An inspirational woman kalpana saroj is the ladie. Who has earn her reputation and self respect. Which she might loose because of her past incidents. As she was a dalit and belongs to a very poor family. Where she was not allowed to study. As she was a girl child and even she got married so yearly at the age of 12. The problem still not end. It was the start her struggle was much more. She was trapped in domestic violence where her in-laws brutally beats her. For small things and blame her family for her condition. But her father come out as a saviour who understand and save her from her in laws. But that was not the end. Society blame his father and her for the things as their noms are against what they did. But her father wanted her to continue her studies but society did not allowed her for such act because it was restricted because she is a girl.
Is being a girl is a crime? Than why always society want the woman to be like what they want them to be. They are very much strong and independent that they can able to survive on their own. And this the spirit which kalpana saroj got when she realised that she have to live she cannot die just because of the society pressure. She have to prove them wrong and bring her self in front of people as a worrier. So she thought to shift to Mumbai. When she reach their she started working in a mill and from their her journey started she earn 2 ruppes a day and 60 in a month. Than she decided to start her own business so she took a loan. And build a boutique. And also employees people who need the job for the living. Than she also gave away building of the person who have been claiming their rights on them. She also become a brocker. But as she was a woman many people do not like it and try to step her down. And also trying to kill her. But she got to know their actions before hand and she complaint it to police officer. And they arrested them. They try to gave her protection. But she refused. Instead she requested to gave her lisence for revolver so that she could handle herself. And they do the same.
And know she is a entrepreneur who actually self-made woman and know she is the owner of 2000 crore empire which she has made own her own. By finding her way out from a dark phase to a good communicator who was not educated. She is just 9 grade pass after than she could not continue her studies. But still she becomes a queen of business. Me and you can also do the same just we need that passion and craze for the work than we can also become a personality which we desire for just focus and believe in yourself rest is destiny. And your work will speak for yourself. As your work will only bring your image in front of people.
I recently started watching anime shows so some of my friends suggested me to watch this anime called dororo. So I started watching it. After watching it completely I must tell you that it is a must watch anime show. So lets talk about the review of the anime called dororo.
Dororo anime was considered a 26 episode anime released in the year 1969. Then it was adapted into the manga and years later it was remade as ‘Dororo 2021’. So the version which I watched was of the 2021. Dororo was a 24 episode anime produced by the mappa productions and tezuka production aired in the year 2019.
So the story of dororo is considered to be a journey of a guy called hykkimaru in search of his body parts with a child named dororo. The story revolves around a king and his land facing famine. So the king keeps an offer with the devil so that his land could flourish again. Devil agrees and tells the king to sacrifice his own son. The king agrees to sacrifice his new born son to devil and the wicked devil takes away the body parts of the new born baby called hykkimaru.
Hykkimaru was left alive without any internal organs in his body. He was blind, deaf, mute and without hands and legs. So hykkimaru wore prosthetic body parts where two swords are attached to his hands so that he can slain the demons and recapture each body parts. In this journey he meets dororo. They together travel and slain the demons.
It is a must watch anime you will really like it. Its emotional as well because some scenes can make you cry and some can make you smile. According to me it’s a must watch anime.
The movement of educated people from one nation to another is known as brain drain.
When human resources leave their home nation to work in industrialised countries such as Europe, North America, and Australia, this is referred to as primary external brain drain.
Secondary external brain drain happens when human resources leave their home nation to work in another location.
Internal brain drain happens when human resources are not employed in their fields of competence in their home nation, or when human resources transfer from the public to private sectors or within a sector.
According to the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), over six lakh Indians have abandoned their citizenship in the last five years. Up till September 30, 2021, around 1,11,287 Indians had renounced their citizenship. Except for the 2008 financial crisis and in 2020-21 owing to Covid-19-related travel limitations, there has been a constant emigration of Indians during the last two decades. India has emerged as a significant exporter of healthcare personnel to industrialised countries, notably the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, Europe, and other English-speaking countries. According to OECD data, around 69,000 Indian-trained doctors worked in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia in 2017. In the same year, 56,000 Indian-trained nurses worked in these four nations. As a result, there is a large-scale exodus of Indian health personnel.
Recently, a considerable number of High-Net-Worth Individuals (HNWIs) have begun to relocate abroad. According to a Morgan Stanley bank analysis from 2018, 23,000 Indian billionaires have fled India since 2014. According to a recent Global Wealth Migration Review study, approximately 7,000 millionaires, or 2% of the total number of HNWIs in India, departed the nation in 2019, costing the country billions in lost tax income. Furthermore, the growing “brain drain” problem has resulted in an exodus of talented workers and professionals. According to a study published in Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, a peer-reviewed orthopedic magazine, around 30% of physicians in the National Health Services in England are of Indian heritage.
Why are Indians moving abroad?
Indian expertise, language aptitude, and a higher level of education are just a few of the draws for nations that have relaxed immigration policies in order to recruit talent. As possibilities grow increasingly rare in India, other nations are becoming more aware of the multi-talented Indian engineers, surgeons, and scientists who also speak English.
The reasons for this brain drain can be substantiated into a few key categories-
Factors that contribute to brain drain include:
Inadequate access to higher education: Access to higher education in India is becoming increasingly difficult due to rising cut-offs and a plethora of competitive exams. In terms of abilities and knowledge, they have an advantage over students from other nations when studying abroad. According to a study by news station WION, more than half of the top scorers in the 10th and 12th board examinations between 1996 and 2015 – the finest Indian brains – went overseas and are still employed there. In the Budget 2019-20, India committed Rs 6.43 lakh crore of public funding to education, a portion of which was used to subsidise the studies of talented emigrant Indians.
In this sense, investment in the Indian educational system indirectly helps to the advancement of other countries. “Padhega India, Badhega America!” is a famous social media meme that puts a hilarious spin on this underappreciated topic.
Lack of financial support for research: For years, India’s Gross Domestic Spending on Research has remained constant at 0.7 percent of GDP. Among the BRICS countries, India has one of the lowest GERD/GDP ratios. As a result, R&D experts tend to relocate to other nations to continue their research. In February 2020, the government said, “Out of total 103 senior research associateships awarded by the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research in 2019, 28 per cent (29) were awarded to young Indian researchers who had been working abroad.”
Lower-income: Developed countries pay higher wages in fields such as health care, research, and information technology. One of the primary reasons for departure from India is a lack of income.
Non-recognition of talents: In a population this huge, and with norms favouring the glamour world over academic aptitude, the odds of getting acknowledged in one’s specialty are slim; bright minds choose foreign nations where their work is better valued.
Why does brain drain happen?
Superior living standards: The industrialised nations give better living standards, incomes, tax breaks, and so on, which is a big draw for emigrants.
Improved quality of life: It is unarguable that the amenities offered outside have yet to be matched by developing nations, and hence migrations will continue until that level of living quality is realised.
Societal pressure: Indian young are growing more liberal and personal with their lives, and society has yet to adjust to this new way of life. As a result, the pressure to live a specific way in Indian culture is limiting today’s teenagers’ freedom of choice, prompting them to seek western nations where society is more liberal and non-interfering.
Easy migration policy: Developed countries are relaxing migration regulations in order to recruit talent and grow their economies. They especially target Asians for intellectual labour.
Greater remuneration: Of course, the better salary and living standards given by emerging nations are the primary reasons for emigration.
The transnational migration of skilled employees signifies brain gain for the nations that reap their abilities. The young people who travel overseas have a relatively restricted skill base. They hone their abilities overseas via further education and work experience, so that when they return, they bring brainpower with them. Some call it Brain Circulation as well. Then, as a result of internal migrations of both skilled and unskilled workers, important industrial and technological centres have emerged.
Reverse brain drain
Reverse Brain Drain occurs when experts return to their home country after a few years of experience to create a business, join a research university, or work for a multinational corporation (MNC). When human capital travels in reverse order from a more developed country to a less developed or fast emerging country, this is referred to as reverse brain drain. These migrants save money, known as remittances, and learn skills that they may employ in their native country. India has a sizable diaspora all over the world. Indian skilled professionals who have been trained and located in other countries are increasingly returning home to take advantage of the country’s favourable economic growth and STEM job prospects. Various governments have encouraged Indians to go overseas, including to take up employment, over the years. Governments have taken satisfaction in the existence of a thriving 3.2 billion-strong diaspora comprised of non-resident Indians (NRIs) and Indians.
Government’s stance on Brain drain:
India does not offer dual citizenship hence people seeking citizenship in other countries must give up their Indian passport. However, Indians who renounce citizenship can still apply for an Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) card, which gives them the benefit of residing and even running a business in India. The Indian government has a simple online process for citizenship renouncing, making it clear that they are much worried about the outflow of the talented population.
schemes by the government to bring back Indian scientists like-
‘The Ramanujan Fellowship, Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) Programme’ to encourage scientists and engineers of Indian origin from all over the world to take up scientific research positions in India, especially those scientists who want to return to India from abroad.
The Ramalingaswamy Fellowship, for providing a platform for scientists who are willing to return and work in India.
Vaishvik Bharatiya Vaigyanik (VAIBHAV) summit: Under this, Numerous overseas Indian-origin academicians and Indians participated to form ideas on innovative solutions to several challenges.
Suggestions and recommendations
India needs systematic adjustments to create an overall atmosphere that is favourable to the gifted enough to inspire them to stay in the country. The government should concentrate on developing policies that encourage circular migration and return migration. Policies that encourage professionals to return home after completing their training or studies, for example, would be appreciated. India might also conduct negotiations to develop bilateral agreements for a “brain-share” strategy between sending and receiving countries.
Cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography to verify transactions, which makes counterfeiting and double-spending practically impossible. Cryptocurrencies are not regulated or facilitated by a central or regulating authority, instead it uses decentralized network called blockchain technology. Since cryptocurrency are not issued by any central authority, it makes them theoretically immune to government interference or manipulation.
The first cryptocurrency named Bitcoin was invented by an unknown person or a group of people named Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008. It was put into use in 2009 when the currency’s implementation was released as open-source software.
Cryptocurrencies are based on the blockchain, a distributed public database that keeps track of all transactions and is updated by currency holders.
Cryptocurrency units are formed through a process known as mining, which entails employing computer processing power to solve complex mathematical problems in order to earn coins. Users can also purchase the currencies from brokers, which they can then store and spend using encrypted wallets.
You don’t possess anything concrete if you own cryptocurrency. What you possess is a key that enables you to transfer a record or a unit of measurement from one person to another without the involvement of a trustworthy third party. Although Bitcoin has been present since 2009, cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies are still in their infancy in terms of financial applications, with more to come in the future. Bonds, stocks, and other financial assets might all be traded via the technology in the future.
Types of Cryptocurrency
Bitcoin: As mentioned earlier, Bitcoin was invented in 2008 and is the first cryptocurrency that was invented. Bitcoin is still the most popular and well-known crypto currency.
Ethereum: Ethereum is a blockchain platform that has its own cryptocurrency, Ether (ETH) or Ethereum. It was created in 2015. After Bitcoin, it is the most widely used cryptocurrency.
Litecoin: This money is quite similar to bitcoin, but it has moved faster to build new innovations, such as speedier payments and processes that allow for more transactions.
Ripple: Ripple was founded in 2012 as a distributed ledger technology. Not only can Ripple be used to track cryptocurrency transactions, but it can also be used to track other types of transactions. Its creators have collaborated with a number of banks and financial institutions.
How to buy cryptocurrency?
There are 3 steps involved in purchasing of cryptocurrency. Please find them below:
Step 1:Choosing a platform Before choosing a platform, compare various platforms on the basis of which cryptocurrencies are on offer, what fees they charge, their security features, storage and withdrawal options, and any educational resources. Typically, there are two main platforms which one can choose for trading of cryptocurrency:-
Traditional brokers: These are online brokers that allow you to purchase and sell cryptocurrencies as well as other financial assets such as stocks, bonds, and exchange-traded funds (ETFs). These platforms are known for having reduced trading fees but fewer crypto features.
Cryptocurrency exchanges: There are a variety of cryptocurrency exchanges to choose from, each with its own set of cryptocurrencies, wallet storage options, interest-bearing account options, and other features. Asset-based fees are charged by several exchanges.
Step 2: Funding your account After you’ve decided on a platform, you’ll need to fund your account before you can start trading. Most crypto exchanges allow users to buy crypto with fiat (government-issued) currencies like the US Dollar, British Pound, or Euro using their debit or credit cards, though this varies per platform.
ACH and wire transfers are also accepted by some sites. The payment methods that are accepted and the time it takes to deposit or withdraw money vary each platform. Likewise, the time it takes for deposits to clear varies depending on the payment type.
Fees are an essential consideration. These fees could include transaction fees for deposits and withdrawals, as well as trading fees. Fees will vary depending on the payment method and platform, so do your homework ahead of time.
Step 3: Placing an order You can use the web or mobile platform of your broker or exchange to make an order. If you wish to buy cryptocurrencies, go to “buy,” select the order type, enter the number of coins you want to buy, and confirm the order. Orders to “sell” follow the same procedure.
There are other ways to invest in cryptocurrency as well. PayPal, Cash App, and Venmo are examples of payment platforms that allow customers to buy, trade, or store cryptocurrencies. In addition, the following investment vehicles are available:
Bitcoin trusts: Bitcoin trusts can be purchased with a conventional brokerage account. Through the stock market, these vehicles provide regular investors with access to cryptocurrency.
Bitcoin mutual funds: You can select between Bitcoin ETFs and Bitcoin mutual funds.
Blockchain stocks or ETFs: Blockchain companies that specialize in the technology behind crypto and crypto transactions are another way to indirectly invest in crypto. Alternatively, you might invest in blockchain-related equities or exchange-traded funds (ETFs).
How to store cryptocurrency?
Once you’ve purchased cryptocurrency, you’ll need to keep it safe to avoid being hacked or stolen. Cryptocurrencies are typically stored in crypto wallets, which are physical devices or online software that securely store the private keys to your cryptocurrencies. Some exchanges offer wallet services, allowing you to store your funds directly on the platform. However, not all exchanges or brokers will automatically give you with a wallet.
There are a variety of wallet providers from which you can choose. The terms “hot wallet” and “cold wallet” are used to describe two types of wallets-
Hot wallet storage: “Hot wallets” refers to cryptocurrency storage that use internet software to safeguard your assets’ private keys.
Cold wallet storage: Unlike hot wallets, cold wallets (also known as hardware wallets) save your private keys on offline electronic devices.
Cold wallets typically charge fees, whereas hot wallets do not.
Union Budget 2022 and Cryptocurrency
In the Union Budget 2022-23, the government has imposed a 30 percent fixed tax rate on all crypto trading profits, with the goal of introducing the Digital Rupee in 2022–23.
The Digital Rupee, India’s first Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) project, will be a digital version of the rupee that would be fully regulated and overseen by the government.
The Finance Ministry has suggested a 30% tax on the trading of all virtual assets, including cryptocurrencies and non-fungible tokens, in these regulations. Losses on these crypto-assets cannot be offset at a later point, according to the report. This means that any losses incurred when trading these assets will not be offset by other sources of income and will be carried forward to later years.
Virtual currency gifts are likewise subject to taxation, with the recipient carrying the burden of any such deductions.
Further elaborating on the taxes approach for such virtual currencies, the Finance Minister stated that all crypto transfers exceeding a specific monetary level will be subject to a 1% TDS deduction, which will aid the authorities in keeping track of their movement in the economy.