Biodiversity definition:

The variety of animals, plants, fungi, and even microorganisms like bacteria that make up our natural environment are all included in what is known as biodiversity. These various species and critters collaborate in complicated web-like ecosystems to keep things in balance and support life.

Classification of Biodiversity:

1.Species diversity.

2.Ecological diversity.

3.Genetic diversity.

1.species diversity:

The number of distinct species present in an environment and the relative abundance of each species are the two components that make up species diversity. When every species present is equally plentiful in the area, diversity is at its highest.

Importance of species diversity:

The importance of species diversity can be argued for a variety of reasons. The environment depends on each species in some way. Bees are a perfect example of a primary pollinator. Consider the consequences if bees become extinct. Next may come fruits and vegetables, then the animals that consume them, and so on all the way to us. Many species not only give us food but also clean water, breathable air, fertile soils, a stable climate, the ability to absorb pollution, building materials for our homes, the ability to prevent disease outbreaks, the availability of therapeutic resources, and much more.

2.Ecological diversity:

The broadest definition of biodiversity is ecological diversity. Ecological diversity on a global scale would examine the variety in habitats like wetlands, deserts, grasslands, forests, and oceans. There is a substantial amount of species and genetic diversity within each ecosystem.

Importance of Ecological diversity:

Ecosystem diversity describes the variety of organisms in a specific environment and the biological processes that give them meaning. The variety of the species that make up an ecosystem is frequently measured, along with the relative abundance of various species and consideration of the type of species. The ecosystem is the conglomeration of populations of living creatures and the environment they inhabit. The variety of biological communities that interact with one another, with their physical and chemical environments, is referred to as ecosystem diversity.

3.Genetic diversity:

The biological variation that exists within species is known as genetic diversity. It enables species to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Under conditions of rapid environmental change, such as those found in the Baltic Sea, genetic diversity is particularly crucial.

Importance of Genetic diversity:

It is possible for organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions and prevent inbreeding by maintaining significant genetic variety. When there are limited, isolated populations, inbreeding takes place, which might make a species less able to endure and procreate.

Biodiversity in India:

One of the twelve countries with the most biodiversity is India. India ranks fourth in Asia and tenth in the world for plant diversity, with over 47 000 plant species. Around 15 000 flowering plants, or 6% of all flowering plants worldwide, may be found in India.India is one of the world’s most diversified countries. In terms of the diversity of plant species, it comes in tenth. India is home to two of the top 25 biodiversity hotspots on earth. Important agricultural species like the pigeon pea, eggplant, cucumber, cotton, and sesame are descended from it. Many domesticated species, including millets, grains, legumes, vegetables, medicinal and aromatic crops, etc., are also widely grown in India.




An ecosystem is a region where a bubble of life is created by plants, animals, and other organisms interacting with the weather, environment, and other factors. Abiotic variables, or nonliving components, coexist with biotic components in ecosystems. Plants, animals, and other species are biotic factors.

Types of Ecosystem:

1.Terrestrial ecosystem.

2.Aquatic ecosystem

1.Terrestrial ecosystem:

A terrestrial ecosystem is a population of land-based species and the relationships between biotic and abiotic elements in a specific space. The tundra, taigas, temperate deciduous woods, tropical rainforests, grasslands, and deserts are a few examples of terrestrial ecosystems.

The terrestrial system classified into four types.

1.Forest Ecosystem.

2.Desert Ecosystem.

3.Thundra Ecosystem.

4.Grassland Ecosystem.

1.Forest Ecosystem:

Biologically integrated communities of plants, animals, and microbes, as well as the regional soils and atmospheres with which they interact, make up forest ecosystems, which are regions of the landscape where trees predominate.

2.Desert Ecosystem:

Deserts are arid regions of terrain with little to no vegetation, extremely high or low temperatures, and little to no rainfall. Terrestrial ecosystems, which can be found all over the planet, include deserts as examples. Not all deserts are level, nor do they all have cacti or oases.

3.Thundra Ecosystem:

The Arctic and the summits of mountains are home to tundra ecosystems, which are characterised by their lack of trees and harsh climates with little rainfall. Snow covers tundra lands for the majority of the year, but summer provides bursts of wildflowers. Tundra plants and animals.

4.Grassland Ecosystem:

Large open grassy areas make up grassland biomes. There may be trees, but they are uncommon. Elephants from Africa are among the creatures that inhabit grasslands. to several prairie dog species.

2.Aquatic Ecosystem:

An aquatic ecosystem encompasses marine and freshwater habitats such as the ocean, intertidal zone, reefs, seabed, and freshwater habitats such as lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands, and swamps. The habitat for all living things that require water, such as animals, plants, and bacteria, is the aquatic ecosystem.

The Aquatic Ecosystem classified into two types.

1.Fresh water Eco system

2.Marine Ecosystem.

1.Freshwater Ecosystem:

On the surface of the Earth, freshwater is a valuable resource. Also, it supports a wide variety of fish, plant, and crab species. Lakes, rivers, ponds, wetlands, streams, and springs are just a few of the habitats that freshwater environments offer.

2.Marine Ecosystem:

Aquatic environments with high levels of dissolved salt make up marine ecosystems. They comprise the deep ocean, the open ocean, and the coastal marine ecosystems, each of which has unique biological and physical properties.

Ecosystem services:

Any advantageous benefit that people receive from wildlife or ecosystems is referred to as an ecosystem service.

Ecosystem services are four types.

1.Provisioning services.

2.Regulating services.

3.cultural services.

4.supporting services.

1.provisioning services:

The material advantages that people receive from ecosystems are referred to as “provisioning services,” and include water, food, timber, and other items. Markets are used to trade a variety of provisioning services. Nonetheless, rural households in many areas also rely directly on the provision of services for their means of subsistence.

2.Regulating services:

The uses offered by ecosystem processes that control natural phenomena is referred to as a regulatory service. Pollination, decomposition, water filtration, erosion management, flood mitigation, carbon sequestration, and climate regulation are all examples of regulating functions.

3.Cultural Ecosystem:

The non-material benefits that people derive from ecosystems through leisure, tourism, intellectual advancement, spiritual enrichment, introspection, and creative and aesthetic experiences are known as cultural ecosystem services.

4.Supporting services:

All ecosystems and their benefits depend on “supporting services,” which are the provision of habitat for living things and the preservation of their diversity. Many kinds of ecosystem services are influenced by and are influenced by forestry, fishery, and agriculture.

Importance of Ecosystem services:

For instance, supplying wholesome food and clean water, controlling illness and the climate, assisting in crop pollination and soil formation, and offering recreational, cultural, and spiritual advantages, ecosystem services enable human life.

1.With addressing biodiversity as “natural capital” in recent years, acknowledging the importance of biodiversity protection has grown significantly.

2.They support a wide variety of creatures, particularly bird species, and are hotspots for biodiversity.

3.The interplay of living like plants, animals, and bacteria and non-living species creates ecosystems, which are communities like air, water, mineral soil.


We’ve all been there, the deadline is looming , time is running out yet we find ourselves scrolling endlessly through Tick Tok or Instagram we know that we have work to do, that sense of fear is slowly crawling into the back of our mind yet we still don’t feel like doing anything why is that? what makes us feel like that? In this article let’s take a deeper look at procrastination.

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What is procrastination?

From a psychologist’s point of view procrastination can be defined as an intentional, self-imposed delay in initiating or completing a task that needs to be done. It is a complex behavior that involves delaying or avoiding a task despite the fact that there will be negative consequences, and usually human beings try to avoid negative consequences. This behavior is often linked to factors like low self-esteem , lack of motivation and perfectionism. People who procrastinate can go through feelings like shame, guilt, stress and frustration which can further fuel the cycle of procrastination. But its important to remember that not all procrastination is bad, sometimes procrastination is good as it can bring creative solutions to problems. This is because even when we are procrastinating and doing nothing our brain is still working on the solution sub consciously and this can lead to unexpected solutions and breakthroughs. So the key is to find a balance between procrastination and productivity.

Why procrastination can be helpful and harmful

Procrastination can be viewed from two different perspectives, It can be viewed as negative and harmful or positive and helpful. From a negative point of view procrastination can be seen as a destructive habit that can lead to missing deadlines, low quality of work, increase in stress, anxiety and frustration and feeling of low self-worth and confidence. All these are negative results of procrastination.

But on the other side procrastination can be seen as natural and even beneficial to creativity. This is because when we procrastinate we allow our mind to wonder endlessly, this can help us bring “out of the box” solutions to the problem at hand or approach the problem from a different perspective. In this sense procrastination can be seen as a tool for fostering creativity and innovation.

So procrastination has two sides to it’s coin. There is a fine line between healthy procrastination and harmful procrastination. Healthy procrastination involves taking breaks and allowing your mind to wonder, rest and recharge. This gives your brain time to get inspired and come up with original and innovative ideas like a funny name or a thought provoking article. For most procrastinators their best ideas come when they are under pressure. On the other hand harmful procrastination involves constantly putting off work and failing to meet our responsibilities.

Why do we procrastinate?

Ok, so now that we know the meaning of procrastination and the two perspectives of procrastination, lets answer the next question, why do we procrastinate? One main reason for why people procrastinate is, because our brains are wired that way. We always tend to prioritize short term rewards over long term rewards i.e. we naturally look for immediate gratification even if we are putting off something that’s more important in the long run. Neurologically procrastination is linked to prefrontal cortex, which is the part responsible for decision making, planning and impulse control. So reduced activity in this region can make it harder for us to prioritize and make decisions. At the same time procrastination is also linked to increased activity in the limbic system, this is the part responsible for emotion and pleasure. during procrastination we often engage in activities that provide immediate gratification like scrolling through social media, which gives us a dopamine rush and makes us happy.

Another factor that contributes to procrastination is “analysis paralysis”. This is the tendency to overthink and overanalyze a task to a point where it becomes overwhelming and we don’t know where to start. Whenever we have to do a daunting task its natural for us to avoid it altogether.

The reason behind why we procrastinate is multifaceted but by understanding the underling factors that contribute to procrastination we can develop strategies that reduce negative procrastination and find the balance to become more productive in our everyday life.

Strategies to reduce procrastination.

Identify the root cause: Understanding why we procrastinate can help us develop strategies for overcoming it. Some common causes for procrastination includes fear of failure, lack of motivation, and feeling overwhelmed. By identifying and addressing these issues we will be able to reduce procrastination.

Breaking tasks down to simpler steps: Large complex steps can be overwhelming so by breaking them into smaller simpler and manageable steps the task would look doable and procrastination reduces.

Set realistic deadlines: Setting deadlines can keep us on track and hold us accountable. However it is important to set realistic deadlines so that we don’t feel pressured or overwhelmed.

Eliminating distractions: Distractions like social media ,TV programs and so on can contribute to procrastination. By eliminating these distractions we can be focused on making progress in our work.

Focus on benefits: Always focus on the benefits of completing a task, for example completing a work project on time can help you get promotions or other incentives. Similarly finishing a school work early can give you more freedom to go out and play.

Practice self-compassion: Negative self -talk and and harsh self criticism can lead to negative procrastination. Practicing self compassion and developing the ability to forgive ourselves for minor mistakes and imperfections can help build a positive mindset and help progress towards our goals.

In conclusion, finding a balance between healthy and unhealthy procrastination is like walking a tightrope, it requires planning, skills, focus and a safety net. While it is important to understand the negatives of procrastination we shouldn’t overlook its positive sides. So let’s procrastinate strategically.

And if all else fails remember the wise words of author Douglas Adams: “I love deadlines. I like the whooshing sound they make as they fly by.” Happy procrastinating!