Impact of corona virus on global economy

COVID19 impact on India to be more than $40.9 billion in first ...

The first ever coronavirus case was traced in the month of november in china. Nobody then knew that this virus would cause so much havoc in the world and it will force the countries with largest economy to impose lockdown . The virus has affected almost 200 countries and territories and almost 16 million people got infected with this virus among which 644k people died . The virus has not only affected the life of people directly but has also caused indirect effects on the life of people.

countries like India, Uk , China , France , Italy, New Zealand and Poland have imposed world’s largest and most strictest mass lockdown for the safety of their people. Lockdown no doubt has played a great role in saving the lives of people but it is not considered as an ideal solution as it has also indirectly affected the lives of people by worsening the economic condition of their countries.

Countries are now facing the worst economic slowdown ever which has resulted in job loss. The service sector and the business sector has been badly affected due to the lockdown as the companies are unable to perform their business activities due to which they fail to reach their target. Companies are now forced to drop employees and workers to manage their financial position. This pandemic has forced some major companies as well to downsize their work forces. Companies such marriott international, Air Canada, Scandinavian airlines, Ola , Zomato and many more are forced to layoff their staffs. This situation has boosted the unemployment rate.

Ross Community Action and Chillicothe-Ross Community Foundation ...

Tourism industry of many countries were also affected. Some countries depended upon their tourism revenues but due to the lockdown tourists are unable to visit which has declined the revenues generated from this particular sector. Also due to consumption slowdown many sectors such exports and import business are also affected. But unfortunately this a common stuff which keeps most of the countries connected and helps them in improving their economy and many people who are involved in this type of business are badly affected.

Coronavirus has hit various business sectors badly but this deadly virus has proved to be beneficial for certain industries and sectors such as pharmaceutical industries and hygiene product manufacturers. Though countries are trying hard to revive their economies but some researchers claim that it will take few years to get back the economy to the right track.

COVAXIN phase-1 trails completed

Coronavirus, Covid-19 Vaccine COVAXIN Latest Update: Rohtak PGIMS ...

Till now corona virus has affected more that 200 countries and has infected more than 16 million people. Due to the complications developed by this virus around 644k people have lost their lives. It not only causes fever and cold but also develops critical infections in the body which affects the lungs and makes breathing a difficult choice. So far many scientists are working on this virus and are trying hard to understand them. But in order to save the lives of people, many countries were forced to impose lockdown since there is no other option left to reduce the fatality rate.

Also many researchers have developed few medicines such as remdesiver to cure mild and moderate corona symptoms but they are still unable to treat the critical patients and sometimes such medicines also don’t work for mild symptoms as well. So basically there is no proper and fixed treatment for this virus. The only thing which can be game changer is a vaccine which yet to be developed.

Many countries including India is already in the race of producing a valid vaccine which can generate antibodies against the virus. India’s first indigenous covid-19 vaccine known as COVAXIN was developed by bharat biotech in collaboration with ICMR ( Indian council of medical research ) and NIV ( national institute of virology ). The vaccine initially got a nod from DCGI ( Drug controller general of India ) to perform phase I and II human clinical trails. Also the phase I trail started in the early month of july and successfully completed the first part of phase -I trail.

The first part of phase – I trail of COVAXIN was completed on saturday at the PG institute of medical sciences, Rohtak. And fortunately all the results were found to be encouraging which gave COVAXIN a positive nod to go froward for it’s 2nd part of phase – I trail.

The pros and cons of e-learning

Opinion: How to succeed in teaching online | The Educator K/12

Covid-19 pandemic resulted in the rise E-learning. This situation led schools and colleges to go for Online classes which is accepted by some set of students where as it got difficult for the rest of the students to le

It’s been four months to the lockdown and since then schools and colleges remained closed. But in order to cope up with the curriculum syllabus educational institutions had no other option left other than having online classes. But as they something is better than nothing, It is absolutely a great step to keep the students in touch with their subjects. Though students couldn’t attend their schools and college but this pandemic didn’t stop them from learning and this was only possible by going online.

E-learning has been proved to be great because it is easily accessible as it can be accessed from any corner of the world. So doesn’t matter from which place a student belongs to he/she can access the education through e-learning. And also incase any student who lacked confidence in physical class rooms can feel confident through e-learning because there will be no people around him/her to break their confidence. They can also save the videos or lectures given by their teachers which can later be used to revise it. Also students can gain knowledge while travelling so basically they need not worry about the environment around them as e-learning can be done by any means from any corner.

Since almost every student is now making use of e-learning to cover up their courses and to learn new things some students fail to learn in this pandemic because of e-learning. There are many students who do not have proper access to internet which is why they are unable to access e-learning. E-learning does not give the scope to the students to connect well with their teachers which affects the overall development of the students. Also e-learning can harm the health of the students as it can affect their eye sights and can also affect their mental health to some extent as looking into screens for too long will increase their irritation.

So these are some advantages and disadvantages of e-learning but since we don’t have any other option e-learning will still be the best option till schools and college reopen.

Should celebrities be allowed to join politics

India is a democratic country so any individual of the country has the right to join the politics . Joining politics in India doesn’t even require a minimum level of education, any person from any background has the right to join the politics in our country. We have seen some really great politicians with good educational background where as some politicians who have never been to school and also some politicians who earlier belonged to entertainment industry.

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

Almost everyone have their favourite celebrity whom they consider as their idol and love them for their talent and always support them in their work. But how many of we really support our favourite celebrity when they join politics ? I agree some of us support them because of the craze we have for them and some of us don’t support them because we feel that their job is to entertain people but not to rule as a leader.

Most of the people believe that celebrities should not be allowed to join politics because they belong from an entertainment background and they don’t have enough knowledge about politics . some celebrities join politics to become more popular or to acquire more fan followings. Since they already have a mass following it becomes very easy for them to influence people and they often misutilise their power to manipulate decisions. Many parties intentionally appoint celebrities to run campaign because they know their followers can get them a lot of votes. many believe since they don’t have real knowledge on how to run a country or how to handle political or economical crises they shouldn’t be allowed to join politics.

where as some believe like any other citizen, celebrities too have the right to join politics. Their influential image can be used to deal some real issues of our country such as child marriage, child labour, poverty and many more. Celebrities can use their power to make some good decisions for any good cause. Their voice can make fast changes than any other normal politician since they are already known by the people. Their popularity can be used to bring changes.

well no matter who ever becomes a politician but there should be some basic criteria to become one, like minimum educational qualification. Even if they are celebrities they should have enough knowledge about politics and then they should be allowed to join it.

Is India ready to go 100% cashless ?

Is India ready to go cashless?

It’s been years where India is trying to make it’s economy go cashless. It has taken some major initiatives to promote cashless transaction such as demonetization, BHIM, direct benefit transfers, UPI and many more. By now many people are into online payments since they find it very easy but do you really think that India is ready for a 100% cashless economy ? and if yes then why are the disadvantages of cashless transaction still valid ?

cashless payments through various digital payment apps has made our life easy. Such medium is especially used the youngsters and is not so popular among the old people. Middle aged people still any how get to know the use of such apps but the old people of our country are not yet ready for a cashless economy. The idea behind this concept is to reduce corruption and money laundering cases but how far is our country prepared for it ? I know it’s easy to use various online platforms because i am young and i am acquainted with such stuffs but the older generation finds it difficult to use and understand it which proves cashless economy a major advantage for the older generation as well as for the illiterate people who have no knowledge about online transactions. The major disadvantage for such people is they can easily become the victim of online fraud since they have less idea about the system. So the disadvantage of online transaction is that certain information can be easily exposed and can be misutilised by fraudsters.

Also cashless transactions require good internet connectivity which is something that cannot be accessed by every person from every corner of the country. Technology problem is one such problem which might prevent India from going 100% cashless.

But we can’t deny the fact that using online payment modes will save a lot of time as it just requires one click to perform any transaction. Now we don’t require to go to bank and stand in long queue to get our transactions done. But still there is a lot of time for India to have a 100% cashless economy and India is not yet ready for it.

Climate change the greatest threat

Drought and Climate Change | Union of Concerned Scientists

Every other year we face various challenges due to climatic change. The human community is not the only living thing who are facing the problem rather, each and every living organism in the planet is affected due to the climate change. Some scientists have claimed that climate change was first noticed in 19th century when natural green house effect was first identified. Thomas edison was the one who initially voiced concern for climate change and spread awareness for renewable energy. Since that day many people and organisation came forward to promote renewable energy and various steps to reduce the rate at which the climate is changing.

The biggest threat of climate change is global warming. climate change leads to global warming and everybody knows about it but how does it actually affect our planet ? Well the global warming increases the average temperature of the earth due to which the glacier sheets melt and end up increasing the sea level which can submerge majority of the land and it will not only affect the human habitation but also affect the animals life as some animals do not have the capability to handle high temperature.

It can affect the economy as well, as the change in climate might result in droughts and can affect the cultivation of crops which will affect almost every human from every background. Due to climate change many natural resources are also depleting due to which the price of such resources are touching skies and it might become almost impossible for any normal human to afford it. Also pollution is another reason which is affecting the health, not only of humans but also of animals and plants. And who do you think is responsible for this ? obviously we humans are behind this destruction and only we have the power to stop this. Governments can only talk about the possible solutions and it’s implementations but it lies in our hand whether we are implementing right steps to reduce climate change or not. Atleast we are able to raise our voice against it but think about the poor animals who are suffering because of our deeds and can’t even fight for their rights to live in a healthy environment. So next time when you throw a plastic search for a dustbin first. I know such acts won’t have an immediate impact on environment but it really does have long term positive impact on environment.

India’s top 2 successful start ups

The 'Next Normal' for startups: How the early stage investors ...

India with a population of almost 1 billion has always provided great opportunities to start ups. People from every possible background are available in india which makes it easy to start any kind of start up. Also since india has all type geographical locations, and various types of culture, people can generate n number of ideas to start a business as the customers of our country belong to various domains. Apart from that what is most important for any start up is having skilled workers and smart managers who have really good and creative brain to make the business successful and the best part is that most of the indians are very smart and talented in that way.

India has produced some really great start ups which are so successful by now that their idea and their success is inspiring many other indians who want to venture into the world of start ups. To support such people the government of India also initiated a campaign known as the start up India to catalyse the start up culture and to promote innovative entrepreneurship .So today i’ll be writing about the top three start up companies in India.

PAYTM:

It is an indian e-commerce payment system and financial technology company which was founded on august 2010, by vijay shekhar sharma. This online platform actually got popular for it’s online recharge and bill payment services. It was among the first online recharge service provider due to which it had an advantage of having a wider reach of audience. Also since that was the time when people started using smart phones it became a bonus point for Paytm to grow in the market. Paytm focused more on customer retention by giving them cash backs and various discount coupons in their own digital wallet known as paytm wallet. I hope you all remember buying a softdrink like coca cola and find a cash back coupon code of paytm. Paytm used such great brands to promote it’s digital wallet which became a major hit among customers as they found online transaction way more easy.

OYO ROOMS :

Who doesn’t know about oyo rooms, you all can find oyo rooms in every corner of india because this start up has achieved so much success . You won’t believe but this company is just 7 years old ! yes oyo rooms was founded by ritesh agarwal in the year of 2013. It became successful because of it’s cheap budgeted hotels with excellent service and beautiful rooms. Also let me tell you the founder of oyo became one of the youngest billionaire ( he’s just 26 years old ) and he belonged to a small town named raigada of odisha. Isn’t this inspiring ?

I hope the success stories of such start ups inspire some of you to start your own venture.

Chinese apps banned in India

Government Bans 47 More Chinese Apps

India banned Fifty nine chinese apps including the top social media platform such as Tik Tok, We chat and Helo citing threat to the national security and the privacy of indian citizens under the section of 69a of IT act, 2020. This action was taken after the clashes in Galwan valley . Some experts say this action was to taken by India to retaliate, as 20 indian soldiers were killed by the chinese soldiers. Major media outlets have always repeatedly reported chinese military incursions into indian territory which has always been a threat to India. But this time India has taken a major decision to affect china by banning their apps.

The government earlier issued an explanation that these apps of china are illegally exporting information of indian citizens to the locations outside India, so basically these apps are a major threat towards the privacy of every indian citizen. Though the government has given a chance to these app to prove that they are not a threat to this country. But how will this move affect India ? Well the answer to this that it can have both positive and negative impact.

It did affect many people of our country who were earning with help of such apps. One such example is Tik Tok, many influencers and artists were a part of this app and were able to earn good enough by using it. Also many comapnies used Tik Tok as a platform to promote their products since this app was well popular among the indians. But this can be a very good scope for indian developers and indian start ups who at this point of time can build similar apps to fulfill the needs of indians and to replace the popularity of chinese apps. This move will definitely promote the make in India concept and would surely make people realize the worth of indian products. This has definitely affected certain communities but nothing is more important than the security and privacy of indians. Apart from india, some other countries including USA are planning to do the same. So this time India did not go for a surgical strike rather it went for a digital strike on china.

Are coaching centers destroying the education of school kids ?

No Borders For India's Young, Hungry Engineers | KUOW News and ...

I am sure most of us have been to coaching centers during our school days and also some of us joined such centers during our college days as well and such educational institutions became a mere part of our life. People blindly believe in this so called concept of coaching centers. They believe that coaching centers provide way more better education than schools and parents also want their children to focus more on their coaching centers than their schools.

But you must be thinking that when did coaching centers became this important ? Well only then when they started advertising their centers by making various promises regarding the student’s development. Parents also for the sake of their child’s improvement believed in such publicity. In order to make their child an ideal student parents invest a lot of money in coaching institutions. I don’t blame every coaching center for implementing such strategies to gather more students, there are certain well reputed coaching centers as well who actually focus on the child’s development but i also accept the fact that most of the coaching centers are in the motive of profit making and do not bother about the student’s education.

I agree some schools do not provide quality education due to which the students have to go to the coaching centers and it is absolutely okay to do so, but my question is, is it right for a 4 year child to invest his childhood in coaching centers ? as in today’s date going to coaching centers has become a trend , parents now have started forcing their little kids to go to a coaching center in order to stay ahead in school. Don’t you think schools are just enough for children with tender age ?

Coaching centers have forced students to depend on someone else to learn something new, students have now lost the capability to study or learn on their own. They fail to understand new subjects without the help of their coaching centers,they are now completely depend on their coaching centers for their education. Students now don’t believe in self study, and that’s the problem because self study is something which makes a student understand a topic but not just learn or by heart it.

How to link Cowin certificate with Passport

Covid 19 vaccinations cowin.gov.in: If you have got both the vaccines of covid 19 vaccine, then connect your certificate with passport.

Covid 19 vaccinations cowin.gov.in: By registering on the covin portal, crores of people have got the vaccine so far and with this the second wave of corona is also slowing down. If all goes well, soon international travel can also be relaxed, but before that people going abroad will have to update their passport information with the Covin vaccination.

Aarogya Setu’s official Twitter account has been tweeted about how this information will be updated. In this tweet, we have explained how to update passport related information. But before that, let us tell you that at the beginning of this month, new guidelines were issued regarding Covit 19 vaccination.

In the new guidelines, it was told that those participating in education, employment and Tokyo Olympics will have to link the certificate of Covid 19 vaccination with their passport . Under this decision, the government has asked for updating passport information on the Covin portal. While filling the passport details, take care that there is no mistake of any kind.

How to link cowin certificate with passport

  • To link the passport to the COVIN certificate, first of all, open the browser on your phone or laptop.
  • Go to cowin.gov.in and login even once with your registered number.
  • After this click on Raise an Issue, although this option will appear after getting the vaccine.
  • After that select the option of Passport and fill your details carefully.
  • After this the passport information will have to be filled, be careful while filling the information.
  • This time the information cannot be changed again after submitting the request.
  • After pressing the submit option, after some time the option to download a new certificate will come.

U.S. criticizes brutal killing of people by security forces in Myanmar

The United States has criticized the brutal killing of people by security forces in Myanmar. US Secretary of State Antony Blinken has said that Washington is horrified by yesterday’s deaths in Myanmar. He said the killings, reportedly of more than 100 people, show that the junta will sacrifice the lives of the people to serve the few. He said the courageous people of Myanmar reject the military’s reign of terror.
 
UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said he is deeply shocked. 
 
 The lethal crackdown against civilians came as protesters defied warnings and took to the streets in towns and cities. The Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (AAPP) monitoring group confirmed at least 91 deaths while local media put the figure higher.
 
The latest violence took the number killed in the suppression of protests in Myanmar since the 1 February coup to more than 400.

India crosses milestone of administering over 6 cr COVID19 Vaccine doses

India has crossed the milestone of administering over 6 crore COVID-19 Vaccine doses. Continuing with its largest vaccination drive in the world, the nation administered over 15 lakh doses yesterday till late evening. India is one of the fastest countries in the world to achieve the 6 crore mark in a short span of only 71 days. The nation commenced the largest vaccination drive in the world on 16th January this year with vaccination of healthcare workers.

Vaccination of front line workers began from 2nd February whereas the most recent phase began from 1st of this month encompassing vaccination of everyone aged above 60 years and above 45 years with specified co-morbidities. The Health Ministry has informed that in just 27 days of the current phase nearly 2 crore 73 lakh senior citizens above 60 years and over 64 lakh people above 45 years with co-morbidities have been administered the first shot of the COVID-19 Vaccine. 

Negative RT-PCR report must to enter Gujarat from April 1

Gujarat government has made a negative RT-PCR report must to enter the state from April 1. The test report should not be older than 72 hours. The decision was taken in view of a surge in Covid-19 cases in recent time. AIR correspondent reports that the state recorded 2,276 cases yesterday. This is the highest daily count so far. A total of 1,534 people were discharged from hospitals during the day.

The number of active cases in the state has risen to 10,871. At 760, Surat recorded the highest number of new cases in the state yesterday, followed by Ahmedabad with 612 cases, Vododara with 326 and Rajkot with 172 cases., The new wave of Covid 19 in the state has also hit two of the country’s premier educational institutions such as IIM Ahmedabad and IIT Gandhinagar. According to official sources, the IIM Ahmedabad currently has 40 active cases of Covid 19, while IIT-G has 25 active cases. Meanwhile, more than 2 lakhs 98 thousand people were vaccinated in the state during the day. 

Two terrorists killed in encounter in J&K’s Shopian

In Jammu and Kashmir, two terrorists were killed in an encounter with security forces at Wangam area of Shopian district yesterday evening. Police said a joint team of security forces launched a cordon and search operation (CASO) in Wangam  following the intelligence inputs about the presence of terrorists in the village. As the joint team approached towards the suspected spot, the terrorists fired upon them and in retaliation, two terrorists were gunned down. The identity of the slain terrorists is being ascertained. Arms and ammunition have also been recovered from their possession.
 
One Army soldier also attained martyrdom in the encounter while another injured soldier was evacuated to Army’s 92 Base Hospital in Srinagar.

West Bengal records over 82 percent voter turnout; Assam over 77 percent in 1st phase of assembly polls

West Bengal has recorded more than 82 percent voter turnout and Assam registered over 77 percent polling in the first phase of assembly elections.

The voting was held in forty-seven constituencies across twelve districts of Assam and for 30 constituencies across 5 districts in West Bengal.

The Election Commission has said, the first phase of Assembly Elections in the two states was conducted successfully yesterday across 21 thousand 825 Polling Stations spread over 77 Assembly Constituencies.

In Assam, the fate of 264 candidates has been sealed in the first of the three-phase elections. Among the prominent candidates in this phase include, Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal from Majuli, State Congress President Ripun Bora from Gohpur and Asom Gana Parishad President Atul Bora from Boka khat.

In West Bengal, barring a few stray incidents, polling was by and large peaceful. State Chief Electoral Officer Ariz Aftab said, 10 persons were arrested in three separate incidents yesterday.

191 candidates including 21 women were in the fray during the initial phase.

The state is witnessing eight-phase elections this time.

Webcasting arrangements were put in place for 5 thousand 392 Polling Stations in West Bengal and 5 thousand 39 Polling Stations in Assam. The Poll Body said, all the Polling Stations were directed to follow COVID-19 Safety protocols. A total of 167 cases of Model Code of Conduct violations were reported through the cVIGIL app from West Bengal out of which 111 were disposed off till 4.30 pm yesterday. Similarly 582 cases were reported from Assam with 423 disposed till 4.30 pm.

India, Bangladesh say, partnership between two countries evolved as a model for bilateral relations for entire region

India and Bangladesh have said that the partnership between the two countries has evolved as a model for bilateral relations for the entire region. A joint statement, issued after the talks between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Bangladeshi counterpart Shiekh Hasina in Dhaka, said that Mr Modi’s visit symbolised the partnership of half-a-century between the two countries. The statement said, this partnership has strengthened, matured and evolved as a model for bilateral relations for the entire region.

The talks between the two leaders were marked by great warmth and cordiality. The two leaders expressed satisfaction at the excellent state of bilateral relations, based on deep historical and fraternal ties, which reflect an all-encompassing bilateral partnership based on equality, trust and understanding. Recognizing that terrorism remains a threat to global peace and security, both sides reiterated their strong commitment to eliminating terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.

India and Bangladesh yesterday signed MoUs in key sectors including trade and technology to foster bilateral ties after talks between the two leaders.

Mr Modi and Ms Hasina virtually inaugurated several projects during Prime Minister Modi’s visit to Bangladesh.
The two leaders unveiled the foundation stone for the construction of a memorial at Ashuganj honoring the martyrs of Indian armed forces in the 1971 Liberation War of Bangladesh.

Prime Minister Modi and his Bangladesh counterpart jointly inaugurated a new passenger train, ‘Mitali Express’, between Dhaka and New Jalpaiguri in West Bengal. The train will run between Dhaka Cantonment and New Jalpaiguri via Chilahati, a border railway station in Bangladesh.

The train will run from New Jalpaiguri to Dhaka Cantonment on Sunday and Wednesday and Dhaka Cantonment to New Jalpaiguri on Monday and Thursday. It is expected to give a boost to tourism in both the countries.

This is the third passenger train after Maitree Express (Dhaka-Kolkata) and Bandhan Express (Khulna-Kolkata) running between the two neighbouring countries.

Briefing the media about Prime Minister Modi’s Bangladesh visit, Foreign Secretary Harsh Vardhan Shringla said, the service will start when normalcy is restored. Both countries had suspended railway services after the COVID-19 pandemic broke out.

Mr Shringla said, the two countries agreed to start a new era of cooperation in the Civil nuclear and space sectors. The Prime Minister also laid the foundation stone for infrastructure development for power evacuation facilities from the Rooppur Nuclear power plant.

The Foreign Secretary informed that India also gifted 109 life support ambulances to Bangladesh and also Covid-19 vaccine doses.

Three border haats were also opened along the India-Bangladesh border.

Earlier, on the concluding day of his two-day visit to Bangladesh yesterday, the Prime Minister visited places of historical importance and temples in Bangladesh. Addressing the Matua community at Orakandi, Mr Modi said, both India and Bangladesh want to see stability, love, and peace in the world instead of instability, terror, and unrest.

Mr Modi offered prayers at the centuries-old Jeshoreshwari Kali temple at Ishwaripur village in Shatkhira district of Bangladesh yesterday.
This was Prime Minister Modi’s first visit to a foreign country after the outbreak of COVID-19. The visit coincided with epochal events – celebrations of the Golden Jubilee of the Independence of Bangladesh, the birth centenary of the Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and 50 years of establishment of diplomatic relations between India and Bangladesh. 

PM Modi to share his thoughts in Mann Ki Baat today

Prime Minister Narendra Modi will share his thoughts with the people in the country and abroad in Mann Ki Baat programme on All India Radio at 11 AM today. It will be the 75th episode of the monthly radio programme.

The programme will be broadcast on the entire network of AIR and Doordarshan and also on AIR News website www.newsonair.com and newsonair Mobile App. It will also be streamed live on the YouTube channels of AIR, DD News, PMO and Information and Broadcasting Ministry.

AIR will broadcast the programme in regional languages immediately after the Hindi broadcast. The regional language versions will be repeated at eight in the evening.

Novak Djokovic enters semifinals of Men’s Singles in Australian Open Tennis

In Tennis, Serena Williams will meet Naomi Osaka in the Australian Open women’s semifinals tomorrow. Serena defeated Simona Halep, 6-3, 6-3, and Osaka triumphed over Chinese Taipei’s Hsieh Su-Wei 6-2, 6-2 in the Australian Open quarterfinals yesterday.
       
On the men’s side, Novak Djokovic edged Alexander Zverev 6-7(6), 6-2, 6-4, 7-6(6) to book his last-four berth, as Russian qualifier Aslan Karatsev continued his dream run with a win over an injured Grigor Dimitrov.  It was was Djokovic’s 300th Grand Slam match victory. This is the ninth time Djokovic has made the Australian Open semifinal. He has gone on to win the title on all eight previous occasions.

COVID-19 recovery rate in country reaches 97.33 per cent

The COVID-19 recovery rate in the country has touched 97.33 per cent. Health Ministry said, in the last 24 hours, 11 thousand 833 people were discharged. Till now, one crore six lakh 44 thousand 858 people have recovered from the COVID-19 infection. In the last 24 hours, 11 thousand 610 new cases were reported.
 
With this, total number of cases have reached one crore nine lakh 37 thousand 320. The Ministry said, 100 deaths were reported in the last 24 hours. With this, the death toll has gone up to one lakh 55 thousand 913. Active cases are now at one lakh 36 thousand 549. So far, 89 lakh 99 thousand 230 beneficiaries have been vaccinated. 

Karnataka govt makes RT-PCR negative certificate mandatory for all passengers arriving from UK, Brazil and South Africa

The Karnataka state Government has issued a new protocol for those arriving from the UK, Brazil and South Africa. This measure is taken after four cases of South Africa variant and one case of Brazilian variant was found in India. The state Government has also issued new directions for those coming into the state from Kerala following the detection of 40 Covid positive cases in a nursing college in Bengaluru.

AIR correspondent reports that the state Government has made it mandatory for passengers arriving into the state from the UK, Brazil and South Africa to produce RT PCR negative test report at the airport and undergo home quarantine for 14 days. They need to take the RT PCR test again on the seventh day. Those found positive will be taken to institutional quarantine facilities with their samples sent for genomic sequencing.

Similarly passengers from Kerala with RT PCR negative test results not older than 72 hours are made mandatory. Those who have come from Kerala in the last two weeks are asked to undergo the Covid tests.

Kiran Bedi removed as Puducherry LG; Telangana Governor Tamilisai Soundararajan given additional charge

Dr. Kiran Bedi has been removed from the post of Puducherry Lieutenant Governor. In a press communiqué, Rashtrapati Bhawan said, Telangana Governor Dr. Tamilisai Soundararajan has been given additional charge as Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry.
Meanwhile, the V. Narayanasamy led Congress government has been reduced to minority with the resignation of a Congress MLA. Mr. John Kumar elected from Kamaraj Nagar constituency resigned yesterday.

PM Modi to launch several key projects of oil & gas sector in Tamil Nadu today

Prime Minister Narendra Modi will dedicate to the nation and lay the foundation of key projects of the oil and gas sector in Tamil Nadu this evening through video conferencing.

Mr Modi will dedicate to the nation the Ramanathapuram -Thoothukudi natural gas pipeline and the Gasoline Desulphurisation Unit at Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited, Manali. He will also lay the foundation stone of Cauvery Basin Refinery at Nagapattinam. These projects will bring in substantial socio-economic benefits and will boost the country’s march towards Urja Aatmanirbharta.

Governor of Tamil Nadu Banwarilal Purohit, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu Edappadi K Palaniswamy and Petroleum Minister Dharmendra Pradhan will be present on the occasion. AIR correspondent reports that the 700 crore rupees pipeline project extends to a distance of 143 kilometer and begins at Ennore and passes through – Thiruvallur- Bengaluru- Puducherry- Nagapattinam- Madurai- Tuticorin Natural Gas Pipeline. It will also help utilise gas from ONGC Gas fields and deliver natural gas as feedstock to industries and other commercial customers.

The Gasoline Desulphurisation Unit at Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL), Manali has been constructed at a cost of about 500 crore rupees. It will produce low, less than 8 ppm sulphur, environment-friendly gasoline, which will help reduce emission considerably and contribute towards a cleaner environment. The Cauvery Basin Refinery project to be set up at Nagapattinam will have a capacity of 9 million metric tonnes per annum. It will be set up through a Joint Venture of IOCL and CPCL at an estimated cost of 31 thousand 500 crore rupees. It will produce Motor Spirit and Diesel meeting BS-VI specifications, and Polypropylene as a value-added product.

TOUCAN

ABOUT TOUCAN:

The Ramphastidae are most closely related to the American barbets. Toucans are members of the Neotropical near passerine bird family Ramphastidae. They are brightly marked and have large, often colorful bills. Though the bill appears unwieldy, even heavy, it is composed of extremely lightweight bone covered with keratin—the same material as human fingernails. The family includes five genera and over forty different species. A baby toucan is actually called a chick. Toucans are known for their huge beaks, which can grow larger than their bodies. They use their beaks for reaching over and plucking fruit from branches of trees. The bright colors (usually orange) on the beak may help the toucans to recognize each other, and to scare off other birds. Toco toucans feed either individually or in small flocks in the canopy. They tend to hop more than they fly. These toucans nest in tree cavities and usually lay two to four eggs, which both parents take turns incubating.

TYPES OF TOUCANS:

There are different types of toucans. Some of them are,

KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN: Keel-billed toucan is a species of a toucan with a huge, rainbow-colored bill. It is the national bird of Belize. The species is found in tropical jungles from southern Mexico to Colombia. Their feet are drawn up forward in flight. The flight distances are typically short. They live together in groups, often sharing cramped living quarters of holes in trees. Despite its large size and bright colors, can be difficult to see in the leafy canopy, where it moves deliberately in search of food.

  • GREEN-BILLED TOUCAN:

The beak is mostly pale greenish-horn, leading to its common name. The Greenbilled Toucan, also known as the Red-breasted Toucan. The Red-breasted Toucan’s name is derived from the large area of red feathers found on its belly, while its chest is orangy-yellow with yellow sides.

  • WHITE-THROATED TOUCAN:

Like other toucans, the white-throated toucan is brightly marked and has a huge bill. It has black plumage with a white throat and breast bordered below with a narrow red line. The rump is bright yellow and the crissum (the area around the cloaca) is red. The bare skin around the eye is blue. The bill has a yellow tip, upper ridge, and base of the upper mandible, and the base of the lower mandible is blue.

  • CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN:

Mostly black with a dark bill (although some populations have a yellow ridge on top of the bill). Significant plumage variation across range: throat color varies from white to orange; bare skin around eye varies from blue to red. In the western part of its range, appearance is very similar to White-throated Toucan, but note voice: a grating croak, not a clear yelp

  • CHESTNUT-MANDIBILLED TOUCAN:

The chestnut-mandibled toucan or Swainson’s toucan is a subspecies of the yellow-throated toucan which breeds from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia to western Ecuador. Small flocks, usually consisting of 3–12 birds, move through the forest with an undulating flight, rarely traveling more than 100 m at a time. The chestnut-mandibled toucan is a resident breeder in moist lowland forest.

  • BLACK MANDIBILLED TOUCAN:

The Black-mandibled Toucan (Ramphastos ambiguus) can be found in the north of South America. Toucans have distinctive coloration, markings, and are particularly noted for their large colorful bills. They occur at altitudes of 100-2400 m – in humid montane forests, with a preference for the canopy and edge. The Black-mandibled Toucan’s bill measures 47 to 61 cm in length. Its bill is about 18 cm long.

TORTOISE

ABOUT TORTOISE:

Tortoise is a reptile with a hard shell that moves very slowly. A tortoise can pull its head and legs into its shell to protect them. Tortoises live on land. They cannot swim in water while turtles can swim and even float in water. Tortoises can vary in size from just an inch or two to more than 6 feet. Tortoise is placid and very slow-moving, with an average walking speed of 0.2-0.5 km/h. Tortoises generally have one of the longest lifespans of any animal, and some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Most are quite small, but island tortoises have several times evolved to a large size.

TYPES OF TORTOISE:

There are different types of tortoise. Some of them are,

INDIAN STAR TORTOISE: Indian Star Tortoises belong to the Kingdom Animalia. The Indian star tortoise is a threatened species of tortoise found in dry areas and scrubs forest in India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. This species is quite popular in the exotic pet trade, which is the main reason it is endangered. The Indian star tortoise can grow to 10 inches long.

  • LEOPARD TORTOISE:

The leopard tortoise is large and attractively marked. Leopard tortoises can also climb and can float and swim slowly as their large, domed shell has a sizeable lung space that allows buoyancy. Their eyes are well developed and they have good eyesight.

  • RED FOOTED TORTOISE:

The red-footed tortoise is a species of tortoise from northern South America. Red-footed tortoises have many common names: red-leg, red-legged, or red-foot tortoise (often without the hyphen) and the savanna tortoise. Their skin is mostly black with shells being typically black, gray, or brown. These long-lived tortoises have bright red, yellow, or orange patches on their legs, tail, and head.

  • GREEK TORTOISE:

The Greek tortoise’s geographic range includes North Africa, Southern Europe, and Southwest Asia. The Greek tortoise, also known commonly as the spur-thighed tortoise, is a species of tortoise in the family Testudinidae. The Greek tortoise is one of the five species of tortoise from the Mediterranean. It can be a range of colors, including black, dark yellow, gold, and brown.

  • MARGINATED TORTOISE:

The marginated tortoise is one of the beautiful species of tortoise. The marginated tortoise is herbivorous and hibernates for the winter. Its shell is oblong and has a notable thickness around the middle of the body. The posterior end of the shell has a saw-like formation, flanged outward like a bell.

  • ELONGATED TORTOISE:

The elongated tortoise is a species of tortoise found in Southeast Asia and parts of the Indian Subcontinent, particularly Nepal. Females tend to be wider than males and more rounded. Males also have a tail that is much larger than that of the female. Coloration and pattern vary, and specimens can be found from a pale yellowish-tan overall to almost solid black.

  • ASIAN FOREST TORTOISE:

The Asian forest tortoise, also known commonly as the Asian brown tortoise, is a species of tortoise in the family Testudinidae. Adults are dark brown or blackish. The Asian forest tortoise is the largest in mainland Asia.

  • ALDABRA GIANT TORTOISE:

Aldabra giant tortoise is one of the largest tortoises in the world. The carapace is a brown or tan color with a high, domed shape. They are most active in the mornings when they spend time browsing for food. They have long necks, which helps with food gathering. The hind legs are cylindrical and columnar like those of an elephant; thick, often bony scales cover them. The toes are short and two-jointed. The head is relatively small, pointed, and covered by scales.

PEN

ABOUT PENS:

A pen is a tool to write. A pen is a common writing instrument used to apply ink to a surface, usually paper, for writing or drawing. It has a mechanism by which ink is made to flow through the tip of the writing instrument in the way it is scribbled onto the surface. With the help of a pen, we can also write important information to read them later. The pen has been the need for humans for a long time. A pen is called the ‘Sword of a writer’. It is a tool used by the brain, hands, and the imagination to copy and physically transform lifeless ink into expressions of our minds and hearts. Pens have become one of the most important parts of our life.

TYPES OF PENS:

There are different types of pens. Some of them are,

  • QUILL PEN:

A quill pen is a writing tool made from a moulted flight feather (preferably a primary wing-feather) of a large bird. The point of the feather is treated so it can be used for writing and a hollow shaft of the feather holds the ink which, from there, flows to the tip by capillary action. For almost 1,500 years, people used quill pens to write letters.

  • DIP PEN:

A dip pen is a pen that has to be dipped in ink. Generally, dip pens have no ink reservoir, so the user must recharge the ink from an ink bowl or bottle to continue drawing or writing. There is a wide range of exchangeable nibs for dip pens, so different types of lines and effects can be created. The nibs and handles are far cheaper than most fountain pens and allow color changes much more easily.

  • REED PEN:

Reed pen is made from a single piece of reed that is pointed into a square and split at the point. Reed pens were used for writing on papyrus and were the most common writing implement in antiquity. Reed pens are stiffer than quills and they lose a sharp point pretty quickly.

  • FOUNTAIN PEN:

A fountain pen is a writing instrument that uses a metal nib to apply a water-based ink to paper. The ink from a fountain pen glides effortlessly over the surface of the page, meaning glorious strokes and less pressure on the paper. Some pens employ removable reservoirs in the form of pre-filled ink cartridges.

  • BALLPOINT PEN:

For ballpoint pens, ink on the surface of the ball at the tip of the ball is transferred to the paper and written. The ink is fed by gravity from the tank (in the pipe). The ballpoint pen is also called as Biro pens.

  • GEL PEN:

“Gel pen” is a type of ballpoint pen that uses pigmented water-based gel instead of ink. They are used for writing or illustration and they leave a much stronger mark on the surface than pens that use ink. The general design of a gel pen is similar to that of a regular ink-based pen, with a barrel containing the writing mechanism and a cap, and a reservoir filled within

PENGUINS

ABOUT PENGUINS:

Penguins are one of the wonderful species of birds. Penguins are the sea-birds that live only in the cold areas and in countries of the Southern Hemisphere. Penguins may huddle together for several reasons. Penguins evolved to fly underwater. Their powerful flippers and streamlined bodies make them very accomplished swimmers. However, they lay their eggs on the land and raise their babies there as well. Penguins lay their eggs on land or ice to give birth to their offspring. There are 15 to 20 species of penguins that are known to the world. There are around 12 million penguins across the globe and their huge population is found in Antarctica. They spend roughly half of their lives on land and the other half in the sea. While other birds have wings for flying, penguins have adapted flippers to help them swim in the water.

TYPES OF PENGUINS:

There are different types of penguins. Some of them are,

EMPEROR PENGUIN:

 The emperor penguin is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species. The species gather together into approximately 50 colonies that settle on ice shelves and landfast ice along the coastline of Antarctica. Wild Emperor penguins are only found in Antarctica. Like all penguin species, emperor penguins have streamlined bodies to minimize drag while swimming and wings that are more like stiff, flat flippers.

  • KING PENGUIN:

King Penguins are the 2nd largest species of penguin. They have bare patches around their eyes to allow heat to escape to keep them cool. They have black backs and white bellies for camouflage purposes. King penguins have colorful feathers around their necks and heads, this makes them the brightest of all the species of penguin, there is an estimated world population of 2 million breeding pairs with some estimates up to 3.2 million.

  • CHINSTRAP PENGUIN:

Instantly recognizable by the black band that gives them their name, chinstrap penguins are the most abundant penguin in the Antarctic, where they gather in massive breeding colonies. Other common names include a ringed penguin, bearded penguin, and stone cracker penguin, due to their loud, harsh call.

  • HUMBOLDT PENGUIN:

The Humboldt Penguin is a South American penguin, that breeds in coastal Peru and Chile. They have a black head with a white border that runs from behind the eye, around the black ear-coverts and chin, and joins at the throat. Humboldt penguins are medium-sized penguins.

  • FIORDLAND PENGUIN:

This species is a medium-sized, yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin. They have a very thick reddish beak and deep red eye irises. It’s easy to differentiate them from other crested species, just by looking at their plumage pattern at their head; a stripe of yellow feathers start from the base of the beak, and it continues to the head, revealing the loose feathers that look like long and bushy yellow eyebrows.

  • SOUTHERN ROCKHOPPER PENGUIN:

These gregarious marine birds are among the world’s smallest penguins, standing about 20 inches tall. It occurs in subantarctic waters of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, as well as around the southern coasts of South America. This is the smallest yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin in the genus Eudyptes.

INDIAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

TYPES OF INDIAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS:

There are different types of musical instruments in India. Some of them are,

  • Sitar:

The word sitar is derived from the Persian word sehtar, meaning “three-stringed.” The sitar is a plucked stringed instrument, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used in Hindustani classical music. It has a long, broad, fretted neck and a gourd-shaped body. The sitar’s signature sound is produced by the string vibrating on a flat bridge with a gently curved surface.

  • Saraswati veena:

Veena represents the system of Indian music. Saraswati veena is one of the major types of veena today. The veena is played by sitting cross-legged with the instrument held tilted slightly away from the player. The word veena in India was a term originally used to generally denote “stringed instrument”, and included many variations that would be either plucked, bowed, or struck for sound.

  • Ghatam:

It is a clay pot with a narrow mouth. From the mouth, it slants outwards to form a ridge. Made mainly of clay backed with brass or copper filings with a small number of iron filings, the pitch of the ghatam varies according to its size.

  • Flute:

The flute is one of the most popular instruments in the band. The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. The sound is created when the air is passed through the cavity and the holes in the flute. Over the history of the flute, the shape and size of the embouchure have been experimented with and changed from round to oval, oblong to square, big and small. The main 3 types of the flute are the standard, piccolo, and harmony flutes.

  • Tabla:

Tabla is a pair of small hand drums, one of which is slightly larger than the other, used in Indian classical music. The tabla is the most commonly played drum set in North Indian music. The tabla consists of two drums, the baya or the left drum, and the Dayan or the right drum, but the collective name for both the drums is tabla.

  • Mridangam:

The mridangam is a double-sided drum whose body is usually made using a hollowed piece of jackfruit wood about an inch thick. The two mouths or apertures of the drum are covered with a goatskin and laced to each other with leather straps around the circumference of the drum.

  • Nadaswaram:

The nadaswaram, nadhaswaram, nagaswaram, nagasvaram is a double-reed wind instrument from South India. It is used as a traditional classical instrument in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala. The nadaswaram has seven finger-holes, and five additional holes drilled at the bottom which can be stopped with wax to modify the tone.

  • Tanpura:

The tanpura is a long-necked plucked string instrument. The electronic tanpura was invented in the late 19th century. It has a resonator and 4 strings, but no frets, as the notes are always played whole.

  • Jaltarangam:

It consists of a set of ceramic or metal bowls filled with water. The bowls are played by striking the edge with beaters, one in each hand. The instrument works on the principle of the motion of sound created or modified with the aid of water. When the edge of the bowl filled with water is stuck with wooden sticks it produces vibrations, that travel through the water and are transferred to the surrounding air to produce sweet melodic sounds.

MOON

ABOUT MOON:

The Moon is the fifth largest satellite in the Solar System, and it is the second-brightest object in the sky after the Sun. The Moon has a radius of 1.737 kilometers / 1.079 miles and a diameter of 3.474 km / 2.158 mi. It is only 384.400 km / 238.855 mi away from Earth. The Moon orbits the Earth once every 27 days. The Moon is unique in that it is the only spherical satellite orbiting a terrestrial planet.

MOON IS MADE UP OF:

The Moon is made of rock and metal—just like the Earth and the other rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, and Mars). Like the Earth, the Moon has layers. The innermost layer is the lunar core. It only accounts for about 20% of the diameter of the Moon. Outside the core is the largest region of the Moon, called the mantle. The lunar mantle extends up to a distance of only 50 km below the surface of the Moon. The outermost layer of the Moon is called the crust, which extends down to a depth of 50 km.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOONS PHASES :

There are 8 different types of moon phases. Some of them are,

  • New moon:

New moon occurs when the moon is on the same side of Earth as the sun. New moons generally can’t be seen. They cross the sky with the sun during the day, and the moon’s shadow side is pointed toward Earth. A new moon is visible only during a solar eclipse.

  • Waxing crescent:

The waxing crescent phase is the moon’s first step toward fullness. In this phase, the moon is completely invisible (while it’s new) until a tiny sliver is illuminated. The moon is considered a crescent only when less than one half of it is visible.

  • First-quarter:

First Quarter Moon is the second primary Moon phase when the Moon has reached the first quarter of its orbit around Earth, hence the name.

  • Waxing gibbous:

The waxing (growing) gibbous Moon rises afternoon, transits the meridian after sunset, and sets after midnight.

  • Full moon:

The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully. This occurs when Earth is located between the Sun and the Moon. A full moon occurs about once a month when the earth, sun, and moon are in a line and the earth is between the other two. The sun fully illuminates the side of the moon we can see from the earth. The full moon is the midpoint of the lunar cycle, which is the 29-day period from one new moon to the next.

  • Waning gibbous :

The Waning Gibbous Moon rises after sunset but before midnight and doesn’t set until after sunrise.

  • Third-quarter:

The Third Quarter Moon is when the opposite half of the Moon is illuminated compared to the First Quarter. Which half you see lit up depends on where you are on Earth. Only 50% of the Moon is illuminated during its third-quarter phase.

  • Waning crescent:

The waning crescent is the last phase of the moon. During this phase, the illuminated part of the moon gets smaller and smaller, until the cycle meets its end, starting again with the new moon.

DESERT ANIMALS

ABOUT DESERT ANIMALS:

Animals living in deserts have special qualities, or adaptations, that allow them to live in harsh temperatures and use less water. Desert animals mostly feed on plants, insects, carcasses, and other animals. Smaller animals tend to thrive in the desert as compared to those that are larger in size. This is because food and water in the desert are scarce while the climatic conditions are quite extreme. Some of the most iconic desert animals have obvious physical characteristics that have enabled them to adapt to their environment.

DESERT ANIMALS:

There are different desert animals. Some of them are,

  • CAMELS:

 Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods without any external source of water. Camel may survive weeks without drinking water. . Actually, it maxes out at about 15 days. They need this ability in their desert environments. A camel’s thick coat is one of the many adaptations that aid it in desert-like conditions.

  • FENNEC FOX:

The fennec fox is a small crepuscular fox native to the Sahara Desert and the Sinai Peninsula. Its most distinctive feature is its unusually large ears, which serve to dissipate heat. Its coat, ears, and kidney functions have adapted to the desert environment with high temperatures and little water.

  • RATTLESNAKE:

Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes. Rattlesnakes are found in almost every part of the continental United States, but they’re especially common in the Southwest. Mexico, Central America, and South America are also homes to rattlesnakes. Rattlesnakes receive their name from the rattle located at the end of their tails, which makes a loud rattling noise when vibrated that deters predators or serves as a warning to passers-by.

  • COYOTE:

Coyotes tend to be nocturnal but may also be active in the early morning and at sunset. Coyote populations are also abundant southwards through Mexico and into Central America. Other historical names for the species include the prairie wolf and the brush wolf. Coyotes living at high elevations tend to have more black and gray shades than their desert-dwelling counterparts, which are more fulvous or whitish-gray.

  • GROUND SQUIRRELS:

The ground squirrels generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees. They are highly variable in size. The squirrel then curls its paws flat against its chest and sends a screeching call to warn other family members about the presence of predators.

  • BIGHORN SHEEP:

Bighorn males, called rams, are famous for their large, curled horns. Bighorns from the rocky mountains are relatively large. The Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep occupy the cooler mountainous regions of Canada and the United States. In contrast, the desert bighorn sheep subspecies are indigenous to the hot desert ecosystems of the Southwestern United States and Mexico.

  • ARMADILLOS:

Armadillos have leathery armor shell and long sharp claws for digging. Armadillos have short legs but can move quite quickly. All species are native to the Americas, where they inhabit a variety of different environments. Armadillos live in temperate and warm habitats, including rain forests, grasslands, and semi-deserts. Because of their low metabolic rate and lack of fat stores, cold is their enemy, and spates of intemperate weather can wipe out whole populations.

  • MONGOOSE:

A mongoose is a small terrestrial carnivorous mammal belonging to the family Herpestidae. Mongooses have long faces and bodies, small, rounded ears, short legs, and long, tapering tails. Mongoose, any of nearly three dozen species of small bold predatory carnivores found mainly in Africa but also southern Asia and southern Europe.

DOLPHINS

ABOUT DOLPHINS:

Dolphin is aquatic mammals. There are 36 dolphin species, found in every ocean. Dolphins live in complex social groups and have evolved to have highly-developed brains. Dolphins are extraordinarily intelligent animals who also display culture, something which was long-believed to be unique to humans. Dolphins are altruistic animals. Dolphins play an important role in keeping their environment in balance. Without dolphins, the animals they prey on would increase in number, and their predators wouldn’t have as much to eat. Dolphins have a reputation for being friendly, but they are wild animals who should be treated with caution and respect. Dolphins are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid.

TYPES OF DOLPHINS:

There are different types of dolphins. Some of them are,

  • Common bottlenose dolphin:

The common bottlenose dolphin or Atlantic bottlenose dolphin is the most well-known species of the family Delphinidae. Common bottlenose dolphins are grey. Common bottlenose dolphins and other dolphins are thought to be some of the smartest animals.

  • Striped dolphin:

Striped dolphins are among the most abundant and widespread dolphins in the world. Striped dolphins are relatively small, streamlined, and colorful. Striped dolphins are known for their distinct and striking coloration pattern, which includes bold, thin stripes that extend from the eye to the flipper and another set of stripes down the side of the body to the anal region. Striped dolphins are extremely active and fast. Striped dolphins are widely distributed throughout the world’s temperate and tropical oceans.

  • Dusky dolphin:

The dusky dolphin is a dolphin found in coastal waters in the Southern Hemisphere. The dusky dolphin has a long, light-grey patch on its foreside leading to a short, dark-grey beak. The throat and belly are white, and the beak and lower jaw are dark greys. Two blazes of white color run back on the body from the dorsal fin to the tail.

  • White-beaked dolphin:

White-beaked dolphins are found throughout the cold waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. They are active swimmers. The white-beaked has a short beak. The upper body and flanks are dark grey with light grey patches, including a ‘saddle’ behind the dorsal fin, while the underside is light grey to almost white.

  • Spinner dolphin:

The spinner dolphin is a small dolphin found in off-shore tropical waters around the world. Spinner dolphins earned their name because of their ability to spin multiple times in one jump. Scientists believe they spin for several reasons, including communication, removing parasites, and simply for the fun of it.

  • Irrawaddy dolphin:

The Irrawaddy dolphin’s color is grey to dark slate blue, paler underneath, without a distinctive pattern. It has a large melon and a blunt, rounded head, and the beak is indistinct. Irrawaddy dolphin Communication is carried out with clicks, creaks, and buzzes at a dominant frequency of about 60 kilohertz, which is thought to be used for echolocation.

  • Long-beaked common dolphin:

The long-beaked common dolphin is a species of common dolphin. Long-beaked common dolphins generally prefer shallow, tropical, subtropical, and warmer temperate waters within 15 nautical miles of the coast and on the continental shelf. The long-beaked common dolphin is generally larger with a longer beak than the short-beaked common dolphin and has a longer rostrum. They are also highly vocal.

  • Rough-toothed dolphin:

The Rough-toothed Dolphin is a fairly large dolphin that can be found in deep warm, tropical, and subtropical water from the western Pacific to the Mediterranean. Their flanks are light grey and the back and dorsal fin a much darker grey. Rough-toothed dolphins have sharp, serrated teeth.

STARS

ABOUT STARS:

A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma. Stars are held together by gravity. They are huge in size and have very high temperatures. They give out heat and light because they are very hot. Sun is also a star.

WHY DO STARS TWINKLE? :

The stars twinkle in the night sky. When starlight enters the atmosphere, it is affected by winds in the atmosphere and by areas with different densities, and temperatures that cause light from the star appear to twinkle when seen from the ground.

TYPES OF STARS:

There are different types of stars. Some of them are,

  • RED GIANT STARS:

 A red giant star is a star that has low surface temperature and a diameter that is large relative to the sun. A red giant will expand outward many times its original size. Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) is a well-known example of a Red Giant Star.

  • WHITE DWARF STARS:

A white dwarf is what stars like the Sun become after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel. A white dwarf is very dense. White dwarf stars, so-called because of the white color of the first few that were discovered, are characterized by a low luminosity, a mass on the order of that of the Sun, and a radius comparable to that of Earth.

  • SUPERGIANT STARS:

Supergiant is among the most massive and most luminous stars. A star classed as a supergiant may have a diameter several hundred times that of the Sun and a luminosity nearly 1,000,000 times as great. The temperature range of supergiant stars spans from about 3,400 K to over 20,000 K.

  • NEUTRON STARS :

Neutron stars are the smallest and densest stellar objects, excluding black holes and hypothetical white holes, quark stars, and strange stars. The properties of neutron stars are utterly out of this world — a single teaspoon of neutron-star material would weigh a billion tons. Neutron stars have a radius on the order of 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) and a mass of about 1.4 solar masses.

  • YELLOW DWARF STARS:

A G-type main-sequence star often called a yellow dwarf, or G dwarf star is a main-sequence star of spectral type G. Such a star has about 0.84 to 1.15 solar masses and a surface temperature of between 5,300 and 6,000 K., Tables VII, VIII. Yellow dwarf stars live for about 10 billion years, and at 4.5 billion years old, our middle-age sun is about halfway through its lifetime. Once its hydrogen supply is depleted, the sun will start consuming its heavier elements. 7.5% of stars are yellow dwarfs and they are brighter than 90% of all other stars.

  • BLUE GIANT STARS:

A blue giant is a hot star with a luminosity class of III (giant) or II (bright giant). Rigel is a blue giant star close to zero magnitudes in Earth’s sky, making it a bright star, and is best visible in the winter northern sky. It also has somewhere between 265 and 315 solar masses, making it the most massive star yet discovered.

  • BROWN DWARF STARS:

A brown dwarf is a type of substellar object that has a mass between the most massive gas giant planets and the least massive stars, approximately 13 to 80 times that of Jupiter ( M J).

  • BLACK DWARF STARS:

When a white dwarf exhausts its own supply of carbon, oxygen, and free-flowing electrons, it will slowly burn out, transforming into a black dwarf. A black dwarf is a theoretical stellar remnant, specifically a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently that it no longer emits significant heat or light. Black dwarfs take quadrillions of years to form.

CHESS

ABOUT CHESS:

Chess was invented in India around the 8th century. Chess is a board game. It is played by two players. It is played in a square board, made of 64 smaller squares, with eight squares on each side. Each player starts with sixteen pieces: eight pawns, two knights, two bishops, two rooks, one queen, and one king. The colors of the pieces are black and white. Chess is one of the world’s most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide. It is such a great game because unlike any other games it only uses logic. The goal of the game is for each to try and checkmate the king of the opponent. Playing chess may improve learning, thinking, analytical power, and decision-making ability. Chess may also Chess helped me in getting my thoughts and ideas focused. Chess elevates your creativity. Chess leads to better planning skills.

ABOUT CHESS PIECES:

The six different types of pieces are king, rook, bishop, queen, knight, and pawn.

  • KING:

The king is the most important piece in the game of chess. It can never be captured and if it is in danger then it must be made safe immediately. If it is not possible to make the King safe then the game is lost. The King may move one square in any direction. In the diagram, the King can move to one of the highlighted squares.

  • QUEEN:

The queen is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. Each player starts the game with one queen, placed in the middle of the first rank next to the king. The queen is the only piece on the board during a chess game that represents a woman, and she is the most powerful piece of the game.

  • ROOK:

The rook is a piece in the game of chess resembling a castle. The rook symbolized a chariot. A rook can move horizontally or vertically. The rooks begin the game in the corners of the chessboard. The rook is the second most powerful piece (behind the queen). The rook can capture an enemy piece by moving to the occupied square.

  • BISHOP:

The bishop is a piece in the game of chess. Each player begins the game with two bishops. One starts between the king’s knight and the king, the other between the queen’s knight and the queen. The bishop chess piece moves in any direction diagonally. Bishops capture opposing pieces by landing on the square occupied by an enemy piece.

  • KNIGHT:

The knight is a piece in the game of chess. It is represented by a horse’s head and neck. Each player starts with two knights, which are located between the rooks and bishops in the standard starting position. A knight can move only in an L pattern. It is meant to jump over other pieces. The Knight piece can move forward, backward, left, or right two squares and must then move one square in either perpendicular direction.

  • PAWN:

The pawn is the most numerous piece in the game of chess. They move forward but capture diagonally. Pawns can only move forward one square at a time, except for their very first move where they can move forward two squares.

EAGLE

ABOUT EAGLE:

Eagle is one of the wonderful birds. Eagles are large, powerful Birds. They are Diurnal Birds which means that they are most active during the daytime. Most Species of Eagles have subdued feather colors, mainly browns, rust, black, white, and some blues and greys. An Eagle’s Wings are Long and Broad, making them effective for Soaring. Eagles catch prey with their razor-sharp talons. Eagles have heavy heads and large hooked beaks to enable them to rip flesh from their prey. It flies high above the ground looking for prey with its keen eyes. Eagles’ eyes are extremely powerful. They mate for life and use the same nest each year. There are several species of eagles, which differ in size, looks, and habits. The beak is typically heavier than that of most other birds of prey. There are over 60 different species of eagle. Eagles build their nests on high cliffs or in tall trees. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, some of which are closely related.

TYPES OF EAGLES:

There are different types of eagles. Some of them are,

  • BALD EAGLE:

A bald eagle is a large eagle with a white head that lives in North America. It is the national bird of the United States of America. The bald eagle has a snowy-feathered head and whitetail.

  • GOLDEN EAGLE:

Golden eagle a large Eurasian and North American eagle with yellow-tipped head feathers in the mature adult. It is the most widely distributed species of eagle. Golden eagles are sometimes considered the best fliers among eagles.

  • HARPY EAGLE:

Harpy eagle a very large crested eagle of tropical rainforests. Harpies have a crown of irregular feathers atop their heads, giving them a disheveled appearance. Their legs are covered in white feathers with black stripes to the feet, which are yellow with large black talons.

  • WHITE-TAILED EAGLE:

The white-tailed eagle is a very large species of a sea eagle. The white-tailed eagle is a very large bird and one of the largest living birds of prey. The white-tailed eagle is also called the sea eagle, erne, and white-tailed sea-eagle.

  • WEDGE TAILED EAGLE:

The wedge-tailed eagle is the largest bird of prey in Australia and is also found in southern New Guinea. It has long, fairly broad wings, fully feathered legs, and an unmistakable wedge-shaped tail. Young Wedge-tailed Eagles are mid-brown in color with reddish-brown heads and wings.

  • STEPPE EAGLE:

The steppe eagle is in many ways a peculiar species of eagle. The steppe eagle is a large, bulky, and robust-looking eagle. It is mainly dark brown with a longish but very thick neck and a relatively small head that nonetheless features a strong bill and long gape-line. It appears long-winged and has a longish and rather rounded tail and markedly well-feathered legs.

  • SHORT-TOED SNAKE EAGLE:

The short-toed snake eagle, also known as the short-toed eagle, is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. The short-toed snake eagle is found in open cultivated plains, arid stony deciduous scrub areas, and foothills and semi-desert areas. These are relatively large snake eagles.

BEES

ABOUT BEES:

Bees are small and wonderful insects. Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants. They collect honey from flowers and store it in their hive. Bees have four wings. Its body has three parts head, abdomen, and abdomen. The color of its body is yellow and black. They are one of the hardworking insects. Bees live in a hive in a swarm. It lives in its community. Bees are very useful to human beings. They give honey and beeswax. One healthy Honey Bee would approximately lay 2,000 eggs in one day. Bees are mainly found in habitats such as tropical rain forests and woodlands, grasslands, and Gardens where there are more flowers and green matters available. Honey bees are small flying insects whose lifespan varies between 170 to 180 days. Honey bees usually live in groups and their queen has a lifespan of more than two years. One bee may fly up to more than 90 thousand miles to collect one pound of honey. In a colony there are three types of bees namely worker bees, drone bees, and queen bees. . Worker bees are the most familiar-looking member of the honeybee hive. Worker bees are all female, and they do almost everything for the hive. The worker bee is given different tasks to do during different stages of her life. Worker bees are responsible for everything from feeding the larvae (the baby bees), to tending to the queen, to cleaning the hive, to collecting food, to guarding the colony, to building honeycomb. Drones are male bees and their sole purpose is to mate with the queen. Unlike the female worker bee, drones do not have stingers and gather neither nectar nor pollen. You can identify drones in the hive by their big round bodies and large eyes. There is one queen bee per hive – she is the mom of all the other bees. She is the only fertile member of the colony and lays about 1,500 eggs a day during spring and summer. The queen will not leave the hive again unless the colony swarms (looking for a new home). Queen bees are distinguished from the other members of the hive by their long abdomens and small wings.

IMPORTANCE OF BEES:

Bees are important to humanity and the world we live in because they provide the most efficient way to pollinate plants. They are especially important because they pollinate our agriculture for free. It’s their work as crop pollinators. This agricultural benefit of honey bees is estimated to be between 10 and 20 times the total value of honey and beeswax.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT BEES:

  • A bee produces a teaspoon of honey (about 5 grams) in her lifetime.
  • There are over 20,000 different species of bees. To produce a kilogram of honey, bees fly the equivalent of three times around the world in air miles.
  • Each bee has 170 odorant receptors, which means they have one serious sense of smell. They use this to communicate within the hive and to recognize different types of flowers when looking for food.
  • If the queen bee dies in a honeybee hive the workers can create a new queen bee. They do this by selecting a young larva and by feeding it special food called ‘royal jelly’ the larva develops into a fertile queen.
  • The Honey Bee is the only insect that makes food which human can eat.

NATURAL DISASTERS


ABOUT DISASTERS:

A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth. Some of the natural disasters are floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, storms, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth. Many Natural disasters damage the environment and the people living in it. Natural disasters are caused due to different reasons like soil erosion, seismic activity, tectonic movements, air pressure, and ocean currents, etc.

TYPES OF NATURAL DISASTERS ARE:

Some of the different kinds of natural disasters are,

  • Earthquake:

Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake. When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little. When the rocks break, the earthquake occurs.

  • Floods:

The major cause of the flood is heavy rainfall. It can be also caused by the melting of snow and ice. It is also caused by Broken Dams.

  • Tsunami:

Tsunami is waves caused by a sudden movement of the ocean surface due to earthquakes, landslides on the seafloor, land slumping into the ocean, large volcanic eruptions, or meteorite impact in the ocean. When tsunami waves become extremely large in height, they savagely attack coastlines, causing devastating property damage and loss of life.

  • Tornadoes:

Tornadoes are caused by the thunderstorms being extremely large, unstable, and with wind shear in the lower region of the atmosphere. Tornadoes often damage power lines, gas lines, or electrical systems, there is a risk of fire, electrocution, or an explosion. Tornadoes can last from several seconds to more than an hour.

  • Volcanic eruption:

Volcanoes erupt when molten rock called magma rises to the surface. Magma is formed when the earth’s mantle melts. Melting may happen where tectonic plates are pulling apart or where one plate is pushed down under another. Health concerns after a volcanic eruption include infectious disease, respiratory illness, burns, injuries from falls, and vehicle accidents related to the slippery, hazy conditions caused by ash. When warnings are been pay attention to, the chances of adverse health effects from a volcanic eruption are very low.

  • Landslide:

Landslides can be initiated in slopes already on the verge of movement by rainfall, snowmelt, changes in water level, stream erosion, earthquakes, volcanic activity, disturbance by human activities, or any combination of these factors. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. A landslide can also block rivers and increase the risk of floods.

  • Hurricanes:

Hurricanes form over the warm ocean water of the tropics. When warm moist air over the water rises, it is replaced by cooler air. The cooler air will then warm and start to rise. This cycle causes huge storm clouds to form. The major effects of hurricanes are tornadoes, heavy rainfall, high winds, riptide, and death.

  • Thunderstorms:

Thunderstorms arise when layers of warm, moist air rise in a large, swift updraft to cooler regions of the atmosphere. Thunderstorms can bring heavy rains, strong winds, hail, lightning, and tornadoes. Severe thunderstorms can cause extensive damage to homes and property. Lightning is a major threat during a thunderstorm.

Feminism

What is feminism?
Who are called as a feminist?
What does a feminist do?
Why feminism arrived?

Before saying about feminism let me clear one thing feminism is not only about women getting equal rights and opportunities rather feminism is a belief that every individual should be given equal rights, powers and opportunities. If you stand for equality then you are a feminist. Basically feminist are those individuals who takes care no one is treated unfairly.

Feminism started in the 19th and early 20th centuries addressing issues of women’s suffrage (the right of women to vote in elections). The second-wave feminism started in 1960s broadened debate to include cultural inequalities, gender norms, and the role of women in society.

During the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe many Enlightenment philosophers defended the rights of women, including Jeremy Bentham (1781), Marquis de Condorcet (1790), and Mary Wollstonecraft (1792). Other important writers of the time also expressed the views of the feminist.

Unlike the Western feminist movement, India’s movement was initiated by men, and later joined by women. The first phase of feminism in India was initiated by men to uproot the social evils of sati (widow immolation), to allow widow remarriage, to forbid child marriage, and to reduce illiteracy, as well as to regulate the age of consent and to ensure property rights through legal intervention.

But feminism as an initiative by women started independently a little later in Maharashtra by pioneering advocates of women’s rights and education: Savitribai Phule, who started the first school for girls in India (1848).

 Tarabai Shinde, who wrote India’s first feminist text Stri Purush Tulana (A Comparison Between Women and Men) in 1882; and Pandita Ramabai, who criticized patriarchy and caste-system in Hinduism, married outside her caste and converted to Christianity (1880s).

The Bengali reformers included abolishing sati, which was a widow’s death by burning on her husband’s funeral pyre, abolishing the custom of child marriage, abolishing the disfiguring of widows, introducing the marriage of upper caste Hindu widows, promoting women’s education, obtaining legal rights for women to own property, and requiring the law to acknowledge women’s status by granting them basic rights in matters such as adoption.

The second phase started when Mahatma Gandhi expanded Indian women’s public activities by initiating them into the non-violent civil disobedience movement against the British. Many women organisations formed. Women-only organisations like All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) and the National Federation of Indian Women (NFIW) emerged. Women started looking for their scope in leadership roles in political parties, women’s franchise and communal awards. In 1954 the Indian Communist Party formed its own women’s wing known as the National Federation of Indian Women.

By the 19th century and 20th century more women issues came to spotlight. More amount of women became active and started protesting for their rights. Feminists in the 1970s challenged the inequalities that had been established and fought to reverse them. These inequalities included the unequal wages for women. The aim was to abolish the free service of women.

Struggle of feminist are still going on. Many women are still fighting for their freedom. We need to change this view that women don’t need permission they have their voice and they can make their own choice.

Let’s find out about some Indian feminists and their contributions. They are :

  • Savitribai Phule  She is one of the earliest Indian feminists. She started the first school for girls in India in the year 1848.
  • Tarabai Shinde – The writer of India’s first feminist text Stri Purush Tulana (A Comparison Between Women and Men) in 1882.
  • Kamini Roy She is a poet and suffragette. She became the first woman Honors Graduate in India in 1886.
  • Saroj Nalini Dutt – She is the early social reformer who pioneered the formation of educational Women’s Institutes in Bengal.
  • Mira Datta Gupta – Activist for women’s issues and one of the founding members of the All India Women’s Conference.
  • Sarala Devi Chaudhurani – Founder of the Bharat Stree Mahamandal, one of the first women’s organisations in India.

Earth

Earth is the only planet in our Solar System where life exists. Approximately 4.5 billion years ago, Earth formed from the particles left over from the creation of our Sun. Gravity pulled swirling gas and dust in together to form the Earth. It is the third planet in our Solar System.


29% surface on Earth is land ( i.e continents and islands ) and the rest 71% is water mostly oceans but also lakes, rivers and other fresh water bodies. Out of this 71% water, 97% is saline water(water in oceans) and the availability of freshwater is only 3%. Earth’s polar region is covered with ice.

Earth’s atmosphere contains 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% other gases such as carbon dioxide, argon and neon. The atmosphere acts as a shield and protect us from the harmful radiation coming from the Sun. It also protects us from meteoroids which burn up in the atmosphere before they can hit the surface.

Earth is the only planet that was not named after a Greek or Roman god. Its alternative names are Gaia, Gaea, Terra, Tellus, The World, The Globe.

The journey of life on Earth started in oceans. The earliest forms of life were microscopic organisms (microbes) that left signals of their presence in rocks about 3.7 billion years old. These microbes are known as Prokaryotes that fed on carbon compounds that were accumulating in Earth’s early oceans. Slowly, many other organisms evolved that used the Sun’s energy, along with compounds such as sulfides, to generate their own energy.


Earth is composed of four main layers.
The inner core is a solid sphere made of iron and nickel metals about 759 miles (1,221 kilometers) in radius. The temperature there is as high as 9,800 degrees Fahrenheit (5,400 degrees Celsius). Surrounding the inner core is the outer core. This layer is about 1,400 miles (2,300 kilometers) thick, made of iron and nickel fluids.In between the outer core and crust is the mantle, the thickest layer. This hot, viscous mixture of molten rock is about 1,800 miles (2,900 kilometers) thick and has the consistency of caramel. The outermost layer, Earth’s crust, goes about 19 miles (30 kilometers) deep on average on land. At the bottom of the ocean, the crust is thinner and extends about 3 miles (5 kilometers) from the sea floor to the top of the mantle.

Earth doesn’t take 24 hours to rotate on its axis
It actually takes 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds to completely rotate around it’s axis. Also known as sidereal day. Earth’s rotation is slowing slightly with time. Thus, a day was shorter in the past. This is due to the tidal effects the Moon has on Earth’s rotation. Analysis of historical astronomical records shows a slowing trend that the length of a day increased about 2.3 milliseconds per century since the 8th century BCE.

Earth has only one moon. Without the moon, a day on earth would only last six to twelve hours. There could be more than a thousand days in one year. That’s because the Earth’s rotation slows down over time thanks to the gravitational force or pull of the moon and without it days would go by in a blink.

National Youth Day


Every year 12 January is celebrated as the National Youth Day, being the birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda. In 1984 government of India declared this day as National Youth Day and 1985 onwards we celebrated this event in India.


Swami Vivekananda’s lectures and writings, deriving their inspiration from Indian spiritual tradition and the broad outlook of his Master Sri Ramakrishna Paramahansa. These were the source of inspiration and have motivated the youth.

Swami Vivekananda created a great impact on Youth. His words were simple yet very powerful. He said, “If you think yourselves weak, weak you will be; if you think yourselves strong, strong you will be.” He also said, “See for the highest, aim at that highest, and you shall reach the highest.” His messeges gave a boost to the youth.



As Mitochondria is the power house of cell. Youth is the powerhouse of a country. Youth plays a vital role in shaping the future of a country. It has the power to help a country develop and move towards progress. It is also responsible for bringing social reform within a country. The youth brings revolution.

In our Indian history there are many examples that justify the contribution of the youth towards the progress of the country. That how the Youth of India fought to bring Independence in the country.

In our country half of the population is youth. If they will take proper action towards the problems occurring in our country, it will not only benefit the country but will also inspire young ones. Like many youth are running campaigns and organisations on various things like
Many are cleaning the garbage near the seaside or in a land, some helping the poor children in studying, some protesting against child labour, also against rapes, etc . Active participation of youth is hence very much important. It can spread the message of national integration.

Youth should not keep their energies and enthusiasm inside. It should go out in betterment of the society. Many are unware of there potential and their capabilities. Sometimes youth undergoes through a lot of problems at this time the rest people should encourage and motivate them. And give them equal opportunities so that they can succeed in life. Motivate them to take challenges and achieve their desired goals in life.


The prior duty of youth is to encourage others to join a youth organization. Inspire and teach young people to take responsibilities and volunteer for a social cause and bring some social changes. Various organizations and charities recruit youngsters and motivate them to get involved in social cause.

The youth should ask young people to join campaigns or organizations to raise awareness for a social cause. Teach them to take a stand against something wrong and help them transform their ideas into reality. With their active participation we can bring some significant social changes in the country that are mostly overlooked. Therefore, do not wait for anything and join a campaign or any organisation and raise awareness about it among people.

YOU ! YES YOU!

ARE THE YOUTH OF OUR COUNTRY. DON’T JUST RELAX. THERE ARE MANY THINGS TO DO. JUST GET UP AND STAND FOR A SOCIAL CAUSE. 🙂

TAJ MAHAL

ABOUT TAJ MAHAL:

Taj Mahal is one of the seven wonders in the world. Taj Mahal is one of the historic and most beautiful places in the world. The Taj Mahal is one of the most magnificent Indian historical monuments with complex visualization. The Taj Mahal is the materialized vision of love and marks a perfect indelible remark on it’s Mughal Architecture. The Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum built by the 17th century Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. This structure on the bank of the river Jamuna is constructed on a platform 6.5 meters high. The Mahal was built in the loving memory of the Emperor’s beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It also attracts thousands of tourists with no preference for religion or lifestyle. The words Taj Mahal means ‘ crown of the palace’ and is a symbol of eternal love. Taj Mahal is one of the main reasons why India is famous. Taj Mahal was declared as a Heritage Site by UNSECO in 1983.

ARCHITECTURE OF TAJ MAHAL:

The Taj Mahal is a perfect symmetrical planned building, with an emphasis on bilateral symmetry along a central axis on which the main features are placed. The Taj Mahal emits a sense of peace and harmony which is mainly caused by the structure’s near-perfect symmetry, the main dome and surrounding minarets, and the division of the gardens by four canals that meet at a raised central lotus pond. The building material used is brick-in-lime mortar veneered with red sandstone and marble and inlay work of precious/semi-precious stones. It is made of pure white marble with its special luster and fine texture. The marble was obtained from Makrana in Rajasthan. Inside the Taj Mahal, the cenotaphs honoring Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan are enclosed in an eight-sided chamber ornamented with pietra dura (an inlay with semi-precious stones) and a marble lattice screen. The interior octagonal chambers are connected by diagonal passages. Floors and walkways use contrasting tiles or blocks in tessellation patterns. The inlay stones are of yellow marble, jasper, and jade polished and leveled to the surface of the walls. The calligraphy on the Taj Mahal is beautiful. The beauty of the black inscriptions over the white marble is an attractive feature of the edifice. The walls and pillars of the monuments are also adorned with calligraphy written in Thuluth script. Most of the inscribed verses are from the holy book of Islam- the Quran. Taj Mahal reflects different colors depending on the light. In the morning, it looks a little pinkish, in the afternoon with strong sunlight it appears shimmering white, milky white in the evening, and golden at night. The main structure is surrounded by gardens, fountains, and pools. Another interesting aspect of the architecture of the Taj Mahal is the iconography of the plants engraved in the walls and floors of the mausoleum.

WHEN WAS TAJ MAHAL BUILT? :

The construction of the Taj Mahal took over twenty years. It was built in 1632, and in 1648, the mausoleum was finished. Another 5 years were spent on the building of the enclosure, the ancillary buildings such as gardens, so the whole complex was completed in 1653.

EARTH

ABOUT EARTH:

Our Earth is the most beautiful planet in our solar system. Earth is the planet we live on. The earth is a habitat for millions of species of plants and animals. Earth is an integral part of the solar system. Earth is the third planet from the sun. Earth is the fifth-largest of the planets in the solar system. The alternative names for the earth are Gaia, Gaea, Terra, Tellus, the world, the globe. Earth is a planet of the Sun which is also called Blue Planet because of the availability of water and it looks blue when observed from space. It’s the only planet known to have an atmosphere containing free oxygen, oceans of water on its surface, and, of course, life. Water covers 70 percent of Earth’s surface. Earth has an atmosphere containing 21% oxygen which helps in the survival of living beings. The gases like nitrogen, CO2, and oxygen in the earth’s atmosphere help plants to grow. Our planet Earth is a rotating sphere that orbits the Sun. Earth is made of rocks and came into existence billions of years ago. Along with the movement, Earth also rotates on its axis from east to west and completes a rotation in 24 hours which we call a solar day. The Earth is located approximately 150 million kilometers from the Sun and this distance is known as Astronomical Unit. It takes about 8.3 minutes for sunlight to reach the Earth. The Earth’s Atmosphere Extends to a Distance of 10,000 km. Earth’s atmosphere nourishes life and protects it from harmful UV rays and meteorites. Earth Day is observed every year on 22nd April to protect the environment. Along with human earth is home to millions of species and plants. The presence of water on the surface of the earth and air in the atmosphere makes life possible here. As the only livable planet of the sun, we should respect and protect our earth from our wrong practices.

STRUCTURE OF EARTH:

​​The earth is made up of three different layers. They are,

· THE CRUST:

This is the outside layer of the earth and is made of solid rock, mostly basalt, and granite. There are two types of a crust; oceanic and continental. Oceanic crust is denser and thinner and mainly composed of basalt. Continental crust is less dense, thicker, and mainly composed of granite.

· THE MANTLE:

The mantle is the layer located directly under the sima. It is the largest layer of the Earth, 1800 miles thick. The mantle is composed of very hot, dense rock. This layer of rock even flows like asphalt under a heavyweight.

· THE CORE:

Earth’s core is the very hot, very dense center of our planet. The ball-shaped core lies beneath the cool, brittle crust and the mostly-solid mantle. The core is found about 2,900 kilometers (1,802 miles) below Earth’s surface and has a radius of about 3,485 kilometers (2,165 miles). The core is made of two layers: the outer core, which borders the mantle, and the inner core. The outer core, about 2,200 kilometers (1,367 miles) thick, is mostly composed of liquid iron and nickel. The inner core is a hot, dense ball of (mostly) iron. It has a radius of about 1,220 kilometers (758 miles). The temperature in the inner core is about 5,200° Celsius (9,392° Fahrenheit). The pressure is nearly 3.6 million atmospheres (atm).

WIND ENERGY

ABOUT WIND ENERGY:

Wind energy is one of the renewable sources of energy. Wind energy is an important non-conventional source of energy. It does not contaminate, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy is one of the methods used to provide electricity. . Wind Energy and Wind Power Wind is an abundant resource on our planet. In wind energy, the wind is used to produce electricity using the kinetic energy created by air in the motion. This is then transformed into electrical energy using wind turbines or wind energy conversion systems. Air flows can be used to run turbines. Wind Power is also used for Pumping Water and Electricity. China is the world’s largest producer of wind energy, with over a third of the world’s capacity. It is currently booming and it has become one of the fastest-growing markets in the world today. Wind power is an alternative source to burning fossils, and it is plentiful, it is renewable, it is clean, it produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation. Wind power is the most efficient technology to produce energy in a safe and environmentally sustainable manner. It currently accounts for more than 3% of the global electricity consumption and is expected to reach 18% in 2050 according to data from the International Energy Agency.

PARTS OF WIND TURBINE:

In wind energy, the electricity is mainly gained with the help of the wind turbine. The different parts of the wind turbine are,

  • Blades:

Most wind turbines designed for the production of electricity have consisted of a two or three-bladed propeller rotating around a horizontal axis. A wind turbine turns wind energy into electricity using the aerodynamic force from the rotor blades, which work like an airplane wing or helicopter rotor blade. When wind flows across the blade, the air pressure on one side of the blade decreases.

  • Rotor:

The rotor is one of the parts of the wind turbine. The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity.

  • Pitch:

Pitch control is the technology used to operate and control the angle of the blades in a wind turbine.

  • Brake:

Mechanical wind turbine brakes have two main uses. They are applied as a backup method of holding the turbine in place for maintenance or repairs, in the case of a failure of the primary rotor lock system. Or in the case of emergencies, such as extreme gusts of the wind or too much speed.

  • Low-speed shaft:

In most large-scale turbines, the low-speed shaft is connected to a gearbox.

  • Gearbox:

A gearbox is typically used in a wind turbine to increase rotational speed from a low-speed rotor to a higher speed electrical generator.

  • Generator:

Wind turbines generate electricity by using wind power to drive an electrical generator.

  • Controller:

The wind farm controller’s function is “power management”. It can initiate and shut down the turbine operation as well as co-ordinate the operation of numerous wind turbines in response to environmental and operating conditions. The wind turbine supervisory controller manages the individual turbine operation.

  • Anemometer:

The anemometer measures wind speed. The wind turbine is only supposed to operate when the wind speed is within a certain range. The anemometer determines when the wind is within the defined range.

  • Wind Vane:

The wind vane, used for indicating wind direction, is one of the oldest meteorological instruments.

  • Nacelle:

The nacelle is the part of the turbine that houses the components that transform the wind’s kinetic energy into mechanical energy to turn a generator that produces electricity.

  • High-speed shaft:

The high-speed shaft drives the generator which produces AC electrical current. Power cables transport electricity to the ground level.

  • Yaw drive:

The yaw drive is an important component of the horizontal axis wind turbines’ yaw system which is used to ensure the wind turbine is producing the maximal amount of electric energy at all times, the yaw drive is used to keep the rotor facing into the wind as the wind direction changes.

  • Yaw motor:

When wind direction changes, a turbine’s controls instruct its yaw motors to reposition the nacelle.

  • Tower:

The tower of the wind turbine carries the nacelle and the rotor.

ADVANTAGES OF WIND ENERGY:

  • An unlimited, free, and renewable resource is the wind.
  • Wind energy does not emit toxic substances or contaminants.
  • It is low-cost energy with a fairly stable price
  • Wind power will require nations to need less and less fuel sources to be imported as our energy will be fully sustained.
  • Wind power has some of the lowest environmental impacts of any source of electricity generation.
  • Wind energy is one of the most environmentally friendly energy sources.
  • Wind energy could generate a significant proportion of your electricity needs.
  • Wind turbines can also be installed at different heights to achieve stable energy production.

India to begin COVID-19 vaccination drive from January 16 and frontline, healthcare workers to get priority.

India to begin COVID-19 vaccination drive from January 16, frontline, healthcare workers to get priority

     The COVID-19 vaccination drive in India will commence on January 16, 2021. The decision of starting the largest vaccination drive was taken in a meeting on January 9 during which PM Modi also reviewed the status of COVID-19 in India.

On 16th January, India takes a landmark step forward in fighting COVID-19. Starting that day, India’s nation-wide vaccination drive begins. Priority will be given to our brave doctors, healthcare workers, frontline workers including Safai Karamcharis. 

Prime Minister also reviewed the preparedness of UTs and states for vaccination against the deadly disease. After the detailed review during the meeting, the decision was taken that in the view of upcoming festivals including Makar Sankranti, Lohri, Magh Bihu, Pongal, etc., the vaccination drive will start from January 16.

As per the release by PMO, priority will be given to the frontline, healthcare workers who are estimated to be around three crores. They will be followed by those who are above 50 years and under 50 population groups with any form of co-morbidities. Their number is around 27 crores.

During the meeting, PM Modi was briefed about the centre’s preparedness status of the drive-in collaboration with UTs and states for the rollout of the vaccine. He was also apprised of the government’s CO-WIN Vaccine delivery management system.

While reviewing the vaccination drive status, PM Modi was informed of the three phases of dry run by the government having been conducted all over the country.

• As per the release, the vaccination drive has been underpinned by the principles of participation by people (jan bhagidari), the Universal Immunization Program, and utilizing the experience of elections.

• The drive will not compromise the existing healthcare services, especially primary healthcare and national programmes. It will be underpinned by no compromise on regulatory and scientific norms and smooth and orderly implementation driven by technology.

• A crucial pillar of the vaccination drive will be comprised of the vaccine administrators and vaccinations. During the meeting, their training process was also detailed out.

• Around 2,360 participants were trained during the national-level training of trainers. It included cold chain officers, immunization officers, development partners, and IEC officials.

• For the drive, more than 2 lakh vaccinators, 61,000 programme managers, and 3.7 lakh team members have been trained. They are trained as part of training at district, state, and block levels.

• The unique digital platform will be providing real-time information on vaccine stocks, the vaccine’s storage temperature, and the tracking of beneficiaries of the vaccine.

• The platform will also be assisting the program managers at all levels for pre-registered beneficiaries. There will also be assistance for their verification and for the generation of the digital certificates on the successful completion of the vaccine schedule.

• On the platform, more than 79 lakh beneficiaries have already registered.

The National regulator granted the emergency use authorization for two vaccines in India- COVAXIN, and Covishield. Both the vaccines have established immunogenicity and safety during the clinical trials.

Have you ever heard of G20?

     The G20 (or the group of Twenty) is an informal group of 19 countries and the European Union. A combination of the world’s largest advanced and emerging economies. The G20 members are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, The U.K, the U.S, and the European Union. The G20 economies together account for nearly 80% of the world’s economic output, two-thirds of the global population, and about half of the world’s land area.

     G20 forum regularly meets to coordinate global policy on economic growth, international trade, health, climate, and other issues. The G20 summit is focused on several key issues such as achieving global economic stability, sustainable growth, prevention of future financial crises, putting in place regulatory mechanisms and action against climate change. The two-day summit concludes with a joint statement issued by the members committing themselves to action. It is significant to note that the resolutions of the G20 are not legally binding, but they do influence the policies of the member countries.

     The G20 was established in December 1999 in response to financial crises faced by a number of countries in the 1990s with the aim of uniting the world around promoting global financial stability. There was also the need to create a more inclusive body with greater representation. What began as a regular forum for finance ministers and central bank governors turned into a key summit in 2008 when the heads of state and government came together for the first time in Washington to discuss the global economy as well as other challenges facing the world. Ever since the leaders have been meeting annually. A series of G20 ministerial events take place during a year.

     Saudi Arabia hosted last year’s G20 summit in Riyadh on November 22 and 23. With the global economy experiencing a sharp contraction in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the G20 leaders have vowed to ensure affordable and equitable access to COVID-19 diagnostics and vaccines around the world. They said they are taking immediate measures to address the health, social and economic impacts arising from the pandemic. A G20 Leader’s Declaration issued at the end of the summit called for coordinated global action, solidarity, and multilateral cooperation to overcome the current challenges and realise opportunities of the 21st Century for all by empowering people, safeguarding the planet, and shaping new frontiers. Italy will host the summit of the high-profile grouping in 2021, Indonesia in 2022, India in 2023, and Brazil in 2024.

  The G20, 2021:  

     The G20, bringing together much of the world’s population and the global economy, must live up to its role. This is why the 2021 G20, under the Italian Presidency, will focus on three broad, interconnected pillars of action: People, Planet, Prosperity.

Within these pillars, they are taking the lead in ensuring a swift international response to the pandemic – able to provide equitable, worldwide access to diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines – while building up resilience to future health-related shocks.

They are also looking beyond the crisis, towards ensuring a rapid recovery that addresses people’s needs. This implies a focus on reducing inequalities, on women’s empowerment, on the younger generations, and on protecting the most vulnerable. It means promoting the creation of new jobs, social protection, and food security.

The G20 is also intent on paving the way to rebuilding differently in the aftermath of the crisis. More efficiently, through better use of renewable energies and with a firm commitment to protecting our climate and our common environment.

This is a prerequisite for our sustained prosperity. A prosperous future, however, also requires that we properly harness the main drivers of growth and innovation. They are working to bridge the digital divide and make digitalization an opportunity for all, improve productivity and – in short –leave no one behind.

BUTTERFLY

ABOUT BUTTERFLY:

The butterfly is one of the most beautiful and wonderful creatures. Both butterflies and moths belong to the Lepidoptera family. Butterflies are flying insects with large scaly wings. We can observe different colors and patterns in the wings. Butterflies have six legs and three main body parts: head, thorax (chest or midsection), and abdomen (tail end). They also have two antennae and an exoskeleton. The butterfly’s body is covered by tiny sensory hairs. The adult butterfly has four wings that are covered with tiny scales that give them their colorful and diverse designs. These are cold-blooded creatures. The group of butterflies is called flutter. Butterflies have an amazing ability to see, smell. Some butterflies can fly as fast as 40 miles per hour. There are a thousand kinds of butterflies. They may vary from small to big. The lifespan of a butterfly varies with factors like size, species, and habitat.

LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY:

There are four stages involved in the life cycle of a butterfly. They are,

  • FIRST STAGE-EGG:

 Butterfly starts their life as an egg. Their egg shape maybe circle, oval or cylindrical depending on the butterfly that laid the egg. Butterflies lay their eggs on a leaf of a plant.

  • SECOND STAGE-THE LARVA(CATERPILLAR):

When the egg hatches caterpillar comes out of it. In this stage they all do is eat. The caterpillar eats the leaf from where they were born.

  • THIRD STAGE-PUPA(CHRYSALIS):

The third stage of the butterfly is the pupa. As soon as a caterpillar is done growing and they have reached their full length/weight, they form themselves into a pupa, also known as a chrysalis. From the outside of the pupa, it looks as if the caterpillar may just be resting, but the inside is where all of the action is. Inside the pupa, the caterpillar is rapidly changing. Within the chrysalis, the old body parts of the caterpillar are undergoing a remarkable transformation, called ‘metamorphosis,’ to become the beautiful parts that make up the butterfly that will emerge. Tissue, limbs, and organs of a caterpillar have all been changed by the time the pupa is finished and is now ready for the final stage of a butterfly’s life cycle.

  • FOURTH STAGE-ADULT BUTTERFLY:

In the final stage, when the caterpillar has done all of its forming and changing inside the pupa, It will have emerged as an adult butterfly. When the butterfly first emerges from the chrysalis, both of the wings are going to be soft and folded against its body. This is because the butterfly had to fit all its new parts inside of the pupa in this stage. As soon as the butterfly has rested after coming out of the chrysalis, it will pump blood into the wings in order to get them working and flapping – then they get to fly. Usually, within a three or four-hour period, the butterfly will become master in flying and will search for a mate in order to reproduce. When in the fourth and final stage of their lives, adult butterflies are constantly on the lookout to reproduce and when a female lays their eggs on some leaves, the butterfly life cycle will start all over.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT BUTTERFLY:

· Some butterfly species migrate from the cold.

· Most butterflies have taste receptors on their feet.

· They’ll even drink the tears of reptiles to get some much-needed sodium.

· Butterflies will not fly if the temperature is below 50 degrees Fahrenheit.

· A butterfly drink its food, with a straw-like tube called a proboscis.

· They can see a range of ultraviolet colors, invisible to human eyes.

POLLUTION

ABOUT POLLUTION:

Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants. These harmful materials are called pollutants. Pollutants can be natural, such as volcanic ash. They can also be created by human activity, such as trash or runoff produced by factories. Pollutants damage the quality of air, water, and land. These pollutants can be natural or can be man-made like, human wastes, ashes, trashes, or wastes runoff from the factories. This is mainly caused by human activities that harm the environment in ways more than one. Pollution is an issue that has been affecting our earth. Pollution is the stuff that pollutes the environment.  It also affects the ordinary living of the living things on this planet by disturbing the natural life cycle. There are several ways in which our environment can get polluted. Some of them being the use of chemicals, excessive noise, garbage disposal, etc. Pollution causes imbalances in the environment. This imbalance threatened the very survival of all forms of life. We should control pollution for our safe survival. Certain species have been exterminated, and humanity is under a great threat of environmental pollution.

TYPES OF POLLUTION:

There are different kinds of pollutions. Some of the major types of pollution are,

  • AIR POLLUTION:

Air pollution refers to any physical, chemical, or biological change in the air. It is the contamination of air by harmful gases, dust, and smoke that affects plants, animals, and humans drastically. The population’s heavy production of waste is the main reason that air pollution is increasing rapidly. The rapidly increasing human activities like the burning of fossil fuel, deforestation is the major cause of air pollution. There are some other air pollutants like industrial waste, agricultural waste, power plants, thermal nuclear plants, etc.

  • WATER POLLUTION:

Water pollution occurs when harmful substances, often chemicals or microorganisms that contaminate a stream, river, lake, ocean, aquifer, or other body of water, degrading water quality and rendering it toxic to humans or the environment. Water pollution is now a major environmental threat to the existence of humans.

  • LAND POLLUTION:

Land pollution is the cause of many different factors that ultimately pollute the land. These factors include solid waste, deforestation, chemical, and agricultural activities. Land pollution is a result of dumping garbage, waste, and other toxins making the land contaminated or polluted. Some soil or land pollutants are chemicals, pesticides and fertilizers, mining activity, use of plastic, deforestation, growing urbanization, and industrial waste.

WAYS TO CONTROL POLLUTION:

Some of the ways to control pollution are,

  • Avoid excessive idling of your automobile.
  • Avoid burning leaves, trash, and other materials.
  • Conserve energy – at home, at work, everywhere.
  • Encourage industries to avoid pollutant formation at the very source by use of cleaner fuels, the adoption of less polluting materials, and technology in manufacture.
  • Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
  • Do not throw waste in water bodies, remain waste of industries should not pour their waste in water bodies.
  • Plant trees.
  • Use fewer chemicals in home gardens and general agriculture.
  • Maintain our vehicles.
  • Conserve electricity.

RAINBOW

ABOUT RAINBOW:

     Rainbow is a natural phenomenon that happens after Rain. It is one of the most beautiful phenomenon created on earth. A rainbow is a multicolored arc in the sky which appears when sunlight hits water droplets. The magical and wonderful phenomenon of a colorful arc in the sky is known as the rainbow. The seven colors that exist in a rainbow are violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red. Rainbows are usually seen on the opposite end of where the sun is located. The Rainbow is a lovable scenery that is colorful and pleasant to eyes. In many Civilizations, rainbows are considered to bring good to society and is a symbol of peace and harmony. Rainbows means peace and harmony in many ancient cultures.  There are two main components by which a rainbow is formed i.e. light and drops of water. The state of Hawaii in America is the only place on earth, where rainbows occur most. When the sun is lower, then the rainbow formed in the sky will be higher. The semicircle formed by rainbow makes a 42-degree angle which starts from the direction opposite to the sun. In simple words, A rainbow is an arc of color in the sky that can be seen when the sun shines through falling rain. The Greeks used to imagine that it was a sign from the gods to foretell war or heavy rain. The Norsemen considered the rainbow as a bridge over which the gods passed from earth to their home in the sky. Others have tried to explain the phenomenon physically.

HOW RAINBOWS ARE FORMED:

     A rainbow is caused by sunlight and atmospheric conditions. Light enters a water droplet, slowing down and bending as it goes from air to denser water. The light reflects off the inside of the droplet, separating into its component wavelengths–or color. When light exits the droplet, it makes a rainbow.  A rainbow is caused by three phenomenon of light – reflection, refraction and dispersion.

TYPES OF RAINBOWS:

Some of the different types of rainbows are,

  • SUPERNUMERARY RAINBOWS:

     Supernumerary rainbows are faint bow lines that appear just inside the main rainbow.

  • MULTIPLE RAINBOW:

      Multiple rainbows are another type of rainbow which is also a rare occurrence. Multiple rainbows are sometimes referred to as double rainbows. As the name suggests, multiple rainbows are instances when more than one rainbow occur simultaneously in the same place and are made up of a primary rainbow and other secondary rainbows. 

  • MONOCHROME RAINBOW:

       A red rainbow, also called a monochrome rainbow, usually appears at sunrise or sunset.

  • HIGHER-ORDER RAINBOW:

      Higherorder rainbows appear to viewers facing both toward and away from the sun.

  • LUNAR RAINBOW:

      A moonbow is also commonly referred to as a lunar rainbow. A moonbow is a rare natural atmospheric phenomena that occurs when the Moon’s light is reflected and refracted off water droplets in the air. Moonbows are much fainter than rainbows made by the sun and often appear to be white.

INTERESTING FACTS OF RAINBOWS:

            Some of the interesting facts about rainbows are,

  • A very rare quadruple rainbow was seen over long Island, NY. In April 2015.In the past 250years, only triple and quadruple rainbows have ever been documented.
  • When you’re flying in an airplane and looking down below, you can actually see a rainbow as a complete circle! If the weather circumstances are just right.
  • A person standing next to you is standing in a slightly different spot and sees the rainbow different because they see different raindrops.
  •  A double rainbow occurs when the light is reflected twice in the raindrop, and thus, you can see two distinct reflections that are coming from two different angles.

WHAT IS FARM BILL 2020?

     We have been hearing the term ‘Farm Bill’ but seriously, What is Farm Bill 2020?  And how it affects the farmers?

     The Farm Bill 2020 refers to the agricultural bills passed by the Lok Sabha on 17 September 2020 and by the Rajya Sabha on 20 September 2020. The bills collectively seek to provide farmers with multiple marketing channels and provide a legal framework for farmers to enter into pre-arranged contracts among other things. The President of India, Ram Nath Kovind gave his assent for the three bills on 27 September 2020. The Farm Bill 2020 includes the three acts

  1. The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Farm Services Act, 2020.
  2. The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020.
  3. The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020.

First of all, What is “The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Farm Services Act, 2020? And how it affects the farmers?”

     It provides a legal framework for farmers to enter into pre-arranged contracts with buyers including mention of pricing and defines a dispute settlement mechanism.

     The agreement will outline conditions for the production of farm products and delivery requirements, the farmer then agrees to the supply products based on the quality standards, and in return, the buyer agrees to buy products. The primary purpose of this act is for contract farming whereas the secondary purpose of this act is to provide a nationwide legal framework wherein the farmer produces crops as per contracts and the central government says that it transforms Indian Agriculture and attracts private investment. As we see it does attracts private investment. This act may lead to the exploitation of farmers legally by buyers.

     Now coming to the second bill “The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020”. It allows the trading of farm goods outside the Physical premises of Mandi and APMC Yard.

     As we know all the subjects in India are divided into three lists

  1. Union List
  2. State List
  3. Concurrent List

Agriculture comes under State List, states like Punjab and Harayana could lose a big source of state revenue. We may have seen our parents going to Mandis’ to buy vegetables and other agricultural products. These Mandis’ are spread across the country. Farmers usually sell their products in Mandis’ and these Mandis’ are managed by the state government through APMC ( Agricultural Produce Market Committee).

There are some conditions for the farmers to sell their products outside Mandis’ because the products which have all the minimum support price need to compulsorily go through Agricultural Produce Market Committee (AMPC).

     Otherwise, farmers can directly sell their products to consumers, the small-scale farmers are still doing it now. If a farmer like a larger-scale farmer wants his products to be sold through the government then he has to notify APMC or trade with only AMPC licensed traders. This bill will allow barrier-free trading of Agricultural produce outside the notified APMC Mandis’. With the help of this bill, the state government will not impose any tax on the purchase and selling of agricultural products outside the Mandis.

     This Bill is more beneficial to Large-scale farmers because it gives more options to them to sell their products and this bill makes hardly a difference to the small-scale farmers because anyhow, they are selling outside the Mandis.

      But the other perspective of this bill is it gives a way to the government to get out of the Agricultural business, once the farmers enter the market, their income will depend upon the ups and downs of the market.

The third bill is ‘The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020’.

     This is not a new bill, the government had an amendment to the existing bill. Basically, it is a law that controls the production, supply, and distribution of certain commodities.

What is the essential commodities bill?

With the help of this law, the government can include new commodities to the essential commodities list to make sure that they are available to everyone when the need arises and take them off this list when the situation improves. For example, if someone illegally stores onions to create artificial demand (Hoarding) the government adds onions to the essential commodities list under this act to make sure that onions are available to the people at the right price.

     Recently in March 2020, the Central government added Masks and sanitizers under this act to make sure that all are available to the people in the pandemic situation at the right price and right quality, and again on 1 July 2020, the government removed them from this act.

     The amendment added in this bill is government removed certain commodities like cereals, pulses, potatoes, onions, edible oilseeds, and oils from this act even though they are daily used by everyone. The government will regulate and supply them only in case of Famine, High Price Rise, or Natural Calamities. There are more conditions to add this into essential commodities

  • If there is a 50% increase in the retail price of Non-Perishable items like cereals, edible oilseeds, and oils then only the government will add them back into the essential commodities list.

For example, If the retail price of the rice is 100 Rupees/Kg and it suddenly increased to 151 Rupees/Kg then, the government adds them back into the essential commodities list until the situation improves.

  • If there is a 100% increase in the retail price of Perishable items like onions, potatoes then only the government will add them back into the essential commodities list.

For example, If the retail price of the potatoes is 50 Rupees/Kg and it suddenly increased to 101 Rupees/Kg then, the government adds them back into the essential commodities list until the situation improves.

In one way this act is a good step because it boosts farmer’s income but on another hand, it leads to hoarding and black marketing.

TREES

ABOUT TREES:

A tree is a tall plant with a trunk and branches made of wood. Trees can live for many years. Trees have a thick wooden central part from which branches grow. A single tree has many roots. The roots can carry nutrients and water from the ground through the trunk and branches to the leaves of the tree. The roots of trees bind the soil and help it from being washed away by water or wind.

BENEFITS OF TREES:

Trees are vital resources for the survival of all living beings. Trees are an important part of the ecosystem. Trees give off oxygen that we need to breathe. They give us oxygen, store carbon, stabilize the soil, and give life to the world’s wildlife. Trees provide fruits, wood, leaves, flowers, rubber, paper, and many other things to human beings. They also provide us with the materials for tools and shelter. Trees clean the air. Trees prevent soil erosion. Trees also provide food, protection, and homes for many birds and mammals. It also provides timber for construction. They also conserve water. They help in fighting back the climate changes by absorbing greenhouse gases which are the main cause of climate change. It helps to maintain balance and also acts as a valuable source of many resources – such as timber, medicine, shelter, raw materials, and more. Trees provide shade, which is needed during the summer months. Trees and their branches are used as a source of fuel. Trees are used to make furniture and other commercial products. We get many medicines from plants like Cinchona, aconite, coriander, digitalis, horehound, tulsi, neem, and garlic. They help in maintaining the right temperature on Earth. During rainy days, soil erosion is prevented with the help of trees. This process purifies the air and keeps the atmosphere clean. Trees also absorb other harmful gases to keep our environment clean. Trees help in balancing the water level in the atmosphere.

INTERESTING FACTS OF TREES:

Some of the interesting facts about trees are,

  • A large oak tree can consume about 100 gallons of water per day, and a giant sequoia can drink up to 500 gallons daily.
  • The rings in a cut tree don’t just reveal its age. They can also show signs of environmental changes, like a volcanic eruption or severe drought.
  • The tallest tree in the country is a Coast Redwood growing in northern California’s Redwood National Park. It is 369 feet tall and over 2000 years old.
  • The world’s shortest tree species is the Dwarf Willow. It is rare to find one more than 2 1/2 inches tall. They are also dioecious, producing both males, yellow-colored and female, red-colored catkins. They have been found growing on the frozen tundra in the Arctic.
  • Wind-blown cottonwood seeds can stay airborne for days before they land. In fact, they can fly longer than any other kind of tree seeds.
  • There is a tree called Rainbow Eucalyptus, with bark having blue, orange, and maroon colors. When the colors combine in sunlight, they give it a particular ‘Rainbow’ effect. This multi-colored tree grows in New Britain, New Guinea, Ceram, Sulawesi, and Mindanao.

Dowry system in India

What is dowry?
It is a cash or a goods that is given by the bride family as a gift to the groom family.

It has become a social evil in this society. The bride family has to go from many pressures with the demand by the groom family in their daughter’s marriage. This can become an issue with raising the girl child. That is why, the life of the girl miserable in some circumstances. If the demand is not fulfilled the marriage can be cancelled or tortured after becoming the wife.

Due to this, many parents abort their girl child or murder them after new born. Many girl child has been found thrown in the dustbin or rivers. The number of dead girl babies has increased in some areas. The number of boys exceed in comparison to girls in the entire population. Dowry has become a greed in today society.

The system of dowry was to give their daughter as a gift so that after the marriage she will be financially independent. The parents give their daughter with their own happiness. But when the demand came from the boy’s family, it has became an social evil.

Every girl should have the right to live their own life. Educate girls and women and make them aware about the social issue. Women can take action against the dowry system as various laws has passed by the government.

RAIN

ABOUT RAIN:

Rain is liquid precipitation which is water falling from the sky. Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is part of the water cycle. A light rain of small drops is known as a drizzle. Spring is the rainiest season of the year as measured by the number of days with precipitation. Rainfall is measured by the depth of water that falls on a level surface without soaking in. Rainfall is measured with a rain gauge.

HOW RAIN IS FORMED? :

Clouds are made of water droplets. Within a cloud, water droplets condense onto one another, causing the droplets to grow. When these water droplets get too heavy to stay suspended in the cloud, they fall to Earth as rain.

IMPORTANCE OF RAIN:

Rain is a wonderful gift of Nature to all mankind. Rain is a major source of water to the inhabitants of the earth, and it also plays a major role in ensuring the water cycle is complete. Rain may be the most essential weather phenomenon for life to exist on Earth. The growth of plants also may depend on rain. Without rain, no crops would grow. If rainfall is less, there is water scarcity which sometimes causes a drought-like situation. It can improve the level of groundwater. Rainfall is also very important for the survival of plants and animals. It brings freshwater to the earth’s surface. With temperature, rainfall is perhaps the most important factor in defining climate. Rainfall is also the major source of energy that drives the circulation of the atmosphere. The rain waters the Earth and refills streams, rivers, lakes, and oceans, and provides the moisture trees and plants use to make their food. This water also gives wild animals the water they need to drink. Thus, Rain is very important.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT RAIN:

Some of the interesting facts about rain are,

* Some regions of the world get rain nearly every day or every other day. Galway, Ireland gets this weather about 220 – 230 days or more each year. Similarly, parts of Hawaii and other tropical areas receive brief spurts of rain on an almost daily basis.

* The place that receives the most annual rainfall on average is a village in India called Mawsynram, Meghalaya, India. They receive about 467 inches each year, most of which falls during monsoon season.

*Drops are not shaped like teardrops as they fall, as is commonly depicted – they are actually dome-shaped.

* When raindrops fall on clay or dusty soils, they trap small air bubbles on the surface which raise upward and burst out of the droplet. This then produces pockets of scent into the air where they are then carried by the wind. This is what causes the familiar smell of rain, which is called ‘Petrichor’.

*Up in the clouds, rain most often starts off as snow. Clouds are made of freezing-cold water droplets and tiny crystals of ice. In most rains, this cold water adheres to ice, forming nascent drops that then fall out of the clouds. As they descend towards the relative warmth of the earth’s surface, they melt and become rain.

* Not all raindrops are made of water: Rain also consists of sulfuric acid or methane, which can also be found on other planets in the solar system.

Kisan Kalyan Mission- to double the income of the farmers

     Uttar Pradesh government is going to launch a special program called  ‘Kisan Kalyan Mission’ to double the profits of the farmers on January 6, 2021. The program will cover all the assembly constituencies of the state. Farmers will be given benefits under the various schemes of the agriculture department during these events. Under the Kisan Kalyan mission, many departments of state government like agriculture marketing Mandi Parishad, Horticulture, animal husbandry, fisheries, sugarcane food and supply, and Panchayati Raj will work together and various programs will be organized across the state.

What happens under the Kisan Kalyan Mission:

  • Under this mission, various programs will be organized, Exhibition of Agriculture and the associate sectors will be organized which will be including the products of livelihood missions and MSME sector units.
  • Under the program, farmer meetings will be organized in which scientists, progressive farmers, and the workers associated with the Agriculture Department will be explaining scientific farming. They will also be providing information about the schemes of the government.
  • During the events organized under the program, farmers will also be benefitted from various schemes of the agriculture department.

The UP government under the program is also likely to felicitate 100 ‘progressive farmers’ in each district of the state. According to the Chief Secretary of the state, 100 progressive farmers in each district will be chosen as role models and will be congratulated. The government will also prepare their databases.

The farmer will also be coached in terms of the latest farming guidelines. It will help the farmers in getting benefit from the various schemes of the center such as PM Kisan Samman Nidhi, Kisan Credit Cards, and PM Fasal Bima Yojana.

MUSIC

ABOUT MUSIC :

Music is vocal or instrumental sounds (or both) combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion. It is a form of art. Music is a part of all of our lives, from when we’re growing up to when we’re old. Music is the sound that is pleasing to the human ear. Music is loved by most of the people. Music also makes us excited. Music is a thing that we all enjoy in the course of our lives. Music makes us joy and listening to a favorite song may help to uplift your mood. Music has the ability to convey all sorts of emotions to people. Music can match and manipulate our moods and emotions. Music is not only created by humans but also from the nature such as birds chirping, the whistle in the wind, the sound of rain, etc…. Music can be performed with a wide variety of vocal techniques and instruments. There are different elements of music such as structure, form, articulation, expression, dynamics, color or timber, voice allocation, style, texture, harmony, melody, rhythm, tempo, pulse, or beat and pitch. A person who sings a song is known as a singer. Anyone who composes conducts, or performs music may be referred to as a musician. The other words for the musician are composer, performer, soloist, symphonist, virtuoso, player, entertainer, etc…. There are different kinds of instruments such as percussion, string, brass, woodwind, and piano/keyboard.

TYPES OF MUSIC GENRES:

There are different types of music genres there. Some of them are,

  • POP MUSIC
  • ROCK
  • HIP HOP MUSIC
  • CLASSIC MUSIC
  • FOLK MUSIC
  • BLUES
  • RHYTHM AND BLUES
  • PUNK ROCK
  • COUNTRY MUSIC
  • INDIE ROCK

IMPORTANCE OF MUSIC:

Music has the great qualities of healing a person emotionally and mentally. Music is one of the most calming and soothing things. Music can also make a person calm and relaxed. It has the power to cure diseases such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, etc. Music can also make excitement. There is one language that we all can understand is the language of music. Music is also an important part of our life because it is a way of expressing our feelings as well as emotions. Music may also reduce stress, depression, etc….Music may also help us to enhance the ability to do a work. Music also entertains us. Music improves our minds. Music is also helps us to develop the memorizing capability.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT MUSIC:

  • The Japanese word ‘Karaoke’ comes from a phrase meaning ‘Empty Orchestra’
  • Music is one of the few activities in our life that utilizes the entire brain
  • The world’s longest concert by multiple artists took place from March 17 to April 5, 2017
  • Listening to music while working out measurably improves the physical performance
  • When you listen to music, your body releases dopamine, the same hormone released in the brain when you do exciting or pleasurable activities.
  • The most expensive instrument is a Stradivarius violin called Lady Blunt, which was made in 1741 and sold in 2011 for $15.9 million

ISRO is working on environment-friendly fuels for its rockets

Besides greenhouse gas pollution, kerosene-fueled rockets transport large amounts of black carbon, also known as soot, into the upper layers of the atmosphere. There, it remains for a long time, creating an umbrella that may add to global warming. Besides greenhouse gas pollution, kerosene-fueled rockets transport large amounts of black carbon, also known as soot, into the upper layers of the atmosphere. There, it remains for a long time, creating an umbrella that may add to global warming. Ross estimates that rocket launches around the world inject 10 gigagrams, or 11,000 tons, of soot and alumina particles into the atmosphere each year.

     Rockets emit a variety of substances depending on their propellant. Some, like liquid hydrogen and oxygen (H2/O2) are very clean, emitting mainly water (H2O) and some nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by the heat of combustion. Others, like aluminum/ammonium perchlorate (or “Solid Rocket Motors”, SRMs) release hydrochloric acid (HCl) and alumina (Al2O3) particles. Rockets that use hydrazine (N2H4) and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) (sometimes called “hypergolic”, because these chemicals spontaneously ignite on contact) produce large quantities of nitrogen oxides, which can further react with water vapor and sulfate in the atmosphere to form small particles containing nitric acid. Kerosene rockets (essentially “aircraft fuel”) produce CO2 and black carbon (“soot”), which are climate-active gases (meaning that they absorb infrared or visible light, heating the surrounding air).

There is a new type of propellant called “hybrid” that is being used by some private companies. Hybrids are a mixture of a liquid oxidizer, nitrous oxide (N2O), and solid synthetic rubber (butadiene) that, when burned in the oxygen-poor environment of the upper atmosphere produce CO2 and large amounts of soot and probably large amounts of nitric oxides (although there are no measurements in these plumes to verify the presence of NOx).

     The Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization, K. Shivan has informed that the Indian space rockets are ready to go green as the space agency has been working to replace its existing hazardous fuels for its satellites and rockets.

     ISRO Chief also informed that the space agency has been looking at green propulsion through hydrogen peroxide in its rocket propulsion through hydrogen peroxide in its rocket that will take Indians into space under its ambitious ‘Gaganyan’ mission. He further added that since humans will be inside the rocket, there should only be non-hazardous fuel to power the human space mission’s rocket.

     The space agency has also been looking at the rocket engines that are powered by hydrogen peroxide as a bi-propellant or as a mono-propellant along with ethanol. It has also been developing another green fuel- LOX/Methane-where liquid oxygen will work as oxidizer and methane as fuel.

     This propellent also has advantages in terms of storability, specific impulse, cost, and low toxicity. As per the ISRO Chief, the space agency has also been looking to replace its existing liquid engine fuels with environment-friendly fuel-powered ones. ISROSENE has been developed by the space agency which is a rocket-grade version of Kerosene. It will be an alternative to the conventional hydrazine rocket fuel.

     While talking about powering the satellites, ISRO Chief informed that the space agency has been working towards lightweight electrical propulsion in place of the chemical fuel.

     Currently, ISRO can put into orbit communication satellites that weigh up to four tonnes with its rockets. Satellites over four tonnes are being orbited using Ariane rocket of Arianespace, a European Space Agency.

STORYBOOKS

WHAT IS STORYBOOK? :

A storybook is a book of stories usually for children. A storybook relationship, situation, or life is one that is perfect and ends happily, just as many fairy stories do. There is also Children’s Picture Storybook which is a work written for children that use both text and illustrations to present a simple plot. Someone who tells or writes stories is known as storytellers.

IMPORTANCE OF STORYBOOKS:

Stories are a great way to introduce new words and the ideas into a child’s language. Storybooks encourages the children to read books further. Reading skills are important for success in their future lives. Reading stories can be helpful for relaxation, before bedtime for example. They allow children to forget the stresses and strains of the day and indulge in fantasy for a while. Reading also helps children improve their confidence levels. The storybook also increases our general knowledge. It also improves our mental ability and reading ability. Storybooks teach us various lessons and morals.

SOME OF THE INTERESTING STORYBOOKS ARE:

There are many storybooks there. Some of the interesting storybooks are,

  • Winnie the Pooh:

Winnie-the-Pooh is a best-selling classic children’s book. It is the first volume of stories about Winnie-the-Pooh, written by A. A. Milne and illustrated by E. H. The Winnie the Pooh Storybook was created to show little ones what it means to be a true friend.

  • The rainbow fish:

.           The Rainbow Fish is a children’s picture book drawn and written by author and illustrator, Marcus Pfister, and translated into English by J. Alison James. The book is best known for its message about selfishness and sharing and the distinctive shiny foil scales of the Rainbow Fish. In this story, Rainbow Fish learns that he must share and learn to be friendly so that other fish will want to be his friend

  • The Gruffalo:

The Gruffalo was written by Julia Donaldson. It is illustrated by Axel Scheffler. The moral of the story is, really, no matter how small or how big you are, you can get yourself out of any situation.

  • The Ugly Duckling:

Ugly Duckling is a fairytale written by the Danish author and poet Hans Christian Anderson. “The Ugly Duckling” is a fairy tale with the moral lesson for people to accept themselves for who they truly are. This popular tale has been adapted to many films, musicals, and dramas.

  • The tortoise and the hare:

The author of the story “The tortoise and the hare” is Aseop. This story tells us that you can be more successful by doing things slowly and steadily than by acting quickly and carelessly. Slow and steady wins the race is the moral of the story.

  • The Jungle book:

The Jungle Book is a collection of stories by the English author Rudyard Kipling. This book is great for kids who love animals and adventure. The most important life lesson in Jungle Book is to not be a coward. We need to face our fears, gain confidence, and triumph over them.

Music as a lifestyle

Music is beneficial both for mental and physical health. When you hear music you feel happy and you forgot the most stressful moments in your life. Music makes you fell exited and it can calm you down. More than million people suffers from depression. Study shows that music can really reduce the tensions.

People suffering from insomnia can be helpful by listening to music.Listening to music help the muscles to get relaxed due to which we get a healthy sleep. Some people also listen to music while doing household chores.People exercise while listening to music. This will motivate them to be more fit and healthy.

Learning instruments can make you successful. Researchers said that learning music or instrument can level up your IQ. Learning music is type of learning new language. It also helps to increase your memory power.

Some people like to put earphones or headphones while listening to music. These people are very lonely or alone or going through hardships in life. They listens to music escape from the pain and stress they are suffering from. The soothing music in restaurants or in parties can enlighten with positive vibes.

Music has become the most important part of us. People like to get attached with the music.

Ganymede – Largest Moon in Solar System

Jupiter has 79 moons, 53 named and 26 unnamed, still waiting for their official name. Among them is a moon named Ganymede, is the largest satellite in our Solar System. It has it’s own magnetic field. It has a diameter of 5,268 km which is larger than Mercury and Pluto, and slightly smaller than Mars. It would be easily classified as a planet if it were orbiting around the sun rather than jupiter.  It is the ninth-largest object in the Solar System. It orbits around the Jupiter at a distance of 1070400 km.

Ganymede was discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7, 1610. The discovery, along with three other Jovian moons, was the first time a moon was discovered orbiting a planet other than Earth. Galileo called this moon Jupiter III. Its name was abandoned in mid-1800s and a new name was given as suggested by astronomer Simon Marius, after the mythological Ganymede, a Trojan prince desired by Zeus (the Greek counterpart of Jupiter), who carried him off to be the cupbearer of the gods.

Several spacecraft have flown by Jupiter and its moons. The first spacecraft explored Ganymede was Pioneer 10 in 1973 followed by Pioneer 11 in 1974. Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 returned striking photos during their flybys. The Galileo spacecraft passed as low as 162 miles (261 km) over the surfaces of the Galilean moons and produced detailed images and discovered Ganymede’s underground ocean and magnetic field.

The next planned mission to the Jovian system is the European Space Agency’s Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), due to launch in 2022 for arrival at Jupiter in 2030. While the mission will look at Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. Ganymede will be the focus and scientists will try to figure out more about its ocean and icy crust, map its surface in detail, learn about the interior, probe the atmosphere and study the magnetic field.

In February 2014, NASA and the United States Geological Survey unveiled the first detailed map of Ganymede in images and a video animation created using observations from NASA’s Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft, as well as the dedicated Jupiter-orbiting Galileo spacecraft.

Ganymede has three main layers. A sphere of metallic iron at the center (the core, which generates a magnetic field) above which is a spherical shell of rock (mantle) and then the spherical shell of mostly ice surrounding the rock shell and the core. According to scientists the ice shell on the outside is very thick, maybe 800 km (497 miles) thick. The surface is the very top of the ice shell. Though it is mostly ice, the ice shell might contain some rock mixed in. Scientists believe there must be a fair amount of rock in the ice near the surface. Ganymede’s magnetic field is embedded inside Jupiter’s massive magnetosphere.


40 percent of the surface of Ganymede is covered by highly dark cratered dark regions and the remaining 60 percent is covered by a light grooved terrain, which forms intricate patterns across Ganymede. The grooved terrain is probably formed by tensional faulting or the release of water from beneath the surface. Groove ridges as high as 700m and runs for thousands of kilometres across Ganymede’s surface. The grooves have relatively few craters and probably developed at the expense of the darker crust. The dark regions on Ganymede are old and rough and the dark cratered terrain is believed to be the original crust of the satellite. Lighter regions are young and smooth.The largest area on Ganymede is called Galileo Region.

Scientists believe that Ganymede has a saltwater ocean below its surface. In 2015, a study by the Hubble Space Telescope looked at Ganymede’s auroras and how they change between Ganymede’s and Jupiter’s magnetic fields. The “rocking” seen by the auroras gives evidence that the probable ocean underneath is salty, more salty than oceans of Earth, scientists said at the time.

Some scientists believe that life may start in Ganymede. However there is so high pressure at the base of the ocean that any water down there would turn to ice. This would make it difficult for any hot-water vents to bring nutrients into the ocean. Because of which scientists believe extraterrestrial life would occur. This would be so fascinating to know about extraterrestrial life if it would exist in our own Solar System.

FESTIVALS OF INDIA

INDIAN FESTIVALS:

Festivals fill our lives with colors and enthusiasm. India is a beautiful land of festivals and fairs. India celebrates the most number of cultural and religious festivals than any other country in the world. There are more festivals celebrated in India than anywhere else in the world. Various festivals are celebrated across India. From small villages to big cities celebrate festivals with great excitement and joyfulness. People visit each other’s houses to celebrate and offer the best wishes for the festivals. Special arrangements are made for the celebration of various festivals each year. Indians celebrate both religious and National festivals with great enthusiasm.

IMPORTANCE OF FESTIVALS:

Festivals are a great part of human life as they bring in a lot of happiness and break the monotonous schedule of our lives. Festival keeps the people united. Festivals are a wonderful way to express joy, culture, and heritage. Festivals also give a sense of enjoyment, joy, fun, relaxation, and offer the time needed to bond with family members.

SOME OF THE INDIAN FESTIVALS ARE:

There are various festivals celebrated in India. Some of the festivals celebrated in India are,

  • Holi:

                Holi is a Hindu spring festival celebrated in February or March. The Holi Festival is celebrated as a way to welcome in spring, and also is seen as a new beginning where people can release all their inhibitions and start fresh. During the Holi Festival, people dance through the streets and throw colored dye on each other.

  • Diwali:

                Diwali is a festival celebrated with Lights. It is held from October to November. Diwali marks the biggest celebration of the year. During Diwali, people wear their finest clothes, illuminate the interior and exterior of their homes with Diya and rangoli, perform worship ceremonies of Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity and wealth, light fireworks, and partake in family feasts, where mithai (sweets) and gifts are shared.

  • Dussehra:

                Dussehra is the tenth and final day of the Hindu festival of Navaratri, usually in October. Dussehra, also called Dasara or Vijayadashami, in Hinduism, holiday marking the triumph of Rama, an avatar of Vishnu, over the 10-headed demon king Ravana, who abducted Rama’s wife, Sita. Many people of the Hindu faith observe Dussehra through special prayer meetings and food offerings to the gods at home or in temples throughout India. They also hold outdoor fairs (mela) and large parades with effigies of Ravana (a mythical king of ancient Sri Lanka). The effigies are burnt on bonfires in the evening.

  • Eid al-Fitr:

                   Eid al-Fitr is the Muslim festival marking the end of the fast of Ramadan. Eid in Arabic means “feast, festival, holiday.” Eid al-Fitr features two to three days of celebrations that include special morning prayers. People greet each other with “Eid Mubarak,” meaning “Blessed Eid” and with formal embraces. Sweet dishes are prepared at home and gifts are given to children and those in need.

  • Christmas:

                    The day known as Christmas Day is celebrated on the 25th day of December. Christmas is celebrated to remember the birth of Jesus Christ. Some Christians start Christmas Day with a midnight service, called Midnight Mass. Christians often celebrate Christmas by giving and receiving presents and cards. This reminds them of the gift of Jesus, beginning his earthly life.

Theory of Trusteeship

Mahatma Gandhi, the father of our nation who fought for our independence of our country. His doctrines and views in society, education, economy, peace, women, Dalit etc may still prove the guiding to the present day world.He proposed a theory of trusteeship where he said that the money you earn should cover your necessary expenses and remaining money should be used for the welfare of the society. You are just a trustee not a owner.According to gandhiji everything belonged to god and was given by God. Therefore it is for the the whole not for a particular individual.

According to this theory the wealthy people should act like trustee that would benefit for the society. When an individual has more proportionate of money, he should become the trustee of that portion for the God’s people. Any business sector they should set up trust of certain amount of profit and that trust should be work in terms of health, charity, education etc to serve the society.
The corporates when reaching the highest position of wealth should understand the responsibility of poor section of society. This would reduce the indifference between them.

Gandhiji said that when the business are done the resources are being used by the society only. So they should also do something to serve the society. They should not think of their own profit. Gandhiji wanted the egalitarian order of society that means equal distribution of wealth. He wanted the wealthy people to share the surplus amount of money by becoming a trustee for the society.

This will reduce the difference among the rich and the poor. The wealth legally belong to the owner but morally and ethically it belongs to the society. Ganghiji ideas have to be given economic consideration for solving depressing socio-economic problems in an underdeveloped country.

“To honor indigenous people, the Australian government amends National Anthem,” says The Prime Minister.

“To honor indigenous people, the Australian government amends National Anthem,” says The Prime Minister.

     According to the Prime Minister of Australia Scott Morrison, the country brought in the New Year in a different way by tweaking their National Anthem ‘Advance Australia Fair’ in order to recognize the nation’s indigenous communities and history. The change in the anthem took effect on January 1, 2021.

     Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia before British colonization. They include the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia. The term Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, or the person’s specific cultural group (their mob), is often preferred, though the terms First Nations of Australia, First Peoples of Australia, and First Australians are also increasingly common.

     The first line of the anthem, “Australians all let us rejoice, for we are young and free”, will now be ending with “one and free” to honor indigenous people. The change in the anthem reflects the spirit of unity and Australia’s Indigenous population. The National Anthem ‘Australia Fair’ was composed by Peter Dodds McCormick. It was first performed in 1878 and was later adopted as the National Anthem in 1984.

     According to the Prime Minister, it is time to ensure that the great unity in the country is reflected more fully in the National Anthem as Australia was the most successful multicultural nation in the world.

     He added that Australia as a modern nation may be young but its story is ancient, as are the stories of many First Nations Peoples whose stewardship we respect and acknowledge. He added that in the spirit of unity, it is rightful that the national anthem of Australia represents this truth and appreciation.

     Ken Wyatt, the Minister of the Indigenous Australians informed that he had been asked and consulted about the change in the anthem and he had decided to give his complete support.

     The first indigenous Australian who was elected to the federal Parliaments lower house added that the one-word change was small in nature but has greater significance. He mentioned that the change is an admission of the fact that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures go back to 65,000 years.

     The change in the anthem came less than two months after Gladys Berejiklian, New South Wales State Premier, extended support for the indigenous people of Australia about the change in the anthem. She mentioned that this a disappointing way to end 2020 and to start in 2021. She further added ‘Everything about us, without us’.