, with the right set of people, we can always overcome it, some people are always going to believe in you. I would like to quote some lines from the theme song of F.R.I.E.N.D.S-

“So no one told you life was gonna be this way
Your job’s a joke, you’re broke
Your love life’s DOA
It’s like you’re always stuck in second gear
When it hasn’t been your day, your week, your month
Or even your year, but
I’ll be there for you”

What Is a Staffing Agency?

Looking for work can be a full-time job, from networking and researching job postings to writing resumes and cover letters to interviewing and following up with hiring managers. But, what is a staffing agency, and exactly what does one do for job seekers?

Temporary staffing provides you the human resources you need for a specified period. However, the employees continue to be on our payroll, and they work for you. We will take care of the rest like identifying the kind of employees you need and going through the hiring formalities and documentation. All you need to do is let them work for you. Once their job or requirement is over, you inform us, and we will take care of their exit. It is as simple as that.

A staffing agency — also known as a search, recruiting or staffing firm or service — is an organization that matches companies and job candidates. By registering with a staffing agency, you have the potential to make connections with multiple hiring managers looking to find the right people for their job openings. You can save time and find opportunities you may not be able to find on your own.

So how do staffing agencies work, and how can they help you achieve your employment goals? Here are eight tips for job seekers on what you need to do, what you can expect and how you can get the most out of a relationship with a staffing agency.

1. Choose the right specialized staffing agency

Not every staffing agency is the same. Before investing in the relationship, spend some time learning about them. Make sure it’s equipped to help someone with your career profile and professional goals. Also find out if it is a general staffing firm or one that targets specific industries. At Robert Half, the world’s largest specialized staffing firm, we offer you many opportunities in several fields.

Will you have fees to pay if you get placed in a position? That depends on the staffing agency. Robert Half, for instance, never charges fees to represent you as a job candidate.

2. Get registered with the agency

At most staffing agencies, you’ll begin by submitting your resume and a cover letter. Once the agency reviews and accepts these documents, you may be asked to take part in skills testing and an interview with one of their recruitment experts so they can learn more about you. Then they can help you improve your resume, prep you for interviews and share local hiring trends.


3. Treat the interview seriously

Approach the interview with a staffing manager just as you would any job interview with an employer. The goal of the staffing agency is not to grill you, but to get a good sense of the opportunities that best suit you.

Even if you’re connecting remotely, make sure you’re well-dressed, well-groomed and well-prepared. You should be ready to talk about your employment experience, work habits, career objectives and workplace culture preferences. If the staffing agency is considering you for a position at a specific company, do some research on the business so you can ask relevant questions.

4. Decide if you want temporary or full-time work

Employers often turn to staffing agencies to find candidates for temporary or project-based work. Others are looking to hire full-time employees. In addition, there is a growing trend toward temporary-to-full-time positions. For many people, this can be the best of both worlds, giving both the employer and candidate a chance to get to know each other before making a longer-term commitment.

Clarify whether you want short-term, long-term, or temporary-to-permanent employment. This will help all parties — you, the recruiter and the hiring company.

5. Let the job search begin

After your interview, the recruiters will be equipped to represent you with more than your resume. They’ll have a full picture of your hard skills, soft skills (especially communication skills), short-term employment objectives and long-term career goals.

So far, the process sounds a lot like applying for a job — and it is. But once the agency has determined you’re a viable candidate for placement, it will leverage its contacts at companies in your industry and search for open positions that correspond with your qualifications and preferences. Well-connected recruiters often have deep industry contacts and knowledge of unadvertised job openings.

6. Keep making yourself marketable

The best staffing firms offer a plethora of professional development and training opportunities, so take advantage of them while you’re waiting to hear back. It’s a great way to improve your employment prospects and distinguish yourself to potential employers. Robert Half, for example, has more than 8,000 courses and online reference materials, as well as access to free continuing professional education and program credits.

7. Respond as quickly as possible

If your agency contacts you about an open position, don’t wait to reply. Many jobs need to be staffed ASAP, and you don’t want to miss out on a good opportunity. Once your recruiter finds a potential match, they will typically arrange an interview for you with their client to determine whether it’s a good fit.

Some staffing agencies will help negotiate pay and other terms of the engagement on your behalf. They may even take care of all the associated paperwork for you, so all you have to do is show up at your new gig.

8. Stay engaged with your recruiter

If you aren’t getting any interviews, ask your agency representative what you can do to improve your chances. On the other hand, if you’ve been successful in garnering interviews on your own, keep your recruiter informed. The staffing agency may have contacts at the company who could help you land the role.

It’s important for you to stay on top of the job search process and keep in regular contact with your recruiters. While the agency will notify you when a potential job becomes available, it’s acceptable to check in with your recruiter once every week or two.

A temporary staff can lead to cost savings and enhanced productivity for your organization. One of the leading temporary agencies, Staffing Agency Monroe LA combines innovative technology with the human touch to save costs, enhance quality, and maximize efficiency for your business. Embrace flexibility and business freedom with our excellent contract staffing services.

We cover temporary staffing, permanent placements and specialties (dedicated units focusing on specific market segments). Our staffing services are offered through our well-known network of branches. We deploy a unique unit structure in many countries, where each unit consists of two consultants who are responsible for both client service and candidate selection. 

Our consultants are experts in the local labor market, and work with you to understand your business and your needs. They use the latest technologies to source talent and put their people skills to good use to ensure the right talent comes to you. This is how we support you in taking your business forward. 

Retail, Hospitality, and Telecom were some of the leading sectors that employed temporary staff. Now, this bug has bitten the juiciest apple, the IT sector. Temporary staffing is not limited to junior level but has touched senior level employees too.

  • Looking for a way to reduce your administrative costs and liabilities associated with permanent employees?
  • Looking to migrate employees from existing company rolls?
  • Do you need human resources on a flexible period basis that can add to your margins, profits, and bottom line?
  • Do you need human resources for particular positions or in groups?
  • Talks to us and let TalentPro surprise you as to how temporary staffing can impact your business and finances directly.

Finding qualified talent remains challenging for many small companies. Reviewing applications, interviewing candidates and negotiating salaries all take precious time away from a business owner’s existing obligations, which may end up hurting the business in the long run. That’s why some employers partner with staffing agencies, which take a lot of the time and effort out of the search for candidates by providing their own workers for open roles.

How much does a staffing agency charge?

Staffing agencies typically charge 25% to 100% of the hired employee’s wages. So, for example, if you and the staffing agency have agreed on a markup of 50%, and the new employee earns an hourly wage of $10, you will pay the agency $15 per hour for their work.

In addition to the markup you will pay, you may be expected to cover additional fees for filling the position or a contract buyout fees, if you hire a temporary worker permanently.

ABORTION LAWS IN INDIA: history and development

India's 'Conditional' Right to Abortion, Health News, ET HealthWorld


abortion, a subject that has become very popular throughout the world in recent times, is the termination of pregnancy before the completion of the gestation period. With its diversity and the astounding socio-economic differences that exist in its population, India has often struggled with law implementation. The woman in this country is at a disadvantage as access to abortion facilities proves to be complicated. The author critically analyses various abortion laws dating from pre-independence to modern-day India and people’s changing attitudes. In the end, the paper suggests remedies that the government can do to improve the lack of abortion facilities.


Women in impoverished nations face severe public health problems due to unsafe abortion complications. Abortion is permitted in India for a variety of medical and social reasons. Officially, women can obtain safe abortion services from skilled medical experts at registered institutions, and minors must obtain parental approval. In practice, women are denied safe abortion services due to a lack of access to authorised abortion providers, the threat of forced contraceptive acceptance, the financial costs of legal abortion, the stigma associated with induced abortion, and a lack of awareness about the procedure’s legality. As a result, women frequently turn to inexperienced clandestine practitioners practising in hazardous conditions. The implications of such abortions range from life-threatening to chronic reproductive system morbidities such as infections, permanent incapacity, and infertility. Every year in India, an estimated 453 women die due to maternal causes for every 100,000 live births (UNFPA 1997). This statistic obscures the wide disparity across states. While national and state figures are imperfect, they can depict certain tendencies. In 1992, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh had 738 and 711 maternal fatalities per 100,000 births.

Laws in the pre-independence era

The Indian Penal Code 1862 and the Code of Criminal Procedure 1898, which sprang from the British Offences Against the Person Act 1861, made abortion a felony punishable for both the woman and the abortionist unless done to preserve the woman’s life. Abortion laws were liberalised across Europe and the Americas in the 1960s and 1970s, and this trend continued in many other areas of the world into the 1980s.  Abortion legislation liberalisation in India began in 1964 in response to increased maternal mortality due to unsafe abortion. Doctors regularly encountered seriously sick or dying women who had resorted to unsafe abortions performed by inexperienced practitioners. 

Post independence era

medical termination of pregnancy act(MTP) 1971

the Government of India established a committee in 1964 led by Shanti Lal Shah. The primary purpose of constituting that group was to examine the challenges associated with the liberalisation of abortion legislation and offer ways to enhance the present law. After the committee delivered its findings, the Government of India introduced the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill in Parliament in 1970. The Medical Termination Pregnancy Act, 1971 is based on the British Legislation of Abortion, 1968, although the basic notion of liberalising abortion law originated from the family planning board. The legislation has three basic goals

  • When the mother’s life is in danger or the women’s bodily or mental health is jeopardised.
  • When the pregnancy is the result of rape or intercourse with a mad lady. (Humanitarian ground)
  • When there is a chance that the child may be born with sickness or deformity.

The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971 is divided into eight sections. This was a ground-breaking step because it would liberate women from exploiting women and society. They can also have a role outside the house. This act will assist them in making decisions for themselves rather than those of their family and society. It is entirely up to her whether or not she wants to bear the kid. Aside from the prohibition of illegal abortions, another major goal of the legislation is to give women the right to privacy.  The government is also attempting to reduce the population with this act, as people can now abort the pregnancy if they so want. The eight sections of this act contain various vital points and rules such as when pregnancy can be terminated by medical practitioners, where it can be terminated, and no legal proceedings will lie against any registered medical practitioner who acted in good faith or did not intend to do the act in any wrong sense.

shortcomings of the MTP act of 1971

For a variety of reasons, the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act has been challenged. Its significant medical learning was a major source of criticism. Mid-level health providers and practitioners of alternative systems of medicine are excluded from the “physicians only” regulation for abortion providers. The necessity for a second medical opinion for a second-trimester abortion further restricts access, as rural regions are under-equipped and few physicians. Furthermore, the twenty-week restriction for abortions has been called into question, since legal and practical obstacles have created delays in many circumstances. In extreme instances, the Supreme Court has permitted termination of a pregnancy after 20 weeks. Another major issue is that no express provision or literature in the code allows unmarried girls/widows to have abortions.  Even though the MTP legislation does not restrict unmarried women or widows from having abortions, the abortion carriers’ social, ethical, and moral views provide a slew of problems for abortion seekers. Except in the event of a lunatic or a girl under the age of 18, abortion providers are not permitted to seek the approval of parents or guardians. However, abortion providers harass a young unmarried woman who attempts to have an abortion with their express agreement

The medical termination of pregnancy (amendment) bill 2021

On March 16, 2021, the Rajya Sabha adopted the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill, 2021, which amends the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. The bill’s main focus is the change to the clause allowing abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. The Bill governs the condition of pregnancy, emphasizing extending the time limit for abortion. Before the legislation, abortion after 12 weeks of pregnancy needed the approval of two doctors. The new law enables abortion up to 20 weeks if just one qualified medical practitioner agrees. The recent amendment also gives state governments the authority to decide whether a pregnancy can be terminated after 24 weeks due to fetal abnormalities. To assess fetal abnormalities, the state must establish a medical board comprised of a pediatrician, radiologist/sinologist, gynecologist, and others. Furthermore, under the most recent modification, the identity and other details of a woman whose pregnancy has been terminated should not be divulged except to a person authorized by legislation for the time being in effect. Another significant issue is the failure of the contraceptive provision to give access to safe abortion based on a woman’s decision, regardless of marital status. Section 3 of the Act has been changed due to the alteration. Instead of ‘married lady and her husband,’ the new amendment substitutes the phrase ‘woman and her partner.’

flaws in the amendment bill 2021

One of the most severe criticisms has been the inability to address sex-selective abortions. Many women in India have sex-selective abortions as a result of family or spouse pressure. A woman is compelled to contain but cannot communicate her grief or disinterest in continuing with the pregnancy. Another difficulty in drafting abortion legislation is that they overlap with the POSCO statute. As previously stated, the MTP statute has a confidentiality clause that protects an individual’s identity, but POSCO does the exact reverse. There is a required duty under POSCO to report sexual assaults against children, including females who can provide consent. 


Abortion legislation in India has gone a long way. The progression from criminalising abortion to lawfully allowing abortion for unmarried women is admirable. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Act 2021 was an essential modification in the contemporary era. However, one might infer that the government’s legislative process has been abhorrent. The MTP (amendment) law was enacted seven years after the health, and family welfare ministry recommended it. The MTP statute was approved seven years after the Shanti Law Shah committee was formed. This demonstrates a delay in the implementation of legislation. The government must take the initiative and identify the issues. The medical termination of pregnancy (amendment) bill 2021 is forward-thinking and protects women’s rights. It is worth noting that no legislation or policy is immune to criticism. The establishment of medical boards was essential since seeking higher courts for approval to terminate in each case would result in delay and expense. The issue of accessibility for the rural population is now legitimate and significant. Rather than criticising and defending the legislation, the best path forward is to strive toward improved execution.

The government must take note of the POSCO and MTP dispute, and it is reasonable to foresee a formal change in POSCO in the future years. India has a population of around 130 million people. It isn’t easy to introduce legislation, mainly dealing with people’s ethical, moral, and ideological views. With the resurgence of contemporary culture and the enduring roots of historical traditions, a delicate balance must be struck between the two. A famous example is the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Act 2021. The law is planned, sensible, and scalable. It has made a powerful statement to stand the test in a neo-traditional country like India.