BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology’s history


Beginning with the first agricultural settlements, people have been utilising biological processes to enhance their quality of life for over 10,000 years. Humans began to use microbes’ biological processes to manufacture bread, alcoholic drinks, and cheese, as well as to preserve dairy goods, some 6,000 years ago. However, such processes are not included in today’s definition of biotechnology, which was coined to describe the molecular and cellular technologies that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. In the mid- to late 1970s, a nascent “biotech” sector emerged, led by Genentech, a pharmaceutical firm founded in 1976 by Robert A. Swanson and Herbert W. Boyer to commercialise Boyer, Paul Berg, and Stanley N. Cohen’s recombinant DNA technology. Genentech, Amgen, Biogen, Cetus, and Genex were among the first businesses to produce genetically altered molecules for medicinal and environmental purposes.

Recombinant DNA technology, often known as genetic engineering, dominated the biotechnology sector for more than a decade. Splicing the gene for a useful protein (typically a human protein) into production cells—such as yeast, bacteria, or mammalian cells in culture—causes the protein to start producing in large quantities. When splicing a cable, there are a few things to keep in mind. . A new creature is produced when a gene is spliced into a producing cell. Biotechnology investors and researchers were first unsure if the courts would enable them to get patents on organisms; after all, patents were not permitted on newly found and recognised creatures in nature. However, in the case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty, the United States Supreme Court decided in 1980 that “a living human-made microbe is patentable subject matter.” This decision resulted in the formation of a slew of new biotechnology companies as well as the industry’s first investment boom. Recombinant insulin was the first genetically engineered product to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1982. . Since then, hundreds of genetically modified protein therapies, such as recombinant growth hormone, clotting factors, proteins that stimulate the creation of red and white blood cells, interferons, and clot-dissolving agents, have been sold across the world.

In a laboratory, a researcher purifies molecules for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins from biological material.
Alamy/Uwe Moser
Methodologies and tools
The capacity to create naturally occurring therapeutic compounds in bigger amounts than could be obtained from conventional sources such as plasma, animal organs, and human cadavers was the primary success of biotechnology in the early years. Pathogens are less likely to infect recombinant proteins, and allergic responses are less common. Biotechnology experts are now working to identify the underlying biological causes of disease and intervene precisely at that level. As with the first generation of biotech drugs, this might imply creating therapeutic proteins to supplement the body’s own resources or compensate for hereditary inadequacies. (A related procedure is gene therapy, which involves inserting genes encoding a required protein into a patient’s body or cells.)

The biotechnology sector has also increased its research into conventional medications and monoclonal antibodies that can halt disease progression. One of the most important biotechnology approaches to emerge in the final part of the twentieth century was the successful manufacture of monoclonal antibodies. Because of the specificity of monoclonal antibodies and their widespread availability, sensitive tests for a wide range of physiologically essential chemicals have been developed, as well as the capacity to differentiate cells by recognising hitherto identified marker molecules on their surfaces. The study of genes (genomics), the proteins that they encode (proteomics), and the wider biological pathways in which they function allowed for such advancements.

Biotechnology’s applications


Biotechnology offers a wide range of uses, including medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology could be used to merge biological information with computer technology (bioinformatics), or it could be used to investigate the use of microscopic equipment that can enter the human body (nanotechnology), or it could be used to replace dead or defective cells and tissues using stem cell research and cloning techniques. Biotechnology has been useful in refining industrial processes through the discovery and production of biological enzymes that spark chemical reactions (catalysts); in environmental cleanup with enzymes that digest contaminants into harmless chemicals and then die after consuming the available “food supply”; and in agricultural production through genetic engineering. Biotechnology’s agricultural uses have been the most contentious. Some environmentalists and consumer groups have proposed GMO bans or labelling regulations to alert people to the rising prevalence of GMOs in the food chain. GMOs were first introduced into agriculture in the United States in 1993, when the FDA authorised bovine somatotropin (BST), a growth hormone that increases milk output in dairy cows. The FDA authorised the first genetically modified whole product the following year, a tomato with a longer shelf life. Since then, dozens of agricultural GMOs have received regulatory clearance in the United States, Europe, and abroad, including crops that make their own insecticides and crops that resist the application of certain herbicides.
creatures that have been genetically modified
Scientific approaches, such as recombinant DNA technology, are used to create genetically engineered species.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a company that publishes encyclopaedias.
GMO foods have been found to be safe by studies conducted by the United Nations, the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, the European Union, the American Medical Association, US regulatory agencies, and other organisations, but sceptics argue that it is still too early to judge the long-term health and ecological effects of such crops. The land area planted in genetically modified crops expanded substantially in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, from 1.7 million hectares (4.2 million acres) in 1996 to 180 million hectares (445 million acres) in 2014. Approximately 90% of maize, cotton, and soybeans cultivated in the United States were genetically modified by 2014–15. The Americas were home to the bulk of genetically modified crops.

Over the five-year period from 1996 to 2000, the revenues of the biotechnology sectors in the United States and Europe almost quadrupled. The development of new products, notably in health care, spurred rapid expansion far into the twenty-first century. The worldwide biotechnology market is expected to be worth $752.88 billion by 2020, with significant growth potential arising in particular from government and industry-led efforts to speed up medication research and product clearance procedures.

NANOTECHNOLOGY

What is nanotechnology, and how does it work?

Nanotechnology is a phrase used to describe fields of science and engineering in which phenomena occurring at nanoscale dimensions are used in the design, characterization, manufacture, and application of materials, structures, devices, and systems. Although there are many examples of structures with nanometer dimensions (hereafter referred to as the nanoscale) in the natural world, such as essential molecules in the human body and food components, and although many technologies have inadvertently involved nanoscale structures for many years, it has only been in the last quarter of a century that it has been possible to actively and intentionally modify molecules and structures within this size range. Nanotechnology is distinguished from other fields of technology by its ability to manipulate things at the nanometer scale.
Clearly, nanotechnology in its different manifestations has the potential to have a huge influence on society. In general, it is reasonable to expect that the deployment of nanotechnology will benefit both individuals and organizations. Many of these applications include novel materials that act at the nanoscale, where new phenomena are connected with the extremely large surface area to volume ratios observed at these dimensions, as well as quantum effects that are not seen at larger scales. . Materials in the form of ultra-thin films for catalysis and electronics, two-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires for optical and magnetic systems, and nanoparticles for cosmetics, medicines, and coatings are all examples. The information and communications sector, which includes electronic and optoelectronic fields, food technology, energy technology, and the medical products sector, which includes many different aspects of pharmaceuticals and drug delivery systems, diagnostics, and medical technology, where the terms nanomedicine and bio nanotechnology are already commonplace, are the industrial sectors that are most readily embracing nanotechnology. Nanotechnology goods may potentially present fresh challenges for environmental pollution mitigation. However, just as phenomena occurring at the nanoscale may be quite different from those occurring at larger dimensions and may be exploitable for the benefit of mankind, these newly identified processes and their products may expose the same humans, as well as the environment in general, to new health risks, potentially involving quite different mechanisms of interference with human and environmental species’ physiology. These possibilities might be focused on the destiny of free nanoparticles produced in nanotechnology processes and discharged into the environment, either purposefully or accidently, or supplied directly to persons through the operation of a nanotechnology-based product.
Individuals whose jobs expose them to free nanoparticles on a regular basis should be particularly concerned. The fact that evolution has determined that the human species has developed mechanisms of protection against environmental agents, both living and dead, is central to these health risk concerns. This process is determined by the nature of the agents commonly encountered, with size being a key factor. Exposure to nanoparticles with previously unknown properties may pose a threat to the body’s usual defense mechanisms, such as the immunological and inflammatory systems. It’s also likely that nanotechnology goods will have an environmental impact due to processes of dispersion and persistence of nanoparticles in the environment. Wherever the possibility for a completely new risk is discovered, a detailed examination of the risk’s nature is required, which may subsequently be utilized in risk management processes if necessary. It is commonly acknowledged that the hazards related with nanotechnology should be investigated in this manner. Many international organisations (e.g. Asia Pacific Nanotechnology Forum 2005), European Union governmental bodies (European Commission 2004,), National Institutions, non-governmental organizations (e.g. UN-NGLS 2005), learned institutions and societies, and individuals (e.g. Oberdörster et al 2005, Donaldson and Stone 2003) have published reports on the current state of nanotechnology. The European Council has emphasized the importance of paying close attention to potential risks throughout the life cycle of nanotechnology-based products, and the European Commission has expressed its desire to work on an international level to establish a framework of shared principles for the safe, sustainable, responsible, and socially acceptable use of nanotechnologies.


Scope and Definitions


There are numerous definitions of nanotechnology and nanotechnology products, which are frequently developed for specific reasons. The fundamental scientific principles of nanotechnology have been deemed more significant than the semantics of a definition in this Opinion, thus they are addressed first. The Committee believes that the UK Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering’s definition of nanoscience and nanotechnology in their 2004 report (Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering 2004) effectively communicates these notions. This implies that the nanoscale extends from the atomic level (about 0.2 nm) to roughly 100 nm. . Because of the significantly increased ratio of surface area to mass, and also because quantum effects begin to play a role at these dimensions, leading to significant changes in several types of physical property, materials in this range can have significantly different properties than the same substances at larger sizes.
The words used in this Opinion are defined in accordance with the British Standards Institution’s recently released Publicly Available Specification on the Vocabulary for Nanoparticles (BSI 2005), which proposes the following meanings for the key generic terms:
Nanoscale refers to objects with one or more dimensions of 100 nanometers or less. Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and material manipulation at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular sizes, where characteristics differ dramatically from those at higher scales.

  • Nanotechnology is the control of form and size at the nanoscale in the design, characterization, manufacturing, and application of structures, devices, and systems.
  • Nanomaterial: a material with one or more exterior dimensions or an interior structure that may have unique properties when compared to a similar material without nanoscale features.
  • Nanoparticle: a particle with one or more nanoscale dimensions. (Note: Nanoparticles are assumed to have two or more dimensions at the nanoscale in this paper.)


A nanocomposite is a composite in which at least one of the components has a nanoscale dimension. It’s worth noting that nanoscience and nanotechnology have exploded in popularity in recent years, and the terminology used by the respective fields hasn’t always been consistent. Furthermore, as this report points out, there have been and continue to be significant challenges in precisely measuring nanoscale parameters, making it difficult to have complete confidence in data and conclusions drawn about specific phenomena relating to specific features of nanostructures and nanomaterials. This Opinion recognises the inevitability of the situation and has derived some broad conclusions despite the fact that the literature may include contradictions and errors. While this Opinion adheres to the notion that nanoscale presently has dimensions of up to 100 nm, it recognises that certain publications may have depicted nanoscale as having bigger dimensions than 100 nm. Much of the research on particles, particularly that on aerosols, air pollution, and inhalation toxicity, has classified particles as ultrafine, fine, or conventional. Unless otherwise noted, ‘ultrafine particles’ are presumed to be substantially identical to nanoparticles in this research.

Also, when it comes to nanoparticles, keep in mind that a sample of a substance containing nanoparticles will often comprise a variety of particle sizes rather than being monodisperse This makes determining the characteristics of the nanoscale considerably more challenging, especially when considering dosages for toxicological investigations. In this Opinion, references to studies of particle exposure and toxicity data will be made often, and the particle size specified in the publications will be quoted as single numbers (e.g. 40 nm) or ranges (e.g. 40 – 80 nm), with the understanding that they will be approximations.

Furthermore, nanoparticles will have a tendency to agglomerate in specific settings. It’s reasonable to anticipate an aggregation of nanoparticles, which may have dimensions measured in microns rather than nanometers, to act differently than individual nanoparticles, but there’s no reason to expect the aggregate to behave like a single huge nanoparticle. Similarly, it is likely that nanoparticle behavior will be influenced by their solubility and susceptibility to degradation, and that neither the chemical composition nor particle size will remain constant over time. With the aforementioned definitions and disclaimers in mind, it’s evident that there are two sorts of nanostructures to evaluate in terms of intrinsic qualities and health risks: those where the structure is a free particle and those where the nanostructure is an essential element of a larger item.
Nanocomposites, which are solid materials with one or more dispersed phases present as nanoscale particles, and nanocrystalline solids, which have individual crystals with nanoscale dimensions, belong to the latter group. . This category also includes things that have been given a surface topography with nanoscale characteristics, as well as functional components with crucial nanometer dimensions, typically electrical components. Surface alterations can be achieved for medicinal applications by utilizing nanosized materials in particular coatings (Roszek et al 2005). This Opinion acknowledges the reality of such materials and products, as well as the fact that material properties on the nanoscale can affect interactions with biological systems. Despite the fast advancement of the study of interactions between biological systems and nano topographical characteristics, little is known about the potential for such interactions to cause harmful consequences. The danger would be related to the release during usage or at the end of the product’s life cycle, and would be determined by the strength of the adhesion to the carrier material. There is currently no reason to believe that immobilized nanoparticles represent a greater risk to health or the environment than larger size materials as long as the nanomaterials are fixed on the carrier’s surface.
The former group, which includes free nanoparticles, is the one that causes the most worry in terms of health hazards, and is the focus of the majority of this Opinion. . The term ‘free’ should be qualified since it indicates that the material in question is made up of individual nanoscale particles at some point during its creation or usage. These individual particles may be mixed into a quantity of another material, which may be a gas, a liquid, or a solid, to generate a paste, a gel, or a coating, in the application of the substance. Although their bioavailability will vary depending on the phase in which they are scattered, these particles may nonetheless be termed free This category would include ultrafine aerosols and colloids, as well as cream-based cosmetics and medicinal preparations, and it is with these instances that much of the current research on nanotechnology health implications has been focused. The main focus of this opinion is on the possible dangers connected with the manufacturing and use of items using engineered nanomaterials. Proteins, phospholipids, lipids, and other biological nanostructures are not considered in this context

A Wonderful Place for Religious tourism in Telangana, Yadagirigutta: Few Suggestions to improve

India is a place where one can visit any area for many purposes such as general tourism, medical tourism, religious tourism, games and sports tourism, educational tourism etc. On 11 January 2022, I had the opportunity to visit a wonderful place located about 80 kilometres away from Hyderabad (from my residence of Suncity, Hyderabad) known as Yadagirigutta in Telangana. I am presenting a few lines about the place based on secondary sources and also later on my observations.
Yadagirigutta is a temple town as the famous Lakshmi Narasimha Temple is situated here. It is situated around 16 kilometres away from the district headquarters Bhuvanagiri and 55 kilometres away from Uppal, a major suburb of Hyderabad and already mentioned around 80 kilometres away from Suncity of Hyderabad. It is pertinent to mention that Hyderabad Regional Ring Road passes through Yadagirigutta (wikipedia.org/wiki/Yadagirigutta). Thousands of people visit the place every day. According to the website, yadadri.telangana.gov.in/tourist-place/yadagirigutta, five thousand to eight thousand people everyday visit for pujas, weddings, other family rituals etc. The number of visitors increases significantly on weekends, holidays and festivals. Further, in the context of its name few points are highlighted from the website, (yadadri.telangana.gov.in), “according to the myths of the Third Age, there was a sage named Yadarshi, who was the son of the great sage Sri Rishyasringa Maharshi and Santa Devi. He meditated inside the cave with the gaze of Sri Anjaneya Swami. Sri Narasimha Swami appeared before him, pleased with his devotion. The Swami himself manifested himself in five different forms as Sri Jwala Narasimha, Sri Gandabherunda, Sri Yogananda, Sri Ugra and Sri Lakshminarasimha after Swami and is therefore worshipped as the Pancharama Narasimha Kshetra. The Sudarshan Chakra is a guide for the devotees towards the temple. In the 15th century, the great king of Vijayanagara, Sri Krishnadevaraya, mentioned in his autobiography about the temple that before going to war he would always visit the temple and pray to the Lord for victory. The town is well connected to the capital and the nearest major towns by the Ghat Road. This temple is very popular in the Telangana region”.

I was highly fascinated to see the beauty of the place as from the top place the view was scenic. I observed with my heart and mind, the beauty of nature as well as its pristine beauty. The Temple Committee meticulously arranged the visit of the people without any chaos, etc. As revealed, every day thousands of people visit the place to have a glimpse of Bhagawan Narshimha.
Here, I wish to suggest a few things to the Government of Telangana. While taking the Prasadam by paying a little amount, many people have to stand under the scorching heat. So, I suggest a spacious area should be selected with fully covered. Also, I observed only one counter was in operation where tokens were issued (payment counter) and another counter where Prasadam was distributed. Here, my suggestion is that there should be two more counters if not more. One (payment counter and Prasadam counter) should be for the senior citizens and another (payment counter and Prasadam counter) should be for ladies. Because when I visited on 11 March 2022 there was no separate counter either for senior citizens or for ladies. Only one as mentioned already was functioning for all.
Anyway, I congratulate the Government of Telangana for developing the area as a sequel many have got the job, both self-employment and wage- employment. Even eight years ago the place was not at all developed from a tourism point of view.
(I, Shankar Chatterjee, offer my gratitude to T. Sanjeeva Reddy, Legal Adviser by profession, Libdom Villa, Bandlaguda Jagir, Hyderabad for inspiring me in carrying out my academic activities)