Mineral Riches in Soil

Did you notice the sand the last time you went to the beach? And the ground on your last visit to the football field? The soil in both these places is distinctively different. Have you ever wondered why soil is a different texture and colour at different places? This is due to the different minerals in soil. Let us learn more about this.

Soil is the thin layer of loose material covering the earth’s surface. It is composed of both organic and inorganic materials. The formation of soil is an extremely long process taking up to an average of a thousand years. Soil is formed when surface rocks break into several smaller particles, called regolith, which then gets mixed with varied organic matter. This whole process is called Weathering. So weathering happens through three major ways, namely

Physical Weathering: This is the geological process when rocks get fragmented into smaller particles, without changing the chemical composition of the rocks. This primarily happens due to fluctuating temperatures causing the rocks to break apart.
Chemical Weathering: This is the erosion of rocks and other surface materials caused due to chemical reactions. The rocks react with substances in the atmosphere, such as moisture, air, water etc. The resulting substance has a different chemical composition than the rock from which it formed. Hydration, Hydrolysis, Oxidation, Carbonation and Reduction are the chemical processes involved in chemical weathering.
Biological Weathering: This is the process of disintegration of rocks due to actions of living organisms (animals, plants, microbes etc), like when a plant grows in the fissure of a rock and its roots exert pressure on the rock forcing in to break apart. Even microbes produce organic material that causes weathering.

Soil is essential a mix of various particles and substances. So let us have a look at all the things that make up soil,

Minerals: A very important substance found in soil. Minerals basically formed by the break down of large rocks. Some of the most common minerals found in soil are, Iron, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Sulphur etc.
Humus: Humus is the organic substances that are formed due to decomposition of dead and decomposing plants and animals. It lends the soil its fertility.
Living Organisms: These are mostly microbes and other organisms (such as worms, bacteria, fungi etc.) that live in the soil and perform the decomposition of animals and plants that gives the soil humus.
Water and Air: Water and air form a part of the soil and allow living organisms to perform their functions. They also help in the process of photosynthesis.

Soil is a mixture of various components. Now let us explore the importance of the minerals present in the soil. Minerals are the largest component in the soil, making up almost 40% to 45% of the total components. The minerals in the soil are classified into two categories, namely

Primary Minerals in soil: These are minerals which have not been chemically altered since deposition. They are same or similar to their parent materials. Often these materials are bigger in size and irregular in shape. These primary minerals are usually found in sand and silt.
Secondary Minerals in soil: These are minerals formed as a result of weathering of Primary Minerals. Secondary minerals are mainly found in fine silt or clay. The particle size of these minerals is much smaller, due to the weathering process. These minerals have a large surface area that helps them retain moisture.


Water Pollution

We already know that Water is the most important resource on the planet. It is the essence of all life on earth. And yet if you ever see a river or lake around your city, it would be evident to you that we are facing a very serious problem of Water pollution. Let us educate ourselves about water and water pollution.

Two-thirds of the Earths surface is covered by water, seventy-six perfect of your body is made up of water. As you already know water is everywhere and all around. However, we have a fixed amount of water on earth. It just changes its states and goes through a cyclic order, known as the Water Cycle. The water cycle is a natural process that is continuous in nature. It is the pattern in which the water from oceans, seas, lakes etc gets evaporated and turns to vapour. After which it goes through the process of condensation, and finally precipitation when it falls back to earth as rain or snow.

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, aquifers, and groundwater) usually caused due to human activities. Water pollution is any change in the physical, chemical or biological properties of water that will have a detrimental consequence of any living organism.

Drinking water, also called Potable Water, is the water that is considered safe enough for human and animal consumption. This is water that is generally used for drinking, cooking, washing, crop irrigation, etc. These days chemicals, bacteria, and other pollutants are even affecting our drinking water.

Some of the water pollution that is caused is by Direct Sources, such as factories, waste management facilities. refineries etc, that directly release waste and harmful by-products into the nearest water source without treating them. Indirect sources include pollutants that enter the water bodies via groundwater or soil or via the atmosphere as acid rain.

Air Pollution

You must have come across the problem of air pollution in Beijing, Delhi and Mumbai, and all the havoc it is causing. There are daily articles in the newspapers about the deteriorating Air Quality Index and its disastrous health effects. But how does the air get this much polluted? Why are some areas affected more and others less? Let us take a look at this topic of Air Pollution.

What is the most important component of air? Oxygen, right? Well, that is what we all think, however, in reality, all the various components of air are just as important as Oxygen.

In a broad sense, air pollution means the presence of chemicals or compounds (called pollutants) in the air which are not naturally occurring, and which lower the quality of air, and are harmful to all living things in the atmosphere. Air pollution is majorly caused due to the release of various chemicals into the atmosphere. Air pollution can be both man-made and naturally occurring.

In our current age of industrialisation and modernisation, the biggest source of air pollution is the burning of fossil fuels. For example when we burn petrol or diesel or coal to run our cars, machines, trains, power plants etc. this releases harmful pollutants into the atmosphere, endangering all living things around.

There are two major types of air pollutants, gaseous compounds and compounds in solid form.

Air pollution can be caused by both man-made and natural causes, although the contribution by these natural causes is pretty negligible.

The main culprit of air pollution is the man-made sources of air pollution. The single most harmful source of air pollution is the unchecked burning of fossil fuels by mankind. Fossil fuels (non-renewable sources of energy such as crude oil, petrol, diesel, coal etc.) are used in almost every process of industrialization, manufacturing, transport and energy generation. In rural areas, a major source of pollution is the practice of unchecked crop burning. In moderation, this is actually a useful tool in farming but uncontrolled crop burning causes significant air pollution. Another source of man-made pollution is military resources such as nuclear arsenal and chemical weaponry.

There are a few natural sources of air pollution as well. such as forest fires, volcanic activity and methane discharged from cattle. However, the amount of air pollution caused by natural causes is minuscule when compared to the damage done by man-made causes.

Pollution – A real threat

Pollution is a term which even kids are aware of these days. It has become so common that almost everyone acknowledges the fact that pollution is rising continuously. The term ‘pollution’ means the manifestation of any unsolicited foreign substance in something. When we talk about pollution on earth, we refer to the contamination that is happening of the natural resources by various pollutants. All this is mainly caused by human activities which harm the environment in ways more than one. Therefore, an urgent need has arisen to tackle this issue straightaway. That is to say, pollution is damaging our earth severely and we need to realize its effects and prevent this damage. In this essay on pollution, we will see what are the effects of pollution and how to reduce it.

Pollution affects the quality of life more than one can imagine. It works in mysterious ways, sometimes which cannot be seen by the naked eye. However, it is very much present in the environment. For instance, you might not be able to see the natural gases present in the air, but they are still there. Similarly, the pollutants which are messing up the air and increasing the levels of carbon dioxide is very dangerous for humans. Increased level of carbon dioxide will lead to global warming.

Further, the water is polluted in the name of industrial development, religious practices and more will cause a shortage of drinking water. Without water, human life is not possible. Moreover, the way waste is dumped on the land eventually ends up in the soil and turns toxic. If land pollution keeps on happening at this rate, we won’t have fertile soil to grow our crops on. Therefore, serious measures must be taken to reduce pollution to the core.

After learning the harmful effects of pollution, one must get on the task of preventing or reducing pollution as soon as possible. To reduce air pollution, people should take public transport or carpool to reduce vehicular smoke. While it may be hard, avoiding firecrackers at festivals and celebrations can also cut down on air and noise pollution. Above all, we must adopt the habit of recycling. All the used plastic ends up in the oceans and land, which pollutes them.

So, remember to not dispose of them off after use, rather reuse them as long as you can. We must also encourage everyone to plant more trees which will absorb the harmful gases and make the air cleaner. When talking on a bigger level, the government must limit the usage of fertilizers to maintain the soil’s fertility. In addition, industries must be banned from dumping their waste into oceans and rivers, causing water pollution.

To sum it up, all types of pollution is hazardous and comes with grave consequences. Everyone must take a step towards change ranging from individuals to the industries. As tackling this problem calls for a joint effort, so we must join hands now. Moreover, the innocent lives of animals are being lost because of such human activities. So, all of us must take a stand and become a voice for the unheard in order to make this earth pollution-free.


Diet plan for health:

The sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons .

Types of diet for health:

There are many kinds of diets for health. but manly few diets are used for health.

1.High protein vegetarian diet

2.Non vegetarian diet

3.Diabatic diet

4.Low fat diet

1.High protein diet:

In general, high-protein diets contain a lot of protein and very little carbohydrate. The majority of people can maintain a high-protein diet by consuming meat, fish, dairy products, beans and other legumes, eggs, and reasonably high-protein plants like asparagus and spinach.

2.Non vegetarian diet:

A person who consumes meat or fish: a non-vegetarian. For an additional layer of flavour, non-vegetarians could use well-reduced chicken stock in this recipe.

3.Diabatic diet:

Just keeping to regular mealtimes and consuming the healthiest foods in moderation constitutes a diabetes diet. A diabetes diet is a balanced, calorie- and fat-free eating regimen that is naturally high in nutrients. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are essential components.

4.Low fat diet:

Foods that contain 30% or fewer of their calories from fat are considered low fat. Many correlational studies have linked a nation’s population’s food consumption to cardiovascular mortality in that nation. According to a general guideline, if a food has 100 calories and 3 grams or less of fat, it qualifies as a low fat food.

Benefits of diet for health:

1.May prolong your life.

2.Helps one reach and keep a healthy weight.

3.Healthy diet gives to increases immunity.

4.It helps to strong our muscles.

5.Reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and several types of cancer.

6.Bolsters the bones for diet.

7.It enhances the digestive system’s performance.

8.supports breastfeeding and healthy pregnancy.

Is diet and Nutrition both are same:

Diet describes all the meals you regularly eat during the day. Contrarily, nutrition describes the fuel your body needs to function at its best and to preserve good health. It alludes to the proper balance of nutrients.


Meaning of Urbanization:

The population transfer from rural to urban regions, the concomitant decline in the number of people living in rural areas, and the methods in which societies adjust to this transition are all referred to as urbanisation.

Causes of Urbanization :



3.Employment opportunities

4.Rural to urban transformation

5.Social benefits



The process of industrialization is when a country or region switches its economic emphasis from industry to agriculture. A crucial element of this change is the use of automated mass production techniques.


Modern marketing institutions and exchange techniques have been formed through the distribution of goods and services and commercial transactions, which has greatly accelerated the development of towns and cities.

3.Employment opportunities:

Because businesses are situated close to other businesses, the labour market, and potential customers, jobs are created in cities. New employment are generated, revenues rise, and productivity rises.

4.Rural to urban transformation:

This shift entails the conglomeration of previously rural populations into cities, with rising city populations and city populations overall.

5.Social benefits:

Urbanization can alleviate poverty and inequality when it is planned for and managed properly since it increases employment opportunities and quality of life, including bettering education and health.


By generating economic prosperity and job possibilities that entice people to cities, industrialization has traditionally resulted in urbanisation or the spread of cities. A region becomes more urbanised as a result of the establishment of manufacturers since there is a strong need for factory workers.

Impact of Urbanization in India:

Urban areas can expand due to migration into urban regions or growth in the human population. Deforestation, habitat loss, and the removal of freshwater from the ecosystem are all frequent effects of urbanisation, which can reduce biodiversity and change the ranges and interactions of various species.

History of Urbanization In India:

Urbanization is the process by which rural settlements develop into cities or urban centres, and consequently, it is the process by which such cities develop and grow. For reasons that experts are still debating, urbanisation began in ancient Mesopotamia around the Uruk Period (4300-3100 BCE). Yet, it is hypothesised that a particularly prosperous and effective town drew the attention of other, less prosperous tribes, which led them to ally themselves with the prosperous settlement.


What is Ecology:

Ecology is the study of organisms and their interactions with their surroundings. The interaction between living organisms and their environments is studied by ecologists.

Types of Ecology:

There are various kinds of Ecology and they are:

1.Global Ecology

2.Landscape Ecology

3.Ecosystem Ecology


5.Population Ecology

6.Organismal Ecology.

7.Molecular Ecology

1.Global Ecology:

The study of the ecosystems found on land, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere is known as global ecology. Global ecology is required to comprehend what is happening and why since four primary environmental issues habitat degradation, invasive species, declining population densities, and pollution are occurring on a worldwide scale. Examine the concept and general outline of global ecology, as well as its size, its impact on globalisation, and the main issues it raises on a worldwide scale.

2.landscape Ecology:

Landscape ecology is the study of how ecosystems coexist and interact within a given area of interest, as well as how these interactions affect ecological processes, particularly the distinctive implications of spatial variation on these interactions.

3.Ecosystem Ecology:

An ecosystem is a region where a bubble of life is created by plants, animals, and other organisms interacting with the weather, environment, and other factors. Abiotic variables, or nonliving components, coexist with biotic components in ecosystems.

4.Community Ecology:

The term ecological community refers to a collection of species that are frequently found together. Ecological communities can be assemblages of animals or plants that have similar habitat needs and may interact with one another or depend on comparable environmental processes.

5.Population Ecology:

Population ecology is the study of the factors influencing the number and distribution of animal and plant populations.

6.Organismal Ecology:

The morphological, physiological, and behavioural adaptations that enable an organism to survive in a particular ecosystem are the main topics of organismal ecology. Population ecology looks at how many people live somewhere and how and why their population size changes over time.

7.Molecular Ecology:

Molecular ecology is the study of ecological issues using molecular genetic methods. The relationships and variety of natural populations are studied using methods like microarrays and Genetic markers.

Components of Ecology:

1.Biotic Components

2.Abiotic Components

1.Biotic Components:

The living species that directly or indirectly affect other organisms in an environment are referred to as biotic components. For instance, consider plants, animals, bacteria, and the waste products they produce. The non-living, or abiotic, aspects of an ecosystem include all chemical and physical substances.

2.Abiotic Components:

Abiotic factors are non-living components of an ecosystem that influence their surroundings. Examples could be light, water, and temperature in a terrestrial habitat. Abiotic elements in a marine ecosystem would be salinity and ocean currents. A particular ecosystem is produced by the interaction of biotic and abiotic elements.

Importance of Ecology:

Ecosystem research is crucial for resource allocation, pollution reduction, and preventing the ozone layer from being destroyed. It offers knowledge on the advantages of maintaining a healthy ecosystem and making wise use of the planet’s resources for the benefit of future generations.

Advantages of Ecology:

1.For humans, these are a source of food. The ecosystem is the source of all the natural resources on which humans rely. Humans can also access water and mineral resources thanks to ecosystems.

2.Ecosystems keep the environment in balance and control the weather. The ecosystem’s responsibility for preserving biodiversity is one of its primary roles.

Disadvantages of Ecology:

Because each component of an ecosystem depends on the others, an ecosystem becomes unbalanced when one of them is excluded.


Communalism is a phenomenon that arises from the interaction between religious or ethnic groups, where each group identifies primarily with its own religious or ethnic identity, leading to conflicts with other groups. In this sense, communalism can be seen as a form of identity-based politics. It is a complex social and political issue that has been experienced by many countries across the world, including India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia, among others. It has been defined by scholars in different ways. One of the earliest definitions comes from the Indian sociologist B.R. Ambedkar, who described communalism as “the spirit of hostility between the different religious communities.” Another definition by the Indian political scientist Paul Brass defines it as “a situation where the primary and overarching identity of individuals and groups is defined by religion or religious affiliation, and where this religious identity is used to mobilize political support.”

Communalism is often associated with the idea of communal violence, where members of one community attack members of another community based on religious or ethnic differences. Communal violence can take various forms, including riots, massacres, and targeted attacks on individuals or groups. Communal violence can be triggered by a range of factors, including political tensions, economic competition, or historical grievances. In many cases, communal violence is instigated by political parties or leaders seeking to mobilize support among their own community. It has its roots in history, where religion and ethnicity have often played a significant role in shaping social and political identities. In India, for example, the caste system has been a key factor in defining social identities, with each caste often associated with a particular religion. The legacy of colonialism has also contributed to communalism, as colonial powers often sought to create divisions between different religious or ethnic groups to maintain their control.

Communalism in India

In India, communalism has been a persistent problem, with numerous incidents of communal violence over the years. The Partition of India in 1947, which led to the creation of Pakistan, was a traumatic event that resulted in the displacement of millions of people and the deaths of hundreds of thousands. The Partition was based on religious identity, with Muslims being allocated to Pakistan and Hindus to India. The process of Partition was marked by communal violence, with members of different communities attacking each other. Since then, communalism has continued to be a major issue in India. One of the most significant incidents of communal violence in recent times was the Gujarat riots of 2002, where members of the Hindu and Muslim communities engaged in violence that resulted in the deaths of over a thousand people, mostly Muslims. The riots were triggered by an incident in which a train carrying Hindu pilgrims was set on fire, killing 59 people. The incident was blamed on Muslim militants, and members of the Hindu community retaliated by attacking Muslims in various parts of the state.

Communalism in Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, communalism has been a major issue for several decades, with the country experiencing a long-running civil war between the majority Sinhalese community and the Tamil minority. The conflict was fueled by ethnic and religious differences, with the Tamils being predominantly Hindu and the Sinhalese being predominantly Buddhist. The conflict resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of people and the displacement of hundreds of thousands.

Communalism in Pakistan

In Pakistan, communalism has also been a significant issue, with the country experiencing numerous incidents of sectarian violence over the years. The country has a large Shia minority, and members of the Shia community have often been targeted by Sunni militants. In recent years, there has also been a rise in violence against religious minorities such as Christians and Hindus.

One of the key challenges posed by communalism is how to balance the interests and identity of different groups within a society. In many cases, communalism has led to violence and instability, as different communities compete for resources, power, and influence. However, there are also many examples of societies that have managed to balance the interests and identity of different groups, and to build inclusive and pluralistic societies that celebrate diversity and promote social cohesion. To address communalism, policymakers and civil society organizations must work to promote greater social and economic equality, to combat corruption and political exclusion, and to promote intercommunal dialogue and understanding. This can involve a range of different strategies, from affirmative action programs and targeted development initiatives to cultural exchange programs and grassroots dialogue initiatives.

To sum up, communalism is a complicated, diverse phenomena that can manifest itself in a variety of ways. It is possible to combat communalism by a variety of policy and civil society actions, despite the fact that it can represent serious threats to social stability and cohesion. Ultimately, the solution to defeating communalism and establishing a more tranquil and wealthier world is to construct open and pluralistic societies that respect difference and advance social justice.