Introduction: One of the significant global threats to our health and food safety is air pollution. Air contamination kills around 3.7 million individuals all throughout the world and makes sufficient harm to crops. It is mainly caused by smoke and other harmful gases, fundamentally oxides of carbon, nitrogen, and furthermore sulphur. It is the presence of a substance in the environment that can make hurt human health and furthermore other living creatures on this planet. The sources for air pollution can be divided into two significant categories:
•Anthropogenic (human-made sources): are for the most part identified with the consumption of fuel. This may likewise incorporate little sources other than ignition like exhaust of paint, hair splash, and different solvents. Military assets, for example, atomic weapons additionally go under this kind of contamination.
•Natural sources: This might incorporate normal causes, for example, volcanic ejections and woodland fires likewise dust from huge spaces of land with little vegetation.
Ambient air pollution: An expected 4.2 million deaths each year are ascribed to ambient air pollution because of stroke, coronary illness, cellular breakdown in the lungs, and persistent respiratory infections. Around 91% of the total population lives in regions where air quality levels surpass WHO guidelines. While both developed and agricultural nations are influenced by fine particulate matter, low-and middle pay nations bear the biggest weight, with the best conceivable cost in the WHO West Pacific and South-East Asia regions. With investments in cleaner transportation, energy-proficient lodging, power generation, industry, and further developed municipal waste administration can altogether decrease ambient air pollution.
Household air pollution: Household air pollution is caused by the burning of household fuels, which causes indoor air contamination and adds to open air contamination. In 2016, 3.8 million deaths were reported because of indoor air pollution. Therefore, this risk factor is perhaps the main natural supporters of chronic weakness. The significance of household air pollution as a public health threat shifts extraordinarily relying upon the degree of advancement: in low-and centre pay nations, it is answerable for essentially 10% of death rates; around the world, it is liable for 7.7% of mortality.
● Contaminant emitting from power plants, refineries, and petrochemical plants, just as chemical and fertiliser industry, Industrial plants, lastly government incineration.
● Domestic cleaning exercises, cleaners, printing shops, and service stations are instances of indoor sources.
● Automobiles, vehicles, railroads, aviation routes, and different sorts of vehicles are instances of versatile sources.
● Finally, as mentioned earlier, normal sources incorporate actual fiascos like forest fires, volcanic erosion, dust storms, and agricultural burning.
Environment and health impacts of air pollution: Various contaminations are significant supporters of human sickness. Particulate Matter, particles with shifting yet tiny measurements, enter the respiratory system through breathing causing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, fertility and central nervous system dysfunction, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone protects against ultraviolet radiation, it is unsafe at ground level, influencing the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
Air pollution: A development issue
Effects on the economic development: In 2015, WHO estimated that the financial expense of unexpected passing and disability from air contamination in Europe is near USD 1.6 trillion. Air contamination influences the economy from various perspectives. It reduces individuals’ capacity to work and kills trillions of individuals consistently. Besides, it obliterates government properties like monuments which will influence the economy by decreasing the tourist destinations.
Effects on food Production: Food creation contributes recognizably to air contamination and the other way around. Air contamination impacts the dirt and lessens its capacity to the creation of good yields and as trade in agricultural products grows it increases the air contamination discharged from producer nations. This outcomes in an irregularity causing expanding pollution emission from producer countries rather than importing countries.
Measures are taken to eradicate air pollution:
By the government:
● Action Plans for Improvement of Air Quality: Under the central sector of control of pollution, (NCAP) ‘national clean air program’ was launched to address the country’s increasing air pollution problem.
● The government even informed a detailed action plan in the year 2018 for the prevention and control of air pollution in Delhi and the national capital region.
● In 2018, a graded response action plan was notified for again the prevention, control, and eradication of pollution in the national capital region. Which was divided into 4 main categories: moderate to poor, very poor, severe, and emergency.
To spread awareness:
● The SAMEER app, which provides public access to air quality information as well as the ability to file complaints about air pollution-causing activities, has been launched.
● The government also encourages people to spread awareness among the people and grow more trees, save water, electricity, maintenance vehicle for less smoke emission.
● Since 2019, central pollution control board teams have been placed to provide field feedback in Delhi and the national capital region.
How can we reduce air pollution?
● Conservation of energy.
● Look for the ‘energy star’ label while buying products.
● Using public transportation and carpooling can also help.
● Avoid using hair spray and other solvents.
● Avoid using an air conditioner.
● Recycle and reuse.
● Environment safe paints should be used more often.
● Mulch or compost leaves and yard waste do not burn it.
For years, Dalits have suffered the consequences of being Dalit. Their daughters are raped, sons are murdered and whatnot. I’ll narrate to you 3 stories that I came to know through my friends, family and the internet.
I had to take the help of the internet because I have been travelling for the past few days and couldn’t meet a lot of people. Coming to the point, this is a story from Bhilai. A Dalit family used to survive on wages. Their daily wage was delayed. They asked the landlord to pay them their dues. Instead of paying them back, he tortured them. He locked them in a room. They starved for days. This story is not even reported anywhere because it never came out. Imagine asking for what is yours and getting thrashed for it. You start to become less of yourself every day.
This story is from mahulpala village. The residents of this village collected money to build a temple. Dalits(10% of the population also contributed money and labour) to the temple. But when the temple was inaugurated, they were asked to step outside the temple. They started praying from outside of the temple. They were thrashed by the priest’s son for even touching the temple. When they filed a complaint. The whole village started to boycott them. They refused to sell anything to them. They refused to let them inside the village. The district administration has signed a compromise that they can pray from outside the village. A temple that they built themselves refuses to let them in.
Another story comes from the school I studied in. There was a boy named Govind. He was in our class. He found it very difficult to be around us. Because nobody respected his presence. Everyone teased him. And it was not friendly banter.
Imagine living in an environment where you are not even considered a decent human being. Nobody wants to listen to you. Nobody respects you. And imagine this place to be your school. That is the worst thing that can ever happen to you. We created that environment for Govind. He came to school every day. He tried to fit in between us every day but we never let him fit in. He always wanted to play with us but we never allowed him to. What I feel bad about is that I watched it happening around me and I did nothing. You never forget the trauma you faced as a child. I was part of the reason Govind faced such a thing in the first place.
Discriminating against anyone based on their caste signifies only one thing. SUPERIORITY COMPLEX. When a person assumes their caste is superior than the other person, they feel “free” to discriminate against them. This shows the lack of logic that is applied while discriminating against someone. It makes no sense and it has to stop. When you discriminate against someone, you’re mocking your intellect. RISE ABOVE.
The Vidarbha region of Maharashtra primarily consists of four major cities. Nagpur being the largest has a huge rural population which is deprived of stable sources of income and is riddled with social problems including alcoholism. The primary contributor to the alcoholism problem is the male population. Inadvertently, the women of the household have to take up the responsibility of earning the bread. In regions lacking educational infrastructure, women have to not only overcome sexism, misogyny and toxic masculinity to earn, but they also have to battle the unavailability of jobs and the unwillingness of employers to employ women just to keep the food on the table. Out of the 48 lakh unemployed people in Maharashtra, the Vidarbha region contributes 6 lakh of them. Although an older report, according to the 2013-14 Report on District Level Estimates for the state of Maharashtra, Nagpur reported 27% unemployment in urban areas and a staggering 55.3% in rural areas. As mentioned earlier, this was a relatively old statistic. However, going through the Covid-19 pandemic hasn’t done any good in the rural employment sector.
Taking the dire unemployment situation into consideration as well as considering the rising issue of alcoholism amongst the general male population in the region, it has also given rise to domestic violence, marital rape and sexual assault under influence. The Covid-19 pandemic and the Lockdown made this situation a lot worse as unemployment was peaking and the availability of alcoholic beverages was very low. Upon gathering statistics from an NGO called Aroha working for the development of rural women, it was found that domestic violence cases simply multiplied by 2.3 times during the first lockdown (March – July 2020). This is an extremely dire situation and it is continually worsening with the increase in economic disparity and water shortages reaching an all-time high. This is the time when the need to empower women to gain financial stability and independence is the most. The NGO Aroha has taken this as their mission and has been working towards training women in making handicraft items and selling them on an international market through powerful marketing and product development via their brand Rangers.
Rangers is a traditional eco-friendly, high-quality handicrafts store based in Nagpur which sells purses, handbags, lamp shades etc which are made by women from rural areas and all the profit is evenly divided between all women involved, contributing to their financial independence.
Aroha starts by enrolling women who are in dire need of financial assistance. They start by providing them with training in handcrafting, Warli art, stitching, embroidery and block printing. Then, once the women graduate with enough skills, they’re hired by Rangaresha which provides them with employment, stable income as well as incentives for them to work. Aroha is financially supported by Larsen & Toubro Ltd. Since 2004, Aroha steadfastly remained focused on the promotion of livelihoods, capacity-building initiatives and extending training support as well as surfacing as a resource agency for all of the above for the benefit of other allied agencies. With time self-help group formation activities were also undertaken. In the past 17 years, Aroha has helped 1739 women overcome poverty and has made them
capable of standing up for themselves and fighting back against years of oppression. Although the actual statistical data about profits and actual gross income from handicrafts remains unknown and the organisation didn’t provide that information, it is undeniable that the organisation and their vision had been successful in their initiative and continue to empower women to date.
This report is an excerpt of an interview project that i completed for one of my practical classes. I had to interview people working in NGO working for marital rapes analyze the interview.In this project i’ve interviewed Dr. Chitra Awasthi, the founder of RIT foundation that in collaboration with many NGOs to promote gender equality in India.
NATURE OF REPORT
In order to gain insight on the prevalence of marital rape in India and to promote gender and social equality in the country, the students of Mass communication and journalism were instructed to interview an NFPO (RIT Foundation) within the field of awareness through Media
There were no stipulations about the medium used or the questions to be asked. Students were permitted to select their own respondent owing to their comfort as well as good knowledge of the field. The report is directed to citizens of the country and people across nations. The report aims to start a conversation on this topic, to give women under martial rape the courage to raise their voice and to pressurize the law-makers to criminalize such acts.
The act of sexual intercourse with one’s spouse without the consent of the partner is known as marital rape. Whether the perpetrator is a stranger or a spouse, it is one of the most horrific acts a man can conduct against a woman. Though marital rape is the most common and repugnant form of masochism in Indian society, it is hidden behind the iron curtain of marriage. 83% of married women i.e. nearly one in every 3 women have been subjected to physical, sexual and emotional violence from their spouse. Almost 31% of married women between the ages 15 and 49 have suffered from sexual abuse cite their current husband as the perpetrator.
Any undesired sexual actions by a spouse or ex-spouse conducted without consent and/or against a person’s will, achieved by force, threat of force, intimidation, or when a person is unable to consent, are classified as marital rape. Intercourse, anal or oral sex, forced sexual conduct with other people, and other sexual practices that the victim finds degrading, humiliating, painful, or unwelcome are examples of these sexual actions.
Rape is a crime that occurs when a woman refuses to provide her consent. It’s crucial to remember that lack of consent doesn’t always have to take the form of the word ‘no.’ It’s reasonable to assume given the circumstances. If a woman consents to sexual intercourse within a marriage because of the threat of harm to her children or herself, the woman loses her right to stay in the house or get maintenance, it is not valid consent. It is still rape.
THE CURRENT SITUATION AND STATISTICS
140 of the world’s 195 countries have already made marital rape a criminal offence. The United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Australia, and Russia are among the countries on the list.
However, 55 countries, including India, China, and Singapore, are countries where it is still OK to rape your wife.
The concept of marital rape has not been recognized until today. We’ve been lobbying for a law to make it a crime, but first we need to gather statistics on rape in marriage.
And yet 5.4% of married Indian women say they have experienced marital rape. 4.4% of them say they have experienced marital rape in just the last 12 months before this survey. The figure recorded by NFHS-3 for 2005-6 was 9.5%.
But while the data on marital rape in India exists, marital rape as a crime “does not exist”.
The data also includes entries for “forced her to perform any sexual actions that she did not want to” and “forced her to perform any sexual acts that she did not want to with threats or in any other way.” Overall, 2.5% and 3.6% of married Indian women answered affirmatively to these categories as well. That brings the number of married women who have been subjected to what would be called rape or sexual violence if the perpetrator had not been their husband to 11.5 percent.
Despite the historical misconception that rape by one’s partner is a minor occurrence that causes little damage, research shows that marital rape has serious and long-term implications for women. Injuries to private organs, lacerations, discomfort, bruising, torn muscles, tiredness, and vomiting are some of the physical repercussions of marital rape. In addition to broken bones, black eyes, bloody noses, and knife wounds, women who have been assaulted and raped by their husbands may experience other physical consequences such as broken bones, black eyes, bloody noses, and knife wounds as a result of the sexual violence. Miscarriages, stillbirths, bladder infections, infertility, and the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases like HIV are all gynecological repercussions of marital rape.
Women who have been raped by their partners are likely to experience significant psychological repercussions. Anxiety, shock, acute dread, despair, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder are some of the short-term symptoms of marital rape. Disordered eating, sleep issues, depression, difficulties forming trusting relationships, and increased negative thoughts about themselves are all common long-term impacts. The psychological consequences are likely to linger for a long time. For years after the abuse, some marital rape survivors describe flashbacks, sexual dysfunction, and emotional pain.
OTHER COUNTRIES’ LEGAL STATUS
In the United States, experts estimate that 10% to 14% of married women are raped throughout their marriage. Researchers discovered that marital rape accounted for almost 25% of all rapes when they looked at the frequency of different types of rape. Given the popularity of marital rape, social scientists, practitioners, the criminal justice system, and society as a whole have paid little attention to the issue. In fact, it wasn’t until the 1970s that society began to recognize the possibility of rape in marriage. Until recently, the usual rule was that a husband could not be convicted of raping his wife because he has an implicit right to sexual intercourse with his wife under the marital contract.
Resistance restrictions are still in place in the majority of American states. There are no exemptions for husbands from rape prosecution in seventeen states and the District of Columbia. There are still certain exemptions for husbands from rape prosecution in thirty-three states. In several of these thirty-three states, a husband is excused from prosecution when his wife is most vulnerable (e.g., she is mentally or physically disabled, unconscious, asleep, etc.) and legally unable to consent. The majority of States have certain spousal exemptions, indicating that rape in marriage is still considered a lesser offence than other types of rape.
When we look at the laws of various countries, we can find that most of them punish rape both within and outside of marriage.
In Australia, for example, if a person has achieved the age of 16, he or she can petition to a judge or magistrate for an order permitting them to marry.
By 1991, however, the marital rape exception had been repealed in every state in Australia.
In New Zealand, a person under the age of 20 but over the age of 16 can only marry with the approval of their parents. For women, the age of sexual consent is similarly 16 years. The New Zealand Crimes Act of 1961 makes no provision for marital rape. In 1985, the marital rape exemption was repealed. In the United Kingdom, a marriage between two people under the age of 16 is void. In 1991, the marital rape exemption was completely repealed.
A marriage between two people under the age of 16 is void in the United Kingdom. In 1991, the marital rape exemption was completely repealed. In Egypt, the age of majority is 21 years old for all legal reasons except marriage. The legal age for consent is 18, and intercourse with a female under the age of 18 is considered rape under the penal code.
Various states in the United States have different laws. In the United States, the marital rape exception has been repealed in 50 states. In Indonesia, the age of majority, as well as the age at which girls and boys can marry, is 16 for girls and 19 for boys. A girl’s legal age for giving valid consent to a sexual act is also established at 16 years. Any marriage that occurs before the age of majority is null and invalid.
LEGAL POSITION IN INDIA
In India, marital rape is legal but not de facto. While in other nations, the legislative has either criminalized marital rape or the judiciary has actively participated in recognizing it as a crime, the judiciary in India appears to be working at cross-purposes. The Supreme Court ruled in Bodhisattwa Gautam v. Subhra Chakraborty that rape is a crime against basic human rights and a breach of the victim’s most prized fundamental right, the right to life, which is contained in Article 21 of the Constitution. However, it contradicts this declaration by failing to recognize marital rape. Though there have been some advancements in Indian domestic violence legislation, they have mostly been limited to physical rather than sexual abuse.
This established the notion that a woman does not have the right to refuse sex with her spouse once they are married. This gives husbands sexual access to their spouses, which is in clear violation of human rights principles and gives husbands permission to rape their women. The rape legislation only applies to two types of married women: those under the age of 15 and those who are separated from their spouses. While rape of a girl under the age of 12 may result in a sentence of ten years or more in jail, rape of a girl under the age of 15 results in a lower punishment if the rapist is married to the victim. When Section 376-A of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, was added in 1983, it made some headway toward criminalizing domestic abuse against the wife.
The Law Commission’s proposed definition of sexual assault, which is wide, complete, and acceptable, could be used in place of the existing term of rape in Section 375 IPC, according to the report. The Task Force, like the Law Commission, stopped short of suggesting that marital rape be included in the new definition. Currently, India’s legal framework is severely inadequate in terms of safeguarding women’s bodily integrity and sexual autonomy.
ABOUT THE FOUNDATION
The RIT Foundation is a non-profit organizationcreated in 2009 by Dr. Chitra Awasthi, an educationist, writer, and philanthropist. The RIT Foundation is collaborating with a number of non-governmental organizations in India to promote social and gender equality.
In 2015, they filed a petition – RIT Foundation v. Union of India writ petition c no. 284 of 2015 seeking to criminalize marital rape. It will be coming up before the Delhi High Court for final hearing early next year.
“The first step to breaking the silence is having the tool to validate,” Chitra Awasthi says. The last refuge of male dominance is the control of women’s sexuality and bodies. It will take time to smash it. However, as a society, we must begin a dialogue and put pressure on lawmakers to act.”
Dr. Chitra Awasthi is the president and founder of RIT Foundation. She has been working as an educationist with children and young adults for the past 36 years now. She is well-known in academics for her psychological insights and comprehensive understanding of holistic living solutions. With a postgraduate degree, a university topper, in sociology from Kanpur University, she has authored a wide range of books on sociology and allied subjects. Her major interest, however, has always been in religion and spiritualism. She has translated, edited, and produced secret treasures from English, Sanskrit, and Hindi, and she is an eager student of spiritual literature in the Indian tradition. Rit International is her first foray into the corporate world. She does, however, wish to help share the same knowledge to children who are less privileged, so that they can benefit from high-quality education and knowledge.
To provide financial protection against the risk of some future event. The phrase “insurance” comes from the Latin for “to hedge one’s bets”.
It is also known as a form of risk management and is meant to hedge against financial loss. Insurance exists in various forms and can be categorized as compulsory or voluntary, public or private, or commercial.
Voluntary liability insurance provides protection to the policyholder against liability arising from an incident that triggers a policy obligation. Public automobile insurance is compulsory in most countries and private auto insurance often exists only where required by law.
Commercial Auto Insurance Policies are designed to provide coverage for motor vehicles used in a business enterprise – these policies typically provide coverage on an “occurrence basis” rather than “claims-made basis.”
What Is Life, Home & Auto Insurance?
Insurance is one of the most important aspects for everyone to consider. There are two types of insurance: life and property. The first one ensures you don’t die from a disease or accident that happens, while the second one covers any damages that happen to your belongings such as your car, house, home appliances or anything else.
Life insurance is a type of insurance that covers the potential risk of all or part of someone’s life, for example, if they die early or get left with dependent children. Life insurance rates are different and depend on many factors including age and smoking. So, always talk to a qualified advisor before deciding on the best option for you. Life Insurance quotes online in India could be what you need to find the best coverage at an affordable rate.
The general rule is to always have enough insurance coverage. This will allow you to replace items that are lost or damage due to accidents/incidents. Life insurance rates are different and depend on many factors including age and smoking. So, always talk to a qualified advisor before deciding on the best option for you. Life Insurance quotes online in India could be what you need to find the best coverage at an affordable rate.
Home Insurance is a must for any homeowner and is a legal requirement if you are renting or have rented your home. Home insurance can be confusing because there are so many factors that need to be taken into consideration as well as different products and providers.
The type of coverage you need will depend on what you want to be covered, how valuable your home is, who will live in the home and your budget. Below are some suggestions on how to choose the right kind of coverage at the right price.
* Which level of coverage do I need?
* How much does home insurance cost?
* What can I get with my policy?
* What else should I know about home insurance?
* Should I buy flood insurance too?
Auto Insurance is a must-have. It might seem expensive, but it can save you from financial ruin in the event of an accident or from being stranded on the side of the road.
Auto insurance rates depend on several factors, such as where you live, your annual mileage and your credit score. You can get quotes online for free to find out how much different options would cost you – but consider shopping around and trying to find a policy that fits within your budget.
In conclusion, insurance is a critical part of protecting your car, home, and life. It can help you recover from damages, replace lost belongings, and give you peace of mind in knowing that you are financially protected against unexpected events. Be sure to shop around for the best rates and coverage for your needs, and don’t hesitate to ask questions to make sure you understand your policy. Thanks for reading!
On 17th October, 2021,the Times of India published an article under ‘Talk It Out’ A segment called ‘Gaming addiction can take a toll on your wallet and relationships’.
The segment published that day had three questions in which only one was concerned with the issue of spending money while gaming; the question was: “My husband is totally addicted to gaming and is betting and losing money….What can I do to help this situation and get him to De-addict”.
In that question, there is a major error, substituting gaming for gambling would correct this mistake. The response by the expert counselor doubled down on the argument of gaming saying it was “addictive and difficult to disentangle from.” While I do think the issue of gambling is serious, miswording it does major damage to the already adverse image of gaming as in computer gaming or mobile gaming. In the article, the rest of the two questions were completely unrelated to the headline and the headline was misworded just for the sake of attention-grabbing.
On 4th October, The Hindu published a piece called ‘Gaming disorder increases during pandemic’. The article starts by mentioning a 15-year-old buying a smartphone during the pandemic and now playing games for eight hours a day and then dives into the problem of gambling and banning of gambling and fantasy apps like Poker which have financial stakes.
The article is another great example of goodwill but misjudgment. You should not write about something as serious as gambling addiction and mix it with the whole of gaming (which includes a wide array of forms). Playing a game like Age of Empires (a real-time strategy game) when you are 15 will not lead you to become a gambling addict at 21. Gaming is not just one thing or a single game. The advent of gaming as a form of pop culture in India is met with naive writing on a subject like this. There are downsides to gaming for the youth, excess of anything is harmful but misrepresenting a particular thing will lead to its disregard and indifference, which is what the conservative media wants to happen apparently.
Covid-19 pandemic has changed the world completely, with affecting almost all the countries around the globe. Today, the whole world is struggling against covid-19. Amidst this fight, it has been declared that with the help of WHO we can win this fight against covid-19. Covid-19 has been declared as a pandemic by world health organization on on March 11, 2020 and since then, WHO has been helping a lot to end this pandemic situation. Safe and effective vaccines, being manufactured everyday are really crucial to end this pandemic. WHO has been working tirelessly in manufacturing and developing these vaccines and also ensuring equitable distribution of theses vaccines.
UPDATING COVID CASES
WHO plays a significant role in determining the covid cases around the globe. For the production as well as the distribution of vaccines, it is important to know how much Covid cases each country has, so that the vaccines can be manufactured and distributed accordingly. This task is being accomplished by World Health Organization (WHO). WHO updates about covid cases worldwide with the help of statistical tools used for analyzing like graphs and histograms. There is one graph for the overall worldwide covid situation and separate graphs for each country. WHO also helps in providing a better understanding of covid situation by using graphs and histograms in such a way that even a layman can understand it.
This is a recent graph provided by WHO showing 221,134,742 total covid cases and a total of 4,574,089 deaths by covid around the globe as of 7th of September, 2021.
WHO also has kept us updated about some vital information about covid like when it became airborne, its second and third wave etc. It also uses apps like twitter and Instagram to update people about the latest information relating to covid. To accomplish all these tasks, WHO has set up a full support team for updating people time to time and also providing assistance to people in this pandemic.
DEVELOPING OF VACCINES
WHO has brought together 400 of the world’s leading researchers to identify research priorities for the manufacturing of vaccines. “Solidarity Trial”, an international clinical trial, involving 90 countries is also one initiative launched by WHO, to help find effective treatment. WHO has also taken up research protocols for better understanding of the virus. Approximately 130 scientists, funders and manufacturers from around the world have signed a statement committing to work with WHO to speed the development of a vaccine against COVID-19.
In addition to this, the world health organization is giving its best in making people understand about vaccines, its side effects, its importance etc. by uploading various pdfs and data files on its site.
Above is the cover page of one pdf file uploaded by WHO on their website which tells everything about the working of the vaccines, its benefits, vaccines by different companies etc. In addition to this, WHO has also answered the most asked questions about covid-19 vaccines.
WHO has also given details of various vaccines launched by different companies and have listed their side effects too. It has also helped in the approval of various vaccines given by Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Oxford, Serum Institute of India etc. On its website of Covid-19 vaccine tracker, WHO lays down the list of all the approved vaccines along with the number of countries approving these vaccines and the number of trials in other countries.
EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF VACCINES
The world health organization (WHO) has a very big role to play in the equitable distribution of vaccines. For equitable distribution of vaccines, WHO has unveiled its global plan to fairly distribute covid-19 vaccine. two-thirds of the world’s population have joined its plan to buy and fairly distribute COVID-19 vaccines around the globe. As per WHO’s “fair allocation mechanism” distribution of vaccines will be conducted in two phases.
In the first phase, all countries would receive vaccine proportional to their population; initially enough vaccine to immunize 3% of their population, with the first doses going to frontline workers in health care and social care. Then, additional vaccine would be delivered until 20% of a nation’s population is covered. WHO envisages that these doses would be used to immunize those at the highest risk from COVID-19: elderly people and those with comorbidities.
Second phase would be dealing with the countries where vaccinations are needed to cover additional people on the basis of the urgency of immunizations needed. The priority will be decided on the basis of two criteria’s.
The magnitude of spread of virus whether it is spreading very fast and whether other pathogens like influenza are also spreading at the same time
Whether the health care system of the country is strong or weak, whether it has sufficient beds in hospitals for its patients and other intensive care units etc.
RESULTS OF THE PLAN LAUNCHED BY WHO
The plan by World Health Organization (WHO) is still in progress and it is said that additional 38 countries are expected to sign soon. Access to the vaccines in the COVAX portfolio will be given to these countries and they will pay for their own doses. It has secured an estimated 700 million vaccine doses so far and wants to provide 2 billion by the end of 2021, with the aim of providing coverage to at least 20% of the population of participating countries. The WHO has also called for moratorium on Covid Vaccine Booster Shots till end of September to address the drastic inequity in dose distribution between rich and poor nations.
WHO ASSISTANCE TO COVID-19 ECONOMY
The world health organization (WHO) in collaboration with other organizations initiated a global collaboration known as the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT Accelerator) with the motive of accelerating the development, production, and equitable access to COVID-19 tests, treatments, and vaccines.
So far 10 countries have contributed $2.4 billion to the work of the ACT Accelerator, with the United Kingdom committing just over US$ 1 billion, and Germany, Canada, Japan and France committing US$ 618 million, US$ 290 million, US$ 229 million and US$ 147 million respectively. In just seven months, the ACT Accelerator’s progress has been significant: over 50 diagnostic tests have been evaluated and new rapid antigen diagnostics have been developed and being made available for LMICs; life-saving Dexamethasone treatments are being rolled out, research into monoclonal antibody treatments is advancing; and through the Health Systems Connector, the health system requirements for delivery of COVID-19 tools have been mapped in 4 out of 6 world regions.
It is now being reported that the countries who have contributed to ACT will now be able assess economic benefits to advanced economies in result of their contributions. Global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines estimated to generate economic benefits of at least US$ 153 billion in 2020–21, and US$ 466 billion by 2025, in 10 major economies, according to new report by the Eurasia Group. With the help of introducing these policies and initiatives, WHO is now helping the falling economies of many countries to come to the positions they were on before this covid pandemic.
In order to sum up, I’ll like to say that WHO is working tirelessly to improve the covid-19 situation across the globe as well as supporting many economies in these hard times. Furthermore, WHO has also given certain guidelines for people to follow that’ll surely help in decreasing covid cases. Guidelines on vaccines are also given. All these guidelines are available on WHO websites. WHO has also conducted free campaigns to spread awareness. These efforts by WHO will only be fruitful when people follow all the instructions and guidelines in relation to covid 19 prevention and also get all the vaccinations properly for immunization. In order to win this fight against covid-19, it is advised to all the people to take necessary precautions and get vaccinated as soon as possible
Infidelity can be better defined as any act that violates an open or explicit agreement
between two people, thereby damaging the relationship. It usually means having an
emotional or intimate relationship other than your partner.
Deception is one of the most devastating and destructive things that can happen in a
person’s life. It can lead to emotional distress, anxiety, depression, increased risky
behaviours and cause real physical pain.
All infidelity violates the supposed or implied marital union, whether that be emotionally or
Relationships in which more than two people are involved are known as Polyamory
relationships. In non-monogamous behavioural relationships, partners can practice flipping
or polyamory (having multiple romantic relationships at the same time). These programs
promote honest communication and consent between all members and is not an example of
Now, how does Infidelity affect society?
Disloyalty to a person is like a storm. When it floods you, you and everyone else are thrown into many different places. When parents are in trouble so are their children. When a house burns down, children and adults are left homeless. The same can be said of infidelity. Confusion, fear, uncertainty, anger, tears, withdrawal, suspicion, frustration, fighting affects everyone in the family and especially children who are naturally more sensitive and rely on their parents for emotional and physical stability and security.
For young adults, infidelity can wreak havoc on trust, and infidelity can have devastating effects on a person’s mental and physical health. The condition is associated with depression, anxiety and unhealthy coping strategies such as poor diet and substance abuse. Some mental health professionals believe that there may be a similarity to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Types of Infidelity
• Physical Infidelity: Physical or sexual contact outside of relationships. There may or may not be an emotional attachment between partners.
• Emotional Infidelity: Emotional attachment or intimacy with another person. Emotional affairs can do as much damage, if not more, to a relationship as a physical affair.
• Cyber Infidelity:
social media has made it easier for people to engage in online
messages, chats, forums, or groups with sexual content. Cyber infidelity also
includes viewing erotic stimuli, such as porn.
• Object Infidelity:
Excessive love or interest outside of relationships can lead to
what is known as materialism. This is a situation where one partner is too focused on
something like their job or their phone, causing disruption in the relationship.
Data And Facts
Statistics report that anywhere from 40-60 percent of adults in committed relationships commit acts of infidelity and despite popular opinion, there is no significant difference in these percentages between men and women. Not only has dishonesty in the workplace become increasingly common but it has also become easier to deal with dishonesty on the Internet and social networking sites.
The term “biodiversity” was coined around 1985.Biodiversity or biological diversity . Biodiversity is a term refers to the variety of species both flora and fauna present in an area, that is the variety of animals, plants, fungi, and even microorganisms like bacteria that make up our natural world. Each of these species and organisms work together in ecosystems, like an intricate web, to maintain balance and support life.
Scientists have estimated that there are around 8.7 million species of plants and animals in existence. However, only around 1.2 million species have been identified and described so far, most of which are insects.Although examining counts of species is perhaps the most common method used to compare the biodiversity of various places, in practice biodiversity is weighted differently for different species, the reason being that some species are deemed more valuable or more interesting than others. One way this value is assessed is by examining the diversity that exists above the species level, in the genera, families, orders.The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part. This includes variation in genetic, phenotypic, phylogenetic, and functional attributes, as well as changes in abundance and distribution over time and space within and among species, biological communities and ecosystems.
The framework based on counting-up units contrasts with other proposals for general frameworks for biodiversity, including those proposals that have attempted to include a variety of calculations like endemism , dissimilarity, rarity, and so on within the definition of biodiversity . The framework based on counting-up units implies not only that biodiversity as variety is that total count, but also that we can carry out lots of other important, associated, calculations that will be useful for decision-making and policy ,notably looking at gains and losses. This idea of a biodiversity “calculus” contrasts with the ecologically oriented perspective that there are many different indices called “biodiversity”.
The common measure, species richness, illustrates the different perspectives. The pre-history of biodiversity, reflecting the species extinction crisis and the values of variety, provides a core rationale for a definition that includes counting-up species. The pre-history of “biodiversity” also highlighted the idea that the value of variety itself should be considered along-side the recognised benefits and dis-benefits of individual species , and all these benefits/values can enter into trade-offs and synergies that support decision-making. Some current perspectives or framings about biodiversity and its value can be understood as again blurring that distinction between biodiversity and biospecifics. One such framing equates biodiversity with all of nature. A focus on biodiversity as the collection of individual units/elements suggests that biodiversity covers so many individual elements that it more or less can be equated with biotic nature. An ecological/ecosystem framing of biodiversity expands this further biodiversity may be interpreted as including not only the many individual elements but also all their ecological interactions, and associated processes. These expanded perspectives, focused on elements and their interactions, create a risk that we may miss the opportunity to properly consider both values of nature/ecology and the values associated with biodiversity-as-variety.
On the study of biodiversity,Conservation biology has emerged as a true scientific discipline and has succeeded in providing an understanding of many of the underpinnings of the field, including effects of pollution on populations of plants and animals, how to approach restoration of various habitats, how to manage endangered species, and many other topics too numerous to mention. Conservation biology has done well in developing the science of understanding individual species in their habitat, performing spatial scale analyses of individuals, and modeling their activity within the landscape.
Important direct drivers affecting biodiversity are habitat change, climate change, invasive species, overexploitation, and pollution.Habitat loss is the single greatest threat to biodiversity on Earth today and in fact it is the second largest threat to our existence on this planet next to Climate Change.Human activities such as urban development degrade or completely eradicate areas on which species depend for food and shelter.Habitat loss can also take the form of night lighting; this unnatural condition removes habitat for most animals, birds and even fish and especially from LED lights which mimic daytime spectrums. Even plants will not respire under LED lights. Undue noise levels from industry and fireworks can also alter nigh-time habitats and sleeping patterns of wildlife.Sidden changes in the climate temperature can cause habitat loss.Long term climate changes , increasing the temperature of earth causes global warming which affects biodiversity. Natural events such as storms, forest fires, floods, and droughts also have the potential to alter or eradicate habitats. And while these events are natural occurrences, overall, or until recently, they do not compare to the losses caused by human activities- and yet they are also amplified as a result of climate change- a phenomenon aggravated by human activities.Pollution also includes the release of effluents from industrial and agricultural processes into the natural environment.
Biodiversity supports human and societal needs, including food and nutrition security, energy, development of medicines and pharmaceuticals and freshwater, which together underpin good health. It also supports economic opportunities, and leisure activities that contribute to overall wellbeing.Biodiversity is essential for all living beings on earth.Change and conservation are increasingly in the hands of the people rather than governments. Therefore, it is our responsibility to do protect nature.
Ship of Theseus is a paradoxical philosophical theory. It was first found in the writings of a greek philosopher called Plutarch. Theseus was the founder king of Athens. Plutarch writes about Theseus going on a voyage with his crew members. During the journey, they decide to replace the old wooden planks with new ones. They threw away all the old planks and replaced it with new pieces of woods. This leads to the question- is this the same ship that left from athens? Or is it a different ship because every single piece of wood has been replaced? What if there were still 2 old pieces? Would that change the answer?
Thomas Hobbes took this theory a little further. What if a scavenger collects all the old parts the crew members threw in the sea and builds a ship? Two ships arrive at the final port A) the ship made of new planks and B) the ship made up of old planks by scavengers. Now which one is the real ship of Theseus?
A theory called the Mereological theory of identity (MTI) states that the identity of anything is based on its components. So if we try to solve the ship of Theseus by this theory then we will have to conclude that the ship he originally left on and the scavenger-made ship are the same. In other words, we can say A=C. But this would mean that Theseus switched ships during his journey which he did not. Or we can just say that A=B which means the original ship = the newly made ship. But to say A=B would imply that B is not equal to C which would raise doubts because A and C are made up of the same parts. We concluded that A and B are equal even when they are not even made up of the same parts.
Of course, the Ship of Theseus is a larger issue than ships. What is it that makes you yourself? Is it your physical characteristics? If that was the case then every time you cut your hair, you’d become a different person. Is it your feelings and thoughts? Then every time you forget some memory or have a change of heart, you will not be you anymore. People change over time and still believe they are the same from the core. What is it that makes us? This debate goes on to this day.
There is a film named on this topic. It is directed by anand gandhi. It is undoubtedly the best film i’ve ever seen in my entire life. It explores this concept, dividing it into 3 different stories of a blind women, A monk who’s fighting for animal rights and a businessman wanting to do seek an experience out of his bureaucratic life. The story merges in the end. This movie changed my outlook forever.