The history of India and Indian national movement is resolvable in understanding. The Indian independence movement was a series of historic events during the British Raj with the ultimate aim of ending British rule in India on the Indian subcontinent. It lasted from 1857 to 1947.
REVOLT OF 1857:The first movement for freedom first broke in Bengal.The Revolt of 1857 was started on May 10, 1857, at Meerut. It was the first-ever war for Indian Independence. It was the first large-scale rebellion against the East India Company. The Revolt was unsuccessful but it made a major impact on the public and stirred the entire Independence Movement in India. Mangal Pandey was one of the major parts of the revolution as he declared rebellion against his commanders and fired the first shot on the British officer.
Swadeshi Boycott Movement:
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Britishers announced the partition of Bengal with a motive to weaken the unity of nationalists. Amongst the prime Indian national movements, the Swadeshi Boycott Movement surfaced in the year 1903 as a reaction against the partition of Bengal but was formally announced in July 1905 and fully came into force from October 1905.
From 1905 to 1908, the Swadeshi and Boycott movement was started by extremists like Bipin Chandra Pal, Tila, Lala Lajpat Rai and Aurobindo Ghosh. The general public was asked to refrain from the use of foreign goods and motivated to substitute them with the Indian homemade goods. Prominent events like Indian festivals, songs, poetries and paintings were used to propagate this Indian national movement.
Home Rule League Movement :
To convey and propagate the feeling of self-governance into the common man, this Indian National movement was carried out in India as it simultaneously happened in Ireland. Majorly, the below-mentioned leagues pivotally contributed to the group of the Home Rule League Movement using newspapers, posters, pamphlets and so on.Bal Gangadhar Tilak started this league in April 1916 and spread out to Maharashtra, Karnataka, Berar and Central Provinces.Annie Besant’s League began in September 1916 in various other parts of the country.
The first Satyagraha Movement was led by Mahatma Gandhi in the Champaran District of Bihar in the year 1917. Champaran district had tens of thousands of landless serfs. One of the suppressed Indigo cultivators, Pandit Raj Kumar Shukla persuaded Gandhi to lead this movement. This led to other Satyagraha Movements.
Khilafat Non-Cooperation Movement :
The Non-Cooperation Movement was one of the most famous and crucial phases in the Indian freedom struggle against the Britishers.Ill-treatment of the Khalifa, the spiritual leader of the Muslims by the Britishers agitated the entire Muslim community in India and around the world.
Deteriorating economic conditions in the country along with the major incidents like Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Rowlatt Act, etc were the main reasons behind how it emerged to be a pivotal Indian national movement.This are the one of the important reason for the rise of this movement. The Non-Cooperation Movement was officially launched by the Khilafat Committee in August 1920. Also, the Indian National Congress adopted the movement in December 1920 after their Nagpur session. After which a complete boycott of government goods, schools, colleges, food, clothing etc happened and emphasis was laid on studying at national schools and khadi products were used.
On February 5, 1922, Chauri Chaura incident took place wherein the police station along with 22 policemen inside it was burnt. This led to call-off of this Indian National Movement by Mahatama Gandhi.
Civil Disobedience Movement:
One of the most prominent Indian national movements, the Civil Disobedience phase is classified into two stages:
First Civil Disobedience Movement
The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched along with the Dandi March by Mahatma Gandhi on 12th March 1930. Ultimately, it ended on April 6 when Gandhi broke the Salt Law at Dandi. Afterwards, the movement was proceeded by C.Raja Gopalachari.Mass participation of women, peasants and merchants happened and was succeeded by salt satyagraha, no-tex movement and no-rent movement as this Indian national movement spread across the country. Later on, it got withdrawn in March 1931 because of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
Second Civil Disobedience Movement :
The failed treaty of the second roundtable conference led to the start of the second Civil Disobedience Movement stretching from December 1931 to April 1934. This lead to varied practices like protests in front of liquor stores, salt satyagraha, forest law violations happened. But the British Government was aware of the upcoming incidents, thus, it imposed martial law with a ban on gatherings outside Gandhi’s Ashrams.
Quit India Movement :
The main reason behind the launch of the Quit India Movement in 1942 as it became one of the powerful Indian National Movements include the failure of the Cripps proposal become the awakening call for the Indians.The discontent of the general public with hardships brought by the world war.
After going through so many hardships in order to redeem the motherland from foreign and save the religion and self-esteem, India received it’s freedom from British on the night of 15th August 1947, 12:02 am from the British to become a Sovereign and Democratic country.