isro history and development

Our country’s space research operations began in the early 1960s, when satellite applications were still in the experimental phases even in the United States. With the live broadcast of the Tokyo Olympic Games across the Pacific by the American satellite ‘Syncom-3,’ Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the founding father of India’s space programme, instantly saw the possibilities of space technology for India.

The Genesis – St. Mary Magdelene Church in Thiruvanathapuram’s fishing town of Thumba

Dr. Sarabhai was convinced and envisioned that the resources in space had the capacity to answer man’s and society’s actual issues. As Director of the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in Ahmedabad, Dr. Sarabhai assembled an army of capable and talented scientists, anthropologists, communicators, and engineers.. The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was established in 1962 under the Department of Atomic Energy to drive space research operations. In August 1969, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was founded in place of INCOSPAR. In June 1972, the Government of India formed the Space Commission and the Department of Space (DOS), and in September 1972, ISRO was transferred to DOS.

Since its start, India’s space programme has been well-coordinated, with three different elements: communication and remote sensing satellites, a space transportation system, and application programmes. The first ‘Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station (ESCES)’ was operationalized in Ahmedabad in 1967, and it also served as a teaching facility for Indian and international scientists and engineers. ISRO was clear that it did not need to wait for its own satellites to begin application development, and that foreign satellites may be utilised in the early phases to demonstrate that a satellite system can contribute to national development. However, before embarking on a full-fledged satellite system, it was determined that certain controlled experiments to demonstrate the usefulness of television as a medium for national development were required. As a result, the TV show ‘Krishi Darshan’ on agricultural information for farmers was launched, and it had a positive reaction.

The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), dubbed “the greatest social experiment in the world” during 1975-76, was the next logical step. This initiative benefitted over 200,000 people by covering 2400 communities across six states and transmitting development-oriented programmes via the American Technology Satellite (ATS-6). SITE is credited with teaching 50,000 primary school science teachers in a single year.

The Satellite Telecommunication Experiments Effort (STEP), a cooperative project of ISRO and the Post and Telegraphs Department (P&T) in 1977-79, used the Franco-German Symphonie satellite. STEP was conceived as a follow-up to SITE, which concentrated on television experimentation. STEP’s goal was to provide a system test of using geosynchronous satellites for domestic communications, to improve capabilities and experience in the design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of various ground segment facilities, and to build the necessary indigenous competence for the country’s proposed operational domestic satellite system, INSAT.  SITE was followed by the ‘Kheda Communications Project (KCP),’ which served as a field laboratory for need-based and location-specific programme transmission in Gujarat State’s Kheda area. In 1984, the KCP received the UNESCO-IPDC (International Programme for the Development of Communication) award for rural communication efficiency.

During this time, the first Indian spacecraft, ‘Aryabhata,’ was built and launched with the help of a Soviet launcher. Another significant milestone was the creation of the first launch vehicle, the SLV-3, which could place 40 kg in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and made its first successful flight in 1980.  Competence was developed for overall vehicle design, mission design, material, hardware manufacturing, solid propulsion technologies, control power plants, avionics, vehicle integration checkout, and launch operations during the SLV-3 programme. The development of multistage rocket vehicles with sufficient control and guidance systems to orbit a satellite was a significant milestone in our space programme.

During the experimental phase in the 1980s, end-to-end capability demonstration in the design, development, and in-orbit management of space systems, as well as the accompanying ground systems for users, was performed. The Bhaskara-I and II missions were pioneering advances in remote sensing, whilst the ‘Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE)’ served as a predecessor for future communication satellite systems. The sophisticated Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) development also exhibited innovative technology such as the utilisation of strap-on, bulbous heat shield, closed loop guidance, and digital autopilot. This paved the door for understanding numerous aspects of launch vehicle design for complicated missions, eventually leading to the realisation of operational launch vehicles like the PSLV and GSLV.

During the operational period in the 1990s, important space infrastructure was built in two categories: one for communication, broadcasting, and meteorology via a multi-purpose Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), and the other for Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS). During this period, important milestones were the development and operationalization of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the development of the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).

 It wasn’t until 1992 that the ASLV was successfully launched for the first time. At this point, the launch vehicle, which could only transport extremely modest payloads into orbit, had completed its mission. By 1993, the PSLV’s maiden flight had arrived. The initial launch was a failure. The first operational launch occurred in 1994, and since then, the PSLV has been a workhorse launch vehicle, putting in orbit both remote sensing and communications satellites, building the world’s biggest cluster, and providing unique data to Indian industry and agriculture. Since then, continuous performance enhancements have significantly increased the rocket’s payload power. Glavkosmos, under duress, prohibited the relocation of associated manufacturing and design technology to India. Until then, ISRO has been free of technology transfer restraints thanks to Sarabhai’s strategic acumen in indigenizing technology. However, in preparation for the Russian contract, ISRO management abandoned domestic cryogenic programmes. Instead of terminating the deal, Russia chose to send fully completed engines, and India began constructing an indigenous cryogenic engine to replace them in the GSLV-II.

There is also substantial controversy concerning the acquisition of cryogenic engines, with many citing the choice to abandon indigenous initiatives as a major blunder: if indigenous manufacture had commenced from the start, India would almost certainly have had a truly indigenous engine functioning. Despite this one unusual hiccup in an otherwise extremely successful programme, and the decade-long absence of future payload capabilities that followed as a result, ISRO persisted.

The most powerful Indian launch vehicle currently in use; the maiden GSLV production flight took place in 2001. The program’s gains were evaluated as a result of recurrent payload reductions and delays. The indigenous cryogenic engine was tested for the GSLV’s upper stage in 2007. ISRO reassessed the GSLV’s usefulness for the 2000-2010 decade and began work on an indigenous and new GSLV III heavy launch vehicle. The latter is unrelated to the GSLV-I/II and will use the tried-and-true configuration of two solid strap-on boosters and liquid main stages. It will be similar to the Ariane 5 and other contemporary launchers, with plenty of manned spaceflight payload capacity. The maiden flight is scheduled for 2008.

Chandrayaan 2008: ISRO intends to launch a tiny robotic spacecraft into lunar orbit atop a modified PSLV. It will examine the moon’s surface in more detail than ever before in order to discover tools. Countries including as the United States have indicated an interest in attaching the mission to their payloads. ISRO and NASA have agreed to send two NASA probes as payload.

AVATAR Scramjet: This is a long-term project aiming at developing a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) for satellite launches. In theory, AVATAR will be a low-cost small-satellite launch vehicle and, as a result, an economically feasible launch system. A scaled-down demonstration of the technology is scheduled for around 2008. ISRO recently successfully tested a scramjet air-breathing engine capable of reaching Mach 6 for seven seconds. ISRO will commence research on the usage of scramjets in RLVs after 2010.

ISRO has joined the competitive market for launching payloads with other nations. The Israel Space Agency, the TecSAR espionage satellite, and the Israeli Tauvex-II satellite module were all launched. CARTOSAT-2, which launched in July 2006, carried a 56 kilogramme Indonesian payload.

ISRO cooperated with Tata engines to produce a prototype hydrogen passenger vehicle for the Indian market, which is slated to hit the road by the end of 2008. ISRO used its cryogenic technology expertise to design hydrogen fuel cells for hydrogen storage and management.

On November 15, 2007, ISRO scored a significant milestone with the successful test of the indigenously constructed Cryogenic Stage, which would serve as the top stage of India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). The test was conducted on November 15, 2007, at the Liquid Propulsion test site in Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu, for a total flight time of 720 seconds. This test has completely trained the indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage on the ground. The flying stage is being prepared for the next GSLV (GSLV-D3) launch in 2008.

On April 28, 2008, ISRO successfully launched ten satellites in a single mission, enhancing its space capacity. This includes the 690 kg CARTOSTAT-2 and another 83 kg Indian mini satellite, IMS-1, as well as eight other university-based nanosatellites and research and development institutions in Canada and Germany that were provided at a reduced cost as part of the Indian Department of Space’s goodwill gesture

Anna University Satellite (ANUSAT) (20th April 2009) (Death Date: April 18, 2012): It was conceived, manufactured, and integrated by Aerospace Engineering at Madras Institute of Technology (MIT), Chromepet, Anna University. Performs amateur radio and electronics demonstration testing

GSAT-8 / INSAT-4G (May 21st, 2011): An Indian communication satellite. GAGAN’s first payload carrier satellite. Satellite for Indian communication.

RISAT-1 (Radar Imaging Satellite) (April 26, 2012): An Indian remote sensing satellite. It is India’s heaviest earth observation satellite to date.

SARAL (ARGOS and ALTIKA satellite) (February 25th, 2013): The Satellite of ARGOS and ALTIKA is a joint Indo-French satellite programme (SARAL). It takes altimetric readings to analyse ocean circulation and the level of the water’s surface.

IRNSS-1B (Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System) was launched on April 4, 2014, to offer routing, monitoring, and mapping services. The satellite is powered by two solar panels that have a ten-year lifetime and can provide up to 1,660 watts of power. Astrosat (September 28, 2015): India’s first multi-wavelength space observatory spacecraft. It uses a single satellite to take multi-wavelength measurements of several celestial objects at the same time.

SathyabamaSat (June 22nd, 2016): The Indian micro experimental satellite was constructed by students and staff at Sathyabama University in Chennai. Launched in order to collect statistics on greenhouse gas emissions.

ISRO Nano Satellite 1A (INS-1A) (15th February 2017): PSLV-launched satellites that will be followed by bigger satellites. The Surface BRDF Radiometer (SBR) and the Distressed Control Single Case were both carried as payloads (SEUM). An Indian nanosatellite produced by ISRO.

HySIS (November 29th, 2018): HysIS is an earth observation spacecraft built on ISRO’s Mini Satellite-2 (IMS-2) bus. It was launched to study the earth’s surface in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared areas of the electromagnetic spectrum This information will also be available to India’s military forces.

RISAT-2BR1 (11th December 2019): Earth Observation Radar Imaging Satellite. It offers a 0.35-meter resolution improvement.


Social media effects on people is huge.

You all have seen that we almost waste full day doing nothing just scrolling and waste entire day. Just sitting and grabbing the same information or story which we find daily. Our medium of news is also social networking sites. Which give us information which are surrounded us. We don’t watch television, hear radio or read newspaper and it is fine because all the medium is not really a good source of information. Because every information is manipulated and than reach to us. But still we have many other medium except social media who can gave us a good source of information.

I have seen many who just enjoy reals whole day. And see story of other and enjoy. But they don’t know what they are actually doing. And really don’t know what they want in their life. For a time being it’s fine but you can not make your bad habits continue and play with your career. Because when you look down you will see that your whole time which is gone. Which you could have spend it in a better manner. And once the time is gone you could not able to come back and reschedule it. So take your step wisely so that you can manage both the things and do not waste time on the things which doesn’t matter to you. Our goal should not be surfer just because of our laziness and demotivation. We should follow our passion and dreams for which we are actually living for and our life is only on us. The decision maker are only we not others. And even someone interface please listen to your words.

I really think that we are very mature and sensible person who know what is good and bad for them. Our life is lot more than what we think just we need time to explore them. Entertainment is required but making it your life is not the ultimate goal of your life. You have to make yourself capable of Living in the world. Family is not for life. And after them you all be alone. And suffering alone is more difficult than having a support. So today you have time and support. So use it properly and make yourself stand somewhere so that later you do not feel helpless. Rest is your life and your wish what you want to do in life and how your step will take you to the betterment. As i have already discuss in my previous post that every step of your is counted.

Journey of a metro train.

Have you ever experienced the same. If yes than you will surely realise that on a first we love the pleasure of metro train but slowly and gradually the craze decrease. Because now you know the fact that how the metro work. And if you are daily passenger than to you don’t feel anything new because it is your daily routine to travel. And when you see others who experience it for the first time. You realise few time back you also feel the same but now nothing excites you. And they will also realise after few time that it is nothing but a normal experience one can ever thought about and only enjoying it for a few span will give a pleasure of metro train. But when you get use too this journey will become so big wide.

Firstly we enjoyed the station we enter with excelator or lift. Than checking happens and we have to take tocken or card to take the train where we want to go. Than the journey begins and we get excited and wanted the journey to don’t end. Too soon because know we actually enjoying every bit of it. This is because all the movement is new for us and we want to enjoy every bit of it. But when the journey become daily than the excitement decrease and we feel bore and want the journey to end as know we are bore with our daily routine nothing excites know which earlier give us a pleasure. As our excitement last for sometime because we as a person want to explore more we cannot stick to one for a longer period of time. It just lasted few times. Than all the craziness go away because than we realise that there is nothing new in this journey it’s normal.

You can socialize and see people around you who are least important to see around. They are more interested in their phones and looking around that they do not give any notice to the person around them. As they are least interested in them. Because everyone enjoys their company or they already have someone with them who is giving them the pleasure to stick to the journey and enjoying their company and they don’t give a dam to others. Some are staring as they get the chance to awkward the girl sitting in front of them. Some are reading. And the journey is different for different person. Because their time pass should be there it can be anything as the metro journey is much longer when we think.

Party and enjoying is also a part of life.

I feel, we have to give importance to this section too. Our life is just surrounded by our work and family. But we forget that there is lot more than that.And that is our friends, happiness and enjoyment. You have to gave time to that also. You cannot miss that fun. Because we gets very less time to spend our day like this. These morning comes after a long time. When we actually need our Buddies who will take us far from the things which are making us bounded with. We go to lounge, club, terece and resorts for fun .

But the important thing is that we need our friends who make the party more interesting and fun for us. The craze of party is only come from the friend. We are the one when we are with friends. The journey started with the calls and meeting each other where we decided to meet. Passing comments and teasing each other on the dress or coming late after all the chit chat we decided to go inside . The fun part here is we all have given the responsibility of the entry to only one person who is most responsible one. When the tables are book. Than the menu is decided. But before that hukka and daru is must with a pack of cigarettes. After all this dance to banta hai. Than everyone knows how to dance even a non dancer. With all the drama we need to go back. But our faces are not that cool that we can able to make a eye contact with our parents. This is true and than what we need is the help of someone.

And this situation we think we have to do a night stay. And all we are staying together and helping each other and sleeping wherever we find space. And next morning we realise what actually happened last night. And trying to remember what we were doing and laughing out loud. This is true we got good and sober friends who actually help us save us and make our life easy and experience there part of party. And the non sober one is experiencing another level of joy in the party . But we all our enjoying. We just need to enjoy it doesn’t matter we are sober or non sobber if you happy than its cool. we can enjoy anywhere. Party is for you to relax and enjoy the moment which are giving you joy and happiness. So life should be interesting too. where you can get a experience of lovely people who matters alot in your life. And creating some memorable moments with them make you feel overwhelming and nice. You should love every bit of life as this is mixer of both sweet and sour. And every element plays an important role. So love your life as it is very precious.