Benefits of category management: Why should you definitely apply it? 

Selling first began as soon as the first human beings appeared. From time immemorial, unique locations were created for this purpose, including markets, bazaars, and shopping areas, where you could buy both vegetables and luxury goods from merchants. In those days, no one really thought about making the right arrangements for the merchants and their goods, making it more convenient for the customer to choose and spend more money than they originally planned. However, over time, when a wide variety of goods appeared, merchants had to start to think about how to conveniently and effectively arrange their goods to beat the competition. That’s when category management came into existence.

Category management is the process of assortment management, whereby categories of goods are created and connected based on certain characteristics. For example, various dairy products will include yoghurts, milk, cheese, cottage cheese, etc. The customer can then quickly find the right products. A business can then figure out exactly where and why it has to offer its goods to the consumer. In this regard, the introduction of category management supplies many advantages and obvious convenience for the consumer. What advantages are we talking about, you wonder? Well, let us tell you!

Optimising work with suppliers and improving relationships

Category management is about more than just organising products and data. It is a clear plan for buying goods, which will, in turn, simplify the work of the business and suppliers because it allows you to:

  • Better understand the criteria that a supplier must meet, making it much easier to select, evaluate and attract suppliers.
  • Personalise your approach to suppliers, ensuring a more long-term and trusting relationship with each other and collaborative development.
  • Minimise disruptions and conflicts. The presence of category management supports the sustainability of the business through a clear supply chain and a transparent division of the areas of responsibility.

More valuable information and, as a result, better decisions

Category management implies data analysis, a powerful tool for developing any business. Based on data collected by working with category management, a company can optimise its structure, gain a comprehensive view of costs and supply chains, and predict market conditions. Data analysis also makes it possible:

  • To easier manage the suppliers themselves, negotiating with them for the best terms and prices (the information collected during the analysis can be used as a reason during business negotiations).
  • To shape and customise categories according to customer needs and the organisation’s goals for profit, production, and risk mitigation.
  • To predict added risks and challenges and find ways to avoid them. For example, based on category management data, you can see potential disruptions to the supply chains and predict the impact of any external events (pandemic, natural disasters, international political conflicts, etc.).
  • To use human resources more efficiently. Effective category management needs skilled and well-trained professionals, such as category managers. Anyone from your team members who has the proper skills or is ready to undergo more training can become one.

By analysing category management data, you will also be able to allocate business resources to those strategies, products, market trends and promotion channels that are most likely to lead your business to success.

A better understanding of costs

Companies not using categorical management often lack complete and exact information about costs. They do not track and analyse contracts and supplier relationships, focusing solely on sales. However, if the full list of suppliers and their terms are known, so are the costs, which can be reduced or eliminated altogether, like a leak in a hose. 

Understanding the customer journey and offering a better service

Category management includes using specific tools such as Category Tree to view the customer’s path through an offline or online store. Then, by understanding their path, you can make it more convenient and, as a result, more profitable for your business. After all, any customer is primarily driven by consumer logic and personal needs. So, by understanding and using the laws of human psychology, you can significantly increase the number of sales. For example, the American company Schnucks did it in 1985 when it expanded the counter for high-end baby food. Thanks to the area organisation and considering the needs of their shoppers, their sales increased by 20%!

Category management has plenty of advantages; the most important one is that it ensures the viability of the business for many years to come. After all, using it, a company receives up-to-date and useful information about all internal processes from working with suppliers to organising goods inside the store. As a result, nothing will take it by surprise or expose it to further risks.


Lost in the Classroom? Get a Curriculum Map!

At one point in every teacher’s career, they have come to a point where they just feel lost. Their goals seem unattainable, state and district standards are looming overhead and it feels like you are lost and adrift in the ocean. Lessons seem fragmented and like they aren’t building on each other and the kids seem to be just as lost as their instructor. While the initial reaction might be to cry and think that you aren’t cut out to be an educator, don’t! Almost everyone feels this way at some point in their career and the easiest way to find the promised land is to get a curriculum map!

Photo by Pragyan Bezbaruah on

The Importance of Curriculum Mapping 

Curriculum mapping is one of the most important skills that a teacher has in their non-teaching arsenal. Many think that the work inside of the classroom is the hard part, but oftentimes that is because preparations haven’t been made outside of the classroom. Before the school year even begins, it is imperative to sit down and plan out your year. Try to answer the following questions ahead of time:

  • What are my big units?
  • What do I want the students to learn in each unit?
  • How much homework should I give?
  • How much time should I give for instruction?
  • How much time should be devoted to working on skills in class?
  • What should the test and quiz schedule look like?
  • Are there going to be any big projects?

By asking these questions ahead of time an educator can start to form a plan before a child even steps foot in the classroom. Ask any veteran teacher their biggest piece of advice and chances are many will answer with, “be proactive, not reactive”.

Where to Even Begin

Once the big questions above are answered, many wonder where to even go from there. Curriculum mapping can seem like such a daunting task. After all, you are planning out what you are going to do for the whole year right? While the process seems daunting your goal isn’t to account for every minute in the entire school year! For the average teacher that would be planning out 78,120 instructional minutes! The goal with curriculum mapping is to help you plan the following:

  • What units you want to teach.
  • What the main idea behind each unit is. 
  • What you will use to test student knowledge at the end of units.
    • Is that a project?
    • Is that a presentation?
    • Is that a test?
  • What you will use to check for understanding along the way. 
    • Homework?
    • Quizzes?

With your big pieces placed out it is easy to check the progression and flow of your instruction and to make sure that you have a clear goal for each big unit and have thought out why you are doing the things you are beforehand, 

Ready? Use a Blank Curriculum Map Template 

Don’t feel like you need to create everything from scratch! There are a myriad of resources created for teachers, by teachers, that can be extremely helpful. A blank curriculum map template can be useful in helping to guide someone through the curriculum mapping process.

Economic Indicators

What Is Economic Indicator?

An economic indicator is a piece of economic data, typically on a macroeconomic scale, that analysts use to analyse current and prospective investment opportunities. These metrics can also be used to assess an economy’s overall health.

Economic indicators can be anything an investor wants, but specific data supplied by the government and non-profit groups has grown popular. Some examples of such indicators include, but are not limited to:

  • The Consumer Price Index (CPI)
  • Gross domestic product (GDP)
  • Unemployment figures
  • Price of crude oil

Economic Indicator Explained

Economic indicators are classified into groups or categories. Most of these economic indicators have a set publication schedule, allowing investors to anticipate and plan for certain data at specific times of the month and year.

Leading indicators are used to forecast an economy’s future movements, such as the yield curve, consumer durables, net business formations, and stock prices. These financial guideposts’ figures or data will shift or change before the economy, hence their category name. The information provided by these indicators should be taken with a grain of salt because it is possible that it is erroneous.

Coincident indicators, such as GDP, employment levels, and retail sales, are seen in conjunction with the occurrence of particular economic activities. This type of measure depicts the activity of a certain region or area. This real-time data is closely monitored by many policymakers and economists. Lagging indicators, such as the gross national product (GNP), the consumer price index (CPI), unemployment rates, and interest rates, are only visible after a certain economic activity has taken place. These data sets, as the name implies, show information after an event has occurred. This trailing indication is a technical indicator that appears following significant economic changes.

Economic Indicators and Their Interpretation

An economic indicator can only be beneficial if it is accurately interpreted. Economic growth, as measured by GDP, and corporate profit growth have historically had strong relationships. However, predicting whether a company’s earnings would expand solely on a single metric of GDP is practically impossible.

Interest rates, the gross domestic product, and existing house sales or other indicators are all objectively important. Why is it objectively significant? Because what you’re actually looking at is the cost of money, expenditure, investment, and the degree of activity in a significant part of the economy.

The Stock Market as an Indicator

Leading indicators predict where an economy will go in the future. The stock market is one of the most important leading indicators. Even while it isn’t the most important leading sign, it is the one that most people pay attention to. If earnings predictions are right, the market can reflect the economy’s trajectory because stock prices factor in forward-looking performance.

A strong market could indicate that profit estimates are rising, implying that total economic activity is increasing. A falling market, on the other hand, could imply that corporate earnings are projected to decrease. However, the stock market’s value as an indicator is limited because performance against estimates is not guaranteed, therefore there is a risk.

Ratan Tata

Ratan Naval Tata is the Chairman of Tata Sons and Tata Group, and is one of India’s most well-known and respected industrialists. Tata, who is 73 years old, is the chairman of one of the country’s largest conglomerates, which includes approximately 100 companies with a combined revenue of USD 67 billion. Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Tata Teleservices, Tata Power, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Tea, Tata Chemicals, and The Indian Hotels Company are among his key Tata firms.

Tata was born on December 28, 1937, into one of Mumbai’s wealthiest families. Jamsedji Tata, the Tata group’s founder, was his great grandpa. Tata had a tumultuous life following his parents’ divorce when he was a child. Lady Navajbai, his grandmother, nurtured him in the lap of luxury at Tata Palace. The Tata scion was captivated by America, and he attended Cornell University to study architecture and structural engineering. Later, he attended Harvard University for a management course.

He joined the Tata Group in 1962, and his first position was with the Tata Steel division in Jamshedpur, where he worked with blue-collar workers shoveling stone and operating furnaces. In 1971, he was named Director-in-Charge of the National Radio and Electronics Company Limited (Nelco), and he was successful in bringing the company around.

Tata rose through the ranks of Tata Industries to become Chairman and was a driving force behind a slew of reforms. Tata Consultancy Services went public under his leadership, and Tata Motors was listed on the New York Stock Exchange, giving it greater international strength and prestige. He is recognised with directing the Tata Group’s successful bid for Corus, an Anglo-Dutch steel and aluminium company, as well as the Ford Company’s Jaguar and Land Rover brands.

During his leadership, the company saw the birth of the ‘Indica,’ India’s first fully Indian car. Tata was the designer of the vehicle. Tata’s food division purchased tea company Tetley for GBP 70 million in 2000. The group’s revenues increased nearly 12-fold in 2009-10, totaling USD 67.4 billion. Tata is also a member of the boards of Fiat SpA and Alcoa, as well as the international advisory boards of Mitsubishi Corporation, American International Group, JP Morgan Chase, Rolls Royce, Temasek Holdings, and the Singapore Monetary Authority.

He was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Indian government in the year 2000. Ohio State University awarded him an honorary doctorate in business administration, the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok awarded him an honorary doctorate in technology, and the University of Warwick awarded him an honorary doctorate in science. Tata’s personal fortune is around GBP 300 million, and he controls less than 1% of the conglomerate. Charitable trusts own about two-thirds of Tata Group, which helps to fund good causes.

During the 26/11 attacks, Tata offered a magnificent example of charity and leadership. He stood alone outside the Taj hotel, unarmed, and oversaw the actions aimed at assisting the victims. He shown his humanity by paying personal visits to the families of all 80 colleagues murdered or injured. He didn’t leave any stone unturned in his efforts to help the victims, even asking the victims’ families and dependents what they wanted him to do.

Tata has begun making arrangements for his post-retirement life, despite the fact that his retirement is still a year away. He intends to establish an international design centre with international standards and size. He has led the development of a number of groundbreaking designs and products, the most well-known of which is Nano. His concern for the safety of nuclear families commuting on two-wheelers inspired him to create Nano. He was the one who suggested that the little car just have one wiper on the windscreen. Its pricing and maintenance costs were decreased as a result.

He also spearheaded a strategy to deliver affordable and safe drinking water, and aided a group of Pune-based designers in developing Swach, a water filter that costs less than Rs 1,000. This 560-mm water purification device was created over the course of more than three years by Design Directions Private Limited.

Tata, who is a bachelor in real life, values privacy and avoids the limelight. Only CDs, books, and pets keep him company. In an unassuming Tata sedan, the business baron drives himself to work.

Ratan Tata, who stands tall among his peers with a tremendous fortune and global fame, has remarkably never made the Forbes billionaires list.

The Success Story of Nykaa

Despite the fact that beauty is in the eyes of the beholder, the global beauty industry has never lost its allure. Along with its steady growth, the industry has amassed a dedicated consumer base that spans decades. What female doesn’t enjoy applying cosmetics? Cosmetics play an important role in all of our lives, from learning makeup tutorials to experimenting with different colours on free days, to adorning ourselves before a wedding or an event, or simply putting on a fast light application before work.

But we’ve come a long way from the days when consumers had to go to a cosmetic store in person. Why should brick-and-mortar stores be the sole option when there are now online cosmetics stores that allow clients to order things at any time and from anywhere.

Despite the fact that the Indian economy has hit unprecedented lows in recent months as a result of the COVID19 pandemic-induced shutdown, a handful of platforms have remained stable.

Nykaa is one of these e-commerce platforms for beauty and wellness products, and it has quickly become the preferred option for all cosmetic aficionados in India. Anyone who has even a passing interest in beauty and wellness products has probably heard of Nykaa at some time in their lives. This is an e-commerce site that specialises in cosmetics and beauty products. This platform, which was founded in 2012, has played a critical part in dispelling the idea that e-commerce and beauty retail do not do well in India.

Nykaa has recently become a household name across the country following the launch of its initial public offering (IPO) and the overwhelming response it received, propelling its founder Falguni Nayar into India’s elite group of self-made billionaire women, with her net worth rising to $6.5 billion following Nykaa’s record listing, according to Bloomberg Billionaires Index.

We will provide you an overview of Nykaa’s platform, its creators, its business model, its funding, its success story, its inception, and its growth through this blog.

Nykaa’s Background

Nykaa is an Indian cosmetics company that specialises in multi-beauty and personal care items. It started off as a solo e-commerce platform before expanding into a variety of retail locations across the country.

For both women and men, the company specialises in providing a broad variety of cosmetics, skincare, haircare, perfumes, bath & body, luxury, and wellness items. The portal, which claims to receive more than 1.5 million visitors per month from across India, permits adequately prepared and priced branded products.Nykaa now has three types of stores: Luxe, On Trend, and Kiosks. Nykaa’s Luxe stores contain more premium and luxury brands such as Estee Lauder, Dior, Huda Beauty, and M.A.C Cosmetics, among others, whereas Nykaa On Trend goods are limited to trending and fashionable names.

Aside from women’s beauty, the Nykaa Man website and app, as well as Nykaa Network, an online community for beauty enthusiasts, offer a variety of grooming products for males. Currently, the organisation is a staunch believer in focusing on the vertical market.

Founders of Nykaa

Falguni Nayar, an MBA graduate from IIM Ahmedabad, began working in investment banking at Kotak Mahindra immediately after graduation. She was promoted to Managing Director of the same bank division in 2005.

She worked for Kotak Mahindra for nearly 18 years, during which time she decided to branch out from banking and try her hand at other fields.

She saw the untapped potential of the online beauty industry. Since there was a scarcity of accessible online brands and things that people could trust and purchase with confidence at the time, she saw an opportunity for Nykaa.

She wanted to change Indian women’s perceptions about personal grooming because she was passionate about makeup and beauty products. Nykaa was founded in 2012 by her with the goal of creating something unique to her.

Nykaa’s Beginnings

Nykaa was founded in 2012, and it all started there. Falguni Nayar was looking for a promising business opportunity in India when she discovered an inconsistency in the beauty items market in India, which wasn’t up to par with the product’s scope in other countries such as France or Japan, despite high demand, owing to a lack of product availability in many places. As a result, she and her husband, Sanjay Nayar, founded Nykaa.

Business Model of Nykaa

Nykaa’s inventory methodology is essentially what distinguishes it from its competitors. The products are obtained through brands and distributors and then sold directly to consumers in this arrangement. This is in contrast to a marketplace model, in which third-party vendors offer the products. Nykaa will be able to keep a tighter grip on its items as a result of this, reducing the chances of forged things making their way onto the platform.

Nykaa’s Recent Growth

As reported by Your Story, recently in the month of July of this year, the platform stated that it’s in-house brand Nykaa Beauty has now penetrated into travel care as well as home necessities.

Nykaa’s platform has come a long way since its inception in 2012, and it currently plays an important part in the advancement of the beauty industry.

Nykaa currently has over 5 million monthly active users, 80 outlets across India, and over 500 brands and 130,000 products available via its website, app, and stores, according to CNBCTV18.

The company’s transformation from an online approach to an omnichannel retail model has been a critical factor in its growth. This transformation has had a significant impact on how the brand is currently perceived by its audience, as well as allowing the brand to reach out to a previously untapped demographic.

According to the Economic Times, the Nykaa Fashion label has recently expanded into the intimate apparel area with its Nykd brand. On October 22, 2021, Nykaa announced the acquisition of Dot & Key Wellness, a domestic skincare platform.

Customers are gravitating toward key categories like personal skin and hair care, according to Nykaa.

Nykaa’s Initial Public Offering

The platform’s initial public offering (IPO) was open for subscription from October 28 to November 1, with a price range of Rs 1,085-1,125 per share. Nykaa’s initial public offering (IPO) was oversubscribed by 81.78 times the 2.64 crore shares available.

Investors reacted positively to Nykaa’s initial public offering (IPO) when it was made available for subscription. The platform was launched on the BSE and NSE on November 10 and entered the 1 lakh crore market capitalization club when its stocks closed at 2,206.70, nearly double the issue price, valuing the beauty firm at about $14 billion.

Nykaa Investments is a company that invests in startups.

Nykaa’s parent firm, FSN E-Commerce Ventures Ltd, said on October 27th 2021 that it had raised roughly Rs 2,396 crore from anchor investors prior to its IPO.

Fidelity Management & Research Company has previously invested an undisclosed amount in the platform in late November 2020.

In early April of 2020, the platform received a new $13 million fundraising round from previous investor Steadview Capital, cementing its status as a unicorn.

Steadview Capital, TPG Growth, and Lighthouse Funds are among the platform’s top investors.


Nykaa has recently launched a number of new items, some of which have celebrity endorsements. In addition, they have included a number of new collections into their personal brand.

The platform has a number of big plans in the works to make a difference in the beauty and fashion business, and it’s been focusing on delivering high-quality items and services to users at reasonable prices. The platform has a lot of promise in terms of developing and gaining a more dominant position in the future.

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence or Intellectual Intelligence: Which is More Important in the Workplace?

Among all the good qualities that effective leaders bring to the workplace, research has proven that our emotional intelligence is more reliable than our IQ in predicting overall success (EI). EI is described as the ability to perceive and effectively manage our own and others’ personal emotions.

What is the Importance of Emotional Intelligence?

A strong proclivity for emotional intelligence, according to research published in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, improves one’s ability to make sound decisions, build and sustain collaborative relationships, deal effectively with stress, and cope to a greater degree with constant change. To wit, it enables an individual not only to perform well in the workplace, but also in accomplishing various other goals and objectives in his or her life.

What are the Benefits of Emotional Intelligence for Managers?

EI is also important for workplace conflict resolution, which entails being able to guide others through uncomfortable circumstances, politely bringing issues to the surface, and establishing solutions that everyone can agree on. Leaders who take the time to comprehend other points of view attempt to find a middle ground in conflicts. You can try to make others feel heard by paying attention to how others respond to one another, which will make them more open to compromise.

What is the Importance of Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace?

Emotional intelligence in the workplace begins with each individual from the inside out.. It entails understanding different parts of your feelings and emotions, as well as devoting time to developing self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The online Master of Arts in Leadership (MAL) degree from Ottawa University provides you with the tools to assess and analyse your emotional intelligence levels. You’ll also learn ways for increasing your emotional intelligence at various phases of your career.

The 5 Elements of EI by Goleman

So, how does emotional intelligence play a role in workplace leadership? Emotional intelligence contains five critical parts, according to Daniel Goleman, an American psychologist and author of the breakthrough book “Emotional Intelligence.” When controlled, these elements enable leaders achieve a greater level of emotional intelligence.


Emotional intelligence includes the ability to detect and understand one’s own emotions. Being aware of the impact of your behaviours, moods, and emotions on others goes beyond simply acknowledging your emotions. You must be able to monitor your own emotions, recognise different emotional reactions, and accurately name each feeling in order to become self-aware. Self-conscious people are also aware of the connections between their feelings and their actions.


The ability to control and manage your emotions, which isn’t to mean that you’re putting your emotions on hold and disguising your genuine feelings. It merely entails waiting for the appropriate moment and location to express them. It’s all about expressing your emotions in a healthy way when it comes to self-regulation. Self-regulators are more adaptable and versatile in their approach to change. They’re also skilled at defusing stressful or challenging situations and managing conflict.


In emotional intelligence, intrinsic motivation is also important. People who are emotionally intelligent are motivated by factors other than monetary gain, recognition, or acclaim. Instead, they are driven by a desire to meet their own personal demands and objectives.

Empathy – or the ability to comprehend how others are experiencing – is an essential component of emotional intelligence. However, it entails more than merely being able to perceive others’ emotional states. It also includes how you respond to others based on the information you’ve gathered. How do you react when you notice someone is unhappy, depressed, or disheartened? You may show them more care and concern, or you could make an attempt to cheer them up.

Social Skills
Another key part of emotional intelligence is the ability to interact well with people. True emotional knowledge entails more than just thinking about your own and others’ feelings. You must also be able to apply this knowledge in your everyday interactions and conversations. Managers gain from being able to form relationships and connections with their staff in professional situations. Workers gain from being able to form strong bonds with their supervisors and coworkers. Active listening, vocal communication skills, nonverbal communication skills, leadership, and persuasiveness are all important social skills.

Given all of these considerations, it’s easy to see why emotional intelligence is important in the workplace. If this research-based theory piques your interest as a business professional, a graduate degree in leadership might be perfect for you. Ottawa University’s online Master of Arts in Leadership programme is the best, fastest, and most economical in Kansas City. The Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP) has granted this competitive programme accreditation, indicating the excellent quality of business education provided. Ottawa University and its online programmes have been ranked near the top of the best colleges in Kansas City by U.S. News & World Report.

Gender Equality

Gender inequality is visible in girls’ and boys’ homes and communities on a daily basis — in textbooks, the media, and among the adults who care for them.

Parents may shoulder disproportionate home responsibilities, with females shouldering the burden of caregiving and chores. Women make up the bulk of low-skilled and underpaid community health workers who work with children, with few opportunities for advancement.

In addition, many females receive less help in school than boys in order to pursue the studies they choose. This occurs for a number of reasons: Girls’ safety, hygiene, and sanitation needs may be overlooked, preventing them from attending class on a regular basis. Gender disparities in learning and skill development are also a result of discriminatory teaching styles and educational resources. As a result, approximately one out of every four girls between the ages of 15 and 19 is unemployed or in school or training, compared to one out of every ten boys.

Gender inequalities in early childhood, however, are minor. Girls have a better rate of survival at birth, are more likely to be on track developmentally, and are equally as likely to attend preschool. In every country where data is available, girls exceed boys in reading among those who reach secondary school.

Adolescence, on the other hand, can provide substantial challenges for females’ well-being. Unwanted pregnancies, HIV and AIDS, and malnutrition are all increased by gender stereotypes and discrimination. Girls are shut off from the information and equipment they need to stay healthy and safe, especially in emergency situations and locations where menstruation is still taboo.

Gender discrimination can become violent in its most insidious form. Around 13 million girls between the ages of 15 and 19 have been subjected to forced sex. Adolescent girls are the most vulnerable to gender-based violence in both peace and conflict. Hundreds of millions of girls around the world are still subjected to child marriage and female genital mutilation, despite the fact that both have been recognised as human rights crimes internationally. And violence can occur during childbirth, especially in areas where female infanticide is a problem.

At the highest levels, harmful gender norms are promoted. In other nations, laws and policies that fail to safeguard – or even violate – girls’ rights, such as laws prohibiting women from inheriting property, become established. Gender norms affect boys as well: social ideas of masculinity can fuel child labour, gang violence, school dropouts, and armed group recruitment.

What Progress has been made for Girls and Young Women?

Despite significant obstacles that continue to deny them equal rights, girls are unafraid to pursue their dreams. The globe has seen unequal progress since the signing of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action in 1995 – the most comprehensive policy agenda for gender equality.

Girls are attending and completing school in greater numbers, and fewer are marrying or becoming moms while still children. Discrimination and stereotypes persist, however. Girls face new problems as a result of technological advancements and humanitarian crises, while old ones — violence, entrenched biases, and limited learning and life chances – endure.

That is why young women from all areas of life are speaking out against inequity. Stopping child marriage and female genital mutilation, demanding action on climate change, and breaking new ground in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) are all examples of girl-led groups asserting their authority as global change-makers.

5 Simple Ways To Manage Anxiety

The suffocating sensation of your heart pounding and sinking, the feeling that there is nothing good around you and that you are continually imprisoned in a circle of negativity. This is something that we have all experienced at some point in our lives. Especially in light of the current situation, where the entire planet is on the verge of collapsing due to a virus, every occurrence sends shivers down the spines of practically everyone. We can’t deny that the current situation is having an impact on our emotional and mental health, but we also can’t give in and lose our spark in these trying times. We must gather our resources and fortify our resolve.

Nobody can tell you that being anxious is abnormal. What isn’t natural is succumbing to it and allowing your anxiety to rule you. You’ll need to gather your thoughts and get a handle on the problem before you can figure out how to cope with it. Anxiety is associated with feelings of despair, pessimism, and agitation, yet there are various ways to overcome it.

Nobody can tell you that being anxious is abnormal. What isn’t natural is succumbing to it and allowing your anxiety to rule you. You’ll need to gather your thoughts and get a handle on the problem before you can figure out how to cope with it. Anxiety is associated with feelings of despair, pessimism, and agitation, yet there are various ways to overcome it.

1. Mindfulness

When you feel like everything around you is spinning out of control and you need some time to step back and reflect on your life. Close your eyes and meditate while sitting calmly in fresh air. Meditation is a state of relaxation in which your body is put on hold and all of your muscles relax. The blood pressure drops, and you can feel your thoughts all the way down to your bones. You don’t need to have a clear mind right now; the thoughts that are bothering you need to be acknowledged, and only then will they be expelled from your system.Take a few deep breaths to relax and feel all of the stress leave your body. Be open to all of the positive energies that are all around you.

Meditation is an excellent approach to reduce stress and quiet a racing mind. It is the simplest method to set aside some time to address and eliminate the things that cause you anxiety.

2. Get some rest

A good sleeping routine is required to equip your body to withstand all of life’s instabilities. As simple as it may appear, only those who suffer from anxiety difficulties understand how tough it is to go asleep when your thoughts are continuously bothering you. Anxiety causes insomnia and prevents people from falling into a deep slumber where they are free of all their worries and thoughts. But, as a last note, if you hit the hay and are able to sleep nonetheless, there is a greater possibility that when you wake up, you will feel relaxed and refreshed.

‘A good night’s sleep is the bridge between despair and hope,’ as the saying goes. So, do the same and try to fall asleep, allowing your body and mind to recover on their own.

3. Communicate with your loved ones.

There is nothing more therapeutic than sitting down with your family, close friends, or loved ones and having a great talk with them about all the serious and random things that come up. You can moan, rant, and express your insecurities and thoughts, and after a while, you’ll find a heavy load of anxiety lifting from your shoulders. It is always recommended to people who are dwelling into the phase of anxiety to have a few people in their life who can be their 3 Am friends and can lend an ear to all the venting sessions to help them calm down.

Having a full-fledged conversation involving various shades of emotions helps in calming the mind as well as lightens the mood to its best.

‘A good night’s sleep is the bridge between despair and hope,’ as the saying goes. So, do the same and try to fall asleep, allowing your body and mind to recover on their own.

4. Treat yourself to a spa day.

It never hurts to indulge yourself. Even if you’re in the midst of a bad mood, a little self-pampering can completely transform your mood. It is not necessary to go all out, but a little something goes a long way. Give yourself a pedicure/manicure, take a hot shower, mask, and wear your favourite dress with subtle make-up to notice how this changes the entire dismal attitude into one of self-love.

‘A good night’s sleep is the bridge between despair and hope,’ as the saying goes. So, do the same and try to fall asleep, allowing your body and mind to recover on their own.

Anxiety is a mental illness, and sitting in a corner and obsessively thinking about it isn’t going to assist you at all. Instead, make an effort to do something that makes you feel wonderful and energised.

5. Relax and let go

This is a skill that we all need to master: letting go. You have no control over your cognitive process, and you never know what will trigger you at any given moment. There are a number of factors that make you anxious, and you have no control over them. The greatest approach to get rid of all these ideas and reflections is to scribble them down on a piece of paper. You must let go of everything that is bothering you on the inside and is affecting your mental well-being. And writing it out on paper and clearing your mind of all the toxicity will help you feel better in every way.

Writing is the best way to express oneself, and using it to liberate yourself from all the thinking thoughts in your head is one of the most effective ways to do so.

These were the five most straightforward methods for dealing with anxiety and overcoming it. Anxiety leads to sadness, and the only way to avoid slipping into this pit is to face your problems head on and deal with them as effectively as possible.

Anyone who notices a loved one showing signs of anxiety disorders needs to be empathic towards them so that they can be guided through the process with the utmost care and concern. If you believe they require professional care, do not hesitate to contact a psychologist or therapist to assist them in maintaining their mental health.

We hope that we were able to shed some light on the various approaches of dealing with anxiety problems. None of us is an expert or a licensed psychologist, so these suggestions are just based on our own personal experiences. They might work for some and might not for others, make sure to leave your comments down below if any of these were useful for you to relax your mind and soul and proved to be therapeutic for you.

Social Media and its Impact on Teenagers

Many teenagers’ lives are dominated by social media. According to a 2018 Pew Research Center survey of almost 750 13- to 17-year-olds, 45 percent of them are almost always online, and 97 percent use a social media platform like YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, or Snapchat But how does social media use affect teenagers?

The Advantages of Social Media

Teens can use social media to establish online identities, engage with others, and form social networks. These networks can be extremely beneficial to youth, especially those who are socially excluded, have impairments, or suffer from chronic illnesses.

Social media is also used by teenagers for enjoyment and self-expression. Furthermore, the platforms can educate kids on a range of topics, including healthy behaviors, by exposing them to current events, allowing them to interact across geographic barriers, and exposing them to current events. Humorous or distracting social media, as well as social media that gives a genuine connection to peers and a large social network, may even help kids avoid sadness.

Social Media Harms

Social media use can also negatively affect teens, distracting them, disrupting their sleep, and exposing them to bullying, rumor spreading, unrealistic views of other people’s lives and peer pressure.

The risks might be related to how much social media teens use. A 2019 study of more than 6,500 12- to 15-year-olds in the U.S. found that those who spent more than three hours a day using social media might be at heightened risk for mental health problems. Another 2019 study of more than 12,000 13- to 16-year-olds in England found that using social media more than three times a day predicted poor mental health and well-being in teens.

Other research has found a link between excessive social media use and depression or anxiety symptoms. Greater social media use, midnight social media use, and emotional involvement in social media — such as feeling upset when unable to go on — were all connected to poor sleep quality and higher levels of anxiety and despair in a 2016 research of more than 450 teenagers.

The influence of social media may also be determined by how teens utilise it. According to a 2015 study, social comparison and feedback seeking by teenagers on social media and telephones is associated with depressed symptoms. Furthermore, a tiny 2013 study indicated that older teenagers who used social media passively, such as by just looking at other people’s images, had lower life satisfaction. These declines did not affect those who utilised social media to communicate with others or upload their own content.

And, according to a previous study on the impact of social media on undergraduate college students, the longer they used Facebook, the stronger their opinion that others were happier than they were. However, the more time students spent socialising with their peers, the less they felt this way.

Experts believe that kids who post information on social media are at danger of disclosing intimate images or highly personal stories due to their impulsive natures. Teens may be bullied, harassed, or even blackmailed as a result of this. Teens frequently make posts without thinking about the repercussions or privacy issues.

Protecting your Teen

You can take steps to encourage ethical social media use and mitigate some of its negative impacts. Consider the following suggestions:

Set sensible boundaries: Discuss with your teen how to keep social media from interfering with his or her activities, sleep, food, or homework. Encourage teens to follow a sleep ritual that excludes the use of electronic media, and keep cellphones and tablets out of their rooms. Set a good example by adhering to these guidelines.

Keep an eye on your teen’s social media profiles: Let your teen know that you’ll be reviewing his or her social media accounts on a frequent basis. You should try to perform it at least once a week. Make certain you complete the task.

Describe what isn’t acceptable: Encourage your kid not to gossip, spread rumours, bully, or harm someone’s reputation, whether online or off. Discuss what is proper and safe to publish on social media with your teen.

Encourage your pals to interact with you in person: This is especially crucial for teenagers who are prone to social anxiety.

Talk about social media: Discuss your own social media usage. Inquire about your teen’s use of social media and how it makes him or her feel. Remind your adolescent that social media is full of unreasonable expectations.

Corporate Life Cycle

Every business’s story usually includes the four stages of a corporate life cycle. The specifics, as well as the length of time a corporation spends in each, will differ. Some businesses will experience setbacks or readjustments, forcing them to return to a former stage. Others, on the other hand, may take a different approach to the final stages. In this post, we go through what happens at each stage of the corporate life cycle in greater depth.

What is the Life Cycle of a Company?

A corporate life cycle is the progression of a company’s growth and development from its inception to its eventual demise, which can occur in a variety of ways. A business’s life cycle is divided into four stages:

  • Startup stage
  • Growth and establishment stage
  • Maturity stage
  • Decline or exit

Startup Stage

This is the stage at which the company begins planting, developing, or launching its product or providing services to customers. This can be separated into two parts: pre-launch research and fund-raising, and post-launch product or service production and launch.

The start-up stage spans the time between when a business is founded and when it reaches its first key degree of stability. The company’s founder creates prototypes or pilots, solicits and analyses comments, and seeks out potential investors or sources of funding at the start of this stage.

Other aspects of the start-up stage include:

Financial: The primary purpose of this stage is to secure funding. Owners require finances in order to rent space, purchase raw materials, pay employees, and purchase advertising. Due to the necessity to pay for capital inputs, startup costs are typically substantial, and profit will most certainly lag behind sales.

Personnel: Typically, the owner is the face and name of the company, and their identity is often confused with that of the brand. All significant decisions are made by the owner or owners, who, in the case of small beginning enterprises, play various responsibilities. They may create their own marketing materials, run their own social media accounts, manufacture or provide services, and keep track of their finances.

Goal: At this stage, the most important goals are to gain awareness and attract enough clients to fund the costs of running the business. Another goal is to constantly and swiftly refine the company’s offerings in order to respond to market changes.

Stages of Development and Establishment

The company has begun to generate steady income at this point, and both cash flow and revenue have improved. Redefining goals, reorganising departments, establishing an unified marketing plan, and beginning to explore community and business relationships are all good things to do now. Also, at this time, a distinct company culture may have evolved.

The following are some features of the growth and establishment stage:

Financial: Financially, the company’s profits should readily support wages and overhead at this time. Sales are likely to rise, and profit margins are likely to widen as the company continues to pay off capital investments and loans.

Personnel: Owners become more strategic in their hiring. This is when business leaders assemble teams to whom they entrust their vision and message communication. This necessitates clearly defining duties and responsibilities, as well as carefully hiring personnel who are capable of doing them. This will provide the owner more time and bandwidth to deepen existing client connections while also exploring new opportunities with potential clients and partners.

Goals: Profit and brand-driven goals are the primary objectives at this level. The company wants to be profitable in order to attract extra funding for expansion. It also aspires to increase its market share and strengthen its position.

Maturity Level

Sales may have reached a halt at this point, and earnings should remain stable. A corporate structure with levels of hierarchy and clearly defined positions is normally in place. The company has a well-defined business model and has a steady stream of clients and consumers, with new accounts being added on a regular basis. This may be the ultimate goal for several business owners. For many businesses, the expansion phase is when they look to expand their product line, launch new services, branch out into a new field, or enter a new geographic market.

This stage also has the following characteristics:

Financial: This stage is marked by slow but steady increases in profits and revenue, though the direction of the gain may start to flatten out as competitors and new entrants compete for market share. This is also the time to take advantage of that expansion by combining and utilising available money for expansion—almost like a second stage of the first. If a large-scale expansion is in the works, this could be the time when the company brings in new investors to help fund the project.

Personnel: Management and senior managers may be fully entrenched in their roles at this point.This stage also has the following characteristics: Managers are in charge of departments, and they have specific guidelines. Owners sometimes remove themselves from the equation at this stage as the needs of the firm change, employing individuals to run the company totally so they can focus on new initiatives or new directions within the same company.

Goals: At this stage, a mature company’s goals are focused on reinvention in order to stay relevant in a rapidly changing field.

Accept or Decline

This phase of the corporate life cycle could be viewed as a conclusion or a new beginning. Businesses frequently have two options: expand the business to the point of reinvention or withdraw completely, either by selling the company or handing over complete management to executives. There will be some overall change if the decision is taken to keep the company. Perhaps fresh branding, packaging, or a newly redesigned product to breathe new life into an old favourite.

Financial: At this point, business owners can go in a variety of directions. They can either reinvest in the firm to restart the growth cycle, or they can cash out by selling the company to another company or to the current management. Despite the fact that revenues appear to be stable at this point, practically all businesses will eventually find themselves sharing the market with competitors.

Personnel: The company has dispersed leadership at this time, and departments can operate within well-organized structures.

Goals: The fundamental purpose of this stage of the corporate life cycle is strategic planning. The owner and management must decide whether to continue the same, expand and evolve, or sell the business.


An overview of India’s Educational System

The Gurukul was India’s first educational system. It was a residential schooling system that began approximately 5000 BC, in which the shisya (student) and guru (teacher) lived in the guru’s ashram (residence) or in close vicinity. This allows for the development of an emotional attachment prior to the transmission of knowledge. The ancient Sanskrit language was used as a means of communication.

The foundation of learning was not just reading books and memorising facts, but a child’s well-rounded, holistic development. Their mental, cognitive, physical, and spiritual well-being were all considered. Religion, holy scriptures, medicine, philosophy, warfare, statecraft, astrology, and other topics were covered.

The focus was on instilling human values in students, such as self-reliance, appropriate behaviour, empathy, creativity, and strong moral and ethical principles. The goal was for knowledge to be applied in the future to develop solutions to real-world challenges.

The Gurukul students’ six educational goals are as follows:

The acquisition of highest knowledge: The Gurukul education system’s ultimate goal was to understand Brahma (God) and the universe beyond sensual pleasures in order to achieve immortality.

Character development: The student developed will-power, which is a necessity for excellent character, as a result of their study of the Vedas (old scriptures), allowing them to develop a more positive attitude and outlook on life.

Development in all areas: The optimum approach for entire living was thought to be learning to withdraw the senses inside and practising introversion. While completing various jobs at the Gurukul, pupils were able to become aware of the inner workings of the mind, as well as their responses and reactions.

Social virtues: The learner was motivated to only tell the truth and avoid deception and lying by training his body, mind, and heart. This was regarded as the pinnacle of human morality. They were also encouraged to believe in charitable giving, which made them more socially responsible.

Spiritual development: Ancient literature, especially Yagyas, recommend introversion as the best approach for spiritual development (rituals). As a result, the learner spent time in reflection and isolation from the outside world in order to gain self-knowledge and self-realisation by looking fully within himself.

Students presented food to a pedestrian or a guest once a year as part of their cultural education. This act was regarded as a sacrifice comparable to one’s social and religious obligations to others.

India’s Educational Statistics and Facts

Every child between the ages of three and eighteen is entitled to free and compulsory education under India’s Right to Education Act 2020.

According to India’s education statistics, over 26% of the population (1.39 billion) is between the ages of 0 and 14, which presents a significant opportunity for the primary education sector.

Furthermore, approximately 500 million people, or 18% of the population, are between the ages of 15 and 24, offering for prospects for expansion in India’s secondary and higher education institutions.

According to the Indian education data, the literacy rate for adults (15+ years) in India is 69.3%, with male literacy at 78.8% and female literacy at 59.3%.

Kerala has the highest literacy rate in India, with 96.2 percent as of 2018.

The University of Delhi is the most well-known Indian higher education institution, followed by the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.

In the 2019 English Proficiency Index, India was ranked 34 out of 100 countries, allowing for easy distribution of educational materials that satisfy Universal standards.

Goals for India’s educational future

India joined the United Nations’ E9 programme in April 2021, which aims to build a digital learning and skills initiative for marginalised children and youth, particularly girls.

The Indian government allotted a budget of US7.56 billion towards school education and literacy in the Union Budget 2021-22.

India’s higher education system is expected to feature more than 20 universities among the top 200 universities in the world by 2030. With an annual research and development (R&D) budget of US$140 billion, it is expected to be among the top five countries in the world in terms of research production.

What is the present Indian Educational System like?

It is obvious that modern Indian education differs from that of the “Gurukula.” The curriculum is generally taught in English or Hindi, and computer technology and skills have been integrated into learning systems. The focus is more on competitive examinations and grades than moral, ethical, and spiritual education.

In the 1830s, Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay introduced the modern school system to India for the first time. Metaphysics and philosophy were deemed unnecessary in favour of “modern” subjects like science and mathematics.

Until July 2020, India’s education system was based on the 10+2 system, which awarded a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) after finishing class 10th and a Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) after finishing class 12th.

This has been replaced by the 5+3+3+4 system as a result of the new National Education Policy (NEP). The phases have been divided to correspond to the stages of cognitive growth that a kid goes through naturally.

India’s obligatory education system is divided into four levels.

1. Establishing a foundation
According to the NEP, the five-year foundational stage of education consists of three years of preschool followed by two years of primary school. This stage will include the development of linguistic abilities as well as age-appropriate play or activity-based strategies.

We have a course called English in Early Childhood: Learning Language Through Play for people working in early education that can help you understand the importance of play in language development and how to use play to teach language skills to children in a fun way. With our free online course, you can also learn how to Prevent and Manage Infections in Childcare and Pre-School.

2. Stage of preparation
This three-year stage will continue to emphasise verbal development while also emphasising numeracy abilities. Classroom interactions will also be activity-based, with a strong emphasis on the aspect of discovery.

3. The middle stage
The three-year focus moves to critical learning objectives, such as experiential learning in the sciences, mathematics, arts, social sciences, and humanities, for classes six through eight.

4. The second stage
Students in grades 9 and 10, as well as grades 11 and 12, have a range of subject combinations to pick from and study, depending on their talents and interests.

Critical thinking, an open mind, and flexibility in the cognitive process are all encouraged at this level. Our course Volunteering in the Classroom: Bringing STEM Industry into Schools will boost your students’ thinking abilities while also encouraging their interest in the subject of STEM, which has a large skills deficit and hence has a great employment potential.

Higher education In India

At the undergraduate stage, students can choose to study at this level from age 18 onwards. The majority of students attend a free public college or university, while others choose a private institution for their education. Indian college and university degrees in the field of agriculture, engineering, pharmaceutics and technology usually take four years to complete. Law, medicine and architecture can take up to five years.

Post-graduate study in India

Known as master’s courses or doctorate degrees, they can take from two up to three years to complete, respectively. Post-graduate education in India is largely provided by universities, followed by colleges and the majority of students are women. Post-graduate study allows students to specialise in a chosen field and conduct large amounts of research.

Adult education India

Adult education aims to improve literacy and move illiterate adults over the age of 21 along the path to knowledge. The National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA) in India is in charge of supporting and promoting adult literacy programmes.

Our course Online Teaching: Creating Courses for Adult Learners offers everything you need to educate adults online if you’re an adult education provider or thinking about becoming one.

In India, distance education is available.

The School of Correspondence Courses and Continuing Education at Delhi University was the first to implement distance learning in India in 1962. The goal was to allow people who had the desire and aptitude to learn more and improve their professional skills to do so.

Significant gains in online education in India have been made and continue to be made as technology advances. Due to rising consumer demand and the pandemic’s effects, Indian higher education institutions are focusing on developing online programmes. By 2026, India’s online education market is expected to be worth $11.6 billion.

In India, homeschooling and blended learning are popular.

While homeschooling is not common in India, nor is it usually acknowledged, distant learning is becoming the new standard as a result of the epidemic. As a result, many children will learn at home while also attending school, a practise known as blended learning.

Our course Blended Learning Essentials for Vocational Education and Training provides a complete introduction to blended learning for teachers and trainers.

What is India’s New Education Policy?

The Union Cabinet authorised a new National Education Policy (NEP) in July 2020, which will be fully implemented by 2040. They also changed the Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) to the Ministry of Education, which will serve as the sole regulator for all Indian schools and higher education institutions.

The NEP was initially drafted in 1964 by a 17-member Education Committee and ratified by Parliament in 1968. Its objective is to provide the framework and lead the development of education in India. It has been updated three times since then, the most recent being under Narendra Modi’s Prime Ministership.

The 2020 NEP’s five major changes in school and higher education

1. School will begin at age three: The Right to Education Act (RTE) will now cover free and compulsory schooling from age three up to 18 years, instead of six to 14 years. This brings early childhood education of ages three to five, for the first time, under the scope of formal schooling.

2. Students will be taught in their mother tongue: Although not compulsory, the NEP suggests students until class five should be taught in their mother tongue or regional language as a way to help children learn and grasp non-trivial concepts quicker. 

3. One umbrella body for the entire higher education system: Under the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI), public and private higher education institutions will be governed by the same set of norms for regulation, accreditation and academic standards

4. Higher education becomes multidisciplinary: By 2040, all universities and colleges are expected to be multidisciplinary, according to the policy. Students will be able to create their own subject combinations based on their skill set and areas of interest.

5. There will be a variety of exit alternatives for undergraduate degrees: Colleges and universities in India are now permitted to offer a certificate after one year of study in a discipline or a diploma after two years of study under the new regulation. After completing a three-year programme, a bachelor’s degree is conferred.


Because of the proactive nature of the NEP, India’s education system is in sync with the global reforms in education brought about by Covid-19. We have various teaching tools accessible to help you create a better influence on your students’ lives and your teaching abilities, as blended learning appears to be the future of education in India.

We hope you’ve gotten a better understanding of the facts that make up India’s education system, whether it’s merely to broaden your horizons or to take advantage of the rapidly expanding Indian education sector.


Internet fraud is a sort of deception that involves the use of the internet. It is not a single fraud; rather, it is a collection of frauds. Internet fraudsters are omnipresent, and they are always coming up with new ways to defraud people and drain their bank accounts. We’ll talk about the many types of internet scams in this blog.

Types of Internet Fraud


Fraudsters utilise this tactic to steal your personal information. Fraudsters send you emails impersonating as a legitimate or well-known organisation in this scam. The primary goal of the emails is to steal your financial information. A link or file is generally included in these emails. You will be directed to a phoney website if you click on those links. The false website will request critical information such as your credit card number, UPI code, and other bank account information. Furthermore, clicking on such links will infect your machine with a malware.


It is one of the most significant online scams in recent years. Fraudsters use this method to build up bogus online shopping portals in order to defraud unsuspecting people of their hard-earned money. They display appealing products at a low price on their website. However, after paying for the transaction, either the fraudulent product is provided or the merchandise is not sent at all. There will be no return or refund procedures on these websites, and there will be no customer care personnel to contact.


Identity theft occurs when criminals steal your personal information over the internet and use it to apply for a personal loan, a two-wheeler loan, or a bank credit card. When you take out a loan in your name, you are responsible for paying it back. Banks will give you a payback notification. If you do not repay the loan, your credit score will suffer and you will be labelled a loan defaulter.

Additionally, your stolen information might be utilized to construct phony social network accounts.


The work-at-home scam is one of the most common types of online fraud. Fraudsters take advantage of those looking for work from home possibilities by suggesting that they may earn a lot of money by working from home for a few hours. Job searchers will be required to deposit a set amount of money for a job kit that will be useful for the employment in order to register for the scheme. There will be no record of employers once the money is deposited.


Lottery fraud is one of India’s top three internet scams. Lottery fraud occurs when con artists phone you or send you emails and texts claiming you have won a lottery worth millions of rupees. You will be required to deposit money online in the name of tax in order to obtain the lottery money. When you visit phoney websites, you may be prompted to pay money. When you use those websites to make a payment, all of your card information is taken.


People use online matrimony sites to find their life partners in our fast-paced world. However, the sad reality is that many people lose lakhs of dollars when searching for their soulmates on matrimony websites. Innocent people are duped by fraudsters who create phoney profiles. In addition, various gangs have been formed to carry out this scam. First, the perpetrators persuade victims to trust them. Money is taken from the victims once the trust has been established.


This type of fraud usually occurs during tax season, when taxpayers are expecting a return. Taxpayers receive phoney refund SMS and emails from fraudsters pretending to be from the IRS. These messages are mostly delivered with the goal of gathering personal information such as I-T Department internet login credentials, bank account information, and so on. You will be requested to give sensitive bank information in order for the refund money to be credited to your bank account.


Credit card firms offer reward points or loyalty points to encourage people to use their cards. Frauds involving credit card reward points have also been reported. Credit cardholders are contacted by fraudsters pretending to be from their credit card provider and offering to assist them in redeeming their credit card reward points. They generate a sense of urgency among cardholders by emphasising that the deal will expire soon. Cardholders will be required to enter their card details as well as an OTP in order to redeem their reward points. Fraudsters use these details to carry out fraudulent transactions.


OLX fraud has become all too widespread, and many people have lost money while buying and selling items on the platform. Fraudsters pose as Army troops and place ads on the platform, which is a common occurrence on OLX. To gain people’s trust, fraudsters exploit army personnel’s stolen identification cards. They take money from the buyer in exchange for the claimed product, but they never deliver it. Fraudsters take advantage of the goodwill associated with the armed forces to defraud people of their hard-earned money.


As the number of people utilizing social media grows, so does the number of social media hoaxes. Cyberbullying is one of the most common forms of social media fraud, and many youngsters have fallen victim to it. Cyberbullying is the use of social networking sites to bully people. There are also other more social media scams, such as a Facebook friend fraud.

B2B Marketing

The selling of products or services to other businesses and organizations is known as business-to-business marketing. It differs from B2C marketing, which is focused on customers, in various ways.

In general, B2B marketing content is more informative and simpler than B2C marketing content. This is because, in contrast to consumer purchases, company purchases are driven by bottom-line revenue impact. Return on investment (ROI) is rarely a financial factor for the average person, but it is a top priority for corporate decision makers.

Who is B2B Marketing for?

Any business that sells to other businesses. B2B can take various forms, including subscriptions to software-as-a-service (SaaS), security solutions, tools, accessories, and office supplies, to mention a few. Many businesses come under both the B2B and B2C categories.

Any individual(s) who has power or influence over purchase decisions is the target of B2B marketing initiatives. From entry-level end-users to the C-suite, this can contain a wide range of titles and functions.

Creating a B2B Marketing Strategy

There is a lot of competition for clients and their attention. Building a successful B2B strategy needs careful planning, implementation, and administration. Here’s a high-level look at how B2B organisations differentiate themselves in a crowded market:

Step 1: Create a Big Picture Vision
If you don’t plan, you’re planning to fail. This axiom holds true indefinitely. Select defined and measurable business objectives before you start cranking out adverts and content. Then you’ll want to create or adopt a framework for achieving them through your B2B marketing strategy.

Step 2: Establish your target market and buyer personas
This is especially important for B2B companies. B2B items and services are typically marketed to a specific set of consumers with specific difficulties and demands, whereas B2C goods are often promoted to a larger and more general audience. The more precisely you can define this audience, the better you’ll be able to communicate with them directly. It’s a good idea to make a dossier for your target buyer persona. To qualify leads, conduct demographic research, interview industry experts, and study your best customers to develop a list of criteria that you can compare against prospects.

Step 3: Determine B2B Marketing Channels and Tactics

After you’ve gathered good information about your target audience, you’ll need to figure out how and where you’ll reach them. This one should be guided by the knowledge you gained in the previous stage. You’ll want to ask yourself questions about your ideal consumers and prospects, such as these:

  • What do they do with their time on the internet?
  • What are the questions they’re posing to search engines?
  • What social media platforms do they favour?
  • What can you do to close the gaps that your competitors are leaving?
  • What industry events do they attend?

Step 4: Develop Assets and Launch Campaigns
Now that you have a strategy in place, it’s time to put it into action. Make sure you’re following best practices for each channel you’re using in your approach. A unique strategy, relevant information, sophisticated targeting, and powerful calls to action are all essential parts in successful campaigns.

5th Step: Evaluate and Improve
This is a continuous procedure that keeps you on the right track. Simply put, you want to figure out why your high-performing content succeeds and your low-performing content fails. If you understand this, you’ll be able to spend your time and money more wisely. The more diligent you are about consulting analytics and applying what you’ve learned, the more likely you’ll be to keep improving and exceeding your objectives. Even with a solid research basis, creating content and campaigns entails a lot of guesswork until you have solid engagement and conversion statistics to work with.

B2B Marketing Tactics and Content Formats

Here are some of the most frequent B2B marketing methods and content formats to think about incorporating into your plan:

Blogs: Blogs are a must-have for practically any content marketing team. Regularly updated blogs increase your site’s organic visibility and boost inbound visitors. Your blog may accommodate a wide range of material types and formats.

Search: SEO recommended practises change as frequently as Google’s algorithm (which is a lot), making this a difficult space to navigate, but any B2B marketing strategy must account for it. In recent months, the emphasis has shifted away from keywords and metadata and toward searcher intent signals.

Social Media: Both organic and sponsored social media should be included in the mix. You can reach out to prospects on social media and engage them where they are. B2B buyers are increasingly turning to these platforms to research potential vendors before making a purchase.

Whitepapers, eBooks, and infographics: Whitepapers, eBooks, and infographics are all good options. These downloaded papers can be gated (meaning a user must give contact information or perform another action to get access) or ungated (meaning a user must supply contact information or perform another action to gain access). Frequently used to generate B2B leads.

Email: Email will not go away anytime soon, even though its usefulness is fading in the age of spam filters and inbox shock.

This content type can be used in several of the preceding categories (blogs, social media, and emails), but it’s worth mentioning because it’s at the heart of many effective B2B initiatives.

Livestream events and Webinars: LinkedIn Live videos receive 7x more reactions and 24x more comments on average than native video generated by the same presenters during livestream events and seminars. LinkedIn Live is useful for more than just promoting an event. Use this feature to demonstrate expertise, showcase innovation, or provide a behind-the-scenes look into your company’s culture to LinkedIn members.

Case studies and customer testimonials: Case studies and customer testimonials are essential for B2B marketing strategists to establish credibility. Customer testimonials and case studies aren’t the most imaginative endeavours, but they’re essential nonetheless.

Podcasts: Podcasting is expected to grow in popularity even more than it currently has. Do you have a podcast aimed towards professionals? Are you considering starting one? Increase your podcast’s listenership by promoting it on LinkedIn.

B2B Marketing Best Practices

How can you set yourself up for success in B2B marketing? Here are a few tried-and-true pillars to help your team stand out and make an impression.

Be Human
Yes, you’re attempting to gain a consumer, but you’re not marketing to a building or an intangible thing. You’re attempting to communicate with genuine employees, who, like any other human being, are motivated by emotional and cognitive factors.

Don’t limit your research to the firms and accounts you’re interested in. Learn about the people who work there, and tailor your marketing to their needs. Although business decisions are more sensible and logical, that doesn’t mean your content and tone should be robotic.

Target with Both Precision and Volume in Mind
Multiple stakeholders affect the majority of B2B purchasing decisions. When it comes to targeting, one of the most typical blunders is attempting to pinpoint the decision maker. However, in almost all cases, that one decision maker does not exist. As a result, it’s critical to target all stakeholders who may have an impact on the purchasing decision.

B2B buying cycles are complicated, and stakeholders’ professions and roles are continuously changing. This is only one of many reasons why brand familiarity is so important. The following tools can assist B2B marketers in reaching out to decision-makers who can both influence and authorise purchases. They let you get as specific as you want, and you can use sophisticated automation to extend your target group as necessary.

Keep Context in Mind
Today, personalization and relevance are required to gain attention. Yes, you want to speak your consumers’ language, but you also want to present content and advertising that are thematically appropriate for where they’re being viewed. Shorter videos with rapid hooks, for example, perform better on social media feeds, whereas a longer style is most likely better suited for YouTube. Catching someone looking through LinkedIn requires a different text angle than catching someone scrolling through other social media platforms. Put yourself in the shoes of the end user. When they’re watching your content, try to comprehend their current position, including their “surroundings,” and fit your message with their attitude.

B2B Marketing Solutions on LinkedIn

LinkedIn is the most-used social media network for B2B marketers, according to the CMI and MarketingProfs report B2B Content Marketing 2021: Benchmarks, Budgets, and Trends (at 96 percent ).

LinkedIn was also the leading paid social media site for B2B marketing. The most recent survey did not ask respondents which paid platform had the best results, although respondents in the prior survey said LinkedIn.

At a basic level, we strongly advocate that every B2B company create an optimised LinkedIn Page, which you can do for free on LinkedIn, since this will serve as your brand’s hub on the platform and a popular location for buyer research. Posting updates on a regular basis will keep you top of mind with your target audience and help you gain followers. There are a variety of LinkedIn marketing solutions and services you can use to target and engage the ideal users for maximum business impact and B2B marketing ROI.

Native Ads
Native adverts are referred to as Sponsored Content on LinkedIn. These adverts show alongside the user-generated material that LinkedIn members come to see. For thought leadership, brand recognition, and driving strategic traffic, this is a great tool.

Lead Generation
Many B2B marketers are judged on their lead generation abilities. Because they pre-populate the viewing member’s LinkedIn profile data and don’t require the user to leave the site, Lead Gen Forms are particularly useful for this purpose. It’s a win-win situation for both marketers and members. When it comes to accessing deals and information, members get a consistent experience. Lead data is of excellent quality for B2B marketers.

The LinkedIn Insight Tag allows you to track LinkedIn visitors that come to your website and promote to them while they’re there. These people are more likely to be interested in your business and goods, increasing your conversion chances.

Message Ads
LinkedIn Message Ads are becoming more advantageous as reaching professional inboxes (and sometimes even finding email addresses) becomes increasingly difficult. You can use this feature to send personalised direct messages to LinkedIn members, even if you aren’t linked yet.

Dynamic Ads
These ads are tailored to the individual who is viewing them. To stand out and grab attention, they instantly populate with profile photographs and essential details.

Breaking Down B2B Marketing

Here are some essential factors to bear in mind as we summarise the most important conclusions from our investigation of modern B2B marketing:

  • Even though you’re doing business-to-business marketing, you’re still dealing with people. The most successful B2B marketers combine logic and passion.
  • Developing your goal, defining your audience, identifying techniques and channels, putting content and campaigns in action, and then continuously monitoring for optimization are the core processes in developing a B2B marketing strategy.
  • When targeting, strike a balance between precision and volume to ensure that you reach all of the most critical stakeholders who may have a say in the decision.
  • Truly effective B2B marketing is conversational, targeted, and contextually relevant.
  • Thought leadership content can help you gain a competitive advantage, but if it falls short of expectations, it might backfire.
  • It’s critical to understand the context. Market to your target audience where they are and try to fit your messaging with their attitude.

Training Process

Every business, whether for profit or not, public or private, needs well-trained and experienced staff to carry out the operations necessary to meet the organization’s objectives.

Employees must be trained to improve their skill levels as well as their versatility and adaptability.

Inadequate work performance, productivity declines, changes resulting from job restructuring, or technological breakthroughs all necessitate some form of training and development.

Training Process in HRM – Steps, Process and Phases

A training is not a one-size-fits-all event; rather, it is a step-by-step procedure that can only be finished after all of the required tasks have been done successfully.

  1. Assessment of Training Needs
    Prior to training someone, it is evident that it is necessary to determine whether the individual requires training and, if so, what the instruction should accomplish. As a result, establishing what training is required is generally the first step in the training process. Whether you’re training new or existing staff will affect how you analyse training needs.

    The most important step in determining new employee training needs is to figure out what the work requires and split it down into subtasks, which you then teach to the new hires. Analysing existing employee demands can be more difficult because you also have to decide whether training is the best option.

    The training needs are analysed with the help of following types of analysis:

    The entire organisation is examined in terms of its goals, resources, resource allocation and utilisation, growth potential, and the environment in this analysis. The goal of this analysis is to establish where in the organisation training should be prioritised.

Under organisational analysis the following elements are studied:

Organisational Analysis:

(a) Analysis of Objectives and Strategies:
The entire organisation is examined in terms of its goals, resources, resource allocation and utilisation, growth potential, and the environment in this analysis. The goal of this analysis is to establish where in the organisation training should be prioritised.

(b) Resource Utilisation Analysis:
The major goal of this investigation is to see how organisational resources are used. This analysis looks at the contributions of several departments by generating efficiency indices for each unit, which aid in estimating the human resource contribution.

(c) Environmental Analysis:
This analysis looks at the organization’s economic, social, political, and technological surroundings. The major goal of this analysis is to determine the organization’s controllable and uncontrolled components.

(d) Organisational Climate Analysis:
The attitude of management and employees is examined in this analysis, as the support of management and their attitude toward employees is required for planning and implementing the training programme.

(ii) Role or Task Analysis:
It is a thorough assessment of all facets of the profession. It investigates the numerous operations as well as the conditions in which they are to be carried out.

Following procedure is involved in the task analysis:

(a) The duties and responsibilities of the task in question are listed using the job description as a guide.
(b) Creating a list of the job’s performance standards.
(c) Making a comparison between the actual and expected results.
(d) Identifying the components of the task that are causing problems in the effective performance of the job if there is a gap between the two.             
(e) Identifying the training requirements to address the issues.

(iii) Manpower Analysis:
The fundamental goal of this examination is to examine the individual’s abilities, skills, and growth and development. The manpower analysis aids in determining an individual’s strengths and shortcomings. It also aids in deciding whether or not he requires training. If that’s the case, what kind of instruction does he need?

The various sources of such information are as follows:

(a) Employee observation in the workplace.
(b) Conducting an interview with the employee’s boss and coworkers.
(c) The employee’s personal files.
(d) Tests and records of production. These sources will supply information on the employee’s current skills and attitude, which he should have.

2. Preparing the Training Programme:
The second step in the training process is to construct the training programme to suit these needs after determining the training needs.

The training programme should take into account the following considerations:

(i)New and experienced trainees
(ii) The kind of training materials that are needed
(iii) A person who will provide training as a resource
(iv) A training programme that is either on-the-job or off-the-job
(v) The length of the training programme
(vi) The training method.

3. Preparing the Learners:
The trainees who will participate in the training programme must be well-prepared for it. They will not be interested in learning the main components of the training programme if they are not prepared. As a result, learners should be adequately prepared so that they may get the most out of the training session.

Following steps are required for the preparation of learners for the training programme:

(i)Making the students feel at ease, especially if they are beginners, so that they are not frightened on the job.
(ii) Ensuring that the learners comprehend the relevance of the job and how it relates to the overall process.
(iii) Assisting learners in comprehending the training’s demands and objectives in respect to their jobs.
(iv) Creating interest in the training programme among learners to motivate them to learn.
(v) If on-the-job training is used, trainees should be placed as close to their employment as practicable.
(vi) Getting the students acquainted with the equipment, materials, and tools, among other things.

4. Implementing Training Programme:
This is the training program’s action phase. The trainer teaches and illustrates the new methods and knowledge to the learners during this phase. At this stage, the students are exposed to a variety of training exercises. To make the training a successful learning experience for the employees, the main topics are emphasised and one item is explained at a time.

To keep the learners’ attention in the training programme, audio-visual aids are employed to exhibit and illustrate, and the trainer encourages them to ask questions.

5. Performance Try Out:
The learner is asked to repeat the job multiple times, slowly, at this point. The trainees’ errors are addressed, and the technical and tough portions are explained again if necessary.

6. Evaluation of the Training Programme:
Training evaluation is an attempt to acquire information (feedback) on the impacts of a training programme and determine the training’s worth in light of that information. While organisations may spend a lot of money and time developing and implementing training programmes, the evaluation aspect is sometimes overlooked. This could be due to the assumption that determining the efficiency of training is difficult, if not impossible.

Only a comprehensive assessment of the real change in behaviour and performance on the job, over a long period of time, can determine the true success of training and development activities. As a result, the fundamental goal of training is to impart new knowledge, skills, and change in attitude and behaviour.

If training does not result in changes in any of these areas, it is completely useless. As a result, training is solely evaluated in terms of changes in skills, knowledge, attitude, and behaviour.

Under organisational analysis the following elements are studied:

Organisational Analysis:

Meditation and its Benefits

“Meditation can wipe away the day’s stress, bringing with it inner peace. See how you can easily learn to practice meditation whenever you need it most.”

Mayo Clinic Staff

If stress makes you feel uncomfortable, tense, or worried, try meditation. Even a few minutes of meditation might help you regain your sense of calm and inner serenity.

Meditation is something that everybody can do. It’s easy to accomplish and doesn’t cost a lot of money, and it doesn’t require any special equipment.

And you can meditate anywhere you are: on a walk, on the bus, in line at the doctor’s office, or even in the middle of a tense work meeting.

Understanding Meditation

For thousands of years, people have been meditating. Meditation was created to aid in the comprehension of life’s sacred and mystical powers. Meditation is widely utilised these days for relaxation and stress reduction.

Meditation is a sort of supplementary treatment for the mind and body. Meditation can help you achieve a deep state of relaxation as well as a calm mind.

During meditation, you concentrate your attention and clear your mind of the muddled thoughts that may be bothering you and producing stress. Physical and emotional well-being may be improved as a result of this process.

Benefits of Meditation

Meditation can help you achieve a sense of quiet, peace, and balance, which can improve your emotional well-being as well as your general health.

And the advantages don’t stop when you stop meditating. Meditation can help you stay calmer throughout the day and may even aid in the management of symptoms associated with some medical problems.

Meditation and Emotional Well-Being
When you meditate, you can rid your mind of the information overload that accumulates throughout the day and contributes to stress.

The following are some of the emotional advantages of meditation:

  • Taking a fresh look at challenging situations
  • Developing stress management skills and increasing self-awareness
  • Reducing unpleasant emotions by focusing on the present
  • Increasing creativity and imagination
  • Increasing tolerance and patience

Meditation and Illness
If you have a medical problem, especially one that is exacerbated by stress, meditation may be beneficial.

Despite the fact that a growing body of scientific evidence supports the health advantages of meditation, other academics say it is still too early to draw judgments about its potential benefits.

In light of this, some study suggests that meditation may aid in the management of symptoms associated with diseases such as:

  • Anxiety
  • Asthma
  • Cancer
  • Chronic pain
  • Depression
  • Heart disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Sleep problems
  • Tension headaches

If you have any of these conditions or other health issues, talk to your health care practitioner about the benefits and drawbacks of meditation. Meditation has been shown to exacerbate symptoms of mental and physical illnesses in certain people. Traditional medical care is not replaced by meditation. However, it can be a good complement to your current treatment.

Types of Meditation

Meditation is a broad phrase that encompasses a variety of approaches to achieving a calm state of mind. Meditation can be found in a wide range of relaxation and meditation techniques. All of them are striving for the same thing: inner serenity.

Meditation can be done in a variety of ways, including:

  • Guided Meditation: This type of meditation, also known as guided imagery or visualisation, involves creating mental images of places or circumstances that you find pleasant.

    You strive to employ all of your senses, including smells, sights, sounds, and textures. A mentor or teacher may accompany you through this procedure.
  • Mantra meditation: To avoid distracting ideas, you silently repeat a calming word, concept, or phrase in this style of meditation.
  • Mindfulness meditation: Being mindful, or having a greater awareness and acceptance of living in the present moment, is the foundation of this style of meditation.

    You increase your conscious awareness by practising mindfulness meditation. During meditation, you concentrate on what you’re feeling, such as the flow of your breath. You can watch your thoughts and emotions but not judge them as they pass.
  • Qi gong: To restore and sustain balance, this practise typically involves meditation, relaxation, physical activity, and breathing techniques. Traditional Chinese medicine includes qi gong (CHEE-gung).
  • Tai chi: Tai chi is a Chinese martial art. This is a moderate kind of Chinese martial arts. You do a self-paced set of postures or motions in a calm, graceful manner while practising deep breathing in tai chi (TIE-CHEE).
  • Transcendental Meditation: It is a type of meditation that focuses on the present moment. Transcendental Meditation is a straightforward, natural practise. You silently repeat a personally allocated mantra, such as a word, sound, or phrase, in a precise way in Transcendental Meditation.

Without the need of attention or effort, this type of meditation may help your body to settle into a state of profound rest and relaxation and your mind to achieve a state of inner peace.

  • Yoga: To build a more flexible body and a tranquil mind, you execute a sequence of postures and controlled breathing exercises. You’re urged to focus less on your hectic day and more on the present moment as you go through positions that demand balance and concentration.

Elements of Meditation

Distinct styles of meditation may have different qualities to assist you in your meditation. These may differ depending on who you follow for advice or who is giving a lesson. The following are some of the most common elements of meditation:

  • Focused Attention: One of the most crucial aspects of meditation is focusing your attention.
    The ability to focus your attention is what allows your mind to be free of the numerous distractions that bring stress and concern. You can concentrate your attention on a single object, an image, a mantra, or even your breathing.
  • Relaxed Breathing: Deep, even-paced breathing using the diaphragm muscle to expand your lungs is used in this technique. The goal is to breathe more efficiently by slowing your breathing, taking in more oxygen, and reducing the use of shoulder, neck, and upper chest muscles while breathing.
  • A quiet setting: If you’re a beginner, practising meditation in a peaceful place with few distractions, such as no television, radio, or telephone, may be easier.

    You may be able to meditate anyplace as you gain experience, especially in high-stress situations where it is most beneficial, such as a traffic jam, a tough work meeting, or a long wait at the grocery store.
  • A comfortable position: Meditation can be done while sitting, lying down, walking, or in any other position or activity. Simply attempt to relax in order to get the most out of your meditation. During meditation, try to maintain a decent posture.
  • Open attitude: Allow your thoughts to flow through your head without judging them.

Everyday Ways to Practice Meditation

Don’t let the prospect of meditating “properly” add to your anxiety. You can go to dedicated meditation facilities or group programmes guided by certified instructors if you want to. However, you may easily practise meditation on your own.

And you may make meditation as formal or informal as you want, depending on your preferences and circumstances. Some people make it a habit to meditate every day. They could, for example, meditate for an hour at the start and finish of each day. However, all you truly need is a few minutes of great meditation time.

Here are some methods for practising meditation on your own whenever you want:

  • Breathe Deeply: Take a deep breath. Because breathing is a natural function, this approach is suitable for beginners.

Concentrate solely on your breathing. As you inhale and exhale through your nose, focus on feeling and listening. Slowly and deeply inhale. When your mind wanders, gently bring it back to your breathing.

  • Examine your entire body: Focus your attention on different parts of your body when practising this technique. Become conscious of your body’s many sensations, including pain, tension, warmth, and relaxation.

    Combine body scanning with breathing exercises, imagining yourself inhaling heat or relaxation into and out of various body areas.

  • Repeat a manta: You can come up with your own mantra, whether religious or not. The Jesus Prayer in Christianity, the holy name of God in Judaism, and the om mantra in Hinduism, Buddhism, and other Eastern religions are examples of religious mantras.

  • Walk and mediate: A walk combined with meditation is an effective and healthful method to unwind. This strategy can be used anyplace you’re strolling, even in a peaceful forest, on a metropolitan sidewalk, or at the mall.

    Slow down your walking pace when using this strategy so you can concentrate on each leg or foot action. Don’t put too much emphasis on a specific location. Lift each foot, move your leg forward, and set your foot on the ground, concentrating on your legs and feet and repeating action phrases like “raising,” “moving,” and “placing” in your head.
  • Participate in prayer: The most well-known and widely performed form of meditation is prayer. Most faith traditions include both spoken and written prayers.

    You can pray in your own words or read other people’s prayers. Examples can be found in the self-help section of your local bookstore. Discuss available resources with your rabbi, priest, pastor, or other spiritual leader.

    You can also listen to religious music, spoken words, or any other type of music that relaxes or inspires you. You might want to document your thoughts or talk about them with a friend or spiritual leader.
  • Concentrate your gratitude and loveConcentrate your gratitude and love: You focus your attention on a sacred picture or entity in this style of meditation, weaving feelings of love, compassion, and gratitude into your thoughts. You can also utilise your imagination or gaze at reproductions of the image if you close your eyes.
  • Read and reflect: Many people say that reading poems or spiritual texts and taking a few moments to ponder on their significance helps them.

Value Chain Analysis

With each transaction, successful businesses produce value for their customers in the form of satisfaction, as well as for themselves and their shareholders in the form of profit. Companies that provide more value with each sale have a better chance of profiting than those that produce less value. It’s vital to understand your company’s value chain in order to assess how much value it generates.

Here’s an overview of what a value chain is, why it’s important to understand it, and how you can use it to help your business create and keep more value from its sales.

Understanding Value Chain

The phrase “value chain” refers to all of the commercial activities and procedures that go into making a product or providing a service. A value chain can span various stages of a product’s lifecycle, from research and development through sales and all in between. In his book The Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance, Harvard Business School Professor Michael Porter developed the notion.

Taking stock of the processes that make up your company’s value chain will give you a better understanding of what goes into each transaction. Your organisation can be better positioned to share more value with consumers while capturing a larger portion of the value created at each point in the chain by maximising the value created at each point in the chain. Similarly, understanding how your company creates value can help you better appreciate its competitive edge.

Components of Value Chain

All of the activities that make up a firm’s value chain, according to Porter’s concept, can be divided into two groups that contribute to its margin: primary activities and support activities.

Primary activities are those that directly contribute to the development of a product or the delivery of a service, such as:

  • Receiving, warehousing, and inventory management of source materials and components are all part of inbound logistics.
  • Raw materials and components are turned into a completed product through operations.
  • Outbound logistics refers to distribution-related activities such as packaging, sorting, and shipping.
  • Marketing and sales activities include promotion, advertising, and pricing strategy, all of which are relevant to the marketing and sale of a product or service.
  • Installation, training, quality assurance, repair, and customer service are examples of after-sales services that take place after a sale has been completed.

Secondary activities are divided into the following categories to help primary operations become more efficient, hence creating a competitive advantage:

  • Procurement refers to the activities involved in obtaining raw materials, components, equipment, and services.
  • Product design, market research, and process development are examples of activities associated to technological advancement.
  • Employee recruitment, hiring, training, development, retention, and remuneration are all part of human resources management.
  • Infrastructure includes activities such as funding and planning that are related to the company’s overhead and management.

What is Value Chain Analysis?

Value chain analysis is a method of assessing each activity in a company’s value chain to determine where improvements might be made.

A value chain analysis forces you to analyse how each step contributes to or detracts from the value of your end product or service. As a result, you may be able to gain a competitive edge, such as:

  • Cost savings are achieved by making each operation in the value chain more efficient and thus less costly.
  • Product differentiation can be achieved by devoting more time and resources to tasks such as research and development, design, and marketing.

In most cases, improving one of the four secondary activities will help at least one of the primary activities.

How to Conduct Value Chain Analysis

  1. Identify Value Chain Activities
    Understanding all of the main and secondary actions that go into the creation of your product or service is the first step in doing a value chain analysis. If your organization sells a variety of items or services, this procedure should be followed for each one.
  2. Determine the Cost and Value of Activities
    After identifying the major and secondary operations, the next step is to assess the value that each activity brings to the process, as well as the associated expenses.

    When considering the value provided by activities, consider how each contributes to the end user’s satisfaction or enjoyment. How does it add value to my company? Is it true that using particular materials to build a product makes it more durable or luxury for the user? Is it more likely that your company will benefit from network effects and more business if you include a given feature?

    Similarly, knowing the expenses associated with each step in the process is critical. Depending on your circumstances, you may discover that cutting costs is a simple method to increase the value of each transaction.

3. Identify Opportunities for Competitive Advantage
You may assess your value chain through the lens of whatever competitive advantage you’re seeking to
acquire once you’ve compiled it and understand the cost and value associated with each stage.

If your primary goal is to lower your company’s costs, for example, you should assess each component
of your value chain through the lens of cost reduction. Which steps could be made more productive?
Are there any that don’t add much value and could be outsourced or deleted entirely to save money?

Similarly, if product differentiation is your primary goal, which portions of your value chain provide the
best potential to achieve that goal? Would the added value justify the expenditure of more resources?

You can identify multiple opportunities for your company through value chain analysis, which can be tough to prioritise. It’s usually better to start with the changes that require the least amount of effort yet provide the highest return on investment.

What is Security Services

Security services guarantee protecting agents against attacks. During agent’s transportation the code is protected as a usual file. At the host site, the agent is open for modifications and very specific methods must be applied for protection.

Photo by PhotoMIX Company on

A processing or communication service that is provided by a system to give a specific kind of protection to resources, where said resources may reside with said system or reside with other systems, for example, an authentication service or a PKI-based document attribution and authentication service. A security service is a superset of AAA services. Security services typically implement portions of security policies and are implemented via security mechanisms.

Facility Management services are designed and delivered according to the customers need; be it housekeeping services, janitorial support, HVAC repairs or pest control. We have shown significant growth over the past few years to become the 4th largest player in this space with a nationwide presence like few others. The clients are as diverse as our services, ranging from households, businesses and industrial establishments.

Cyber security to companies that provide services via the internet. Such as protecting the account of the company, their customer data, and their infrastructure. The cyber security service is based on the protection of computer data, networks, and identity management of companies.

Cyber security services are a branch of technology that protects the computer hardware, software, data and networks from unauthorized cyber attacks from internal and external sources. It is becoming increasingly more important over time, as we face more and more cyber-attacks from a variety of sources. The primary requirement of a cyber security service is to keep the systems and networks safe from external attacks.

Security Services:

A processing or communication service that enhances the security of the data processing systems and the information transfers of an organization. These services are intended to counter security attacks, and they make use of one or more security mechanisms to provide the service. Following are the five categories of these services:[m1-2]Authentication: The assurance that the communicating entity is the one that it claims to be.

  • Peer Entity Authentication: Used in association with a logical connection to provide confidence in the identity of the entities connected.
  • Data-Origin Authentication: In a connectionless transfer, provides assurance that the source of received data is as claimed.

Data Confidentiality: Protects data from unauthorized disclosure.

Access Control: The prevention of unauthorized use of a resource (i.e., this service controls who can have access to a resource, under what conditions access can occur, and what those accessing the resource are allowed to do).

Data Integrity: The assurance that data received are exactly as sent by an authorized entity (i.e., contain no modification, insertion, deletion, or replay).

Non-repudiation: Protects against denial by one of the entities involved in a communication of having participated in all or part of the communication.

  • Proof of Origin: Proof that the message was sent by the specified party.
  • Proof of Delivery: Proof that the message was received by the specified party.

There are different types of security services that service providers give to the firms, organisations, or individuals.

  • Technical Security Service. This is the most basic security service you can access. … 
  • Event Management Security Service. Anything that comes under an event, comes under this type of security service. … 
  • Fire Watch Service. … 
  • Personal Protection. … 
  • Mobile Patrol Security Service.

What is NFT – Non-Fungible Token

NFTs are currently taking the digital art and collectibles world by storm. Digital artists are seeing their lives change thanks to huge sales to a new crypto-audience. And celebrities are joining in as they spot a new opportunity to connect with fans. But digital art is only one way to use NFTs. Really they can be used to represent ownership of any unique asset, like a deed for an item in the digital or physical realm.

What’s an NFT?

NFTs are tokens that we can use to represent ownership of unique items. They let us tokenise things like art, collectibles, even real estate. They can only have one official owner at a time and they’re secured by the Ethereum blockchain – no one can modify the record of ownership or copy/paste a new NFT into existence.

NFT stands for non-fungible token. Non-fungible is an economic term that you could use to describe things like your furniture, a song file, or your computer. These things are not interchangeable for other items because they have unique properties.

Fungible items, on the other hand, can be exchanged because their value defines them rather than their unique properties.

The internet of assets

NFTs and Ethereum solve some of the problems that exist in the internet today. As everything becomes more digital, there’s a need to replicate the properties of physical items like scarcity, uniqueness, and proof of ownership. Not to mention that digital items often only work in the context of their product. For example you can’t re-sell an iTunes mp3 you’ve purchased, or you can’t exchange one company’s loyalty points for another platform’s credit even if there’s a market for it.

Here’s how an internet of NFTs compared to the internet most of us use today looks…

A comparison

An NFT internetThe internet today
NFTs are digitally unique, no two NFTs are the same.A copy of a file, like an .mp3 or .jpg, is the same as the original.
Every NFT must have an owner and this is of public record and easy for anyone to verify.Ownership records of digital items are stored on servers controlled by institutions – you must take their word for it.
NFTs are compatible with anything built using Ethereum. An NFT ticket for an event can be traded on every Ethereum marketplace, for an entirely different NFT. You could trade a piece of art for a ticket!Companies with digital items must build their own infrastructure. For example an app that issues digital tickets for events would have to build their own ticket exchange.
Content creators can sell their work anywhere and can access a global market.Creators rely on the infrastructure and distribution of the platforms they use. These are often subject to terms of use and geographical restrictions.
Creators can retain ownership rights over their own work, and claim resale royalties directly.Platforms, such as music streaming services, retain the majority of profits from sales.
Items can be used in surprising ways. For example, you can use digital artwork as collateral in a decentralised loan.

NFT examples

The NFT world is relatively new. In theory, the scope for NFTs is anything that is unique that needs provable ownership. Here are some examples of NFTs that exist today, to help you get the idea: examples

We use NFTs to give back to our contributors and we’ve even got our own NFT domain name.

POAPs (Proof of attendance protocol)

If you contribute to, you can claim a POAP NFT. These are collectibles that prove you participated in an event. Some crypto meetups have used POAPs as a form of ticket to their events. More on contributing. POAP


This website has an alternative domain name powered by NFTs, ethereum.eth. Our .org address is centrally managed by a domain name system (DNS) provider, whereas ethereum.eth is registered on Ethereum via the Ethereum Name Service (ENS). And its owned and managed by us. 

How do NFTs work?

NFTs are different from ERC-20 tokens, such as DAI or LINK, in that each individual token is completely unique and is not divisible. NFTs give the ability to assign or claim ownership of any unique piece of digital data, trackable by using Ethereum’s blockchain as a public ledger. An NFT is minted from digital objects as a representation of digital or non-digital assets. For example, an NFT could represent:

  • Digital Art:
    • GIFs
    • Collectibles
    • Music
    • Videos
  • Real World Items:
    • Deeds to a car
    • Tickets to a real world event
    • Tokenized invoices
    • Legal documents
    • Signatures
  • Lots and lots more options to get creative with!

An NFT can only have one owner at a time. Ownership is managed through the uniqueID and metadata that no other token can replicate. NFTs are minted through smart contracts that assign ownership and manage the transferability of the NFT’s. When someone creates or mints an NFT, they execute code stored in smart contracts that conform to different standards, such as ERC-721. This information is added to the blockchain where the NFT is being managed. The minting process, from a high level, has the following steps that it goes through:

  • Creating a new block
  • Validating information
  • Recording information into the blockchain

NFT’s have some special properties:

  • Each token minted has a unique identifier that is directly linked to one Ethereum address.
  • They’re not directly interchangeable with other tokens 1:1. For example 1 ETH is exactly the same as another ETH. This isn’t the case with NFTs.
  • Each token has an owner and this information is easily verifiable.
  • They live on Ethereum and can be bought and sold on any Ethereum-based NFT market.

In other words, if you own an NFT:

  • You can easily prove you own it.
    • Proving you own an NFT is very similar to proving you have ETH in your account.
    • For example, let’s say you purchase an NFT, and the ownership of the unique token is transferred to your wallet via your public address.
    • The token proves that your copy of the digital file is the original.
    • Your private key is proof-of-ownership of the original.
    • The content creator’s public key serves as a certificate of authenticity for that particular digital artefact.
      • The creators public key is essentially a permanent part of the token’s history. The creator’s public key can demonstrate that the token you hold was created by a particular individual, thus contributing to its market value (vs a counterfeit).
    • Another way to think about proving you own the NFT is by signing messages to prove you own the private key behind the address.
      • As mentioned above, your private key is proof-of-ownership of the original. This tells us that the private keys behind that address control the NFT.
      • A signed message can be used as proof that you own your private keys without revealing them to anybody and thus proving you own the NFT as well!
  • No one can manipulate it in any way.
  • You can sell it, and in some cases this will earn the original creator resale royalties.
  • Or, you can hold it forever, resting comfortably knowing your asset is secured by your wallet on Ethereum.

And if you create an NFT:

  • You can easily prove you’re the creator.
  • You determine the scarcity.
  • You can earn royalties every time it’s sold.
  • You can sell it on any NFT market or peer-to-peer. You’re not locked in to any platform and you don’t need anyone to intermediate.


The creator of an NFT gets to decide the scarcity of their asset.

For example, consider a ticket to a sporting event. Just as an organizer of an event can choose how many tickets to sell, the creator of an NFT can decide how many replicas exist. Sometimes these are exact replicas, such as 5000 General Admission tickets. Sometimes several are minted that are very similar, but each slightly different, such as a ticket with an assigned seat. In another case, the creator may want to create an NFT where only one is minted as a special rare collectible.

In these cases, each NFT would still have a unique identifier (like a bar code on a traditional “ticket”), with only one owner. The intended scarcity of the NFT matters, and is up to the creator. A creator may intend to make each NFT completely unique to create scarcity, or have reasons to produce several thousand replicas. Remember, this information is all public.


Some NFTs will automatically pay out royalties to their creators when they’re sold. This is still a developing concept but it’s one of the most powerful. Original owners of EulerBeats Originals earn an 8% royalty every time the NFT is sold on. And some platforms, like Foundation and Zora, support royalties for their artists.

This is completely automatic so creators can just sit back and earn royalties as their work is sold from person to person. At the moment, figuring out royalties is very manual and lacks accuracy – a lot of creators don’t get paid what they deserve. If your NFT has a royalty programmed into it, you’ll never miss out.

What are NFTs used for?

Here’s more information of some of the better developed use-cases and visions for NFTs on Ethereum.

  • Digital content
  • Gaming items
  • Domain names
  • Physical items
  • Investments and collateral

Maximising earnings for creators

The biggest use of NFTs today is in the digital content realm. That’s because that industry today is broken. Content creators see their profits and earning potential swallowed by platforms.

An artist publishing work on a social network makes money for the platform who sell ads to the artists followers. They get exposure in return, but exposure doesn’t pay the bills.

NFTs power a new creator economy where creators don’t hand ownership of their content over to the platforms they use to publicise it. Ownership is baked into the content itself.

When they sell their content, funds go directly to them. If the new owner then sells the NFT, the original creator can even automatically receive royalties. This is guaranteed every time it’s sold because the creator’s address is part of the token’s metadata – metadata which can’t be modified.



With the government encouraging make in India campaigns and promoting atmanirbhar Bharat.
The budget for the year is incorporative of several schemes and initiatives that will help businesses and ecommerce websites operate more easily. schemes such as “Ease of Doing Business 2.0” and “One nation, one registration” programs and “Digital Ecosystem for Skilling and Livelihood” (DESH-Stack) portal which will aid business operations with measures such as:
• Digitization for improved transparency and ease of use
• Interlinking of the ASEEM (Atmanirbhar Skilled Employee-Employer Mapping) Udyam, e-Shram and National Career Service (NCS) portals to create connected databases and improve efficiency


The amazon effect

The Amazon effect refers to the impact created by the online, eCommerce, or digital marketplace on the traditional brick and mortar business model that is the result of the change in shopping patterns, customer expectations, and the industry’s competitive landscape. As online shopping and eCommerce grow in popularity, it has hurt many traditional businesses that are forced to compete with the online marketplace with only a physical location.
Amazon has enabled small businesses to reach millions of customers across India by providing an ecosystem for them to use. They have been empowered to offer a superlative customer experience while helping these local sellers increase their product exposure, expert endorsements along with product reviews. It has also created a space that can foster these sellers’ unique products and services. .he world.”


Amazon is virtually in every industry from food delivery, content streaming, e commerce. It is truly an unrivalled monopoly. Amazon has had several fantastic technological innovations in the last decade.
Fire tv
Fire TV is Amazon’s response to similar products from competitors, such as Apple TV and Roku. The product is gobbling up market share quickly. By mid-2019 it had more than 34 million active users.4 The streaming industry measures market share separately for the box and the stick. In the U.S., Amazon’s Fire TV box had a 28.5% share of the market but 57% of the market for sticks.4Its versatility has garnered rave reviews from industry analysts: A Fire TV box streams live TV and allows users to watch hundreds of queued shows and movies. It is also a popular and well-received gaming device.
Amazon Alexa
While the voice-assisted technology isn’t entirely there yet, Amazon’s voice-responding virtual assistant is helping to propel it forward. With the Amazon Echo, Tap, and Dot, Amazon is getting people accustomed to using this technology—and trying to grab their share of the market (versus competitors like Google and Apple). Amazon’s voice assistant, Alexa, is amazing at doing Amazon things (placing orders, finding music, etc.). And she can hear and respond to voice commands at a normal volume from across a noisy room, which is pretty impressive.


the social impact of e-commerce can be measured by satisfaction and trust.
Social media playing a key role in the dynamic in the website consumer relationship. Eith the nuber of people using the internet increasing day by day. the effect social media has particularly on the millennial and gen z is astonishing. Various social media platforms have a strong impact on lifestyles of people today. Facebook, Quicker, Snapdeal, Amazon, Pinterest, and Instagram greatly affect consumers in their online shopping habits with SEO and SMO, and strategies like pay per click advertising whereby they reach the target audience effectively.
Compared to 39.1% of Millennials, 64.2 percent of Gen Z said they draw purchasing inspiration from Instagram. Ethics, sustainability, and equality are equally important to these younger generations. For example, 41% of Gen Z indicated they’d pay more for sustainable apparel, while 73.9 percent of Millennials believe it’s extremely or somewhat essential for firms to demonstrate their support for diversity and equality.

  • Over 75% of people are shopping at least once a month online.
  • 45% of millennials admitted they prefer buying online because they can run comparisons on products and prices
  • Eight out of 10 millennials never buy anything without first reading a review
  • 95.1% of millennials admit to impulse shopping
  • 83% of Millennials are not concerned about security while online shopping
  • 40% of millennials have used voice search before making a purchase online
  • More than 53% of millennials prefer to seek out details online rather than talk to store staff when they are in a shop

Social media is also a big influence on their purchase decisions. In particular, 64.2% of Gen Z noted that they get shopping inspiration from Instagram, compared to 39.1% of Millennials. These younger generations also care a great deal about ethics, sustainability, and equality. For example, 41% of Gen Z said they’d pay more for sustainable fashion, while 73.9% of Millennials think it’s very or fairly important that brands show that they are pro-diversity and pro-equality



Amazon is committed to reducing our environmental footprint through recycling initiatives in our own operations and partnerships that support the development of recycling infrastructure across the industry.
Carbon footprint
Amazon’s corporate carbon footprint quantifies the total greenhouse gas emissions attributed to our direct and indirect operational activities. We measure our total impact on the climate, map the largest activities contributing to this impact, and develop meaningful carbon reduction strategies to reach net-zero carbon emissions across our business by 2040.
Renewable Energy
As part of our goal to reach net-zero carbon by 2040, Amazon is on a path to powering our operations with 100% renewable energy by 2025—five years ahead of our original target of 2030. In 2020, we became the world’s largest corporate purchaser of renewable energy, reaching 65% renewable energy across our business.
The Climate Pledge
Amazon is committed to building a sustainable business for our customers and the planet. In 2019, Amazon co-founded The Climate Pledge—a commitment to be net-zero carbon across our business by 2040, 10 years ahead of the Paris Agreement.


In June 2021 by the Department of Consumer Affairs came up with the Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) (Amendment) Rules, 2021, placing some stringent rules on ecommerce websites. Amazon as an ecommerce
Some of the rules are
Use of marketplace entity’s name or brand for advertising or sale of products or services: Marketplaces may not use their name or brand to represent that their offers are from the marketplace itself.
Misuse of a dominating market position: An e-commerce business may not abuse its dominant market position in any market. fallback liability: In the event that a seller on a marketplace platform fails to provide goods or services, resulting in a loss to the customer, the marketplace will be held liable.
Advertising that are deceptive: An e-commerce platform should not allow misleading advertisements. Falsely portraying a product or service, (ii) falsely promising or misleading regarding nature are all examples of deceptive advertising under the Act.


PepsiCo is the largest selling beverage the world over, of course after its arch rival Coca Cola. It accounts for a 37% share of the global beverage market, and therefore they need to understand each and every country’s market in order to stay in line with their PESTLE situations. Pepsico is a big brand, currently holds the 23rd place in the Interbrand report of the World’s Leading Brands. Their advertisements feature major celebrities and athletes like David Beckham, Robbie Williams, Britney Spears, Michael Jackson, Kendall Jenner etc.
Their market reach is also very diverse, as they’re present in almost every country from the US to New Zealand. A probable PESTLE analysis for them is given below:


Major economies like the United States and Canada are politically stable but in many parts of the world civil unrest in certain markets results in sales dip, product seizure, disrupted supply chain, product damage and hence losses. Most importantly, cross border situations are starkly different therefore Pepsi has to stay in line with all those policies and changes so that they can adapt to all those changes accordingly.
Besides, US government initiatives against sweetened carbonated drinks are a threat that could reduce PepsiCo’s revenues in the upcoming future. Due to new introduction of an American tax called the soda tax, the price of soda rose 3 cents per ounce when adopted by Philadelphia. Although this soda tax originated in 2015 but since Philadelphia’s adoption, Oakland, Seattle (Washington), San Francisco, and Boulder Colorado have also integrated this change. The government is trying to make a point- sugar and obesity is the biggest threat to American youth health today and a stop has to be put to it.


As the recent economic downturn has plagued the economy, companies had to restructure their sales and marketing campaigns greatly- so they will have to rethink budget. Also, if profits diminish they may have to undergo downsizing internally and re-think upon how to increase the sales. Economic conditions have the highest influence on a business, regardless of what trade it is in.
Social factors greatly impact Pepsico, as it’s a non-alcoholic beverage it has to remain in line with the strict and stark differences of cultures the world over. Also, Pepsi has to communicate its image as a global brand so that the people can associate it with themselves as something that connects the world together. People are avoiding sweetened aerated beverages (an average can has 40 sachets of sugar) and obesity is becoming a concern- they have to address these concerns.
Pepsico is running various CSR projects globally for food, water and children well-being.


With the advent of the new age in technology, companies have completely integrated themselves with all the recent changes that have taken place. To mention a recent trend that has greatly picked up and something that almost every business is turning toward is Social Media for advertising. The social media explosion has allowed for increasingly interactive engagement with the consumers with real time results so Pepsi has to stay ahead of all the developments that take place with keeping in view how the youth of today utilizes technology for their benefit and how can Pepsi reach them in order to keep on increasing brand recall and brand engagement.
E-commerce delivery can also be looked at. Factory automation is another developmental focus area and technology upgradation could help production.


There can be many legal implications upon the beverage industry.
Pepsi is a non-alcoholic beverage and is therefore regulated by the FDA. So, they’re supposed to maintain a firm standard of the laws set out by the FDA with consistency. Also, many different markets across the world have different set of regulations that are either relaxed or are either stringent.
In the early decade of this century, Pepsi was accused of using contaminated water in Indian market, given a lab test that was done upon the water flowing into the Pepsi factory that was located nearby an industrial estate. A massive recall was issued for the products from shelves and then the product was tested costing the company many billions of dollars upon the tests as India is a very major market. Pesticide charges were another legal controversy.


Plastic is adding to environmental strain and so bottling /packaging will have to be thought again.
Over utilization of water resources for manufacturing has created a concern today.


Biotechnology’s history

Beginning with the first agricultural settlements, people have been utilising biological processes to enhance their quality of life for over 10,000 years. Humans began to use microbes’ biological processes to manufacture bread, alcoholic drinks, and cheese, as well as to preserve dairy goods, some 6,000 years ago. However, such processes are not included in today’s definition of biotechnology, which was coined to describe the molecular and cellular technologies that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. In the mid- to late 1970s, a nascent “biotech” sector emerged, led by Genentech, a pharmaceutical firm founded in 1976 by Robert A. Swanson and Herbert W. Boyer to commercialise Boyer, Paul Berg, and Stanley N. Cohen’s recombinant DNA technology. Genentech, Amgen, Biogen, Cetus, and Genex were among the first businesses to produce genetically altered molecules for medicinal and environmental purposes.

Recombinant DNA technology, often known as genetic engineering, dominated the biotechnology sector for more than a decade. Splicing the gene for a useful protein (typically a human protein) into production cells—such as yeast, bacteria, or mammalian cells in culture—causes the protein to start producing in large quantities. When splicing a cable, there are a few things to keep in mind. . A new creature is produced when a gene is spliced into a producing cell. Biotechnology investors and researchers were first unsure if the courts would enable them to get patents on organisms; after all, patents were not permitted on newly found and recognised creatures in nature. However, in the case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty, the United States Supreme Court decided in 1980 that “a living human-made microbe is patentable subject matter.” This decision resulted in the formation of a slew of new biotechnology companies as well as the industry’s first investment boom. Recombinant insulin was the first genetically engineered product to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1982. . Since then, hundreds of genetically modified protein therapies, such as recombinant growth hormone, clotting factors, proteins that stimulate the creation of red and white blood cells, interferons, and clot-dissolving agents, have been sold across the world.

In a laboratory, a researcher purifies molecules for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins from biological material.
Alamy/Uwe Moser
Methodologies and tools
The capacity to create naturally occurring therapeutic compounds in bigger amounts than could be obtained from conventional sources such as plasma, animal organs, and human cadavers was the primary success of biotechnology in the early years. Pathogens are less likely to infect recombinant proteins, and allergic responses are less common. Biotechnology experts are now working to identify the underlying biological causes of disease and intervene precisely at that level. As with the first generation of biotech drugs, this might imply creating therapeutic proteins to supplement the body’s own resources or compensate for hereditary inadequacies. (A related procedure is gene therapy, which involves inserting genes encoding a required protein into a patient’s body or cells.)

The biotechnology sector has also increased its research into conventional medications and monoclonal antibodies that can halt disease progression. One of the most important biotechnology approaches to emerge in the final part of the twentieth century was the successful manufacture of monoclonal antibodies. Because of the specificity of monoclonal antibodies and their widespread availability, sensitive tests for a wide range of physiologically essential chemicals have been developed, as well as the capacity to differentiate cells by recognising hitherto identified marker molecules on their surfaces. The study of genes (genomics), the proteins that they encode (proteomics), and the wider biological pathways in which they function allowed for such advancements.

Biotechnology’s applications

Biotechnology offers a wide range of uses, including medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology could be used to merge biological information with computer technology (bioinformatics), or it could be used to investigate the use of microscopic equipment that can enter the human body (nanotechnology), or it could be used to replace dead or defective cells and tissues using stem cell research and cloning techniques. Biotechnology has been useful in refining industrial processes through the discovery and production of biological enzymes that spark chemical reactions (catalysts); in environmental cleanup with enzymes that digest contaminants into harmless chemicals and then die after consuming the available “food supply”; and in agricultural production through genetic engineering. Biotechnology’s agricultural uses have been the most contentious. Some environmentalists and consumer groups have proposed GMO bans or labelling regulations to alert people to the rising prevalence of GMOs in the food chain. GMOs were first introduced into agriculture in the United States in 1993, when the FDA authorised bovine somatotropin (BST), a growth hormone that increases milk output in dairy cows. The FDA authorised the first genetically modified whole product the following year, a tomato with a longer shelf life. Since then, dozens of agricultural GMOs have received regulatory clearance in the United States, Europe, and abroad, including crops that make their own insecticides and crops that resist the application of certain herbicides.
creatures that have been genetically modified
Scientific approaches, such as recombinant DNA technology, are used to create genetically engineered species.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a company that publishes encyclopaedias.
GMO foods have been found to be safe by studies conducted by the United Nations, the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, the European Union, the American Medical Association, US regulatory agencies, and other organisations, but sceptics argue that it is still too early to judge the long-term health and ecological effects of such crops. The land area planted in genetically modified crops expanded substantially in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, from 1.7 million hectares (4.2 million acres) in 1996 to 180 million hectares (445 million acres) in 2014. Approximately 90% of maize, cotton, and soybeans cultivated in the United States were genetically modified by 2014–15. The Americas were home to the bulk of genetically modified crops.

Over the five-year period from 1996 to 2000, the revenues of the biotechnology sectors in the United States and Europe almost quadrupled. The development of new products, notably in health care, spurred rapid expansion far into the twenty-first century. The worldwide biotechnology market is expected to be worth $752.88 billion by 2020, with significant growth potential arising in particular from government and industry-led efforts to speed up medication research and product clearance procedures.


What is nanotechnology, and how does it work?

Nanotechnology is a phrase used to describe fields of science and engineering in which phenomena occurring at nanoscale dimensions are used in the design, characterization, manufacture, and application of materials, structures, devices, and systems. Although there are many examples of structures with nanometer dimensions (hereafter referred to as the nanoscale) in the natural world, such as essential molecules in the human body and food components, and although many technologies have inadvertently involved nanoscale structures for many years, it has only been in the last quarter of a century that it has been possible to actively and intentionally modify molecules and structures within this size range. Nanotechnology is distinguished from other fields of technology by its ability to manipulate things at the nanometer scale.
Clearly, nanotechnology in its different manifestations has the potential to have a huge influence on society. In general, it is reasonable to expect that the deployment of nanotechnology will benefit both individuals and organizations. Many of these applications include novel materials that act at the nanoscale, where new phenomena are connected with the extremely large surface area to volume ratios observed at these dimensions, as well as quantum effects that are not seen at larger scales. . Materials in the form of ultra-thin films for catalysis and electronics, two-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires for optical and magnetic systems, and nanoparticles for cosmetics, medicines, and coatings are all examples. The information and communications sector, which includes electronic and optoelectronic fields, food technology, energy technology, and the medical products sector, which includes many different aspects of pharmaceuticals and drug delivery systems, diagnostics, and medical technology, where the terms nanomedicine and bio nanotechnology are already commonplace, are the industrial sectors that are most readily embracing nanotechnology. Nanotechnology goods may potentially present fresh challenges for environmental pollution mitigation. However, just as phenomena occurring at the nanoscale may be quite different from those occurring at larger dimensions and may be exploitable for the benefit of mankind, these newly identified processes and their products may expose the same humans, as well as the environment in general, to new health risks, potentially involving quite different mechanisms of interference with human and environmental species’ physiology. These possibilities might be focused on the destiny of free nanoparticles produced in nanotechnology processes and discharged into the environment, either purposefully or accidently, or supplied directly to persons through the operation of a nanotechnology-based product.
Individuals whose jobs expose them to free nanoparticles on a regular basis should be particularly concerned. The fact that evolution has determined that the human species has developed mechanisms of protection against environmental agents, both living and dead, is central to these health risk concerns. This process is determined by the nature of the agents commonly encountered, with size being a key factor. Exposure to nanoparticles with previously unknown properties may pose a threat to the body’s usual defense mechanisms, such as the immunological and inflammatory systems. It’s also likely that nanotechnology goods will have an environmental impact due to processes of dispersion and persistence of nanoparticles in the environment. Wherever the possibility for a completely new risk is discovered, a detailed examination of the risk’s nature is required, which may subsequently be utilized in risk management processes if necessary. It is commonly acknowledged that the hazards related with nanotechnology should be investigated in this manner. Many international organisations (e.g. Asia Pacific Nanotechnology Forum 2005), European Union governmental bodies (European Commission 2004,), National Institutions, non-governmental organizations (e.g. UN-NGLS 2005), learned institutions and societies, and individuals (e.g. Oberdörster et al 2005, Donaldson and Stone 2003) have published reports on the current state of nanotechnology. The European Council has emphasized the importance of paying close attention to potential risks throughout the life cycle of nanotechnology-based products, and the European Commission has expressed its desire to work on an international level to establish a framework of shared principles for the safe, sustainable, responsible, and socially acceptable use of nanotechnologies.

Scope and Definitions

There are numerous definitions of nanotechnology and nanotechnology products, which are frequently developed for specific reasons. The fundamental scientific principles of nanotechnology have been deemed more significant than the semantics of a definition in this Opinion, thus they are addressed first. The Committee believes that the UK Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering’s definition of nanoscience and nanotechnology in their 2004 report (Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering 2004) effectively communicates these notions. This implies that the nanoscale extends from the atomic level (about 0.2 nm) to roughly 100 nm. . Because of the significantly increased ratio of surface area to mass, and also because quantum effects begin to play a role at these dimensions, leading to significant changes in several types of physical property, materials in this range can have significantly different properties than the same substances at larger sizes.
The words used in this Opinion are defined in accordance with the British Standards Institution’s recently released Publicly Available Specification on the Vocabulary for Nanoparticles (BSI 2005), which proposes the following meanings for the key generic terms:
Nanoscale refers to objects with one or more dimensions of 100 nanometers or less. Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and material manipulation at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular sizes, where characteristics differ dramatically from those at higher scales.

  • Nanotechnology is the control of form and size at the nanoscale in the design, characterization, manufacturing, and application of structures, devices, and systems.
  • Nanomaterial: a material with one or more exterior dimensions or an interior structure that may have unique properties when compared to a similar material without nanoscale features.
  • Nanoparticle: a particle with one or more nanoscale dimensions. (Note: Nanoparticles are assumed to have two or more dimensions at the nanoscale in this paper.)

A nanocomposite is a composite in which at least one of the components has a nanoscale dimension. It’s worth noting that nanoscience and nanotechnology have exploded in popularity in recent years, and the terminology used by the respective fields hasn’t always been consistent. Furthermore, as this report points out, there have been and continue to be significant challenges in precisely measuring nanoscale parameters, making it difficult to have complete confidence in data and conclusions drawn about specific phenomena relating to specific features of nanostructures and nanomaterials. This Opinion recognises the inevitability of the situation and has derived some broad conclusions despite the fact that the literature may include contradictions and errors. While this Opinion adheres to the notion that nanoscale presently has dimensions of up to 100 nm, it recognises that certain publications may have depicted nanoscale as having bigger dimensions than 100 nm. Much of the research on particles, particularly that on aerosols, air pollution, and inhalation toxicity, has classified particles as ultrafine, fine, or conventional. Unless otherwise noted, ‘ultrafine particles’ are presumed to be substantially identical to nanoparticles in this research.

Also, when it comes to nanoparticles, keep in mind that a sample of a substance containing nanoparticles will often comprise a variety of particle sizes rather than being monodisperse This makes determining the characteristics of the nanoscale considerably more challenging, especially when considering dosages for toxicological investigations. In this Opinion, references to studies of particle exposure and toxicity data will be made often, and the particle size specified in the publications will be quoted as single numbers (e.g. 40 nm) or ranges (e.g. 40 – 80 nm), with the understanding that they will be approximations.

Furthermore, nanoparticles will have a tendency to agglomerate in specific settings. It’s reasonable to anticipate an aggregation of nanoparticles, which may have dimensions measured in microns rather than nanometers, to act differently than individual nanoparticles, but there’s no reason to expect the aggregate to behave like a single huge nanoparticle. Similarly, it is likely that nanoparticle behavior will be influenced by their solubility and susceptibility to degradation, and that neither the chemical composition nor particle size will remain constant over time. With the aforementioned definitions and disclaimers in mind, it’s evident that there are two sorts of nanostructures to evaluate in terms of intrinsic qualities and health risks: those where the structure is a free particle and those where the nanostructure is an essential element of a larger item.
Nanocomposites, which are solid materials with one or more dispersed phases present as nanoscale particles, and nanocrystalline solids, which have individual crystals with nanoscale dimensions, belong to the latter group. . This category also includes things that have been given a surface topography with nanoscale characteristics, as well as functional components with crucial nanometer dimensions, typically electrical components. Surface alterations can be achieved for medicinal applications by utilizing nanosized materials in particular coatings (Roszek et al 2005). This Opinion acknowledges the reality of such materials and products, as well as the fact that material properties on the nanoscale can affect interactions with biological systems. Despite the fast advancement of the study of interactions between biological systems and nano topographical characteristics, little is known about the potential for such interactions to cause harmful consequences. The danger would be related to the release during usage or at the end of the product’s life cycle, and would be determined by the strength of the adhesion to the carrier material. There is currently no reason to believe that immobilized nanoparticles represent a greater risk to health or the environment than larger size materials as long as the nanomaterials are fixed on the carrier’s surface.
The former group, which includes free nanoparticles, is the one that causes the most worry in terms of health hazards, and is the focus of the majority of this Opinion. . The term ‘free’ should be qualified since it indicates that the material in question is made up of individual nanoscale particles at some point during its creation or usage. These individual particles may be mixed into a quantity of another material, which may be a gas, a liquid, or a solid, to generate a paste, a gel, or a coating, in the application of the substance. Although their bioavailability will vary depending on the phase in which they are scattered, these particles may nonetheless be termed free This category would include ultrafine aerosols and colloids, as well as cream-based cosmetics and medicinal preparations, and it is with these instances that much of the current research on nanotechnology health implications has been focused. The main focus of this opinion is on the possible dangers connected with the manufacturing and use of items using engineered nanomaterials. Proteins, phospholipids, lipids, and other biological nanostructures are not considered in this context

A Wonderful Place for Religious tourism in Telangana, Yadagirigutta: Few Suggestions to improve

India is a place where one can visit any area for many purposes such as general tourism, medical tourism, religious tourism, games and sports tourism, educational tourism etc. On 11 January 2022, I had the opportunity to visit a wonderful place located about 80 kilometres away from Hyderabad (from my residence of Suncity, Hyderabad) known as Yadagirigutta in Telangana. I am presenting a few lines about the place based on secondary sources and also later on my observations.
Yadagirigutta is a temple town as the famous Lakshmi Narasimha Temple is situated here. It is situated around 16 kilometres away from the district headquarters Bhuvanagiri and 55 kilometres away from Uppal, a major suburb of Hyderabad and already mentioned around 80 kilometres away from Suncity of Hyderabad. It is pertinent to mention that Hyderabad Regional Ring Road passes through Yadagirigutta ( Thousands of people visit the place every day. According to the website,, five thousand to eight thousand people everyday visit for pujas, weddings, other family rituals etc. The number of visitors increases significantly on weekends, holidays and festivals. Further, in the context of its name few points are highlighted from the website, (, “according to the myths of the Third Age, there was a sage named Yadarshi, who was the son of the great sage Sri Rishyasringa Maharshi and Santa Devi. He meditated inside the cave with the gaze of Sri Anjaneya Swami. Sri Narasimha Swami appeared before him, pleased with his devotion. The Swami himself manifested himself in five different forms as Sri Jwala Narasimha, Sri Gandabherunda, Sri Yogananda, Sri Ugra and Sri Lakshminarasimha after Swami and is therefore worshipped as the Pancharama Narasimha Kshetra. The Sudarshan Chakra is a guide for the devotees towards the temple. In the 15th century, the great king of Vijayanagara, Sri Krishnadevaraya, mentioned in his autobiography about the temple that before going to war he would always visit the temple and pray to the Lord for victory. The town is well connected to the capital and the nearest major towns by the Ghat Road. This temple is very popular in the Telangana region”.

I was highly fascinated to see the beauty of the place as from the top place the view was scenic. I observed with my heart and mind, the beauty of nature as well as its pristine beauty. The Temple Committee meticulously arranged the visit of the people without any chaos, etc. As revealed, every day thousands of people visit the place to have a glimpse of Bhagawan Narshimha.
Here, I wish to suggest a few things to the Government of Telangana. While taking the Prasadam by paying a little amount, many people have to stand under the scorching heat. So, I suggest a spacious area should be selected with fully covered. Also, I observed only one counter was in operation where tokens were issued (payment counter) and another counter where Prasadam was distributed. Here, my suggestion is that there should be two more counters if not more. One (payment counter and Prasadam counter) should be for the senior citizens and another (payment counter and Prasadam counter) should be for ladies. Because when I visited on 11 March 2022 there was no separate counter either for senior citizens or for ladies. Only one as mentioned already was functioning for all.
Anyway, I congratulate the Government of Telangana for developing the area as a sequel many have got the job, both self-employment and wage- employment. Even eight years ago the place was not at all developed from a tourism point of view.
(I, Shankar Chatterjee, offer my gratitude to T. Sanjeeva Reddy, Legal Adviser by profession, Libdom Villa, Bandlaguda Jagir, Hyderabad for inspiring me in carrying out my academic activities)

5 Simple Budgeting Methods to Help You Live Your Best Life

According to a 2020 survey by the National Foundation for Credit Counseling, only 47% of Americans use budgeting tools to keep track of their spending. A budget, on the other hand, as the most basic instrument in the financial planning process, might make it easier to meet your financial objectives.

Not only does a budget help you keep track of where your money is going, but it also gives you more control over that process. Without a clear plan for your cash flow, you could be spending against your own best interests without even knowing it.

How a proper Budget can power your Financial Independence?

Budgeting isn’t always enjoyable, but it’s one of the most crucial steps you can do to better your financial situation. Here are a few examples of how living on a budget might help.

– It aligns your spending with your goals: You may decide how you’ll spend your money each month depending on what’s most important to you by setting and sticking to a budget.

It can improve your debt repayment strategy: If you’re trying to pay off student loans, credit cards, or other types of debt, a budget might help you set aside more money so you can get out of debt.

It can help you achieve your savings goals: A budget can help you figure out how much you’re going to save toward your goal at the beginning of the month, whether you want to save more for retirement, develop your emergency fund, or put money down for your next vacation.

5 Budgeting Methods to Consider

1. Zero- Based Budget
A zero-based budgeting strategy is straightforward: income minus expenses equals zero.

This budgeting strategy is best for persons who have a fixed monthly income or can at least anticipate their monthly income. Add your monthly spending and savings to equal your monthly income after you’ve calculated your monthly income.

It’s critical to budget for all of your spending as precisely as possible. If you go over budget in one category, you’ll have to make up the difference by taking money from another. And forgetting about a significant expense can throw your budget off.

A zero-based budget may be a better alternative for someone who has been budgeting for some time because there is less space for error. Even so, keeping additional cash in your bank account as a buffer is a wise idea. Also, keep a modest emergency money on hand in case you face a major unexpected bill.

2. Pay-yourself-first budget
Another simple budgeting strategy that focuses on savings and debt reduction is the pay-yourself-first budget.

Simply put, every time you are paid, you set away a particular amount for savings and debt payments, then spend the remainder of your money as you see fit. This allows you to prioritise your savings and debt payback goals while making do with the leftovers.

For instance, you might prioritise paying off high-interest debt first while gradually creating an emergency fund. However, once you’ve paid off your high-interest debt, you may concentrate on other savings goals.

Of course, prioritizing your necessary expenses and obligations is critical. However, because you’ve already taken care of what’s most essential to you, you don’t need to be concerned about where you spend your discretionary spending.
This budget is ideal for someone who has trouble saving each month or doesn’t want to spend too much time planning out each spending.

3. Envelope System Budget
This way of budgeting is similar to the zero-based budget, but there is one major difference: everything is done in cash. An envelope budgeting strategy is planning out how you’ll spend your money each month and using an envelope for each category of spending. Then, according to your budget, you withdraw as much cash as you need to fill each envelope.

Take your grocery envelope with you when you go grocery shopping, for example, and pay for your purchases with cash. If you run out, unless you choose to withdraw cash from other envelopes, that’s all you can spend in that area for the month. However, don’t raid other envelopes too frequently, as this might lead to a snowball effect, and you could run out of money before the end of the month.

The envelope system is endorsed by financial expert Dave Ramsey, so it’s a good alternative for folks who share his money ideals, which emphasize paying down debt rapidly and utilizing cash rather than credit cards.

However, it’s not a smart budgeting approach for someone who doesn’t like having a lot of cash on hand or prefers to use credit or debit cards.

4. 50/30/20 Budget
The 50/30/20 budgeting method is simple and requires less effort than the envelope and zero-based budgeting methods. The goal is to categorize your spending into three groups

  • Necessary expenses (50%)
  • Discretionary expenses (30%)
  • Savings and Debt Payments (20%)

    This budgeting strategy is ideal for rookie budgeters because it does not necessitate detailed spending tracking. You can stick to this budget as long as you understand what constitutes a want vs a need and allocate adequate funds to savings and debt repayment.

The biggest disadvantage is that the 50/30/20 rule may be impossible for people who have a lot of debt or want to save a lot of money because 20% isn’t a lot of money.

However, the good news is that you may tailor it to your own requirements. For example, you might wish to consider raising savings and debt repayments while minimising discretionary and necessary expenses.

To put it another way, don’t get too fixated on the 50/30/20 ratio. Make the concept fit your requirements.

5. The ‘no’ budget
This unique budgeting strategy is totally based on not spending money that you don’t have, as the name implies. Rather than making a budget, you should:

Keep an eye on the balance of your bank account. To keep track of your spending, use a budgeting app or your bank’s online banking or mobile app.

Keep track of when your recurring expenses are due. Keeping a list in a spreadsheet, Microsoft Word document, or on a piece of paper is one way to do this.

Set money aside for savings and additional debt repayments. Increase your automatic monthly debt payments and use automatic transfers from checking to savings wherever possible.

Spend the remainder of your funds without being overdrawn on your account. You’ll be better equipped to determine how much money is remaining after key costs if you keep an eye on your account balance.

While the “no” budget sounds easier than the other techniques we’ve discussed, telling oneself “no” isn’t always easy. This budgeting strategy works best if you’ve shown spending restraint in the past and are confident in your ability to do so again.

Marketing Concepts

Today, there is a plan for everything, but before you can design one, you must first comprehend the fundamentals. For example, understanding marketing ideas is critical if you want to develop a great marketing plan. You can find out the best marketing approach for you by following the five fundamental marketing concepts. Simply put, execution is a critical element in marketing that occurs only after extensive study and strategizing.

What is Marketing?

The art and process of building, implementing, and maintaining an exchange connection is known as marketing. You start by acquiring clients, then create a relationship with them, and then keep it by meeting their demands. Customers or other businesses can be that customer; thus, marketing can be B2B or B2C depending on the situation. The fundamental goal of marketing, however, remains the same: to develop a relationship with clients and meet their needs by meeting their requirements.

Telecommunications, for example, develops a marketing plan that entices and persuades customers to utilize their phone, message, and internet bundles. When users start using, they are encouraged to rate their service by giving it a star rating.

What are the Marketing Concepts?

When a corporation prepares and implements strategies to increase profits by increasing sales, meeting consumer requirements, and outperforming competitors, it is referred to as marketing. The goal is to create a condition that benefits both the customer and the business.

The marketing concept is based on the idea of anticipating and satisfying customer requirements and wants better than competitors. Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith’s work, was the source of the marketing concepts. However, it remained unknown to the rest of the world until the twenty-first century.
To completely comprehend the marketing notion, we must first comprehend needs, desires, and demands.

  • Needs: Needs are unavoidable for life to survive; without them, various negative consequences can arise. Death would be the worst-case scenario. Food, shelter, self-development, security, social belonging, self-esteem, and respect are all examples of needs.
  • Wants – Wants are our desires and wishes in life are shaped by our social environment and culture.
  • Demand: Demands are created when our desires, needs, and wants are backed by our ability to pay.

5 Basic Marketing Concepts

1. The Production Concept
Customers will be more drawn to products that are easily available and can be acquired for cheaper than rival products of the same kind, according to the manufacturing principle. This concept arose from the rise of early capitalism in the 1950s, when businesses were focused on production efficiency to assure maximum profits and scalability.

This mindset can be beneficial when a company markets in a rapidly growing field, but it also comes with a danger. Businesses that are unduly focused on low-cost production might easily lose touch with client wants and, as a result, lose revenue, despite their low-cost and widely accessible goods.

2. The Product Concept
The product concept is the polar opposite of the production concept in that it assumes that customer buying habits are not influenced by availability or price, and that people value quality, innovation, and performance over low cost. As a result, this marketing approach emphasises product improvement and innovation on a regular basis.

Apple Inc. is a great example of how this principle works. Its target demographic anticipates the company’s new releases with bated breath. Many people will not compromise solely to save money, even if there are off-brand products that perform many of the same functions for a lower price. However, if a marketer relies solely on this idea, he or she may miss out on people who are also influenced by availability and pricing.

3. The Selling Concept
Marketing based on the selling concept focuses on getting the customer to the actual transaction without regard for the client’s wants or product quality – a costly technique. This approach generally overlooks customer satisfaction efforts and rarely results in repeat purchases.

Because a product or service isn’t a need, the selling notion is based on the belief that you must persuade a buyer to acquire it by aggressive promotion of its merits. Soda pop is an example. Have you ever wondered why, despite the brand’s popularity, you keep seeing advertisements for Coca-Cola? Everyone understands what Coke has to offer, but it’s also common knowledge that soda is devoid of nutrients and harmful to one’s health. Coca-Cola understands this, which is why they spend such large sums of money to promote their product.

4. The Marketing Concept
The marketing concept is based on a company’s capacity to compete and maximise revenues by promoting the ways in which it provides customers with higher value than its competitors. It all comes down to knowing your target market, sensing its wants, and efficiently providing those demands. This is referred described as the “customer-first strategy” by many.

Glossier is a well-known example of this type of marketing. The brand recognises that many women are dissatisfied with the way cosmetics affects their skin’s health. Women are also tired up with being instructed what makeup items to use, according to the researchers. With this in mind, Glossier launched a line of skincare and beauty products that not only hydrate the skin but also promote individualism and personal expression through the use of makeup.

5. The Societal Concept
The societal marketing concept is a new one that stresses societal well-being. It’s founded on the premise that, regardless of a company’s sales goals, marketers have a moral responsibility to sell ethically to promote what’s good for people over what people may want. Employees of a corporation live in the communities to which they market, and they should advertise in the best interests of their community.

The fast-food sector is an example of the type of problem that the societal notion seeks to solve. Fast food is in high demand in our society, but it is high in fat and sugar and adds to waste. Despite the fact that the industry is catering to modern consumer wishes, it is harming our health and undermining our society’s goal of environmental sustainability.

Types of Debt

Understanding Debt

Loans, such as mortgages, vehicle loans, personal loans, and credit card debt, are the most common types of debt. The borrower is obligated to repay the loan balance by a particular date, usually several years in the future, according to the terms of the loan. The amount of interest that the borrower must pay annually, stated as a percentage of the loan amount, is also specified in the loan terms. Interest is used to reward the lender for taking on the risk of the loan, as well as to encourage the borrower to repay the loan fast in order to reduce their total interest expense.

Credit card debt works similarly to a loan, with the exception that the borrowed amount fluctuates over time based on the borrower’s needs—up to a predetermined limit—and has a rolling, or open-ended, repayment date. Consolidating loans, such as student loans and personal loans, is an option.

Types of Debt

1. Secured Debt
Putting yourself in the position of a lender might help you understand secured debt. When someone asks for a loan, the lender must examine whether the debt will be repaid. Creditors can limit their risk by using secured debt. Because secured debt is backed by an asset (also known as collateral), this is the case. To put it another way, the collateral acts as a “security” for the loan.

Cash or property can be used as collateral. It can also be taken if borrowers do not make timely payments. Failure to repay a secured debt might result in additional consequences. Missed payments, for example, could be reported to credit bureaus. In addition, an unpaid debt may be referred to collections.

For example, a secured credit card needs a cash deposit before it may be used to make transactions. Consider it similar to the security deposit you’d put down when renting an apartment. Secured debt includes mortgages and auto loans. With these, the collateral is usually the purchased property, such as a house or a car. However, there is a silver lining to collateral: For the borrower, a lower risk to the lender could mean more attractive lending conditions and rates. Furthermore, some lenders may be less stringent when it comes to credit score requirements.

2. Unsecured Debt
When a debt is unsecured, there is no need for collateral. Consider student debts, credit cards, and personal loans. If you don’t have any collateral, your credit will usually play a significant role in determining whether you qualify for unsecured debt—though there are some exceptions, such as school loans.

Credit reports are used by lenders to assess your credit. That is true for the majority of debts. However, loan criteria may vary. Creditors typically consider factors such as your payment history and outstanding debt. Credit scores—another instrument that lenders may employ—are calculated using similar principles.

In general, the higher your credit score, the more possibilities you have. A higher credit score, for example, could help you qualify for bigger credit limits or cheaper interest rates on an unsecured credit card. Some credit cards may provide benefits such as cash back, miles, or points. Remember that a higher credit score does not guarantee that you will be approved for unsecured credit cards or other loans. And just because a loan is “unsecured” doesn’t imply it’s okay to skip payments. If you go behind on your payments, it may harm your credit and lead to collections or a lawsuit.

3. Revolving Debt
You may already be familiar with revolving debt if you have a secured or unsecured credit card. A revolving credit account is open-ended, which means you can charge and pay off your debt as many times as you like as long as the account is in good standing. Revolving credit includes personal lines of credit and home equity lines of credit.

If you qualify for a revolving credit line, your lender will set a credit limit for you, which is the most you can charge on the account. The amount of credit you have available changes month to month based on how much you utilise it. The minimum payment amounts may also alter month to month. Any unpaid debt will be carried over to the following payment cycle, along with interest. What’s the greatest way to avoid paying interest? Each time you receive a bill, pay it in full.

4. Installment Debt
In some respects, instalment debt varies from revolving debt. This sort of loan is closed-ended, unlike revolving credit. That is, it is paid back over a set length of time. And, as the name implies, payments are usually made monthly in equal increments. Payments may be needed more regularly depending on the loan agreement.

Installment loans are available. Car loans and mortgages are examples of this. Unsecured instalment loans are also available. Student loans are an example of this. Another sort of instalment loan is a buy-now-pay-later loan, sometimes known as a BNPL.
When you pay off a loan in instalments, you’re repaying both the principal and the interest. As the debt is paid down, the amount of each payment that goes toward interest usually decreases. Amortization is the term for this procedure.

The 4Ps of Marketing

The four Ps of marketing are the most important aspects of selling a product or service. They are a good or service’s product, pricing, location, and promotion. The four Ps, often known as the marketing mix, are influenced by both internal and external elements in the broader corporate environment, and they interact heavily.

Companies utilise the 4 Ps to figure out what their customers want from them, how their product or service fulfils or fails to satisfy those demands, how their product or service is viewed in the world, how they differentiate themselves from their competitors, and how they engage with their customers.

Understanding 4Ps

In the 1950s, Neil Borden popularized the concept of the marketing mix—and the concepts that would eventually be known as the four Ps. Borden was a Harvard University advertising professor. His article “The Concept of the Marketing Mix,” published in 1964, illustrated how businesses should employ advertising methods to engage their customers. Companies are still advertising their goods and services using the themes that Borden popularized decades later.

The marketing mix helped corporations account for the physical hurdles that impeded widespread product adoption when it was originally coined. Today, the Internet has aided businesses in achieving a higher level of integration with their customers, as well as overcoming some of these hurdles. People, process, and physical evidence are additions to the classic four Ps that are more relevant to today’s marketing trends.

The 4Ps

1. Product
Any object or service that satisfies a customer’s wants or preferences is referred to as a product. It can also be characterised as a collection of utilities with physical characteristics such as design, volume, and brand name. The perceived value of a product is influenced by its type, which allows businesses to price it profitably. It also has an impact on things like product placement and advertising.

To achieve their goals, businesses might alter packaging, after-sales service, warranties, and pricing ranges, as well as expand into new areas. Marketers must comprehend the product life cycle and devise strategies for each step, including introduction, growth, maturity, and decline.

2. Price
The price of a product has a direct impact on sales volume and, as a result, earnings. Demand, cost, rival price patterns, and government laws are all important considerations in determining pricing. The price of a thing usually reflects its perceived value rather than its actual value. As a result, cost can be raised to promote exclusivity or lowered to promote accessibility.

As a result, pricing entails making judgments on the base price, discounts, price changes, credit terms, freight payments, and so on. It’s also crucial to determine when and if discounting strategies are necessary or appropriate.

3. Promotion
Advertising, salesforce, direct marketing, public relations, advertising budgets, and other considerations are all part of promotion. The fundamental goal of promotion is to raise awareness of a company’s products and services. It aids in influencing customers to choose one product over others available on the market. The following are examples of promotional efforts:

  • Advertising: Advertising is a method of promoting a product, service, or concept by sending out a sponsored, non-personal communication about it.
  • Public Relations: Management and control of the flow and matter of information from one’s organisation to the general public or other institutions is what public relations entails.
  • Marketing Strategy: Marketing strategy is determining the correct target market and employing methods like advertising to enter it. Online variables such as defining the class of Google search operations that may trigger corresponding or targeted adverts for the product, the design and layout of a company’s webpage, or the content shared on social media accounts like Twitter and Instagram are all examples of promotion.

4. Place (or Distribution)
The term “place” refers to the location where things will be made available for purchase. The fundamental goal of trade channel management is to guarantee that the product is available to the customer at the appropriate time and location. It also includes judgments about where wholesale and retail stores should be located and how much they should cost. After a cost-benefit analysis, distribution options such as outsourcing or business transport fleets are chosen. Smaller data, such as department store shelf space devoted to the product, are also mentioned.

Extensions of 4Ps of Marketing

The 4 P’s of Marketing should be expanded to cover services, according to new marketers. They are as follows:

Servicing entails direct engagement between service providers and users, increasing the potential for subjectivity. Appearances, communication, discretion, consumer engagement, demeanour, and service attitude are all critical factors.

Physical Evidence:
The atmosphere, layout, and style of a workplace can have a significant impact on a product’s brand image.

Process: When it comes to policy, processes, systems, and consumer interaction, standardised procedures are frequently used to ensure consistency in service delivery.

impact on the Indiana economy due to the Russia Ukraine conflict

The invasion of Ukraine by Russia, as well as the flurry of punitive measures put on it by the US and European nations, has the potential to have two effects on India Inc. One, if not passed on, the resulting jump in commodity prices might raise input costs and pressure downstream sector margins.

Two, trade and banking restrictions may limit India’s export-import operations in the targeted region unless workarounds are discovered.

However, according to a CRISIL analysis, a few industries, such as steel and aluminium, may profit from increased prices. Overall, the impact of the continuing battle will differ depending on the industry.

. However, as the geopolitical situation improves, a clearer picture, including the credit quality of affected enterprises, will emerge.

Brent crude prices have soared beyond US$130/barrel, up from US$97/barrel before the Russian incursion. Oil marketing corporations are already losing money without a corresponding increase in retail fuel costs. Chemicals and paints industries that use crude oil-linked derivatives as their principal feedstock are feeling the effects of this. As inventory purchased at reduced prices run out, these industries may face a margin compression that might go far into the first quarter of the following fiscal year.

Other commodities will witness increased cost inflation as well. Steel and aluminium prices, which have recently risen from already high levels (Russia provides nearly 6% of world primary aluminium output), will continue to rise. While this would assist local primary steelmakers and aluminium smelters by increasing realisations, it would have a detrimental impact on the construction, real estate, and car industries.

Natural gas spot prices, which are similarly related to petroleum, may continue to rise. However, the downstream industries would be less affected. The higher pricing can be passed on to urea producers who utilise it as a feedstock. However, if the conflict continues, domestic urea supply might become a problem for the agricultural industry, as about 8% of the demand is met domestically.

City gas operators have favourable cost economics compared to competing fuels, according to the credit rating agency, which might allow them to pass on gas price rises downstream – at least to some extent.

Sanctions tied to trade and banking might affect industries that get critical raw materials like crude sunflower oil and rough diamonds, according to CRISIL. Sunflower oil accounts for over 10% of India’s edible oil consumption, with 90% of it coming from Russia and Ukraine.

An protracted battle might disrupt supply to domestic oil mills, which normally keep 30-45 days’ worth of inventories on hand and have few alternatives for changing their source on short notice.

For diamond polishers, persistent trade interruption can raise the cost of raw diamonds, putting a strain on their profit margins. Alrosa, Russia’s largest diamond miner, produces approximately 30% of the world’s rough diamonds, which saw a 21 percent increase in price in 2021.

The persistent semiconductor shortfall is unlikely to provide relief to the automotive industry. This is due to the fact that Russia and Ukraine supply over 75% of the neon gas required in semiconductor manufacturing operations such as etching circuit patterns into silicon wafers to build chips. A lengthy conflict, as well as sanctions against Russia, would stifle semiconductor output even further. According to the rating agency, import dependency on palladium and platinum, which are used in catalytic converters, and nickel, which is used as a cathode in lithium-ion batteries, is low and so may have only a minor impact on the vehicle sector.

The pharmaceuticals industry may only see a minor impact because its shipments to Russia and Ukraine are now free from sanctions, and Indian drugmakers’ exposure to these regions is modest, accounting for less than 3% of overall exports, according to CRISIL. To be sure, the government and the impacted enterprises are expected to take efforts to mitigate the situation, and CRISIL is keeping a close eye on the situation and will analyse its impact on credit quality on a case-by-case basis.

Consumers could also expect a significant increase in the price of animal protein, such as chicken, dairy products, and seafood. Amul, the world’s largest dairy company, hiked retail milk prices by 4% in all Indian markets on March 1st. “Due to growing energy, packaging, transportation, and cow feeding expenses, this price increase is necessary. As a result, the overall cost of operation and milk production has increased “Amul stated in a press statement. Mother Dairy, a milk brand, has also announced a price increase of Rs 2 effective March 6th.

The ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine are expected to have an influence on local wheat and sunflower oil prices. Both nations produce considerable amounts of wheat, and Ukraine is one of the world’s leading exporters of sunflower seeds. Analysts say that while India is self-sufficient in wheat, it does import some high-quality grain. Furthermore, the drop in Russian and Ukrainian wheat prices on the international market would provide an appealing opportunity for Indian exporters, raising local prices significantly. In the last 8-10 days, the price of sunflower oil has risen by around 5% to 10% on the worldwide market. For customers who have been paying historically high prices for over two years, the Russia-Ukraine conflict has dashed any thoughts of relief from high cooking oil costs.

Chicken prices have risen by 25% since January, and industry insiders predict a further increase of 10% to 50% in March in various regions of the nation owing to a severe feed scarcity.

Tea exports, which are referred to as chai in both Russian and Ukrainian, may also meet difficulties. Russia is one of India’s largest tea buyers, accounting for 18% of the country’s tea exports. Given the importance of the Russian market for Indian tea exports, Given that Iran shipments continue to be plagued by payment troubles, which has resulted in a sharp drop in export volumes, the Russian market is critical for Indian tea exports.

Hostilities between Russia and Ukraine are projected to put pressure on India’s agriculture industry, raising costs and limiting availability of potash, a vital component used in fertiliser production.

Belarus and Russia are now the world’s leading suppliers of potash. India, on the other hand, is a large importer of potash, which is utilised in fertiliser production. Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus account for ten percent to twelve percent of India’s total fertiliser imports. . With already-high prices, the government’s subsidy expenditure, which would be necessary to maintain an acceptable retail price for farmers, will skyrocket.

If Russia and Ukraine do not reach an agreement quickly, there is a risk that the war may spread beyond the area. This would be disastrous for businesses. Regardless of whether the battle continues or ends soon, it is likely to result in soaring inflation, which will affect a variety of industries.


A conflict of interest arises when a party’s interests or loyalties are divided as a result of their obligations to more than one person or organization. A person with a conflict of interest cannot fairly represent both parties’ real or projected conflicting interests.

What Does It Mean to Have a Conflict of Interest?

A person or entity having two relationships contending for the individual’s loyalty is said to be in a conflict of interest. For example, the person may be devoted to both his or her employment and a family company. Each of these companies expects the individual to put the company’s best interests first

As a result, there is a disagreement. Personal and professional conflicts of interest might occur.

What is a Conflict of Interest?

In many different scenarios involving personal allegiance and loyalty to a private employer, government employer, or professional connection, a conflict of interest might arise. A public official whose personal interests conflict with their expected loyalty to the organisation, a person of authority in one company or organisation who conflicts with their interests in another company or organisation, or an attorney who tries to represent both parties in a divorce are all examples of conflicts of interest.

Conflicts of Interest: What They Are and What They Aren’t

There are a variety of activities that might lead to a conflict of interest, including:



excessive remuneration

In situations of employment, promotion, transfer, or termination, nepotism is the practise of offering favours to family and close friends. It was customary practise in ancient times, and the phrase originates from the word “nephew.” Because the relative may not be the best person for the position, nepotism is regarded a conflict of interest.

Self-dealing is when a corporate fiduciary acts for his or her own personal gain rather than the company’s profit. Using business cash as a personal loan is one example, as is buying company shares based on insider information, which is also an insider trading offence. 3 Setting salary or perks for officials, directors, or trustees in a non-profit organisation can lead to a conflict of interest. Paying an employee in a position of significant power exorbitant salary, for example, serves a private purpose. 4

Workplace conflicts of interest may take many different shapes.

There are business-related issues, such as an employee running a side business that competes with the employer, and personal issues, such as a manager having a romantic involvement with an employee. The latter creates a problem since the manager has the authority to grant the employee increases or promotions, and communications between the two persons concerning the firm may also violate confidentiality agreements.

Conflicts of interest are more likely to occur in organizations that rely on a supply chain. An employee’s acquaintance with a supplier, for example, may allow them to bypass the bidding procedure and secure contracts with little or no competition.

Many organizations have laws and processes in place that prohibit conflicts of interest, such as hiring family in specific circumstances.

After-Employer Conflict of Interest

A conflict of interest can arise even after someone has left a post, despite the fact that many institutions prohibit this type of conflict. Executives and business owners are frequently obliged to sign non-compete agreements to avoid scenarios such as someone obtaining their former company’s client list and immediately competing with them.

Former federal workers in the executive branch are prohibited from testifying on behalf of other individuals or organizations before the federal government. This includes limits on “switching sides” after leaving the government and working for a corporation where the official previously worked.

The Massachusetts conflict of interest statute, like those of other government and commercial institutions, prohibits a person from working for anyone other than the government entity on an issue that they worked for the entity on. Business partners and intimate family members may be subject to these post-employment limitations.

Is it Illegal to Have a Conflict of Interest?

Conflict of interest actions, like other sorts of unlawful or immoral behaviour, pose the possibility of negative repercussions. Conflicts of interest in the public sector are illegal under federal and state law, and they can lead to punishment in certain instances.

Government personnel are prohibited from acting personally and materially in official activities in which they have a financial interest under the federal government’s criminal conflict of interest legislation. This limitation also applies to the spouse, minor child, general partner, and a few others. Conflicts of interest can develop from a variety of sources, including:

Investments and assets

  • Liabilities
  • Funds for private investment
  • Ownership of a business or a farm
  • Working for a company
  • Working for a legal company or as a consultant
  • Work with higher education institutions, as well as associated research, speaking, and writing activities

Alternative dispute resolution

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) refers to a variety of methods for resolving disagreements without going to court. Mediation, arbitration, and neutral evaluation are examples of ADR methods. Unlike typical court sessions, these procedures are often more private, less official, and less stressful.

ADR frequently saves money and expedites the settlement process. Parties have a vital role in settling their own conflicts through mediation. This frequently leads to innovative ideas, long-term results, increased satisfaction, and enhanced relationships.
In family law, general civil, and commercial law issues, the New York State Unified Court System provides free or reduced-fee mediation and other ADR services. These services are offered in virtually all of New York State’s 62 counties, as well as numerous courthouses and Community Dispute Resolution Centers.
Arbitration: a neutral person known as a “arbitrator” hears both sides’ arguments and evidence before making a decision. The rules of evidence are typically modified in arbitration, making it less formal than a trial. Parties agree to accept the arbitrator’s judgement as final in binding arbitration, and there is usually no right of appeal. If the parties do not accept the arbitrator’s ruling in nonbinding arbitration, they may request a trial.

Collaborative Law is a problem-solving technique that allows divorcing couples and their lawyers to dissolve marriages and reconstruct families without the stress, delay, and expense of traditional litigation. Three elements underpin collaborative law:

  1. A promise not to fight issues in court;
  2. an honest, voluntary, quick, and good-faith exchange of pertinent facts without formal discovery; and
  3. a commitment to seek solutions that include both parties’ and their children’s greatest objectives. Despite their shared dedication to collaborative law concepts, each lawyer has a professional responsibility to zealously represent his or her own client and is not the counsel for the other party.

Mediation: In mediation, a neutral third party known as a “mediator” assists the parties in attempting to obtain a mutually agreeable resolution of the conflict. The mediator does not make a decision in the case; instead, he or she assists the parties in communicating so that they can try to resolve the conflict on their own. Mediation can be especially beneficial when family members are involved. If one side has a major advantage in power or influence over the other, mediation may not be acceptable. To learn more about mediation, click here.

In order to facilitate settlement, a neutral person with subject-matter experience hears abridged arguments, assesses the strengths and weaknesses of each side’s case, and provides an assessment of potential court outcomes. With the parties’ permission, the neutral evaluator may also give case planning advice and settlement aid.

PC stands for Parenting Coordination, which is a child-centered procedure in which a qualified and experienced mental health or legal expert known as a “parenting coordinator” aids high-conflict parents in carrying out their parenting plan. The parenting coordinator may make decisions within the scope of the court order with the parties’ and the court’s previous consent.
Parent Coordination’s goal is to assist parents in resolving child-related problems in a timely manner while also attempting to create safe, healthy, and meaningful parent-child interactions.

Restorative Justice is a process in which stakeholders identify and address the effects, needs, and duties of an incidence of damage or other conflict, and form an action plan to move forward.

Settlement Conferencing: Before going to trial, a court or a judge’s representative meets with the parties and their lawyers to try to resolve some or all of the points in dispute. The parties’ involvement is restricted, and the emphasis is on limiting the issues at hand.
A court appoints a Special Master to carry out some form of action on its behalf. This might entail managing discovery concerns, conferencing cases, or post-judgment action.

Summary Jury Trials (SJT): In this adversarial dispute resolution method, each party presents their case to the jury in a condensed manner. The jury then offers a recommendation, which is simply advisory unless the parties want a binding ruling. A summary jury trial provides parties a sneak peek at what they could get if the matter goes to trial. SJTs are only accessible in a few states.
Advantage and disadvantages of ADR[
• Suitable for multi-party disputes
• Lower costs, in many cases it’s free when involving consumers
• Likelihood and speed of settlements
• Flexibility of process
• Parties’ control of process
• Parties’ choice of forum
• Practical solutions
• Wider range of issues can be considered
• Shared future interests may be protected
• Confidentiality
• Risk management
• Generally no need for lawyers
• Can be a less confrontational alternative to the court system
However, ADR is less suitable than litigation when there is:
• A need for precedent
• A need for court orders
• A need for interim orders
• A need for evidential rules
• A need for enforcement
• Power imbalance between parties
• Quasi-criminal allegations
• Complexity in the case
• The need for live evidence or analysis of complex evidence
• The need for expert evidence

Digital currency and its Drawbacks.

What are virtual currencies?

A virtual currency is a digital representation of value that can be digitally traded and functions as (a) a medium of exchange, and/ or (b) a unit of account, and/or (c) a store of value, but, unlike fiat currency like the rupee, it is not legal tender and does not have the backing of a government. A cryptocurrency is a subset of virtual currencies, and is decentralised, and protected by cryptography.

What are Distributed Ledger Technologies and Blockchain?

Imagine a small group of school friends maintaining a list of transactions among themselves, but with a twist: Instead of holding this list in one single computer or in the notebook of one of the group members or authorising some outside authority (say, their class teacher) to maintain (and update) the list, all of them decide to maintain a separate copy of the list in their personal computers. Every time they transact, the rest of the members verify the transaction and once it is verified by all, they update their list. Further, to make sure that none of them changes records of the past transactions in their personal list, they decide to place each transaction as a block, and to stack it one after the other in a sequence. This way, no one can tweak the details of any past transactions because the overall sequence will not match with sequences held by others. Lastly, to make sure that no other child from the school gets to know the details, they devise a code (a cypher) for all their communications related to the list.

9 Profitable Skills that you can Learn Online

The pandemic has made us stay at home and we all know that staying at home is boring. We can kill this time productively by learning new skills online. 

  •  Coding

Technology is vast and there are plenty of job opportunities available if you know how to code. Programmers are high in demand all over the world. Learning and doing programming is an exercise for your brain that eventually improves your problem solving and logical ability. There are many apps and websites which teach coding for free.

  •  SEO 

SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization, which is the practice of increasing the quantity and quality of traffic to your website through organic search engine results. SEO is the best way to market and it can boost your public visibility. If you are a Freelancer or a business owner then you really can’t conduct online business without knowing about SEO.

  •  Microsoft Excel

Microsoft Excel is a software program included in the Microsoft Office suite. It is used to create spreadsheets, which are documents in which data is laid out in rows and columns like a big table. Excel training just doesn’t help you get things done quicker and more efficiently it also increases the effectiveness of the reports and analysis that you do.

  •  Languages

Learning a foreign language, even as little as a handful of phrases, will make your travel experiences better. It also boosts the confidence of an individual and improves the probability of getting employed in a company. Learning a new language helps us to discover a new culture and this is an immensely enriching experience for us. 

  •  Photography

You can capture a beautiful moment by learning photography. It also increases your creativity. Moreover, photography provides an enjoyable hobby. Earning a certificate online shows that you’ve had formal training, practical experience and critical assessments. This can open doors to a broader range of job opportunities where a degree is a minimum requirement.

  •  PhotoShop

Adobe Photoshop is one of the most famous and all-round image editing software existing in the market today. Photoshop skills are often listed in a lot of job descriptions these days. Learning Photoshop gives you an added advantage over other applicants who are not skilled in Photoshop. Using Photoshop one can transform pictures to unimaginable heights of creativity. 

  •  Public Speaking

Public speaking is not just standing on a stage and speaking into a microphone to an audience. Public speaking includes speaking at meetings, with potential clients, colleagues, and customers. Mastery of public speaking will empower numerous other skills, abilities and personal enhancements will be the result.

  •  Video Editing

Video is the best marketing and promotional tool ever in the modern market. Videos attract the people to watch. They stop for a movement and see the video.  In this technological age, people watch videos as they are easily accessible. So if you want something across, pushing out your message or promotion to the people, make videos.  

  •  Digital Marketing

Digital marketing is the promotion of products or brands using electronic devices or the internet. It also includes text messaging, instant messaging, video, apps, podcasts, electronic billboards, digital television and radio channels, etc. Digital marketing gives a huge scope and multitude of job options. Digital marketing will also help you to promote your startup at very low cost.

Interview Skills

We all are nervous while attending an interview, even with full preparations our hands start sweating. Here are some tips to ace an interview and get your dream job.

Whether you are applying for an entry-level position or a senior role, you will probably have an interview with a potential employer before receiving a job offer. Since a job interview gives you a chance to show your qualifications and make a good impression on the hiring team, you should know to perform at your best during this important meeting. It is not only your qualifications and experience which matters but also your positive attitude, your ability to work in teams and positive aspirations which matters in the selection process. 85% of the interviews are decided in the first two/three minutes. So be careful about your handshake, eye contact, body language, and right posture.There are 4P’s to have success in an interview – Prepare, Practice, Present, and Participate. 

You should prepare for the interview by learning about the significance of body language. Also you should improve your public speaking and linguistic skills. Also, learn as much as you can about the company and the position.You should practice the frequently asked questions by the interviewer (I have listed those questions in the end of the article). You should also practice some puzzles because in many interviews one or more IQ based questions are asked. And finally participate in the interview; express your views confidently and don’t be afraid to share your opinions to them. On the day of the interview carefully consider what to wear and how to present yourself professionally. Here are some do’s and don’ts during an interview:


  • Organize all the required material neatly.
  • Have a good dress sense, groom well.
  • Reach the place of interview well in advance.
  • Be cheerful and expressive.
  • Have positive body posture.
  • Be honest, sincere and simple in your talk.
  • Be assertive and confident.
  • Be polite in answering.
  • Leave a good last impression by saying “thank you.”
  • Replace the chair and other things in the original place when you leave the room.


  • Don’t search for anything in an interview as it creates a bad impression.
  • Don’t fold arms or close palms.
  • Don’t drag the chair and make a noise.
  • Don’t be rigid. Don’t cross your legs.
  • Don’t tell lies.
  • Don’t be very submissive or aggressive.
  • Don’t argue, confront, challenge.
  • Don’t feel frustrated if you lose the interview.

Tips for great body language

Your body language expresses your confidence. Here are some tips for a great body language.

  • 1. Smile
  • 2. Don’t cross your arms
  • 3. Make good eye contact
  • 4. Keep your body pointed vertically towards your guest
  • 5. Nod at key points
  • 6. Stand up straight

Frequently asked questions:

  • 1. Introduce yourself.
  • 2. What are your strengths and weaknesses?
  • 3. Can you tell something about our company?
  • 4. Why should we hire you?
  • 5. Are you willing to relocate/travel?
  • 6. What was the toughest decision you ever had to make?
  • 7. Would you lie for the company?
  • 8. On a 10 point scale how do you rate yourself in communication skills?
  • 9. How long would you like to work for us if we hire you?
  • 10. How much salary do you expect from us?

Interview Skills

We all are nervous while attending an interview, even with full preparations our hands start sweating. Here are some tips to ace an interview and get your dream job.

Whether you are applying for an entry-level position or a senior role, you will probably have an interview with a potential employer before receiving a job offer. Since a job interview gives you a chance to show your qualifications and make a good impression on the hiring team, you should know to perform at your best during this important meeting. It is not only your qualifications and experience which matters but also your positive attitude, your ability to work in teams and positive aspirations which matters in the selection process. 85% of the interviews are decided in the first two/three minutes. So be careful about your handshake, eye contact, body language, and right posture.There are 4P’s to have success in an interview – Prepare, Practice, Present, and Participate. 

You should prepare for the interview by learning about the significance of body language. Also you should improve your public speaking and linguistic skills. Also, learn as much as you can about the company and the position.You should practice the frequently asked questions by the interviewer (I have listed those questions in the end of the article). You should also practice some puzzles because in many interviews one or more IQ based questions are asked. And finally participate in the interview; express your views confidently and don’t be afraid to share your opinions to them. On the day of the interview carefully consider what to wear and how to present yourself professionally. Here are some do’s and don’ts during an interview:


  • Organize all the required material neatly.
  • Have a good dress sense, groom well.
  • Reach the place of interview well in advance.
  • Be cheerful and expressive.
  • Have positive body posture.
  • Be honest, sincere and simple in your talk.
  • Be assertive and confident.
  • Be polite in answering.
  • Leave a good last impression by saying “thank you.”
  • Replace the chair and other things in the original place when you leave the room.


  • Don’t search for anything in an interview as it creates a bad impression.
  • Don’t fold arms or close palms.
  • Don’t drag the chair and make a noise.
  • Don’t be rigid. Don’t cross your legs.
  • Don’t tell lies.
  • Don’t be very submissive or aggressive.
  • Don’t argue, confront, challenge.
  • Don’t feel frustrated if you lose the interview.

Tips for great body language

Your body language expresses your confidence. Here are some tips for a great body language.

1. Smile

2. Don’t cross your arms

3. Make good eye contact

4. Keep your body pointed vertically towards your guest

5. Nod at key points

6. Stand up straight

Frequently asked questions:

1. Introduce yourself.

2. What are your strengths and weaknesses?

3. Can you tell something about our company?

4. Why should we hire you?

5. Are you willing to relocate/travel?

6. What was the toughest decision you ever had to make?

7. Would you lie for the company?

8. On a 10 point scale how do you rate yourself in communication skills?

9. How long would you like to work for us if we hire you?

10. How much salary do you expect from us?

Let’s talk over business

                             TheBusiness is something which needs patience, time and value. Technologically a proper business needs proper level of investment and thus correct percentage of profit. Initially any business needs time before expecting return that is profit. Any kind of idea which provides with money is a business. In this pandemic or post pandemic situation finding a business idea which will promise to settle itself is really difficult and so here we are listing down below few business ideas which can be taken into account.

                                 The first in the list is —

  1. ONLINE TEACHING— If you are in teaching or like teaching passionate about it and don’t know how to start it since all the educational institutions are closed now and recruitment process might take longer than usual. So, here is a fantastic idea to explore which is online teaching. Here we are listing few ideas which will help you to explore or be a teacher in online mode of education.
  2. Upload an advertisement through facebook, whatsapp and instagram of every details.
  3. Upload your profile in byju, urbanpro, shaw academy and the like where they call you and mail based on the requirement.
  4. Ask your known ones relatives, friends, parents and others that if they can arrange for students.
  5. Teaching means any kind of teaching art, craft and any kind of skill so even if you want to turn your hobby into profession you are free to do so.
  • CONSULTANT— I you know that you can guide people for the best for finance management, job idea and change and any other than you can go forward as a consultant. In India consultants are given trainings before they actually step into the job world few of those trainings are—training as a consultant, master in education, psychologist and many other even counselling is a part of the same. But in abroad there might not be this kind of rigidity. In this time of post pandemic, people have lost their jobs, clueless about education so people needs consultant service which will guide them in the right path in every way.
  • SERVICE PROVIDER—This is the third option which one can avail as a service provider. If you are multi talented or have potential managerial skill than you can provide service based on your skills and talent. Like—if you know to cook than provide service to people as a cook, if you know to stitch well provide the same to people demanding those. Here also you have to explore your own skills and talents before you start your business as a service provider.


  1. Upload your profile in byju, urbanpro, shaw academy and the like where they call you and mail based on the requirement.
  2. Ask your known ones relatives, friends, parents and others that if they can arrange for students.
  3. Teaching means any kind of teaching art, craft and any kind of skill so even if you want to turn your hobby into profession you are free to do so.
  • CONSULTANT— I you know that you can guide people for the best for finance management, job idea and change and any other than you can go forward as a consultant. In India consultants are given trainings before they actually step into the job world few of those trainings are—training as a consultant, master in education, psychologist and many other even counselling is a part of the same. But in abroad there might not be this kind of rigidity. In this time of post pandemic, people have lost their jobs, clueless about education so people needs consultant service which will guide them in the right path in every way.
  • SERVICE PROVIDER—This is the third option which one can avail as a service provider. If you are multi talented or have potential managerial skill than you can provide service based on your skills and talent. Like—if you know to cook than provide service to people as a cook, if you know to stitch well provide the same to people demanding those. Here also you have to explore your own skills and talents before you start your business as a service provider.

                  Thus these are the most easily explorable business ideas which one can practise just by being at home just one needs time , investment and involvement.

The Evolving Education of India

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.”   – Nelson Mandela

Photo by Fox on

 It is said that education is the key to freedom, a power to change the world and make world a better place to live. Education is a continuous process which enriches our mind with the light of knowledge  and provides us the ability to distinguish between right and wrong. There was a time when India had a high illiteracy rate, but slowly with the time things are changing for the better. The Education System of India has developed gradually.

Education during British Rule

The British East India Company planned to educate a small portion of Indians for their own benefit. They wanted some educated Indians who could assist them in their work and also wanted to know the customs and laws better. Various Universities were established by Britishers to follow their purpose. Calcutta Madarsa was established by Warren Hastings for study and teaching of Muslim Law. Jonathan Duncan set up the Sanskrit College for study of Hindu Law and philosophy at Varanasi. Slowly, English was being used as the medium of teaching and learning.

Changes after Independence

Pre-Independence the education was only available for the elites, this scenery was changed Post Independence. Now Education was accessible to large number of society. After Independence India was in a very poor condition, Under-Developed India was the biggest challenge that came forth. A large number of people were illiterate ,though from 18% of literacy rate in 1951 has raised up to 73 % as of 2011.Today, India has very strong and widespread education system which is successfully competing with the world.

Committees set up

  • University Education Committee (1948) : The Commission was inspired  under the leadership of Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan, this committee aimed upon  setting up Universities to provide  education for the development of overall  personality. This Commission also stressed over the purpose of “Women should get good education as men get”.
  • Secondary Education Commission (1952-1953) : It is also known as Mudaliar Commission.The main recommendations of this commission was to provide seperate schools for girls to the places it was needed. It also focused over providing special facility to study of Home Science. Target of this Commission was to the need of training Indians in a democratic way of life.
  • Kothari Committee (1964-1966) :

Kothari Commission is also known as the Indian Education Commission .Daulat Singh Kothari  was the chairman of this committee, it was set up to formulate the general principles and guidelines which was very much needed for the development of the education system. It stressed at providing free and compulsory education to all till the age 14. It focused over the development of languages  specially by  implementing ‘three-language formula’ , and keeping in check with the quality of education being provided.

Educational policies of India

 National Policy Education (1968)

This was first such kind of policy that came up in 1968.It focused over the culture based curriculum and strengtening the structure of resource support, compulsory education for all children till the age of 14. It also aimed at better training and qualification of teachers. To promote the standardisation of language Hindi was adopted as national language and elementary to higher education was made an integral part of urban and rural India.

Education in Pandemic

Covid-19 has changed the whole chalk and duster dynamic of conventional education system. Lockdown made everything to shut down including schools, colleges and coachings.  where everything came to pause and when there was no light found at the end of the tunnel, E-learning came up and reshaped the educational system of India. Distinctive hike in e-learning have taken place due to pandemic. But to standardise education the government of India should reach out to the students who are unable to afford such technologies and devices for education and learning.

Best Places to visit in New York

What would it feel like to travel to one of the world’s most famous cities?

New York City or NYC is the most populous city in the United States and also one of my favorite travel destinations. Some people come here to enjoy the Broadway shows; others come specifically to shop and dine, and; many simply come to see the sites.

The City Tour

New York is a vast and diverse city, it has something for everyone. This city has a high-energy vibe throughout the year and that’s why some people call it a city that never sleeps. A few budget-friendly places can be:-

Statue of liberty

One of the most iconic sights, the Statue of liberty is on every first-time visitor’s list of the things to do in New York. It is spectacular to see it up close.

Brooklyn Bridge 

The Brooklyn Bridge is the first roadway to connect Manhattan and Brooklyn and it offers an easy 25-minute walk into Brooklyn and the waterfront park on the other side of the bridge which can also become a 40 minutes walk if you stop for taking Instagram-worthy photos, As you make your way across you will get to see a lot of amazing views of Manhattan which makes being there totally worth it.

Top of The Rock

The top of the rock also called Rockefeller Centre is best for views whilst exploring Manhattan as it provides you a 360-degree view of Manhattan. There are many other viewing points around the city but there’s something special about New York’s Top of The Rock.

Empire State Building 

If you want a perfect shot of the New York City Skyline then the only best place for it is the Empire State Building. This building is a historic landmark which makes it one of the top places to visit in New York.

Times Square

One of the best things to do in NYC is to visit Times Square, especially during Christmas and new year’s eve. No matter what the time is it is always crowded with people. 

Outdoor Spaces

New York has so much to see and do, with numerous world-famous museums, fantastic restaurants, historic neighborhoods but there are also a massive amount of free things to do in New York and one of them is the world’s largest city park. Yes, I’m talking about Central Park. A perfect way to relax in a bustling city is to spend your day surrounded by beautiful lakes, public art, and even a zoo with loads of open space. 

Washington Square Park

Named after United States first president George Washington, Washington Square Park would be another good option. It is a good place for hangouts.

The Subway 

If you want to get a sense of the heart of the city then you must try taking the subway. It may not be very comfortable but you will be able to see a live performance at different stations. 

Tickling the Taste Buds

Let’s be honest, one thing we all love is to eat. There are so many markets, restaurants, cafes, and bars in NYC. This city is a paradise for a foodie.

Katz’s Delicatessen

It is New York’s most famous restaurant mostly known for its classic sandwiches. It has a variety of food on its menu. You will enjoy every bite of it.

Spicy Village

Those who love chicken must try this place. Spicy Village is a small restaurant located in Chinatown in Manhattan. This place stands because of its powerful flavors and style of home-cooked food.

Pizza and Bagels

Who would mind a bit of a cheesy pizza or a freshly baked bagel? There is no “best” place for pizza or bagel. A few spots where you can try yummy pizza are Joe’s Pizza in Greenwich Village and Di Fara Pizza in Brooklyn. For bagels, Absolutes bagels hit the spot.

The Friends Experience

Another reason to visit NYC could be FRIENDS. The famous American television sitcom Friends is a huge part of many people’s lives be it teenagers or adults. Even though the series was filmed in Burbank, California; it was based on six friends living in New York. A true fan of this show would die to pose on the iconic orange couch. Grabbing a cup of coffee at Central Perk is a dream come true for every friend’s fan.

Simandhar Education is a one-stop solution for CPA/CMA preparation.

Being a student of Simandhar education has been a valuable experience and has contributed to my personal growth.

Some reasons which make Simandhar stand out when it comes to CPA/CMA preparation are :

  • Faculty: Simandhar has highly qualified top faculties which simplify the concepts for you through real-world examples and make the learning experience fun. The mentorship of Sripal Jain sir gives the right direction to your preparation.
  • Mock tests and study material:  Simandhar ensures regular revision of topics and helps brush up your concepts via quizzes, mock tests and up to date study material. 
  • Placement assistance: The telegram group of Simandhar education regularly keeps the aspirants posted about the latest job opportunities and provide placement assistance. They have corporate tie-ups with some of the Big Four and fortune 500 companies.
  • Personality Development: Besides academics, webinars and sessions from the industry leaders provide valuable insights into the corporate world. They also offer soft skills training through initiatives such as the Toastmasters club, which helps build your overall personality.

I can personally vouch for simandhar education. It is definitely worth the investment for your bright future.


Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting(sawm), prayer, reflection and community. A commemoration of Muhammad’s first revelation,the annual observance of Ramadan is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam and lasts twenty-nine to thirty days, from one sighting of the crescent moon to the next.

Fasting from dawn to sunset is fard (obligatory) for all adult Muslims who are not acutely or chronically ill, travelling, elderly, breastfeeding, diabetic, or menstruating.The predawn meal is referred to as suhur, and the nightly feast that breaks the fast is called iftar.

Although fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca,it is common practice to follow the timetable of the closest country in which night can be distinguished from day.

The spiritual rewards (thawab) of fasting are believed to be multiplied during Ramadan. Muslims refrain not only from food and drink, but also tobacco products, sexual relations, and sinful behavior,devoting themselves instead to salat (prayer) and recitation of the Quran.


Muslims hold that all scripture was revealed during Ramadan, the scrolls of Abraham, Torah, Psalms, Gospel, and Quran having been handed down on the first, sixth, twelfth, thirteenth (in some sources, eighteenth) and twenty-fourth Ramadans, respectively. Muhammed is said to have received his first quranic revelation on Laylat al-Qadr, one of five odd-numbered nights that fall during the last ten days of Ramadan.

Although Muslims were first commanded to fast in the second year of Hijra (624 CE) they believe that the practice of fasting is not in fact an innovation of monotheism but rather has always been necessary for believers to attain taqwa (the fear of God).They point to the fact that the pre-Islamic pagans of Mecca fasted on the tenth day of Muharram to expiate sin and avoid drought. Philip Jenkins argues that the observance of Ramadan fasting grew out of “the strict Lenten discipline of the Syrian Churches,” a postulation corroborated by other scholars, including theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler,but disputed by some Muslim academics.

Accounting Concepts

What are Accounting Concepts?

The underlying rules, assumptions, and conditions that establish the parameters and restrictions within which accounting operates are known as accounting concepts. In other words, accounting concepts are generally accepted accounting principles that serve as the foundation for regularly preparing universal financial accounts.

Basic accounting concepts will also assist you in making timely but informed operational decisions on a daily basis. As an entrepreneur, this will save you time and money, two of your most significant resources. Even if you use accounting software for your firm, you need have a basic awareness of these ideas.

Finally, knowing the fundamentals of accounting will help you have productive conversations with your financial advisors as you strategize for your company’s future.

Objectives of Accounting Concepts

  • The main objective of accounting concepts is to establish uniformity and consistency in financial statement preparation and maintenance.
  • It serves as a foundational idea for accountants in the preparation and maintenance of business records.
  • Its goal is to develop a common understanding of the norms or assumptions that all types of companies must follow, allowing for more comprehensive and comparable financial data.

Basic Accounting Concepts

Business Entity Concept: According to the business entity concept, business’s transactions must be recorded separately from those of its owners or other businesses. This necessitates the use of separate accounting records for the organization that are fully free of any other entity’s or the owner’s assets and liabilities. Without this idea, several businesses’ records would be mixed together, making it difficult to distinguish the financial or taxable results of a single company. For example, The only shareholder of a company receives a $1,000 payout. This results in a loss of equity in the company’s books, as well as $1,000 in taxable income for the shareholder.

Money Measurement Concept: The money measurement concept is an essential accounting concept that is based on the premise that a corporation should record only those transactions on the financial statement that can be quantified or described in monetary terms.
Money measurement idea, also known as Measurability Concept, asserts that while recording financial transactions, transactions that cannot be stated in terms of monetary worth should not be recorded.

Periodicity Concept: The notion of periodicity states that an institution or corporation must account for a specific period of time, usually a financial year. The frequency with which financial statements are prepared can range from monthly to quarterly to annually. It aids in the detection of any changes that occur throughout time.

Accrual Concept: The accrual basis of accounting is based on the principle of recording revenues and expenses as they are incurred. The usage of this approach has an impact on the balance sheet, as receivables and payables may be reported even if there is no accompanying cash receipt or payment.

Both generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and international financial reporting standards support the accrual basis of accounting (IFRS). Both of these accounting frameworks offer guidance on how to account for revenue and expense transactions when there are no cash receipts or payments to trigger the recording of a transaction under the cash basis of accounting.

Matching Concept: The matching concept is linked to the Accrual and Periodicity concepts. According to the matching principle, the entity must account for just those expenses that are related to the period for which revenue is being examined. It implies that the organization must keep track of both revenue and expenses for the same time period.

Going Concern Concept: A going concern is an accounting term for a corporation that has the financial resources to continue functioning indefinitely unless it can show otherwise. The ability of a corporation to produce enough money to stay afloat or avoid bankruptcy is sometimes referred to by this word. If a company is no longer in operation, it has gone bankrupt and its assets have been liquidated.

Cost Concept: All acquisitions of items (e.g., assets or items needed for expenditure) should be recorded and held in books at cost, according to the cost concept of accounting. As a result, unless otherwise mentioned, if a balance sheet shows an asset at a given value, it should be presumed that this is its cost. For example, If a building is purchased for $500,000, for example, it will remain in the books at that price regardless of its market worth.

Realization Concept: This concept is linked to the concept of cost. The realization idea states that an asset should be recorded at cost until and unless the asset’s realizable value is realized. In practice, it’s true to say that the entity will record the asset’s realized value once it’s been sold or disposed of, as the case may be.

Dual Aspect Concept: According to the dual aspect concept, every company transaction must be recorded in two independent accounts. This idea underpins double entry accounting, which is required by all accounting systems in order to produce trustworthy financial accounts. The theory is based on the accounting equation, which states:

Assets= Equity+ Liabilities

The accounting equation is obvious in the balance sheet, where all assets must equal all liabilities and equity. Most company transactions will have an effect on the balance sheet in some form, therefore at least one portion of every transaction will involve assets, liabilities, or equity.

Conservatism Concept: When there is uncertainty about the outcome, the conservative principle states that expenses and liabilities should be recognized as soon as feasible, while income and assets should only be recognized when they are guaranteed to be received. When offered a choice between numerous events with equal probabilities of occurrence, you should acknowledge the transaction that results in a smaller profit, or at the very least a profit deferral. Recognize the transaction resulting in a lower recorded asset valuation if a choice of outcomes with similar probabilities of occurrence may effect the value of an asset.

Consistency Concept: According to the consistency principle, businesses should employ the same accounting procedures or principles throughout their accounting periods so that users of financial statements or information can draw meaningful inferences from the data.

The consistency concept is important for determining company patterns that span multiple accounting periods. If a company’s accounting techniques are constantly changing, it will cause confusion and financial statements will not be comparable between accounting periods.

Materiality Concept:

The concept of materiality in accounting relates to the idea that all material elements should be appropriately recorded in financial statements. Material elements are those whose inclusion or absence causes major changes in the decision-making process for business information users.

The concept of materiality also allows for the disregard of other accounting principles if doing so has no impact on the financial statements of the company in question.

As a result, the financial statements’ information must be complete in terms of all material aspects in order to present an accurate picture of the business. The users of financial statements can be shareholders, auditors and investors, etc.

A corroding steel frame

Typically steel does not corrode easily. Perhaps that was the reason why the civil services won the epithet of the steel frame of India but the recent turmoil in Lakshadweep and the episode in West Bengal tells a different story. The former is linked to the loopholes that exist in the administration itself while the latter exemplifies the influence of politics on administration.
The island which was known till yesterday for its natural beauty and booming tourism industry is now under the limelight for all the wrong reasons. The trending #savelakshadweep is the new slogan aimed at drawing the attention of commoners to the threat posed by the controversial policy changes to the local culture of the island. Lakshadweep administrator Praful Khoda Patel has been accused of ‘imposing saffron agenda and corporate interests’.
The administration is being indicted for destroying people’s livelihood, eliminating their staple food (beef), and closing down dairy farms. These alleged religious colored actions have given rise to widespread opposition from the native inhabitants and civil society. The administrator has been given the powers of the district panchayat compounding the argument that administration is the new Goonda-raj. Health, education, fisheries, animal husbandry and agriculture now fall under the jurisdiction of the administrator. An administrator is an agent of the centre, therefore all fingers are pointing to the union government. The protestors are demanding a recall of the administrator. The Kerala assembly even passed a resolution to this effect.
In the second story, West Bengal chief secretary Alapan Bandopadhyay was suddenly recalled to Delhi. The whole tussle started when Bengal CM and Bandyopadhyay left a meeting being chaired by Prime Minister to review damage and mitigation caused by cyclone Yaas. According to the service rules an officer has to report to the prime minister in such an event. The centre has accused the chief secretary of breaching the service rules. However, CM stated that the rules were abided but the centre is of a different opinion.
These two instances show the Dark side of the Indian administration. Ideally, an officer should maintain political, ideological and religious neutrality and work under democratically elected representatives. When neutrality is compromised then the system fails to work for the common good of the country. The case of Lakshadweep is quintessentially a testament to this fact. The voice raised against the administration not only creates mistrust among people but also taints the name of the entire organisation.
The Supreme Court of India described a civil servant as a person who serves a master that is; the state. There is a difference between the state and the political party governing that state. Failure to see this difference by either of the two, the party in power or the officer, is detrimental to a functional democracy. In West Bengal, an officer is on a tight rope because of the animosity between the parties in power in state and centre.
India is one of the most diverse countries in the world needs a strong steel frame to rely on. The corrosive elements like political biases or unabated political pressure, should be kept far away or it won’t be long when we see the beautiful monument of democracy we built from blood and sweat, crumble to dust.

Class 12 Board exam cancelled (PM says safety of the students it’s very important)

Central Bord of Secondary Education (CBSE) and Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) have been cancelled.

There will be no Class 12 board exams this year, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said on Tuesday, ending weeks of anxiety among students and parents over the Covid situation in the country. The decision was taken because of “uncertain conditions” due to COVID-19 and based on feedback from different stakeholders, said his office.

Students should not be forced to appear for exams in such a stressful situation,” a statement from the Prime Minister’s Office The health and safety of our students is of utmost importance and there will be no compromise on this aspect,” said the statement, quoting PM Modi.Both CBSE and CISCE Class 12 exams have been cancelled.

Government of India has decided to cancel the Class XII CBSE Board Exams. After extensive consultations, we have taken a decision that is student-friendly, one that safeguards the health as well as future of our youth,” PM Modi tweeted.

The CBSE will now take steps to compile the results of Class 12 students according to “well-defined objective criteria in a time-bound manner”, the PMO release said. Like last year, students who still want to take the exams will be given a chance when the situation improves, said the government.

The decision was announced shortly after PM Modi’s meeting with key ministers and officials from various related ministries and stakeholders.

COVID-19 has affected the academic calendar and the subject of board exams was causing immense anxiety among students, parents and teachers, which had to be put to an end,” said the PMO statement.

The decision comes two days ahead of a Supreme Court hearing in which the Centre is expected to file its reply on a petition seeking exactly this. The court had posted the hearing to June 3 after the Centre requested time.

At a meeting  on May 23, the CBSE had recommended that the exams be held between July 15 and August 26. It also suggested two options: regular exams in 19 major subjects at notified centers and shorter-duration exams at schools where the students are enrolled

A majority of states had favored holding the exam, Union Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal had said after that meeting. Mr. Pokhriyal was on Tuesday admitted to AIIMS hospital in Delhi with post covid  complications

The Prime Minister asserted that the decision has been taken in the interest of students and that the anxiety among students, parents and teachers must be put to an end.The CICSE had last week asked its affiliated schools to submit data, including average of marks obtained by Class 12 students in Class 11 and during this session.The board had postponed Class 12 exams which were scheduled from May 4 in light of the devastating second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic

The 12 Board exam cancelled . In the prime Minister “said” to the students safety and security it’s very important for the students.

By : G Gnana Priya dharshini

The Habit of Reading: An Exercise of the Mind

“There is more treasure in books than in all the pirate’s loot on Treasure Island.”– Walt Disney

How does one increase his/her attention span, knowledge, and emotion quotient at the same time? Well, the answer is only a single word – Reading. The fact that reading is such an essential habit to develop cannot be stressed enough. It is not just a habit but an exercise of the mind. Just as our body requires exercise to function well, our brain also requires exercise to develop better and reading does just that.
Understanding the written words is one way by which our mind grows in its ability. Reading exposes us to new information, new things, new places, and new people too. Reading books provides the luxury of traveling to different places from the comfort of our homes. By reading books, we get to travel places that we won’t be able to see in real life and we get to meet people we won’t be able to meet in real life. Readings World is a platform where you can delay good reading habits. 
Reading is good for everyone, not only kids but also adults.

Why is reading so important?

Photo by cottonbro studio on

Reading takes us to a whole different world of imagination. When we read with a focus in silence, our brain becomes clearer and we are able to connect. This helps us to link things to one and another, structure things, and plan solutions. It helps to increase our attention span and fills us up with great amounts of knowledge. Reading broadens our horizons and helps us improve our communication skills by expanding vocabulary.
Reading is also well known to reduce stress and anxiety. Through reading, we are exposed to think in a new way and explore different angles to view something we have known for a long.

Advantages of Reading

Some of the major benefits that one can derive from reading are

Better vocabulary

When we read, we come across so many new words, so many new phrases which we have never heard of. With children, it not only helps with vocabulary but also with learning how to pronounce these words correctly from the start.

Critical thinking

Developing critical thinking is one of the primary benefits of reading books. For example, if one is reading a piece of fiction say a mystery novel or a thriller novel it forces the reader to think and find their way to the climax. Or if the one reads a book that is non-fiction it makes the reader think whether the author is right or wrong or whether their opinion matches with that of the author.

Improves writing skills

Just as we are influenced by the artists and the influencers who we see on Instagram nowadays; similarly, we are influenced by a well-written book. When we read well-written books, it affects our ability to write better as we observe different styles of writing.

Effective communication skills

Reading plays a vital role in improving communication skills by perfecting our oratory skills. It helps us learn new words and perspectives. It helps us strengthen language and sharpens sentence structure. It provides a better command over the language.

Increases focus and concentration

Today when we all are surrounded by the internet and all our attention is diverted to social media and streaming services like Netflix, our ability to concentrate and focus is compromised one way or the other. When we read, we devote all our attention to the story and we tend to absorb details and the rest of the world just moves away. Reading can be a good break from continuous use of smartphones and interaction with the world through social media.

Reduces stress and Anxiety

Stress and anxiety are known to disturb our mental health. In current times when people are stressed or anxious about not one but multiple things like lifestyle, work, health, peer, etc., books of different genres like romance, science fiction, autobiographies, etc helps as a stress buster and helps us be calm and relaxed. By reading people get the time to take their minds off of work-related tensions.


Reading should be made a non-negotiable habit in one’s life. The benefits of reading are remarkable. Books are our best companions, they just give, give and give. It’s up to us how much knowledge we want to gather.


Teacher helps to prevent environment

Firstly St Paul’s college is where I am studying in bangalore north most beautiful campus with such a massive interior and exterior of the building is amazing with all four sides covered with trees,plants and birds there is beautiful ecosystem which inside a village like area that college is beautiful and massive colorful with very big campus which greenery when it comes to winter season it will be so cold chilling weather and rain drops falling along plant which is beautiful in nature fresh air chilling during summer you can experience the beauty of college nature is astonishing during raining the college reflects on water like a mirror the college is best known for media studies mostly we have to actually part of college has a massive studio for film and recording everything will happen in that studio in black and red coloured with apple computers best sounding and editing material and studio voiceless chamber no sound can hear from outside it has two level door lock that no one will get to known whatis happening inside and inside people don’t understand what’s happening outside Pinetop silence no voice can be heard from outside if a flood at all happen no one will get to known what is happening that college name is ST PAUL’S COLLEGE which in bangalore that college main head in Italy Rome city main headquarters that college has many branches in india that st Paul’s college bangalore had three head to run the college in smooth surface firstly has a principal DR.FATHER THOMAS M.J principal of the college very kind hearted person in college Seconly FATHER Arockia swami administrative of college thirdly Xaviour Susan sir coordinator of the college and admissions department is taken take by SPC Nagarjuna and Uma mam in college office and fees,receptionist by Mr. Nisha taking outside visitors visit father or any other from outside Nisha reports to father immediately then Shelly sir our technical expert take care of entire college technical support and media support is done by him neatly cleaner who cleans our college neat and clean day and night next we have three department and one spice department



Sleep is a vital, often neglected, component of every person’s overall health and well-being. Sleep is important because it enables the body to repair and be fit and ready for another day. Getting adequate rest may also help prevent excess weight gain, heart disease, and increased illness duration.The poet is affected when the wind has brought the rain again as it is now splashing into the house through the broken windows.


“To Sleep” is a poem by William Wordsworth. Here, the speaker is someone who suffers from insomnia. He lies sleepless all night, wanting to be able to sleep, but he cannot. He imagines a flock of sheep leisurely passing by, one after one.The poet sees all of the above while he lay awake in his bed, unable to sleep. b. The poet is trying to fall sleep by imagining all the different sounds that nature enriches the world with .


The poem is about the power of sleep to restore the sleeper. The speaker clearly feels that human beings cannot tolerate too much consciousness and need periods of ‘forgetfulness divine’ when the soul can be protected from the troubling thoughts which lurk beneath the surface of conscious thought. The poet William Wordsworth addressed Sleep as a mother in his poem ‘To Sleep’ because he was suffering from insomnia, he was unable to take the blessing of the morning. In our life mother is like our positive vibes, as well as morning comes in our life as fresh thoughts and joyous health.The poet couldn’t sleep for three nights because sleep was running away from him. … Many of us can identify with Wordsworth’s experience of being sleepless the whole night as they are stressed out by the pressures of life and so they cannot fall asleep until the birds twitter their dawn chorus.In Macbeth, sleep symbolizes clear conscience, peace, and innocence. Sleep is vital when it comes to good health and well-being of characters. Sleep is a significant symbol in the play because it tells us more about the inner state of characters.


This sonnet by one of the leading second-generation Romantic poets addresses sleep as a ‘soft embalmer of the still midnight’. Sleep allows us to escape from what A. E. Housman referred to as the sour taste of ‘all I ever did’, when one’s conscience begins to prick us, keeping us awake.


The Benefits of Getting a Full Night’s Sleep. Sleep Can Boost Your Immune System. … Gaining Zzz’s Can Help Prevent Weight Gain. … Sleep Can Strengthen Your Heart. … Better Sleep = Better Mood. … Sleeping Can Increase Productivity. … Lack of Sleep Can Be Dangerous. … Sleep Can Increase Exercise Performance. … Sleep Improves Memory.


However, symbolically the word “sleep” suggests death and darkness. Hence, this line refers to a long journey ahead before the speaker could go to eternal sleep of death, or it simply proposes that the speaker has many responsibilities to fulfill before sleeping or dying.

How ever know you’re in love when you can’t fall asleep because reality is finally better than your dreams.” –

” I want to be like a caterpillar: eat a lot, sleep for a while, wake up beautiful.” –

“What hath night to do with sleep?” – …

Gilgamesh’s Epic (Gilgamesh’s Epic)


Symbols-Moral Themes-Contribution-Conclusion Literary history-Character analysis-Two versions of this epic-Similarities between this epic and the bible-Symbols-Moral Themes-Contribution-Conclusion

History of literature:

The Epic of Gilgamesh () is an ancient Mesopotamian epic poem that is considered the oldest extant noteworthy literature and the second oldest religious document after the Pyramid Texts. Gilgamesh’s literary history begins with five Sumerian poems about Uruk’s king, Bilgamesh (Sumerian for “Gilgamesh”). The “Old Babylonian” form, which originates from the 18th century BCE and is named after its incipit, is the first surviving version of this composite epic. The Standard Babylonian version was afterwards created.

Character Evaluation:

In this epic, the main characters are…

Gilgamesh Enkidu Humbaba shamath Ishtar Gilgamesh Enkidu Humbaba shamath Ishtar Gilgamesh Enkidu


Uruk’s King, the most powerful of mankind, two-thirds deity and one-third mortal, and the ideal embodiment of all human virtues. He is a valiant warrior, a just judge, and a visionary builder.


Gilgamesh’s companion and friend. Enkidu was reared by animals and has a hairy and muscular body. Enkidu resembles Gilgamesh in appearance and is physically comparable to him. He wishes to be Gilgamesh’s adversary, but instead finds himself to be his soul partner. Gilgamesh and Enkidu are punished by the gods, who give Enkidu a lengthy, painful, and ignominious death for murdering the monster Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven.


The terrifying demon who defends the Cedar Forest, which is off-limits to mortals. He is the epitome of awe-inspiring natural power and danger. Like an exploding volcano, his mouth is fire, he roars like a flood, and he breaths death.


She is the goddess of love and fertility, as well as war. Ishtar is known as the “Queen of Heaven.” She is a caring mother figure at times and a bitter and vicious mother figure at other times, despite her unpredictability. She is the patroness of Uruk, which has a temple dedicated to her.


Shamhat works as a prostitute at a temple. She begins the process of bringing Enkidu into civilization by sleeping with him.


There are two variants available.

Two main versions of the epic have been largely reconstructed from the many sources discovered: the Standard Babylonian version, or He who saw the depths, and the Old Babylonian version, or Surpassing all other kings.

Version in Babylonian standard

The opening lines, or incipit, of the Standard Babylonian version differ from the older form. The earlier version begins with the lines “Surpassing all previous kings,” whereas the Standard Babylonian version begins with the lines “He who saw the deep” (“deep” alluding to the mysteries of Gilgamesh’s information brought back from his meeting with Utnapishtim) regarding Ea, the spring of learning.Gilgamesh was taught how to worship the gods, why human beings must die, what qualities make a good monarch, and how to live a decent life. The Babylonian epic contains the account of Utnapishtim, the hero of the flood myth.


Versions from Babylonian times

This version of the epic, known as surpassing all other monarchs in certain pieces, is made up of tablets and fragments from various sources and degrees of preservation. It is mostly incomplete, with several tablets missing and large gaps in those that have been discovered. They are given names based on their current location or the site where they were discovered.


There are some parallels between this epic and the Bible:

As a companion for Gilgamesh, the gods create Enkidu, who runs wild with the animals in the open plains. The Garden of Eden account in Genesis and the myth of Enkidu’s transition from nature to culture and civilization have some striking parallels. In both cases, a woman is blamed for causing a man who had previously eaten and drunk with the animals to become estranged from nature. When Enkidu is rejected by the animal world, Shamhat clothe him and teaches him to drink beer and eat bread, both of which are technological advancements that distinguish humans from animals.


Symbols include:

Religious symbolism abounds in Gilgamesh. Sacrifices, festivals, sex, dream interpretation, and shamanic magic were all part of Mesopotamian religious ceremonies, and they all feature in the storey. The hirsuteness of Enkidu represents the natural, uncivilised state.

Themes of morality:

The Epic of Gilgamesh has a number of moral themes, the most important of which is that love is a motivating force. The inevitability of death and the dangers of engaging with the gods are two more moral themes in this epic. Enkidu and Gilgamesh’s friendship motivates both of them to become better men in different ways.

Marketing Basics

Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. A market is an arrangement between a seller and a buyer in which:

  • The seller agrees to supply the goods or the service.
  • The buyer agrees to pay the price.

Defined this way, the market is not necessarily a geographical location. Products and services are purchased over the phone, through mail and electronic mail, as well as through the online.  For any organisation, marketing makes the economy strong and stable.  The lesser the stress on the marketing function, the weaker will be the economy. Marketing is complex mechanism involving many people in one form or the other. The major marketing functions are buying, selling, financing, transport, warehousing, risk bearing and standardization, etc. In each such function different activities are performed by a large number of individuals and bodies.

Marketing strategy is the comprehensive plan formulated particularly for achieving the marketing objectives of the organization. It provides a blueprint for attaining these marketing objectives. It is the building block of a marketing plan. It is designed after detailed marketing research. A marketing strategy helps an organization to concentrate it scarce resources on the best possible opportunities so as to increase the sales.

Importance of Marketing Strategy

  • Marketing strategy provides an organization an edge over it’s competitors.
  • Strategy helps in developing goods and services with best profit making potential.
  • Marketing strategy helps in discovering the areas affected by organizational growth and thereby helps in creating an organizational plan to cater to the customer needs.
  • It helps in fixing the right price for organization’s goods and services based on information collected by market research.
  • Strategy ensures effective departmental co-ordination.
  • It helps an organization to make optimum utilization of its resources so as to provide a sales message to its target market.
  • A marketing strategy helps to fix the advertising budget in advance, and it also develops a method which determines the scope of the plan, i.e., it determines the revenue generated by the advertising plan.

Marketing is not just one single strategy, but rather a combination of many different techniques and tactics. Below listed  are  some essential marketing strategies that are popular

Marketing Plan: Discover what a marketing plan is, why you need to design one, and the keys to creating a strong plan. Without a marketing plan, a company or brand can’t reach its goals.

Digital Marketing: Digital marketing is the discipline of marketing which focuses on developing a strategy solely within the digital environment.

Direct Marketing: Direct marketing is a type of campaign based on direct, two-way communication that seeks to trigger a result from a specific audience.

Email Marketing: Email Marketing is one of the most profitable and effective techniques in terms of return. Naturally, it consists of sending emails to your audience, but make sure to define your segments well in order to be effective.

Mobile Marketing: Mobile Marketing is a broad concept which brings together all marketing campaigns and actions focused exclusively on mobile platforms and applications (i.e. smartphones and tablets).

Viral Marketing: Having something go viral is every company’s dream. Viral Marketing spreads from one person to the next and is capable of going incredibly far incredibly fast.

Performance Marketing: Performance Marketing is a methodology which applies various marketing methods and techniques and guarantees advertisers that they only have to pay for achieved results.

Inbound Marketing: This methodology focuses on creating valuable content to attract qualified traffic and work towards the final sale.



Effective Communication

Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages through verbal or nonverbal means, including speech, or oral communication; writing and graphical representations (such as info graphics, maps, and charts); and signs, signals, and behavior. More simply, communication is said to be “the creation and exchange of meaning.”.  Communication is a two-way progression that empowers you to exchange your thoughts, notions, and opinions with each other. Communication has now become overbearing to flourish in the world of business.

We have already stepped into a modern world! Haven’t we? The excessive exposure to the use of gadgets and increasing knowledge because of that makes us more sensitive today. We are always worried about our image in society and on social media. And, when we are concerned, it is bound to create sensitivity around the way we behave and communicate in the larger groups, our office, in our neighborhood, or on social media. And as we are humans, we get impacted by what others do and how they react.  Social dynamics bring together the ideas from people who would want to influence the changes and thus communication is the act of conveying your thoughts to others through the use of mutually understood signs which will influence their behavior.

Social dynamics such as seminars, interviews and even conversations during networking call for excellent communication skills. One person can be distinguished from another with the development of different skills which can influence people around them and one of utmost importance skill that is the influence are the Communication Skills. It is the sole medium through which people share their ideas, feelings, knowledge, and thoughts with others. If you have effective communication skills, you will be able to present yourself and your knowledge with everyone confidently and be able to stand out from the crowd.

Someone has truly said that if you want to be a good communicator, learn how to be a good listener. One with better listening ability master’s communication skills. Listening is as important as speaking and is the key to developing good communication skills.  Communication can be verbal, visual, or written. To ensure that you maintain the social dynamics of the society, as an individual, you need to be a good communicator. Here‘s what you can do to improve your communication which can create a positive impact on Social Dynamics around you:

  1. Always know what type of communication you are doing and where. Is it a written, oral, social, etc.? Is it happening between two people or a larger group?
  2. Be confident and have the courage to speak what you think. But that does not mean that you speak without thinking. Always take some time to think and then react to a situation that might be as small as a casual conversation with people in a group.
  3. If you are getting prepared to speak in public or make a presentation, do the practice. It is very well said that “Practice makes the man perfect.” In case you are speaking for the first time, remember that new skills take time to shape up, but every time you use your communication skills, you prepare yourself for opportunities and future consoles.
  4. When you are speaking or communicating, make sure that you have eye contact with others, and you use gestures to express yourself. Gestures are a great way to communicate a positive body language, make optimal use of them.
  5. To create an impact on what you want to present, have the right attitude and behaviour in your communication. When the qualities as honesty, peace, culture, optimism, etc. reflect in your talk, it definitely elevates you and your communication.
  6. User right words and learn to speak words that are simple and not confuse people. Do not hesitate to bring a change in your communication style on the basis of past experiences so that others do not have to say to repeat the thing.

With strong communication skills, you can clearly impact your business. Great communicators are the ones who bring solutions, drive change, motivate and inspire their colleagues.

By improving communication skills, we can improve employee engagement, teamwork, decision-making, and interdepartmental communication in the workplace.

wrong foot

At some point in our life, we all have wondered what exactly is wrong with societal upbringing. How can innocent children turns to drug using teenagers who are always on the edge and how can someone who was so pure hearted once is now getting involved in fights and possess egoistic anger? Well, there are many factors for this but do know the important one? Around in 70% families in our country, our parents don’t show love, respect and affection towards each other openly. Even their parents didn’t and this goes long back. This is evolutionary psychology. According to evolutionary psychology, our ancestors who had psychological advantages passed down these behavioral traits to future generations, resulting in a population of offspring that then had these adaptive behaviors. If you observe, our families find affectionate display as unethical. As the social norm goes – It affects young mind and doing so means crossing our cultural barriers. NO. Our culture is something we should be proud of. India in known for it’s rich cultural diversity. We are the ones to set the cultural barriers or societal norms. How can showing love ,affection and respect towards each other have a bad effect on our children? It’s the literal opposite if you think. Parents fights and scream at each other in front of their children and in some cases, there is even violence. How is that right? How is that okay? No one questions how will that affect their children. Here’s an example:

Scene 1– You are walking in a park with your 10-15 years old kid. You see a couple hugging on a bench near by. What will be your first reaction? What will you do? Will you act normal and pass by or will you quick turn in a different directions so your kid won’t see them? In most cases, people walk the other way to avoid.

Scene 2– You are going somewhere with your kid. You hear some violent screams and you move towards it. When you are getting close, you see there are few people gathered and two men are fighting and screaming at each other. What will you do? Because in most cases, people just go and watch them fighting out of curiosity about why are they fighting. They stand there with their kids and watch.

I personally think that we should be more cautious about the second scene. We should save our kids from violent nature which causes real and actual damage on the young minds. Not about affectionate nature in our house or in surroundings. You are responsible for your ward’s future and nature. Ask the right questions. This is not about bad-parenting, this is just a factor which could affect the future of your child as well as our country’s future. Small changes in your perspective will help your child be a better person and a responsible adult. After all, our Nature is our Future.

Why career mentorship is very important for the students to start at the age of 13 ?

Why career mentorship is very important for students to start at the age of 13?

Do you have a mentor, a career mentor in your life?
If not, don’t you think it’s late. Well not really nothing is too late when you are alive. When I passed 12th was fully confused regarding my career and future, I was thinking about what should I do next for building my career. At that time, I didn’t have any mentor but now have found my mentor.
What’s the role of a mentor and the importance of mentorship at the age of 13?

A mentor is a person who identifies your strength, weakness, talents recognize your ability. A good mentor inspires you to learn, to work towards your goals, and make sure you achieve success. A good mentor teaches you the art of thinking, enhances your thought process like the Chanakya did, and makes Chandragupta Maurya ” Great Samraat ” and helps in making Mauryan Empire.
Chanakya was the best mentor of all time. And mentorship is a relationship between a mentor and his mentee. It’s a process in which the mentor first identifies the strength, ability of his mentee finds out in which he is good, and at what he is lacking, and then gives advice and suggestions and reflects the mentee’s strength and capacity.
Most of the students face difficulty and problems in choosing a career, they don’t know what would be the best career options amongst all and in what subject they can do well.
Students don’t have self-knowledge that students need to explore themselves and a mentor could help him/them in that.
Career mentorship should start at the age of 13 because the study shows
Children aged from 12 to 18 (adolescence) start thinking.
They can do abstract and complex thinking they start raising questions on important issues. And they can think about the consequences of their action.
So we can start mentoring them about their career and help them to explore their strength and weakness.
Career, not a particular job or work we do, it’s a long-term process and journey, where you work, learn, improve your skills and get experience.
There is a beautiful quote about a  career.
” it’s a beautiful thing when a career and passion come together.”
So, to find out your passion for choosing the best career options and achieve success in life career mentorship is required at a very young age.

What’s the need of buying Twitch followers and views?

Who doesn’t like to play games? Nowadays, everybody plays online video games and If you play, you must have heard about twitch, or maybe you are a streamer or gamer on Twitch. It’s a free online gaming platform for all. It provides live streaming services, eSports broadcast, music broadcast, and much other entertainment-related stuff. Twitch is an American company founded by Justin Kin in 2011 and later in 2014 acquired by Amazon for $970 million. After that acquisition, it became famous amongst teenagers to aged people. On average, 15 million views come on Twitch daily and there are approx 8.5k channels. And you know the “Just chatting” category is dominating over Twitch where, users stream anything related to music, dancing, cooking anything that that hat means anything so it’s a little bit dangerous for children because people can do anything for popularity and a lot of trolls, irrelevant comments, etc. Like YouTube, Facebook, and several other apps it’s also earning money only by advertising, subscriptions, and bits, it’s a currency by Twitch. Buyers buy bits to support and to cheer up their favorite streamer, games, and eSports player.
Views and followers play a very crucial role in the growth of any channel not only over Twitch but also every social media platform whether it’s YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter. Most of the gamers, streamers, YouTubers buy views, and followers.
So, what’s the need to buy views and followers?
Buying views and followers it’s not a new concept it’s quite old and common it’s called botting. Research propound that million of users buying views and followers regularly.
More the views more the followers and businesses and companies choose you to promote their products and you get paid. More advertisements more popularity, more money.
More views and followers create your brand image.
It will enlarge your profit through subscription and advertisement.
Get you up in the search results in all the Categorises.
You will have a large fan base.
The popularity of Twitch increasing day by day therefore, competition is high.
But there are lots of other ways to increase views and followers on Twitch buying is not the only option other too. For instance, using social media, streaming a lot, watching other popular streamers networking, connecting with others. Most of the well-known and famous streamers suggest earning views by effort instead add of buying. And still, you are buying views and followers it should be real, not fake.

Now the most important question is that, Does buying views and followers violate the terms and conditions of Twitch?
While buying views and followers make sure you buy real views and followers, each follower’s account should be authentic and active. This type of engagement doesn’t violate the terms and conditions of Twitch. But if your views and followers are artificially created or duplicated it called views botting and follower botting and it does violate the terms and conditions of Twitch and for this high chance of getting banned. So for the growth of your channels, you can buy views and followers but make sure it should be real.

How to prepare for a Group Discussion?

What is Group Discussion?

Group Discussion comprises of group of individuals who discuss a topic of similar interest, either formally or informally. Group Discussion tests the individual’s leadership skills, general awareness, communication skills, social skills and behavior, listening skills, confidence and problem solving skills. Formal Group Discussion normally comprises 10-15 members and lasts for 15-20 minutes. The seating arrangement for a group discussion is circular, semi- circular, horseshoe or rectangular. Usually 3-5 minutes are given for preparation after the topic is given by the moderator. After the start of the discussion, the moderator(s) silently observes the speakers and judges them on various parameters. Anyone can start or end the discussion and moderator doesn’t help anyone with the topic.

How to prepare for a Group Discussion?

  • Reading: Reading is a never ending process. The more you read the better. Reading helps you in gaining knowledge on various topics. Its important to be in touch with current affairs, debate topics, etc. It is also important to read different articles on same topic to know various perspectives about the topic.
  • Mocks: We all are aware of the fact that practice makes a man perfect. Forming a group discussion group and practicing helps to overcome shyness and confident. Also, it improves the communication skills.

Initiating a Group Discussion

Initiating a Group Discussion is the best way to grab moderator’s attention. It is a high profit- high loss strategy. Initiating a group discussion grabs the attention of moderator and fellow candidates however stuttering or stammering while initiating causes irreparable damage, that is why it is important to initiate only when there is in-depth knowledge about the topic. However, make sure to participate later also even if you initiate.

Techniques to initiate a Group Discussion:

1. Quotes: Starting with a quote is an effective way to start the group discussion. Quoting something catchy which is relevant to the topic grabs the attention of fellow candidates and moderator. For example, Customer is King- There is one boss: the customer.

2. Definition: Defining the topic is also an effective way. Any discussion should always start with definition of the topic. You can always start a group discussion by giving introduction or by defining the topic. For example, Advertising is a diplomatic way of telling a lie- define advertising.

3. Question: Asking a question related to the topic and then answering it yourself is also an effective way to start a group discussion. Also, it promotes a flow of ideas. For example, “What does war bring to the people of the nation”?

4. Shock Statement: Starting a group discussion about the topic with a shock statement immediately grabs the attention. For example, Impact of population on Indian Economy- “At the center of the Indian capital stands a population clock that ticks away relentlessly, It tracks 33 births a minute.”

5. Facts, figures and statistics: Telling a facts, figures and statistics about a topic shows your knowledge about the topic and can give you an advantage if you start with it. However, make sure you quote only correct facts because wrong facts adds to disadvantage.

6. Short story: Initiating with a short story is also an effective way to start a group discussion.

7. General Statement: You can also start group discussion with a general statement to put it in the right perspective. For example, Should Sonia Gandhi be the Prime Minister of India? – Before jumping into conclusions like, “Yes Sonia Gandhi should be…”

How to interrupt someone in Group Discussion?

  • “Excuse me, but I feel that what you are saying isn’t universally true..
  • “Yes, I agree with your idea, and I would like to further add to it..”
  • “Yes, I think you are right when you say that, but could you clarify what if…”

How to ward off stubbornness and aggressiveness in Group Discussion?

  • Ignore the person and address the others.
  • Be assertive and inform the person that he is wrong.
  • Point out to him that his point is well taken and the group must progress and discuss other views.

How to conclude in a Group Discussion?

Most group discussions do not have any conclusions but it is important to summarize a group discussion. A group discussion can be summarized if the time is available on hand otherwise no summary is needed.

How to summarize a group discussion:-
– Avoiding raising new points
– Avoid stating only your views
– Avoid concentrating on only one aspect of group discussion
– Keep it brief and concise
– Include/Incorporate all important points
– Summarization includes end of Group Discussion
– Do not add anything after Summarization.


The practice of attracting new clients or consumers to your products and services is known as marketing. “Process” is the important word in this definition. Marketing entails conducting market research, advertising, selling, and disseminating your goods or services.

This field examines the commercial management of firms in order to attract, gain, and keep consumers by meeting their desires and requirements and creating brand loyalty.

Do you want to know what the most important digital marketing trends will be in 2022? Discover our top 222 trends and forecasts in our free booklet!
Click to view the video player – what-is-mkt

Marketing Definition Index

The Marketing 4 Ps

What Does Marketing Mean to Your Company?

Various Marketing Techniques

The Evolution of Marketing

The action or business of promoting and selling items or services, including market research and advertising, is defined as marketing. Today, marketing is an important part of every company’s or organization’s growth plan. As they attempt to advertise themselves and improve sales of their product or service, many businesses adopt marketing strategies without even recognising it. Marketing is one of the most important components of company nowadays.

When questioned, most people have no idea what marketing is and interpret it as selling or promoting. While these responses are not incorrect, they are merely a component of the marketing process.

The greatest thing to do is build your product or service on the requirements and motivations of customers, as well as how the product will benefit them, rather than the object’s physical traits or attributes.

Place. Strategic merchandising sites might range from an internet store to a network of physical outlets spread over several cities or nations. The purpose of the distribution strategy is to give potential customers easy access to your products/services while also providing a pleasant shopping experience.

What type of customer do you want to appeal to, and how much money do they have? Do you want to go for the high-end or the mainstream market?

The financial objectives of the firm.

What is the pricing of the competition’s items, and are there any suitable product substitutes?

Fashions and fads.

Increasing your pricing to offer the impression of higher quality.

What Does Marketing Mean to Your Company?

Marketing may benefit your company in a variety of ways, but let’s look at a few of the most important.

  1. Raising Brand Awareness

This is important because it gets people acquainted with your brand and the products or services you provide. It also makes you memorable to customers who can begin to trust your brand, become loyal clients, and tell their network about you.

  1. Generating Traffic

Growing the number of visitors to your site means getting more qualified leads (lead scoring can help determine this) and ultimately increasing your sales. An effective marketing strategy will help you through this process.

  1. Increasing Revenue

Every business want to increase their sales and marketing can help achieve this goal through a variety of strategies like optimizing your website and SEO, creating email campaigns, performing A/B tests to pinpoint the best strategy for you, and much more.

  1. Building Trust in Your Brand

Creating a high level of trust in your brand leads to customer loyalty and repeat purchases. This not only increases revenue but also leads to great reviews both online and by word of mouth, which is still one of the most effective types of promotion.

  1. Tracking Your Metrics

Metric are incredibly helpful when it comes to creating your marketing strategy. They not only drive the strategy and help track its progress, but also inform what can be adapted or adjusted to continually optimize your campaigns.

Different Marketing Strategies

Marketing is not just one single strategy, but rather a combination of many different techniques and tactics. Below we’ve listed some essential marketing strategies that you should know about. Click on the red links to learn more about each of these strategies.

Marketing Plan: Discover what a marketing plan is, why you need to design one, and the keys to creating a strong plan. Without a marketing plan, a company or brand can’t reach its goals.

Digital Marketing: Digital marketing is the discipline of marketing which focuses on developing a strategy solely within the digital environment.

Direct Marketing: Direct marketing is a type of campaign based on direct, two-way communication that seeks to trigger a result from a specific audience.

Email Marketing: Email Marketing is one of the most profitable and effective techniques in terms of return. Naturally, it consists of sending emails to your audience, but make sure to define your segments well in order to be effective.

Mobile Marketing: Mobile Marketing is a broad concept which brings together all marketing campaigns and actions focused exclusively on mobile platforms and applications (i.e. smartphones and tablets).

Viral Marketing: Having something go viral is every company’s dream. Viral Marketing spreads from one person to the next and is capable of going incredibly far incredibly fast.

Performance Marketing: Performance Marketing is a methodology which applies various marketing methods and techniques and guarantees advertisers that they only have to pay for achieved results.

Inbound Marketing: This methodology focuses on creating valuable content to attract qualified web traffic and work towards the final sale.

Don’t forget that the most important step which is starting your own marketing strategy! If you’re looking to launch (or relaunch) a product or service, we would be happy to offer our expertise. We would be thrilled to be your partner and help you attract visits, fully optimize your campaigns, and get the best ROI!

The History of Marketing

Do you know how marketing has evolved over time?

Not too long ago, marketing mostly consisted of outbound marketing, which meant chasing potential customers with promotions without really knowing if that person was interested in purchasing. Thanks to the digital transformation and the rise of new communication channels, marketing has drastically changed over the years.

To understand how marketing has changed, let’s take a look at this timeline HubSpot has assembled showcasing the innovations of this industry.

1450-1900: Printed Advertising

1450, Gutenberg invents the printing press. The world of books and mass copies is revolutionized.

1730, the magazine emerges as a means of communication.

1741, the first American magazine is published in Philadelphia.

1839, posters become so popular that it becomes prohibited to put them in London properties.

1920-1949: New Media

1922, radio advertising begins.

1933, more than half of the population in the United States (55.2%) has a radio in their home.

1941, television advertising begins. The first advertisement was for Bulova watches and reached 4,000 homes that had television.

1946, more than 50% of the homes in the United States already had a telephone.

1950-1972: Marketing is Born and Grows

1954, for the first time revenue from television advertising surpasses revenue from radio and magazine ads.

Telemarketing grows as a means of contacting buyers directly.

1972, print media suffers an exhaustion of the outbound marketing formula.

1973-1994: The Digital Era Flourishes

1973, Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher, makes the first call through a cell phone.

1981, IBM launches its first personal computer.

1984, Apple introduces the new Macintosh.

1990-1994, major advances in 2G technology, which would lay the foundation for the future explosion of mobile TV.

1994, the first case of commercial spam through e-commerce is produced.

1995-2020: The Era of Search Engines and Social Media

1995, the Yahoo! and Altavista search engines are born.

1995-1997, the concept of SEO is born.

1998, Google and MSN launch new search engines.

1998, the concept of blogging arises. By mid-2006, there are already 50 million blogs worldwide.

2003-2012, the era of inbound marketing begins.

2003-2004, three social networks are launched: LinkedIn, MySpace and Facebook.

2005, the first video is posted on YouTube

2006, Twitter is born.

2009, Google launches real time searches.

2010, 90% of all American households have a cell phone. Instagram is created in October 10.

Young people between the ages of 13 and 24 spend 13.7 hours on the Internet, compared to 13.6 hours watching television.

2011, Snapchat is created, driving even more young users to their phones and fueling the social media app craze.

2012, there are already 54.8 million tablet users.

2014, the rise of influencer marketing begins. Users and brands alike begin to realize the power of social media users with large followings. Marketing tools for Instagram and other platforms abound

2014, for the first time ever mobile usage outweighs desktop usage. More users are checking social media, reading emails, and making purchases on their phones.

2015-2016, big data and marketing automation are explored and used more robustly to advertise to users.

2018, video marketing continues to grow, especially with Instagram’s launch of IGTV. Video content is no longer just limited to YouTube and Facebook.

2019-2020, Move over millennials! Gen Z is the new focus and they have a hot new app: TikTok.

It will be interesting to see where marketing continues to grow. With new world events, like the COVID-19 crisis of 2020 causing millions of people to stay in doors, social media and marketing trends are sure to change, and we’ll be right here to track them.

Cyberclick’s View on Marketing

Marketing is any strategy or action which can help a company achieve their goals, increase their sales and profits, and/or have improved brand perception.

Here at Cyberclick, we live and breathe marketing and advertising; it’s in our DNA!

We are experts in attracting users to our clients’ websites or landing pages through marketing acquisition.

Cyberclick is a performance marketing agency. We analyze each new project we get and, if we see it as viable, we can ensure certain results according to a client’s goals. You might be thinking, “what’s so special about performance marketing?” The special thing is that a client only pays when results are achieved!

How Can We Help You?

We will assess how to best optimize your digital marketing strategy and how to best distribute your budget across all channels.

We keep track of everything and exceed expectations.

We have an analytic vision and react in the shortest possible time.

We are always testing. We guarantee the best impact by thoroughly studying each campaign and/or ad, carrying out multiple tests in order to find which factors work best, and continually optimizing your digital marketing plan.

We will increase the number of users who are happy with both your company and the experience they have had with you.

Thanks to technology and artificial intelligence, we continually analyze results in real time.


Communication is defined as the interchange of information or the transfer of information, ideas, or thinking from one person to another or from one end to the other. Communication, according to McFarland, is “a process of meaningful contact among human beings.” It is, more particularly, the process through which human beings sense meanings and come to understandings.” “An interchange of information, ideas, views, or emotions by two or more individuals,” Newman and Summer defined communication.

The process of conveying information from one person to another is known as communication. The goal of communication is to convey information. Whatever one wishes to communicate with another person must be properly understood by him, otherwise the communication’s objective will be thwarted.

Communication in an organisation enables the flow of information and understanding across various individuals and departments by utilising a variety of mediums and networks. This flow of information is critical for management effectiveness and decision-making in general, and for the human resource manager in particular, since he must communicate with department managers, employees and workers, and trade union leaders.

As a result, communication aids in better understanding others, reducing misunderstandings and promoting clarity in thinking and speech. People are also educated as a result of it. Interpersonal, intrapersonal, interdepartmental, and intra-organizational communication can be written or spoken, formal or informal, upward, downward, horizontal, diagonal, interpersonal, intrapersonal, interdepartmental, and intra-organizational.

People become more connected as a result of communication. Communication is a crucial management function that is intertwined with all other management responsibilities. It closes the gap between people and groups by facilitating the exchange of information and understanding. The most important part of communication is information. It is the data that is sent, received, investigated, analysed, interpreted, and saved. As a result, the manager must set out time to gather, evaluate, and retain data for decision-making and day-to-day operations.

The goal of communication is for management to get things done via others. People in the organisation should be educated on how to complete the tasks entrusted to them in the most efficient manner feasible. In any organisation, communication is critical.

1. Information Flow: Important data must flow continually from top to bottom and vice versa. Employees at all levels must be kept informed on the organization’s goals and other happenings. It is important to ensure that no one gets mislead. The information should be delivered to the employee in a language that he or she can comprehend. It is best to avoid using complex terms. Through the appropriate person, the correct information should reach the right person at the right time.

2. Collaboration: The actions of all employees in the organisation may be coordinated through communication in order to achieve the organization’s objectives. The core of teamwork is the synchronisation of all personnel’s activities.

3. Learning Management Skills: Communication promotes the flow of information, ideas, beliefs, perceptions, advice, opinion, commands, and instructions, among other things, in both directions, allowing managers and other supervisory employees to acquire managing skills from others’ experience. The sender’s experience is represented in the communication, and the person on the receiving end can learn from it by studying and interpreting it.

4. Preparing People to Accept Change: Proper and effective communication is a vital instrument in the hands of any organization’s management to bring about general change in the policies, methods, and work culture of the organisation, as well as to get employees to accept and respond favourably.

5. Fostering Positive Human Relations: Managers, workers, and other employees communicate with one another to share their ideas, opinions, and impressions. This allows them to better comprehend one other. They are aware of the hardships that their coworkers experience at work. As a result, the organization’s human interactions are improved.

6. Encouragement of subordinates’ ideas: On particular moments on any work, communication allows inviting and encouraging suggestions from subordinates. This will help you think more creatively. Honoring subordinates’ ideas will drive them to work harder and establish a sense of belonging to the organisation. It will give them the confidence to share information with their bosses without reluctance. It will give them the confidence to share information with their bosses without reluctance. Managers must be aware of their subordinates’ ideas, thoughts, remarks, responses, and attitudes, and subordinates should be aware of the same from their departments’ lowest level workers. Communication is Crucial: Effective communication is essential for effective management and improved labour relations. In today’s world, the rise of telecommunications and information technology, as well as increased competitiveness and complexity in production, have raised the importance of communication in large and small businesses of all sizes and types. A business CEO must be able to successfully interact with his superiors, departmental colleagues, and subordinates.

Principles of Communication:

Lack of effective communication renders an organisation handicapped. So to have effective communication certain principles are to be followed.

They are as follows:

1. Clarity: The principle of clarity means the communicator should use such a language which is easy to understand. The message must be understood by the receiver. The words used should be simple and unambiguous. The language should not create any confusion or misunderstanding. Language is the medium of communication; hence it should be clear and understandable.

2. Adequacy and Consistency: The communicator must carefully take into account that the information to be communicated should be complete and adequate in all respect. Inadequate and incomplete message creates confusion and delays the action to be taken The appropriate data must be in line with the organization’s goals, strategies, rules, and processes. The inconsistency of the message may cause mayhem and distort business objectives.

3. Integration: The concept of integration states that the efforts of the organization’s human resources should be merged toward the attainment of corporate objectives through communication. The goal of communication is to achieve a certain goal. The purpose of communication should be to coordinate the activities of employees at work in order to achieve corporate objectives.

4. Cost: Unnecessary communication system utilisation will increase costs. The communication system must be used effectively and in a timely manner, that is, when it is required. It is possible to achieve economy in the usage of communication systems in this way.

5. Feedback: If the recipient does not provide feedback, the objective of communication is destroyed. The purpose of communication is fulfilled when the receiver confirms receipt of the message in its proper perspective. Only in the event of written correspondence and communications sent over messengers is feedback required. In the event of spoken communication, the feedback is available right away.

6. Communication Network: A communication network is the path via which information travels from a sender or communicative to a receiver or communicate. This network is necessary for effective communication. The availability of a suitable network will also affect management performance.

7. Attention: The message conveyed must capture the receiver’s attention and motivate him to take appropriate action. The effective, truthful, and timely manager is successful in bringing his employees’ attention to what he is saying

Pricing Strategies to meet your Business Goals

Pricing strategies are used to determine the cost of goods and services. The factors that are used to determine the price of a product or a service are demand for the product, cost of goods sold, consumer behavior and market conditions. Business owners can determine the right pricing strategy based on goals of the business, for example whether their goal is to maximize profits, gain market share or reduce the inventory.

Types of Pricing Strategies

  1. Penetration Pricing
    Penetration Pricing is a pricing strategy to gain market share. In this strategy, a business tries to gain market share by entering the market by keeping the prices for their products or services lower than that of competitors. This helps the business to build customer base. In this pricing strategy, a business will incur losses initially but if they are able to build a loyal customer base, they can rise their prices to cover up the costs.
  2. Skimming Pricing
    Skimming Pricing is a pricing strategy in which a business keeps highest price for their products or services and reduces the prices overtime. When the demand for first customers are satisfied and competition enters the market, the business lowers it price to attract new segment of customers. Businesses that sell high-tech or novelty products typically use price skimming.
  3. High-low Pricing
    High-low Pricing is a common retail pricing strategy where a product or sometimes a service is introduced at higher prices in the market when the demand is high and when the product becomes less desirable, it is sold at discount or through clearance sales. Retail businesses that sell seasonal products use a high-low strategy.
  4. Premium Pricing
    Premium Pricing Strategy is used by businesses when prices are set higher than the competitors because of the perceived value, quality or luxury of the product. Usually, premium prices are set by businesses who have a positive brand perception in the market, because of this customers are willing to pay high prices for their product. For example- Rolex watches
  5. Psychological Pricing
    Psychological Pricing is a pricing strategy in which businesses keep prices slightly lower than the whole number. For example, keeping price of a product 499 rupees instead of 500. This pricing is done on the belief that customers don’t round up these prices, so they treat them as lower prices than they really are. Mostly, retail and restaurant businesses employ this method.
  6. Bundle Pricing
    Bundle Pricing is a pricing strategy in which companies package separate products together and offer them at reduced price. Competitive bundling is an excellent way for you to push more product, stand out from the crowd, and connect with your audience in an intriguing way. With the help of Bundle Pricing, customers are able to discover more products which they didn’t plan to initially.
  7. Competitive Pricing
    Competitive Pricing is a pricing strategy in which prices are set based on the market rate. The price for a product or service is determined based on the prevailing prices in the industry which helps the business stay competitive. A business can price the product up or below the market rate as long as it is still in the range of competitors in the industry.
  8. Cost- Plus Pricing
    Cost- Plus Pricing is a pricing strategy in which a business charges a fixed percentage above the cost to determine the final price. A business can decide on the markup percentage by determining how much profit a business wants from each product sold. A pizza shop adds up the cost of its ingredients and labor, then sets the pizza price to receive a 20% profit margin.
  9. Dynamic Pricing
    Dynamic pricing, often known as real-time pricing, is a method of determining a product’s or service’s cost that is highly adaptable. Dynamic pricing enables a corporation selling goods or services via the Internet to alter prices on the fly in response to market needs.

The secret to being a fantastic HR

The HR department of a company ensures that everything runs smoothly and properly. This department is in charge of recruiting appropriate job candidates, retaining employees, and resolving a variety of workplace difficulties. Successful human resource managers guarantee that the HR department serves the demands of the firm in cost-effective and creative ways. In this essay, we will define an HR manager and analyze the characteristics of an effective HR manager.

What Is Human Resource Management?

A human resource (HR) manager is a human resources (HR) professional who oversees the day-to-day activities of a human resources department. They are in charge of topics such as talent acquisition, payroll, benefits, employee happiness, and compliance. HR managers are normally in charge of the following responsibilities:
• Creating and supervising the recruitment of new employees
• Interviewing job seekers and distributing their evaluations to other managers
• Orientation of new workers
• Managing any staff training that may be required
• Assisting stakeholders and workers by acting as a liaison
• Employee benefit packages are researched, compiled, implemented, and maintained.
• Organizing unique occasions and outings
• Creating and implementing company policies and procedures
• On human resource challenges, I consult with other leaders.
• Organizing and organizing vendors, specialists, and support personnel
• Conflict Resolution in the Workplace
• Employee hiring and dismissal
• ensuring an organization’s compliance
• Payroll process management
• Making suggestions on how to properly use team members
• Creating measures to boost employee job satisfaction


Effective human resource managers should be well-versed in human resource terminology, methodologies, and best practises. Consider pursuing a human resource management associate, bachelor’s, or master’s degree. There are many firms that provide HR credentials via online courses. Look for programmes that have been accredited by the Society for Human Resource Management.


HR departments are frequently in charge of implementing business policies. This means that human resource managers must be trustworthy and honest in all situations. HR managers are also in charge of handling personal and sensitive employee information, which must be kept discreet and safe. An business must rely on the HR personnel to be truthful and discrete.


Employees frequently share sensitive issues with HR supervisors. Successful human resource managers are personable, enabling workers to discuss any professional or personal issues that may be affecting their employment. Consider implementing an open door policy in your organisation to encourage open channels of communication. Being accessible entails the following characteristics:
• Empathetic
• Understanding
• Receptive
• Organized
HR managers are in charge of a wide range of tasks, from payroll and benefits to community service programmes. The most effective human resource managers are organised, capable of tracking deadlines, managing several tasks, and swiftly locating critical information.

Capable of communicating effectively

An HR manager must have excellent communication abilities. They collaborate with people at various levels of a company to exchange information, make suggestions, and clarify policies, as well as communicate with vendors and other third parties. Human resource managers are frequently the first person’s job seekers meet, forming their initial impression of the organisation. HR managers must be able to listen well, express ideas properly, and determine the culture of the firm.
HR managers should be able to communicate effectively in the following ways:
• Direct
• Excellent writer
• Presentations to big groups should be given with ease.
• Capable of explaining technical or difficult things in layman’s terms
• Composed
HR managers may be confronted with emotionally sensitive circumstances at work. They may be required to give unfavourable news, impose disciplinary action, terminate employees, or arbitrate employee disputes. It is critical for HR professionals to remain cool in heated circumstances and to employ tactics for promptly resolving issues.
Willing to take the lead
HR managers must be capable, self-assured leaders. They oversee and supervise the HR department and are frequently in charge of special initiatives, such as service projects and team-building activities, which need them to lead other workers and function as the expert on a variety of issues. HR managers should be at ease in assuming leadership roles and acting as the primary point of contact for workers, stakeholders, and vendors.


HR managers must think of fresh methods to lead their teams, engage employees, and maintain the business desirable to job prospects. They must be willing to try new ideas and activities to determine what works best for their firm. Among the innovative HR efforts are:
• Allowing employees to use paid service days to volunteer at a place of their choice.
• Once a week, we host trivia during lunch.
• Making changes to a company’s physical environment
• Allowing pets on the job


Effective human resource managers are forward-thinking and receptive to new ideas. They are curious in HR trends and where the industry is headed. Being progressive entails being adaptable, able to modify policies and tactics as the industry or firm develops. You are eager to learn about HR practises and initiate discussions regarding workplace reforms. Making arrangements for the unexpected is another aspect of planning for the future.

capable of problem solving

Many workplace concerns may be traced back to HR management. They must be able to think rapidly, troubleshoot problems, and propose efficient solutions while adhering to the organization’s schedule and financial policies.

technologically savvy

HR managers can be more effective when they use cutting-edge technologies. Implementing programmes and systems may aid in the streamlining of operations, increasing efficiency, and improving the security of HR data. Follow HR accounts on social media, subscribe to industry magazines, and stay up with announcements from big IT businesses to learn about available programmers.

capable of project management

Project management is an important aspect of an HR manager’s job from start to finish. You should be able to do the following:
• Communicate project concepts
• Delegate responsibilities.
• Create schedules.
• Keep track of progress.
• Updates to the report
• Respond to problems
• Meet all deadlines
• Keep a budget.
• Financially capable
HR managers should have a basic understanding of corporate finances in order to assist their firm in meeting its financial objectives. They should be familiar with budgeting, cost analysis, calculating returns on investments, and doing risk assessments.


Management positions are frequently the most effective when they are open to new ideas and input from a wide range of people. HR managers must be able to collaborate effectively with the HR staff, department directors, executives, and other workers, as well as be receptive to recommendations and
inquiries. HR managers may design policies and activities that are fair, inclusive, and helpful by embracing several views.


Find the vision, which includes not just individual growth as an HR manager, but also the growth of the business as a whole as a consequence of all the  efforts. Continue to propose new ideas, learn new skills, and experiment with new techniques. It is not simple to become an exceptional human resources manager. It requires a great deal of effort, experience, and continual experimentation with new ways.


Domestic violence is a long-standing issue in India, and it has only become worse in recent years. Domestic abuse affects over 70% of women in India, according to the National Crime Records Bureau’s (NCRB) ‘Crime in India’ 2019 report. Marital rape is one symptom of domestic abuse. Marital rape, or forcing your spouse to have sex without their consent, is an unethical but widespread technique to demean and disempower women. Marital rape has already been condemned in over 100 nations, but India remains one of just 36 countries where it is still not criminalized. Despite the fact that numerous legislative changes have been made in criminal law to safeguard women, the non-criminalization of marital rape in India damages women’s dignity and human rights.

In India, what is the legal status of marital rape?

Rape is defined in Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) as any type of sexual assault that involves non-consensual contact with a woman. Exception 2 to Section 375 is responsible for the non-criminalization of marital rape in India. Exception 2 to Section 375, on the other hand, exempts unwilling sexual intercourse between a husband and a wife above the age of fifteen from Section 375’s definition of “rape,” and so protects such actions from prosecution. After entering into marital intercourse, a woman is believed to give her husband eternal agreement to have sex with her.
In India, the notion of marital rape is the pinnacle of what we term “implied consent.” Marriage between a man and a woman in this context indicates that both parties have consented to sexual intercourse, and it cannot be otherwise. Marital rape is a violation of both legal and constitutional rights. The doctrine of coverture: the non-criminalization of marital rape dates back to the British era. The ideology of blending the woman’s identity with that of her husband greatly impacted and stemmed from marital rape. A married woman was not regarded a separate legal person when the IPC was created in the 1860s. The marital exemption to the IPC’s definition of rape was designed on the basis of Victorian patriarchal traditions that did not acknowledge men and women as equals, did not allow married women to hold property, and blended husband and wife identities under the “Doctrine of Coverture. “Article 14 violation: Marital rape breaches the right to equality guaranteed by Article 14 of the Indian constitution. The Exception divides women into two classes based on their marital status and protects males from offences committed against their spouses. As a result, the Exception allows married women to be victimised for no reason other than their marital status while shielding unmarried women from the same offences. efeats the Spirit of IPC Section 375: The goal of IPC Section 375 is to protect women and punish those who indulge in the horrible act of rape.Exempting spouses from punishment, on the other hand, is diametrically opposed to that goal, because the penalties of rape are the same whether a woman is married or single. Furthermore, because they are legally and financially bound to their spouses, married women may find it more difficult to flee violent situations at home. Violation of Article 21: According to the Supreme Court’s imaginative interpretation, the rights inherent in Article 21 include, among other things, the rights to health, privacy, dignity, safe living circumstances, and a safe environment. The Supreme Court ruled in State of Karnataka v. Krishnappa that Sexual assault, in addition to being a demeaning act, is an illegal invasion of a female’s right to privacy and sanctity. In the same decision, it was determined that non-consensual sexual intercourse constitutes bodily and sexual violence.
The Supreme Court associated the freedom to make sexual activity choices with the rights to personal liberty, privacy, dignity, and physical integrity under Article 21 of the Constitution in the case of Suchita Srivastava v. Chandigarh Administration.
The Supreme Court acknowledged the right to privacy as a basic right of all people in Justice K.S. Puttuswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India. The right to privacy includes “decisional privacy indicated by the freedom to make personal decisions principally involving one’s sexual or procreative nature and decisions about intimate interactions.” In all of these decisions, the Supreme Court has recognised the right of all women, regardless of marital status, to refrain from sexual activity as a fundamental right guaranteed by Article 21 of the Constitution.
As a result, forced sexual cohabitation is a breach of article 21’s basic right.

The Way Forward

Violence against women is defined as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, bodily, sexual, or mental injury or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary loss of liberty, whether happening in public or private life.”

The UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) recommended to the Indian government in 2013 that marital rape be criminalised. The same was proposed by the JS Verma committee, which was formed in the aftermath of widespread demonstrations over the December 16, 2012 gang rape case. Women will be protected from violent spouses if this legislation is repealed, and they will be able to receive the support they need to recover from marital rape.
Violence against women is defined as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, bodily, sexual, or mental injury or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary loss of liberty, whether happening in public or private life.”


Indian law now affords husbands and wives separate and independent legal identities, and much jurisprudence in the modern era is explicitly concerned with the protection of women.Therefore, it is high time that the legislature should take cognisance of this legal infirmity and bring marital rape within the purview of rape laws by eliminating Section 375 (Exception 2) of IPC..

All men’s are not wrong ?

Don’t portray each and every man in the category of a culprit as they all the not same. I have seen many man who help and care the woman who do not distinguish between the man and woman motivate them. And also stood by their side. And understand their discomfort and gave them the way. I have seen many men’s who don’t attach by physical appearance but they see the beauty of the person. The inner nature of the person cannot fade and people love them even you think they preferred outer. Because it all in our mind if you feel they think like that they automatically think that but if you see others way you realise that you were wrong.

Two sides and two preference is normal but what we want to see is all in our hands. So try to focus on you rather than other. Because you cannot change people around you. But you can change yourself. Not in a bad way but in a good way. Improving yourself is not wrong even it helps you to grow up and higher than you becoming something which you don’t want. your mistakes make you stronger and gave strength to build a great future. Similarly relationship are also same they are also depends on your level of understanding only that how you see everything around you and learn from your previous all mistakes which you have done. By blaming people rather than changing yourself a bit to see the brighter side of the person.

What you see and feel you will get the same.It is true to be confident and see beauty around you be it nature or people you will definitely find the positive side. And than everyone will look very natural and pure soul. But it doesn’t mean that you blindly trust everyone. Just don’t stick to only negative. Analyse both the way and than see the situation. You will get to know that man are more understanding and trust worthy person you can ever get be it your brother, friends or partner even a stranger. They all will care for you and love the way you are and help you out with the things. Where you are facing any trouble. So everything around you is all depends on you.

We talk about equality than why woman get few benifits?

I believe in equality and I know womans can do anything own their own without any help and support and woman has proved us in Today time that they are not less than any man. But still this male dominated society has always made woman weak and helpless because of their soft Nature and crying often. Which they usually does but that doesn’t mean that woman are weak. They are much stronger than a man. And this has scientifically proven by scientists. And woman lives more than a man. And only the woman has the ability to gave birth to the young ones.

We always have to proof us even we have done lot of things. Still we get few benifits like seprate woman couch, reservation, less money in bus etc. There are lot many other things which a woman got so easily. Just they think they are weak so they are not in the competition world. But they are completely wrong.In history woman are the symbol of Durga and Lakshmi as they depict both very efficiently that is why they were superior and they are ruling the empire. But today woman are treated as a useless piece. Which they only want to uplift. But we don’t know we already have that power to achieve anything own our own. The problem is male want the woman to be in his feet that is why they portrayed the woman in the similar ways.

But I don’t think there is any need of such things. Because if woman get to know her powers than all the male have to suffer for their deeds. But as the society always make them quite. That is why woman never ever faught against their right to equality act. Where it is specified that all of them are same than why they don’t treated similar to the law. Why they got so liberty and this make male to say things. Which are not atall true about us. We have only gave them the chance to speak. If we don’t gave them chance to say it than they could not able to put a finger on us.