The Kargil War

Here’s what happened between India and Pakistan!

The Genesis:

Twenty-two years ago, on JULY 26, the Indian Army with armed forces recaptured all posts in Kargil, Jammu and Kashmir which were captured by Pakistan’s Army. Since then it is a day to commemorate the victory of the Indian Army over Pakistan’s Army. This is called the ‘Kargil war’ or ‘Kargil conflict’. The Kargil war became the first ‘live’ war in South Asia and it was given such detailed media coverage all over the world.

India
India

The War

It was an armed conflict fought between India and Pakistan from May to July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir(now Ladakh). In India, they referred to it as “Operation Vijay”. The war took place between 3 May -26 July 1999 which was exactly two months, three weeks, and two days.

Cause of War

It began with the infiltration of both regular Pakistani troops and terrorists into Indian territory. The intruders positioned themselves in key locations that gave them a strategic advantage during the start of the conflict. They disguised themselves as Kashmiri militants on the Indian side of LOC.

The Indian Army 

The Indian Army was lead by Gen.Ved Prakash Malik of Indian ground troop and ACM Anil Yashwant Tipnis of Indian Air Force. In India, the operation was given the codename “Operation Safed Sagar”.

The Indian Army, supported by The Indian Air Force recaptured the majority of the positions in the Indian side of the LOC. The Indian Army had a strength of about 30,000 which was strong enough to win Pakistan Troops.

The Cost of War

The victory came at a high price. The official death toll on the Indian side was 527 and 1623 wounded, while that on the Pakistani side was between 357-453 and 1000+ wounded. But also for India, it created a good impact on the stock hike by 30% from the end of the Kargil war to February 2000.

The Indian Army after victory at Kargil
The Indian Army after victory at Kargil

Kargil Vijay Diwas

The Indian Army declared the mission successful on July 26, 1999. Since then the day has been celebrated annually as Kargil Vijay Diwas.

TRAVAILS OF LOVE

To a significant extent, the difficulties of same-sex love have been a matter of discussion. The horrors perpetrated against these people are numerous and terrible, ranging from bullying to harassment. Promiscuity (indiscriminate sexual partner selection) has been a fundamentally ethical education in and of itself. In so-called “ethical education,” being who you have no place. Even if there are numerous unsolved concerns, the law is unconcerned about them. In the eyes of the law, people’s particular identities are irrelevant. In the case of homosexuals, one partner is nothing more than a friend of the other in the eyes of the law. Following a flurry of rages and discussions, the Indian Supreme Court approved same-sex marriage. It is the culmination of two decades of unrelenting battles. Thousands of people gather every year in February to celebrate LGBTQ pride by rallying on the streets and hope for society to accept them in every state of India. The LGBTQ community is plagued by a slew of issues. The primary issue is getting people outside the community to accept you.

Lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender individuals, queers, intersex, and asexuals are all part of the LGBTQIA community. A lesbian is a woman who is attracted to another woman; a gay is a man who is attracted to another man; a bisexual is a person who is attracted to more than one gender; a transgender is a person whose gender identity differs from the sexual identity assigned to them at birth; Queers are gender minorities who are not heterosexual or cisgender. Intersex refers to a group of circumstances in which a person is born with reproductive or sexual anatomy that does not appear to fit the traditional classifications of female and male. Asexual refers to a person who has no sexual desires or sensations. Because the word “queer” denotes “weird,” “odd,” or “funny,” it relates to the degrading of that particular community. It reflects society’s obnoxious and patriarchal attitude toward the LGBT community. The LGBTQ community has been constantly scrutinized by the outside world. We live in a world where LGBTQ persons are reluctant to tell their parents about their sexual orientation. Every year, a large number of LGBT persons confront significant challenges such as assault, unemployment, prejudice, poverty, and a lack of access to health care. This is due to the discriminatory behavior of society, which instills the people’s mentality. Many people still have no idea what LGBTQ is or what it stands for. Even if a large number of people are educated, others remain illiterates in this subject, despite their acceptance. ‘Gay abandon’ is a relatively common occurrence.

Homosexuality was once considered a felony in India, thanks to Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code. Section 377 refers to ‘unnatural offenses,’ and states that anybody who voluntarily engages in sexual intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman, or animal shall be punished with life imprisonment or imprisonment of either sort for a term up to ten years, as well as a fine. This exemplifies the morality enshrined in India’s constitution.

Spiritual person

The Mindful World

The first thing that caught my eye about The Mindful World is just how beautiful their site design is. This is one good looking mindfulness blog.

It takes more than just good looks to be included in this list of the best spiritual blogs, though. And, indeed, The Mindful World has a lot of depth behind that pretty exterior.

The Mindful World is a group of individuals who are passionate about spreading mindfulness around the world. Their articles are very in-depth and some of the most professionally written pieces on any spiritual website.

Excerpt from CONFRONTING REALITY: The lie of Evidence-Based Treatment and how it affects psychological therapy for abused children

“The scientific process is supposed to be the golden standard for the pursuit of knowledge and truth. When asked to think of a scientist, many people will imagine a somewhat “nerdish” individual who’s often more comfortable with numbers than people.

We imagine these scientists as being wholly dedicated to their research and unwavering in their pursuit of the truth. The idea that many published scientists are heavily influenced by politics, that scientific journals often compromise their standards for publications, and that many universities look the other way to secure federal funding, often comes as a shock to most people.”

Change Your Energy

Change Your Energy is a spiritual healing blog. It reads like a self improvement blog, packed full of excellent advice on articles on all manner of self development topics. Every article is full of spiritual guidance and offers inspiration for developing your spiritual life. Change Your Energy is is also one of the most professionally presented spiritual blogs.

My favourite excerpt : From the article “Sing As If Speaking, Dance As If Walking”

“Do you pick up your smartphone, look for people to chat with, or go to the TV or Internet because time alone is lonely, strange, or difficult? You can be a wonderful friend to yourself, incomparably better than any person or any machine.

Here is a suggestion for enjoying spending time with yourself: Sing and dance for 30 minutes every day. Try to sing as if speaking and to dance as if walking.

Enjoy being immersed in yourself, regardless of what other people think. The time you enjoy spending with yourself is time for changing your energy and for accumulating energy. You can encounter your soul as you sing and dance.

Mom On A Spiritual Journey:
Mom on a Spiritual Journey is the blog of Sarah Lawrence Hinson. Sarah gives spiritual coaching sessions and writes articles about both her personal life and about spiritual energy.
My favourite excerpt:
From “6 tips for driving your car as a spiritual practice”
“MAKE YOUR CAR A NO PHONE ZONE LIKE OPRAH SAYS.  I’ll be the first to admit that I am useless at using a phone and driving, in fact I’m a downright danger so don’t do it at all.  Just because you might be better than me doesn’t mean you should do it too though.  If the phone rings and I am alone, I pull over if I know I’m waiting for an important call.  If you work a lot on your phone, get hands free…it’s not the greatest idea but it could save your life.  If I have the girls in the car then they answer the phone for me.  When it’s their turn to learn to drive, texting and driving will not be acceptable because I DON’T DO IT

Spiritual Awakening Process:

Spiritual Awakening Process discusses many aspects of spirituality and offers practical advice to improve your spiritual life. The best part of Spiritual Awakening Process is the one hour sessions that can be booked and which offer help for you on your spiritual journey. Definitely a great spiritual blog.

LINK: SPIRITUAL AWAKENING

Favourite Except: From “Awakening”

“Life inside the awakening is a whole other beast. Many people focus on the singular point of awakening, that amazing “Ah-ha!” moment. However, while that is a critical piece of the awakening process, so is the transition from sleep-mode to every moment awakeness. The awakening ushers in a time of transition that is unsettled, unstable, and unique. It is a time of embracing new and amazing parts of you and then trying to crawl right back into bed. It is a time of expansion and contraction as you grow and then shrink back to the core issues that are still unresolved and holding you back.”

Spiritual Awakening Process:

Spiritual Awakening Process discusses many aspects of spirituality and offers practical advice to improve your spiritual life. The best part of Spiritual Awakening Process is the one hour sessions that can be booked and which offer help for you on your spiritual journey. Definitely a great spiritual blog.

LINK: SPIRITUAL AWAKENING

Favourite Except: From “Awakening”

“Life inside the awakening is a whole other beast. Many people focus on the singular point of awakening, that amazing “Ah-ha!” moment. However, while that is a critical piece of the awakening process, so is the transition from sleep-mode to every moment awakeness. The awakening ushers in a time of transition that is unsettled, unstable, and unique. It is a time of embracing new and amazing parts of you and then trying to crawl right back into bed. It is a time of expansion and contraction as you grow and then shrink back to the core issues that are still unresolved and holding you back.”

Tiny Buddha

Tiny Buddha is an absolutely wonderful spiritual blog that is mostly a mindfulness blog. It matches cuteness and fun with insight and wisdom. It’s also got more Facebook followers than anyone else on this list, partly because it was a pioneer of the whole spiritual blogging movement.

Excerpt from : Boost Your Happiness: 10 Mindfulness Tips for Busy People

“Do you ever feel as though you would be happy if only things were a little different?

You know that happiness is important, but you keep putting it on the backburner because there simply isn’t enough time to prioritize your own inner joy.

And at the same time, you know that meditation would help, but you can’t even imagine where you’re going to get the spare time you need to sit still and meditate.

In an ideal world, we would schedule moments every day in which to cater to our health needs, because health and well-being are paramount. Yet despite our best efforts we will inevitably face those times when we’re busy every minute of the day. I know I’ve been there.”

Top social media marketing blogs

The world of Social Media is probably responsible for more innovation in digital marketing over the past 5 to 10 years than nearly any other discipline. From ephemeral story based content to live video to all the things being done with data for more personalized marketing, staying in top of what’s real vs. the hype in marketing is increasingly difficult.

Top help marketers find great sources of marketing advice, we’ve curated the BIGLIST of marketing blogs and more recently a marketing blogs from martech companies. Adding to that curation effort and our own solid social media marketing advice is today’s list of social media marketing blogs.

This list focuses in on blogs covering all aspects of social media marketing including the usual suspects of platforms including Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and LinkedIn as well as newer platforms like TikTok. From trends to strategies to tactics to analytics, this group of blogs about social media and marketing is a great mix of big names, publications, platforms and a few names that are hopefully new to you.

1. Adweek Social Pro Daily @adweek
Platform news, industry trends and plenty of brand examples.
Our favorite post: Social Networks Finally Bypassed Print Newspapers as a Primary Source of News

2. Andrea Vahl Blog @AndreaVahl
Everything you wanted to know about Facebook advertising plus a glimpse of “Grandma Mary”.
Our favorite post: Facebook Video Ads – What’s Working Now

3. Awario Blog @AwarioApp
Social media monitoring, selling, research and influencer marketing advice.
Our favorite post: 10 of the best social media marketing tools for 2019

4. Brian Solis @briansolis
One of the true pioneering thought leaders on social media that continues to offer strategic insights – including how to temper social media use for a more creative, productive and happy life ala Lifescale.
Our favorite post: The Past, Present And Future Of Social Media – How We Fell To The Dark Side And Why The Force Is With Us

5. Brand24 Blog @brand24
Social listening, marketing and industry news plus best practices on everything from hashtags to social influencers.
Our favorite post: A Complete Guide to Social Media Analysis

6. CinchShare Blog @CinchShare
Social Media Marketing tips for small business including Instagram, Facebook, Pinterest and blogging advice.
Our favorite post: Grow your team on Facebook by doing these 3 things

7. Digimind Blog @digimindci
Social insight driven marketing advice, competitive social intelligence tips and soup to nuts social media campaign direction for agencies.
Our favorite post: Optimize Your Content Marketing Strategy in 13 Steps with Social Media Intelligence

8. DreamGrow Blog @dreamgrow
Social Media Marketing advice plus curated lists of resources.
Our favorite post: How To Integrate Social Media With eCommerce in 2019

9. Facebook Business Blog @facebook
Official blog from Facebook on advertising news, best practices and thought leadership.
Our favorite post: Turn Interested Shoppers Into Buyers with a Guided Shopping Experience in Messenger

10. Falcon Insights Hub @falconio
Social Media Marketing strategy, tactics and ROI measurement plus platform specific best practices.
Our favorite post: 5 Social Media Trends to Watch in 2019

11. Gary Vaynerchuk Blog @garyvee
The content machine that is Garyvee covers social media marketing thought leadership, trends, news and practical advice for specific social networks.
Our favorite post: 5 LinkedIn Marketing Strategies for 2019

12. Gleam Blog @gleamapp
A lot of how to social media marketing content, tips on using Gleam apps and advice on social contests, giveaways, coupons and product hunts.
Our favorite post: Stop Buying Likes: 25+ Tips to Drive Real Engagement on Facebook

13. Grow @markwschaefer
Mark Schaefer’s blog on the intersection of marketing, technology and humanity featuring provocative insights on industry trends, featured examples of social media and marketing in action and practical advice.
Our favorite post: What Is Your Social Media Marketing Purpose? (If You Don’t Know, This Will Help)

14. Hopper HQ Blog @hopper_hq
All things Instagram marketing ranging from trends to tips and a bit of advice on working with social influencers too.
Our favorite post: How to Measure B2B Social Media Marketing Success

15. Hot in Social Media @hotinsm
Social platform news and tips covering the gamut of social media marketing topics plus curated advice from industry experts.
Our favorite post: How to Use TikTok Like a PRO: Actionable Tips for Marketers

16. Iconosquare Blog @iconosquare
Focused information on marketing with Facebook and Instagram.
Our favorite post: Instagram Marketing Strategy: Your A-Z Guide

17. Instagram Business Blog @instagram
Official blog from Instagram sharing platform updates, features advertising advice.
Our favorite post: Creative Secrets of Instagram Stories

18. Jeff Bullas Blog @jeffbullas
Social Media Marketing best practices from Jeff and guest contributors.
Our favorite post: 9 Insider Tips For Increasing Your LinkedIn Leads

19. Jon Loomer Blog @jonloomer
This blog is Facebook marketing central – everything you ever wanted to know.
Our favorite post: How to Edit a Facebook Ad and Retain Social Proof

20. Karen’s PR & Social Media Blog @kfreberg
Dr. Karen Freberg’s take on social media marketing, PR and crisis communications.
Our favorite post: Super Bowl 2019: Trends & Takeaways from a Social Media Professor

21. Katie Lance Blog @katielance
Great example of a personal brand showcasing social media marketing advice with a slant towards the real estate audience.
Our favorite post: How to Attract Your Dream Client Through Social Media and Storytelling

22. Keyhole Blog @keyholeco
Recent attention to a variety of social media marketing tools as well as practical advice for Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and hashtag marketing.
Our favorite post: Hashtags: A Beginner’s Guide and How to Use them Effectively – Keyhole

23. Later Blog @latermedia
Instagram Marketing strategy, tips, tools, resources and guides.
Our favorite post: Real or Fake: 5 Instagram Algorithm Rumors Explained

24. LinkedIn Marketing Solutions Blog @linkedinmktg
Official blog from Linkedin offering marketing thought leadership, industry trends, news and practical advice on how to make the most of marketing and advertising on LinkedIn. (client)
Our favorite post: 10 Content Ideas for your LinkedIn Page

25. Louise Myers Visual Social Media Blog @Louise_Myers
Practice visual social media marketing tips for Facebook, Instagram, and Pinterest plus advice on blogging.
Our favorite post: How to Boost Your Social Media Strategy for 2019

26. Madalyn Sklar Blog @MadalynSklar
Literally everything you would ever want to know about building and engaging a community on Twitter with plenty of attention towards tools.
Our favorite post: How to Grow Your Twitter Community: 7 Essential Tips

27. Meltwater Blog: Social Media @MeltwaterSocial
Social Media thought leadership, practical advice and featured brand social media examples.
Our favorite post: Social Sidekick: Your Monthly Guide to Social Holidays, Themes, and Noteworthy Events

28. NetBase Blog @NetBase
Advice on social media listening, analytics and practical advice plus applications for social intelligence.
Our favorite post: Social Media Monitoring vs Social Listening – Yes, There’s a Difference!

29. Planoly Blog @planoly
Stay on top of Instagram and IG Marketing with practical tips and examples.
Our favorite post: How to Stay Motivated with Your Blog and Instagram

30. Problogger @problogger
Dedicated to the art and science of blogging and no one tells that story better than Darren Rowse.
Our favorite post: How to Start a Blog When You’re Not an Expert: 11 Ways to Make it Work

31. Quintly @quintly
Social Media Marketing research and analysis, best practices, trends and news about the platform.
Our favorite post: Instagram Study: We analyzed 9 million posts and here’s what we’ve learned

32. Snapchat for Business @snapchat
Official blog from Snapchat featuring the latest launches, announcements, and insights.
Our favorite post: CPG on Snapchat: Why Gen Z and millennials make all the difference

33. Socialnomics @equalman
Erik Qualman’s long running thought leadership blog on social media and marketing.
Our favorite post: 22 Social Media Tips From The Pros To Skyrocket Your 2019 ROI

34. Social Insider Blog @socialinsiderio
A cornucopia of how to articles on social media marketing plus a fun series of interviews with industry experts called Socialinsider Insta’rviews.
Our favorite post: The Most Impactful Social Media Trend That Businesses Should Integrate It In 2019

35. Social Media Examiner @SMExaminer
Probably the most popular blog about social media marketing from Mike Stelzner and team that also run the Social Media Marketing World conference.
Our favorite post: 10 Metrics to Track When Analyzing Your Social Media Marketing

36. Social Media Explorer @smxplorer
An original social media marketing blog covering the gamut of social media topics including tips, tools, news, and case studies.
Our favorite post: Up And Coming Social Media Trends Driven By Millennials And Generation Z

37. Social Media Lab @agorapulse
A special project from the folks at Agorapulse highlighting their investment of over $15k per month to help “Crack the Code” of social media and then report those results to readers.
Our favorite post: LinkedIn Post Length: Does Data Support the Idea that Longer is Better?

38. Social Media Today @socialmedia2day
A community blog offering a comprehensive view of social media marketing including updates to social platforms, trends, strategy and tactics.
Our favorite post: Social Media Calls to Action: 19 Words & Phrases to Generate More Engagement

39. Social Media Week News & Insights @socialmediaweek
Regular updates on the famous Social Media Week events in New York and Los Angeles plus coverage of social media technologies and marketing tactics.
Our favorite post: Boost Your Instagram Stories Game for 2019 With These 10 Practices

40. Social Report Blog @thesocialreport
A collection of practical posts about marketing on all of the major social networks plus trends and examples.
Our favorite post: 10 Top Social Media Scheduling Tools to Save Time in 2019

41. Social Sorted @SociallySorted
Donna Mortiz offers awesome monthly list posts of social media marketing ideas and in between shares visual and video marketing advice for social media channels.
Our favorite post: 60+ April Social Media Ideas – Videos, GIFs and more!

42. Spiderworking @Spiderworking
Amanda Webb covers social platform updates, examples and practical advice about small business social and content marketing.
Our favorite post: Relationship Marketing With Jessika Phillips, Pots Of Gold And LinkedIn Networking

43. Sue B Zimmerman @SueBZimmerman
The guru of Instagram marketing.
Our favorite post: How To Grow Instagram Followers in 2019

44. The Social Media Hat @SocialMediaHats
Mike Allton’s blog with practical advice about blogging, social media, SEO and email marketing.
Our favorite post: How to Create 26 Pieces Of Content From A Facebook Live

45. Talkwalker Blog @Talkwalker
Social Media Marketing and analytics blog with an emphasis on social monitoring and data applications.
Our favorite post: Social media trends that will impact 2019

46. Twitter Marketing Blog @Twitter
Official blog from Twitter about product news, marketing and advertising best practices and research.
Our favorite post: 10 ways marketing changed with Twitter

47. Unmetric Blog @unmetric
Social Media Marketing strategy, industry trends, and how to articles focused on brands.
Our favorite post: Brands vie for the throne in the game of social media marketing

One trend I’ve noticed is that many individuals that have really made a name for themselves as trusted voices in the social media space during the formative years of the industry simply are not blogging as much or have diversified into other areas of marketing. At the same time, a steady drumbeat of social media marketing advice can be found amongst a smaller number of highly focused industry blogs and companies serving the social media marketing industry.

Speaking of the social media marketing industry, you may have noticed some well known social media marketing technology brands are not on the above list. That’s because we’ve already included them in the martech list, but they certainly belong in this collection, so here they are:

Best Lifestyle Blogs to Follow in 2021

Lifestyle Blog niche is one of the most competitive blogging niches around. Lifestyle bloggers are competing against digital lifestyle magazines, in a niche that is already quite saturated. So lifestyle blogs that gain a large readership are of a high standard in both design and content.

Online mags often have huge budgets, a print edition as well as digital, and content that is varied and expertly written, with professional photos. But lifestyle blogs have an edge in that they can supply new content every day if they so wish. Lifestyle blogs are free to access whereas digital magazine editions can only be accessed through paid subscriptions.

For a lifestyle blog to thrive, the authors need to provide excellent, accurate content and photos that create interest and capture the readers’ imaginations. Lifestyle bloggers have raised their standards to compete with the best of both online mags and other lifestyle blogs.

But what exactly constitutes a lifestyle blog?

Let’s find out!

Defining Lifestyle Blogs

A lifestyle blog is defined as digital content representing the author’s everyday life and interests. The word “lifestyle” according to the dictionary means “habits, attitudes, moral standards, which together constitute the way of life of a given person or group”. (source: dictionary.com)

As a result, lifestyle blogs can fall into many micro-niches. This allows bloggers to provide content for a specific target audience. Lifestyle bloggers often promote products, brands, and services to monetize their blogs. So it’s almost essential that the person behind the blog is well-versed in whatever the specific topics are.

Here’s a shortlist of typical Lifestyle Blogging niches:

  • Luxury Lifestyle Blogs
  • Foodie Lifestyle Blogs
  • Home & Garden Lifestyle Blogs
  • Fashion Blogs & Beauty Lifestyle Blogs
  • Travel Blogs & Photography Lifestyle Blogs
  • Health & Fitness Lifestyle Blogs
  • Men’s Lifestyle Blogs
  • Natural Living Lifestyle Blogs
  • Outdoor Lifestyle Blogs
  • And Lifestyle Blogs for people with children (also called mom blogs or parenting blogs.)

Sometimes even these categories get split into various combinations, depending on the blogger. So you could end up with a Fashion and Travel Blog, A Natural Living Mom Blog, or even a Foodie and Photography Lifestyle blog.

Lifestyle blog vs. personal blog

Lifestyle blogs are not personal blogs because they focus more on users (readers). The content is created here for the reader and his expectations. What’s more, lifestyle blogs focus on the author’s benefits, not just on telling stories.

In personal blogs, the most important are the author’s emotions and thoughts, who expresses his opinions, writes about his experiences, feelings, reflections. In the personal blog, the author himself is the most important, not the reader.

I can’t write about lifestyle blogs without mentioning a few from each niche. I’ve tried to give you a selection of the most captivating from each subgenre (or micro-niche). These Lifestyle blogs check all the boxes. They are fun, relevant, trendy, polished, and loaded with content that appeals to a specific target audience.

A Quick Note To Would-Be Lifestyle Bloggers

Before I launch into “Our Best Of” list, a word of caution to would-be lifestyle bloggers; even if you have many areas of interest yourself, try to whittle your content down to cover only one or two main topics. This helps when you are trying to grow a steady, loyal readership.

Male readers don’t want to read about fishing, fashion, and raising a brood of ankle snappers! A young professional will not be interested in “Ten Tips To Wean Your Child off Breast Milk”, and your Luxury Lifestyle blog will not impress our Tree Hugging friends who will recoil in horror at the decadence of luxury lifestyles! Readers who enjoy luxury will also not be impressed with Frugal Living!

On the other hand, the lifestyle blogging niche allows the most freedom for bloggers who genuinely do have a vast array of topics that pair well together. If you can create the content and maintain the variety, then you will create space for a wider readership.

Top blogs in lifestyle category

This collection of blogs showcases the variety and range of lifestyle blogs that get it right!

1. Goop.com

Goop was one of the first lifestyle blogs to hit the circuit, way back in 2008. The brainchild of actress and mother, Gwyneth Paltrow, Goop covers everything for the modern woman. She focuses on wellness and how to create a balance between parenting and work. Something all working moms know about! She has a strong team behind her and Goop is a mini-empire in its own right.

Goop covers:

  • Beauty
  • Food & Home
  • Style
  • Travel
  • Wellness

Target Audience: Women of all ages and enlightened men.

2. The Pioneer Woman (thepioneerwoman.com)

This is a lifestyle blog that stands out for me. Unlike so many lifestyle blogs, Ree Drummond blogs about a lifestyle that all Americans know and love. Pure salt of the earth, rustic ranch life. The blog packs a punch! Ree has combined recipes, style, beauty, home & life, food & cooking, news, and entertainment. And great giveaways. She started as a lone ranger but now has a team of editors assisting her in keeping the blog relevant, trendy, and homegrown.

Target Audience: People keen on ranch-style living.

*3. Brightbazaarblog.com

Bright Bazaar blog was founded in 2009 by Will Taylor. This is the place where Will blogs about his love for colorful design, travel, and fashion. This blog is recommended by esteemed publishing houses Elle Decor, Martha Stewart Living, and many others.

If you need more home inspiration, look at other famous bloggers in the article: The Best Interior Design Blogs.

Target Audience: People who love design.

4. Cup of Jo (cupofjo.com)

Joanna Goddard is a perfect example of what can be achieved through blogging. Joanna launched Cup of Jo in 2007, as a hobby. At that time her career was quite a high-powered one. She has loads of editorial experience and her resume brags the likes of Cosmo, Bene, Glamour, and New York.

Today Cup of Jo has a team of writers and is Joanna’s full-time gig. She lives in Brooklynn with her husband and two kids. The blog covers relationships, design, food, style, travel, culture, and motherhood. This is a great blog for women.

Target Audience: Women and mothers of all ages

. Say Yes (sayyes.com)

. Say Yes (sayyes.com)

Education is life

Today the World is becoming a superficial place. Our time appoints the absurd, making social networks as a real-world by a considerable part of the younger generations.

It is a virtual reality, more precise than high-definition video games, more addictive and harmful to the mind and the body.

This fake reality indeed kills the neurons converting people into zombies led by a leader of unknown appearance.

Ignorance acts as the lock, and manipulation working as the key entering every mind. Then, it hacks and promotes war even over the most absurd topic that any influencer shares in a post.

The social network profile becomes an epicentre of empty universes, universes that conflict with the real-life, where, as in the war, leads to the destruction of entire generations.

Using actualized tools, but the same indoctrination mechanisms used in the world wars. Again, the end justifies it, annulling individuals’ conscience and making them members of the social mass.

Even though each social profile is seemingly unique, there is no perspective on what life is in its essence. The network is a game that only favours some private interests.

We know the truth: countries born from interests, wars arise, passions move. Interests motivate greed. Greed sooner or later destroys life. Life, which, without a doubt, is the only thing we have.

Blood wars are no longer an option in our time across the rich countries. New wars are too expensive and risky.

Wars are now abstract. Wars involve factual powers whose shadow is unknown and whose attacks are directed to control the terrestrial and the extraterrestrial.

The end of empires has never come. In our time, empires are mainly commercial, managing everything that allowed us to be free.

Now empires dictate what to be and how to be.

Indeed, commercial or blood, all war implies the destruction of every trace that makes us human.

Every war, directly and indirectly, destroys our soul and breaks the only thing we take when we leave.

War destroys what we have lived and what we will no longer discover for ceasing to be ourselves.

There are not strong leaders to help us. Corruption and secrets are always leaked by someone who is behind the scenes.

We are the unique leaders of our time; we are the bosses of our destiny.

We must not perish. Responding to Hamlet, the worthiest thing for the soul is to fight for our fortune, live our lives, and rebel against this wild sea of misery.

The only thing that saves us from interest, the only thing that separates us from greed, the only thing that allows us to see reality is education.

However, all education is written by the victors and not by the vanquished. Our salvation involves investigating, delving into every little remorse and lack of meaning of our multiple thoughts.

The only thing that educates us is ourselves.

What do I mean when I say “Education for Life?” I can present the problem and the solution. The problem is that people in traditional forms of education usually approach it from the standpoint of just preparing a person for a job. But one’s job isn’t the definition of one’s life—it’s only that which enables you to have enough money to meet your needs. Our lives encompass a much broader arena than one’s capacity to earn money. Any educational system that teaches only job skills or offers only intellectual information is neglecting the essential needs of human beings. The solution is a form of education that trains us in that which is most relevant to us—how to find lasting happiness in life.

We deeply need proper training in “how-to-live” skills such as how to find the right mate, how to raise our children, how to be a good employee, how to get along with our neighbors, and how to concentrate our minds so that we can draw success into all our endeavors. There are many such skills that are essential to prepare a child for adulthood, and in traditional education many of them are completely ignored. Education for Life is a system that prepares the child to face the challenges of living as a human being, and helps him to achieve balance and harmony in all he does. What we’re really talking about is preparing everyone, not just children, for true maturity. This is a much bigger concept than just coming of age. As defined it in the book, Education for Life, maturity is the ability to relate appropriately to other realities than one’s own. You’ll find that even people of advanced years are often childish and immature with regard to this definition, yet this ability to relate to others’ realities is what education should accomplish.

The Case for a New Avenger

S.H.I.E.L.D. might have missed assembling team members from India, but it is never too late to correct an oversight. Imagine our larger-than-life superhero, Rajinikanth, partnering with other Avengers in a combined mission to save the planet from dangerous predators with bad intentions. Some aliens, some familiar ones! Yes, India is far from America, and the distance seems to have increased during the pandemic, but Rajinikanth could give some worthy company to Iron Man and perhaps teach him a trick or two, too, through holographic interfaces and augmented reality. Who knows, he could also kill all the mutants of Coronaviruses in this quest!

I wish to present some facts now to give you a background of my strategic human resource and leadership plan for S.H.I.E.L.D. India has one of the largest numbers of gig workers in the world. As per a March 2021 report by consulting firm Boston Consulting Group (BCG) and Michael & Susan Dell Foundation, the gig economy in India is expected to soar to 90 million in approximately a decade from now. Choose any vocation here and you will be spoilt for choices. Almost everyone is an expert on politics, economics, socio-cultural issues, fashion, sports, career, marriage, children, nature, animals, traffic, the dos, and don’ts … the list is endless. People can even advice others on how they should lead their lives. It’s affection, silly!

War for talent? Clearly, recruiters have not been able to explore the depth of this vast pool. To reiterate, India is a land bubbling with high potentials. Now let us go back to the topic of superpowers. There is plan B too. Rajinikanth could have a serious competition in a plain-looking community here. S.H.I.E.L.D. could consider appointing some members from this fraternity too.

You are rolling your eyes? Why? Hear me out. Presenting to you the case of beholders of the mighty pen (over a sword or a gun), and the upholders of fine speech. Their words hit no less than the missiles unleashed by Israel over the Gaza strip. Let me walk you through the innate gifts of a less publicized community with an immensely amoeba-like (plasma membrane) flexibility.

The teachers.

The extremely sturdy ones can stand the whole day, operate (teach) without a table and a chair, or, the basic infrastructure, and sometimes work even at low or no salaries for months. The strengths, struggles and coping mechanism of the privileged ones out of this lot are embedded in different realms. More on that, later! You will be astonished to learn how many hats teachers can don at the same time. They juggle between being a mentor, coach, counsellor, Devil’s advocate, friend, philosopher, or guide. Interestingly, even their DNA personifies versatility. Over the years, the mutations in their genetic material have helped them learn how to make milestones of the stones thrown at them by students unhappy with their marks, and parents unhappy with the teachers for giving those marks! Talk about heightened senses, their eyes can easily observe and sense the intention behind each greeting, smile and calls to the office. They are like Sharma ji ka beta/beti’, always expected to excel at everything and set an ideal example for the others to emulate.

Here, I would take a detour and ask you to recall the violinists who continued to play music for as long as they were alive, just to calm the passengers on the sinking Titanic ship. On similar lines, teachers continued to teach while the pandemic unleashed havoc around the world. The unlearning of years of classroom teaching was replaced by the immediate need to adopt new technological tools and re-learn the art of virtual teaching. The new and changed landscape was no less than the one post Thanos snapping his finger.

Aren’t convinced yet? Go to the polling booths and follow the polio immunization drives, you will know what I mean.

Now the final hook. Except for some teachers working with elite institutions, the rest won’t even charge much for their services. You can simply smile, appreciate their work, show some respect, and boy, see how they melt! Just watch how it lights up their faces. They are so motivated, especially on September 5 every year in India, that even Abraham Maslow bows to them from time to time from his grave. Had told you about their genetic sequencing earlier, remember? I do hope I have presented their (our) case well, S.H.I.E.L.D. Hopefully, you will have a relook at your current team now.

On a sidenote, can I be a contender too? Just saying. I can take it up as a gig assignment during the semester breaks. Imagine the newest Avenger on the block and that too a female from India! It will further boost the diversity and inclusion factors for you. If you can give equitable salary and perks, you could even find yourself on the pages of Harvard cases.

You might want to provide supplements of Vitamin T(eacher) to your team if Rajinikanth’s diary of appointments is full. Professor Hulk would not mind some more erudite company. In return, I vow to start quoting your example in my classes as a great employer brand with an excellent employee value proposition. Who knows, I might even write a research article. Told you, pen and words are the weapons here. Think about it. What say? Are you game?

P.S. I have recently bought a telescope to keep an eye on the stars and planets too. Taking my possible future role tad too seriously, eh?

Hope for the best, but expect less

I’m not in this world to live up to your expectations and you’re not in this world to live up to mine. -Bruce Lee

A friend’s status update on a social media site: ‘Who hurt you? My own expectations.’

Yes, we all have expectations in our lives: what we want out of life and who we want to become. I believe one of the keys to happiness lies within the management of your expectations of people and circumstances. If you do not have expectations, you can never be disappointed. Often we tend to believe that the way we treat others will be the way we are treated in return. But, unfortunately, this does not always happen.

The biggest disappointments in our lives are often the result of misplaced expectations. This is especially true when it comes to our relationships and interactions with others. You need to make sure you enter into relationship with someone who has as big of a heart as you do. If you do not, you may feel as if you are being taken advantage of. You need to find people who appreciate what you do for them and who will reciprocate those actions.

There are two ways to be happy: improve your reality or lower your expectations. Having realistic expectations will allow you to accept the flaws each person has. We need to learn how to take responsibility for our own lives and our own decisions before we can expect others to do the same.

One of the biggest challenges we face in life is learning to accept people for who they truly are. Once you realize that your expectations cannot change people, the better off you will be. Give without expectation, accept without reservation, and love with hesitation. Unrealistic expectations most often do lead to disappointment. Too many people are obsessed with finding the perfect career or the perfect spouse, and as a result become increasingly frustrated when this does not happen in reality.

Expectation is the root of all heartache. Try to remain confident while maintaining positive aspirations; just remember not to make the aspirations so high that they are impractical or unreachable.

Acceptance is an amazing trait that needs to be actively worked toward. When things do not work out the way we had planned, it is much more beneficial to realize that is how life works rather than becoming frustrated at the situation. Have hope rather than expectations and you will tend not to be as disappointed.

People rarely behave exactly the way you want them to. Hope for the best, but expect less. And remember, the magnitude of your happiness will be directly proportional to your thoughts and how you choose to think about things. Even if a situation or relationship doesn’t work out at all, it’s still worth it, if it made you feel something new, taught you something afresh.

article 21

The Constitution speaks that no person of the state shall be destitute of the right to life and personal library. The right to life was protected by the law under the fundamental right. No restrictions were on the citizen of the country, everyone has the right to life under the Constitution. The human rights provided people’s good life under the right to life and personal library. If was restricted to enjoy his freedom by some unlawful action of government the he have rights to investigate against the action.

The most important part of the constitution was fundamental rights and in it elaborates exploitation of human rights as written in the other constitution of the world. The provision constitution provided a broad declaration of fundamental rights which is necessary for the full development of personality of individual. The aimed of these fundamental rights is to establish such law to welfare of the citizen. The purpose of establishing the fundamental rights is to protect the rights and liberties of the peoples. Human development is moral basic principles that explain the standard of human and it protect their natural and legal rights.

 Article 21 [1]now safeguard the right to life and personal liberty of citizens and not only from managerial action but from the parliamentary action also.

If two conditions compiled then a person can be deprived of his life and personal liberty:-

  1. There must be a law.
  2. There must be a procedure prescribed by law, provided that the procedure is just fair and reasonable.    

Article 21[2] held to the heart of the constitution. It’s give a different way of protecting the fundamental right of life. Without the fundamental right to life we cannot live as human being and included all those aspects of life. The rights of life makes the life meaningful, complete, and worth living. The right to life and personal liberty makes the citizens life to live freely without any interference of the government. There are many fundamental rights which was making to the development or to increasing the living standard of citizens. This right was not conflict to the fullest things of humans but with the judicial action.

 In the place of the rule of man, a human being has established the rule of law of constitution to protect the right of life and liberty of citizens. The state has been very inception to protect and safeguard of such fundamental rights. These rights was accepted and adopted by the citizen of the state for development of their living life. The right to life and liberty find its place in Article 3[3] of human right that speaks “everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person”.

Under Article 21 of the constitution of India interoperated the right to life and personal liberty of citizens in Maneka Gandhi’s[4] case has explain all the perception of the right to life.

For the development of human personality it is necessary to benefit the right to life and liberty. In the democratic state it id the basic human right. The right to life and personal liberty of citizen is a back-bone of the human rights. Every citizen has a right to live freely and enjoy their freedom as there fundamental right. In the state without the laws and legal rights person cannot enjoy their freedom because in the modern era the humans was not honor each other’s action and interfere in there human rights and violate them.

So to get the solution of this problems man established some certain law which was found in the constitution. The right to life and personal liberty was the most precious fundamental right among all the human rights. The reason for this when the peoples attentive towards their right to life then there life become meaningful.


[1]Protection of life and personal liberty No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.

 

Article Three of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government. Under Article Three, the judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court of the United States, as well as lower courts created by Congress.

[4]1978 AIR 597, 1978 SCR (2) 621

ARE WE READY TO ADOPT THE UNIFORM CIVIL CODE?

See the source image

The Uniform Civil Code is encoded in the Article 44 of the Directive Principles of State Policy. The Article expects state to implement a common set of rules and regulations which will replace the personal laws based on the scriptures and the customs of every religion. Recently, the subjects like marriage, divorce, inheritance come under the realms of the Personal law. If we talk about the whole, the Hindus, Sikhs, Jains and the Buddhists which were governed by the Hindu personal laws has already codified by the government ages ago, in 1956. On the other hand, the personal laws of the Muslim, Christians and the Jews are still in unmodified and traditional approach. The concept of equality which was raised by various learned persons must have led to such conditions. Or could it be the orthodox of the Muslim community? In a secular country like India, there was always a need for a common code but it was only because of few Politicians and religious scholars that every attempt for such has been in vain. The reason behind this was the majority of vote bank. And the major community who will be affected by the code is the Muslim community. This is because the Hindu code was already modified and that was well adopted by the community. The right to practice religion becomes a controversial topic in Indian politics during the controversial Shah Bano case of 1985. The predictable challenges and questions that will be raised are, it will be declared unconstitutional. This is because; Freedom of religion gets into question with the right to equality. Article 14 and Article 15 will be raised as defense. “The right to conserve distinctive culture will be infringed”, Article 29. The Indian Constitution has provided he Indian citizens all the liberty that could be exercised not infringing others’ rights. This is why the people have right to religion and no one can interfere in their personal matters. In 2018, Law Commission of India stated that the UCC was “neither necessary nor desirable at this stage”. But every coin has two sides. The government must emulate Gaon practice of common civil code; they have been living under a uniform law since ages. The concept must not be understood as a common law instead it can be a uniform law which has a modified version of personal laws. For this people should not misinterpret it and not make rumors disgracing the country and the Government of India.

India is a continuously developing country and has adopted many changes in the constitution before. There have been many changes and amendments in the constitution that the country has adapted even before. Changes are necessary for the development of the nation and they are the signs of a healthy democracy. The people objecting the civil code may say that the country is trying to impose the Hindu code over all the community but it isn’t imposing it. The Hindu community has long ago gone through this phase of changing the personal laws. There were some objections but gradually the community has adopted it. So it can be said that the Hindus will not be affected by the change. Many can argue that the Indian territory consist of many religions so copying the west positivism centered legal trajectory would not be right but in order to unify the whole nation and stop the mishaps we will have to adopt the civil code. It can be argued that personal law system violates the principle of equality of the constitution because by having different personal laws for different religions, we are going against secularism and equality. But UCC would promote equality and unity as it will implement similar laws for all citizens.[1]

The time for establishment of the UCC might have come as it may help the Muslim community to break the taboos.[2]. It would be a strong step towards gender equality and gender justice. It is a mandatory provision of the constitution and if we are not ready for it after more than 70 years of independence, how much more time the people would seek?

It has been rightly pointed that UCC will not violate the Article 25 and 26 and it will help in attaining secularism and Article 44. Further, it can be argued that marriage, succession etc. are secular matters and law can regulate them. Implementing UCC will promote monogamy. It will promote a sense of equality among the citizens and betterment of the position of women in India. It will help to remove the prejudices against women regarding personal laws on marriage and maintenance.

Though, witnessing the large amount of protests against the CAA it can be concluded that the country is in a phase of sensitive minds. The people instead of thinking about the goods peacefully prefer the violent methods. Though, it can be a healthy sign of a democracy.                Even if the Uniform Civil Code cannot be implemented the government has always been implementing the laws in public interest. Gradually the people will start adapting to the codes and thus we will adapt to the Uniform Civil Code. Although, the majority government has worked wonders and taken decisions that were almost impossible. We can never guess what could be the next step taken by the government, and that too when it was mentioned in the manifesto.


[1]Nithya NR, Uniform Civil Code for India: Prospects and Constraints, Global Research Analysis Journal Vol.2

[2]Seshadri Chari RSS

7 important tips to manage aggression in children

Manage child aggression: To develop a sound value system, tell them stories. For very small children, stories should be pleasant, free of fighting and violence, about animals and nature, sharing and caring. When they are five or six, it is okay to introduce stories with good people and ‘bad’ people.

child, who wanted to be perceived as the strongest of all, would speak loudly, look angry and hit everyone to prove his strength. When his grandfather came to visit, he behaved in the same way with him. However, his grandpa was never agitated and just smiled at his actions. The child was bewildered as he was only used to getting yelled at for what he did. The more he was yelled at, the stronger he would become, is what he thought!

Grandpa shares the Buddha story

The grandfather asked him if he would like to hear a story and the boy agreed. “Once upon a time, there was an enlightened master called Buddha. He travelled across the country teaching people how to be peaceful. Once while he was going through a forest, a tribesman called Angulimala came to him. He was a frightening man. He wore a garland of fingers of people whom he had sacrificed so he would be the strongest and feared the most. He wanted to have Buddha’s finger as the hundredth and complete his sacrificing ritual. Buddha smiled at him and said, “I am happy to be of use to you”. There was no trace of fear in him. Nobody had ever smiled at Angulimala. No one had ever spoken to him so kindly. The very presence of Buddha did something to him. Angulimala felt very weak for the first time in his life. He felt like a feather in front of a mountain. He realised that real strength is in having unshakable calmness, peace, and in compassion. He fell at Buddha’s feet. He was changed completely.” The child listened to every word from his grandpa with rapt attention.

Look out for the media children are exposed to

When you feel helpless or weak, the need to assert your strength comes out as violence. Where do children get the idea of violence? They see their parents, neighbours, friends, so many programmes on TV or videos on the mobile phone — all this exposure leaves impressions and has a strong impact on the minds of children, more than we know. They are sensitive even to suppressed violence. If you are angry inside but still act as if everything is okay, children will know it.

Handling aggression

Children get angry or show aggression for seemingly very silly reasons. But the real reason is something else, a sense of insecurity that has crept in somehow. That is why in olden days, parents would never show anger in front of a child. They would not even argue or use harsh words. Public display of anger was considered a weakness. Today, anger and aggression comes up at the drop of a hat. Any minor difference of opinion is enough to prompt the arrows to fly. We don’t know how to draw a line between expressing a difference of opinion and displaying aggression. If your child is aggressive, look into your own lifestyle. What are you doing? Are you yelling at your housekeeper or at your pet? Are you yelling at your own spouse? Or any one for that matter in front of the child? Are you sad? What is your reaction? And it does not matter that out of the 365 days, you have acted in aggression may be only a couple of times. Those few days are equally important for the child. This is why we need to meditate and practice pranayama or deep breathing techniques. Heyum Dukham Anagatam — stopping the misery before it comes — that is the benefit of yoga, because in life prevention is better than cure.

Engaging children in meaningful activities

The other important thing is to engage them in meaningful activities, and sports that allow them to channel their energy constructively. Just playing video games or watching TV with no physical activity only increases restlessness and makes them prone to aggression. You will notice that the day your child has more screen time, the more difficult he or she becomes to handle. Encourage them to go out and play, engage with real people, run and fill their lungs with some fresh air. In the olden days, movies were classified as suitable for watching only under parental guidance. Parents would control what a child can see. Today, it is a common occurrence that the elders are all engrossed in watching soaps on TV and are oblivious to the child who is also watching and taking in all the exaggerated emotions that are projected. It is very important to be sensitive about what their tender senses are exposed to. They should not be bombarded with heavy impressions.

What kind of stories are we telling our children?

To develop a sound value system, tell them stories. For very small children, perhaps around three or four, stories should be pleasant, free of fighting and violence, about animals and nature, sharing and caring. When they are five or six it is okay to introduce stories with good people and ‘bad’ people. Every culture has its stories of heroes who protected the innocent and fought villains who were up to no good. Through these stories they understand that the purpose of strength is to protect and not to hurt. They learn that the hero, the stronger one, is calm and collected.

While it is important to reprimand anger, it is equally important to recognise when they are gentle and appreciate them. When I was a child and would sometimes get angry, my grandmother would ask me to go to a certain corner of the house and leave my anger there. She would say that the angel in that corner would take the anger from me and go far, far away. I would believe her, go stand there and in a minute, come back smiling! Schools today don’t teach children how to deal with negative emotions. This is an important aspect of moulding the character of the child. Teachers should be strict about encouraging the right attitude in children. They should recognise the strength of a child who is able to walk away from a fight and not just react and hit back. They should reward and give attention to calmness in a child. Many times, an aggressive attitude in a child comes out from simply wanting attention. So, you can teach them by ignoring their sulking or shouting, and praising them and giving extra attention when they are well-mannered. And parents should give teachers the space to discipline the child if necessary. It is okay if your child has been naughty and the teacher has disciplined him or her. Parents must encourage reverence towards the teacher. If they say, “Who is he or she to tell my child what to do!” the child will not listen or respect the teacher anymore. When this happens, learning stops.

Food is important

The food that we give to our children also has a role to play. Too many sweets, fried food (like chips) and oily food increase restlessness in a child. Also, their food must be freshly cooked as far as possible and not packaged items kept in cold storage. Encourage them to enjoy fruits as much as chips; perhaps one chip-one fruit can be the deal! Where possible, it is advisable to avoid food products made from genetically modified grains and vegetables. The food has a direct impact on the mind and when consumed over a period of time, has a definite impact on the nature or attitude of the child.

Above all this, as parents, it is important to spend quality time doing ‘nothing’ with your child. Just sitting with them without looking at our mobile phones, giving complete attention to what they have to say, just being with them 100 per cent gives a great sense of security to the child. An insecure child is more likely to succumb to aggression than one who feels secure and attended to.

Teach children that the one who smiles come-what-may is stronger.

Show them when to stand up for what is right, and when to walk away from a fight.

As much as you can, protect their innocence.

As much as you can, give them pride in non-violence.

Why do people have so much aggression?

  • We all act aggressively from time to time—say while sitting in traffic or in the midst of an argument—but some are more aggressive than others.
  • There are several reasons we engage in aggressive behavior, which also help to explain why some people display aggression more often.
  • These causes include instinct, hormonal imbalance, genetics, temperament, nurture, and stress.
  • If there are excessively aggressive people in your life, like a loved one or coworker, you can learn to cope or deal with their behavior effectively.
  • First, try keeping your cool, empathizing, and expressing your concern—these actions should help you to navigate the interaction and make it more pleasant.
  • If these strategies don’t prove effective, consider distancing yourself from the overly aggressive person; your wellbeing should be your priority.

Aggression is hostile or violent behavior. It’s a woman yelling at her son for spilling his milk on the carpet. It’s a child pushing his friend down on the playground because she was playing with his favorite toy. It’s a girl snapping at her boyfriend because he didn’t invite her out with the guys.

As you can see (and probably know from personal experience), aggression can take many forms. We all act aggressively at some point or another in our lives, whether it’s yelling at the black Sudan that cut us off or getting into it with family or friends. But some are more aggressive than others—quick to react or engage in hostile behavior. Which begs an important question: why

What Causes Aggression? 6 Origins

Sure, traffic can spur aggression, as can a disagreement with a coworker. But what’s the psychology behind this behavior? There are actually a few reasons we become aggressive, which also help to explain why some people are more aggressive than others:

1. Instinct: Aggression is one of our many survival instincts. According to Sigmund Freud, aggression continuously builds up until it releases as aggressive behavior, at some point or another. Some individuals can suppress this aggression and use other survival instincts instead, but others simply react and release.

2. Hormonal imbalance: A hormonal imbalance in an individual can certainly contribute to aggressive behavior. For example, high levels of testosterone contribute to high levels of aggression. This explains why males are characteristically more aggressive than females.

3. Genetics: Aggression can also be passed down genetically. Children are at a greater risk of adapting aggressive tendencies if they have a biological background for it. Time and time again, father and son both display aggressive behavior.

4. Physiological illness and temperament: Serious illness can have a major effect on an individual’s mood and behavior, as the stress and other mental effects may bring about greater aggression. Additionally, one’s temperament can play a role in aggression. People with bad tempers typically become aggressive more quickly than calmer individuals.

5. Social learning: Aggression can be learned. Some become more aggressive due to personal experiences or observational learning. For example, children are always looking for cues on how to act, as illustrated by the Bobo doll experiment. They learn to act aggressively when they watch someone else commit violent acts like in movies or video games.

6. Psychological frustrations: It’s human nature to become frustrated when life just doesn’t seem to be going so well. This frustration may involve work or love, for example, and can lead to an all-around feeling of negativity. This negativity then represents a threat, which can lead to aggression

How to Cope with an Aggressive Individual

Dealing with someone who constantly lashes out in hostile or violent behavior is tough—especially when it’s someone you’re close to like your boyfriend or mother, or someone you can’t get away from, like a coworker. In any case, the following can help you deal with the aggressive people in your life more effectively:

  • Keep your cool. The last thing that will alleviate this situation is another aggressive individual. Maintain your composure and use your better judgment to handle the situation. Aggressive people often seek to intimidate and upset others. You have to ensure this doesn’t happen and instead of reacting with rage like they want you to, take a moment to count to ten and think of a better way to deal with the situation at hand.
  • Put yourself in their shoes. Even if the aggression seems unwarranted, take a moment to imagine yourself in their position. Maybe they grew up in an overly aggressive household. Or, maybe they have a lot on their plate and they’re reacting to the stress with aggression. This will help calm your own negative feelings down and empathize with the individual. Then, maybe you can turn the aggressive attack into a productive conversation.
  • Express your concern. Maybe there isn’t an obvious, underlying cause of the individual’s aggression. Once you’ve taken a step away and you’re both calm, express your concern for them. They may not realize the severity of their aggression or its effect on those around them. It could take someone like you bringing it to light for them to make that realization and make a change.
  • Distance yourself. Sometimes, these aggressive individuals are just not worth it and don’t deserve a place in your life. You have to prioritize your wellbeing and if that means cutting them out of your lives, then so be it. And if cutting them completely out of your life isn’t very realistic (think, an aggressive aunt or uncle that’s at every family reunion or your coworker who doesn’t look to be going anywhere anytime soon), then just distance yourself as best you can. Avoid them.

Ultimately, you have to decide if it’s worth dealing with the aggressive individual. If you decide that it’s not, kick them to the curb and distance yourself from them. But if you decide that this individual is worth it and could maybe use your help, do your best to sympathize with them and determine the underlying cause of the aggression. This will help you both moving forward

Exceptionally Private enterprise Is More at Risk Than Ever!

The book Capitalism at Risk previously showed up in 2011. The issues it related to social disparity, worldwide exchange hardship, and natural debasement have just sped up by 2020. The new version of Capitalism at Risk, captioned How Business Can Lead, is extended with three extra sections refreshing the 10 troublesome powers distinguished in the primary release, showing how supervisors can address these difficulties, and depicting how open trust in the market framework could be reconstructed. The overhauled release incorporates instances of private area authority by American and worldwide organizations. 

The book had its starting points in the arrangements for praising the Centennial of HBS in 2008. The School was established in light of the fact that significant Harvard graduated class talked about with President Eliot their perception that another class of chiefs who oversaw colossal endeavors however didn’t claim them had arisen. With regards to the monetary unrest at the turn of the twentieth century, the graduated class found out if Harvard may foster a school to teach proficient directors who might improve the quality and honesty of the administrative class, much as the graduate school and clinical school had accomplished for those callings. 

The three of us imagined that with regards to the monetary and social issues at the turn of the 21st century—not COVID-19 but rather a lot of different concerns—it is intriguing to amass gatherings of remarkable business pioneers to realize what future issues they figured HBS should zero in on as the School arranged for the following century. We gathered gatherings of at least twelve chiefs in Europe, East Asia, Latin America, and the US, gave them a bundle of realistic projections of the worldwide economy in 2030, and went through an evening and a long daytime examining these estimates with them. The book depends on those estimates, the features of their perceptions, and prescriptive considerations dependent on our examination of their thoughts.

The leaders construed, also, that public governments and worldwide establishments would demonstrate too feeble to even think about managing these powers. On the positive side, large numbers of the pioneers we talked with saw business as a component of the arrangement: Companies could help improve the powers in the event that they moved toward them as an essential chance. We had trusted that by causing to notice these possibly problematic powers and to the essential chance they addressed, we could motivate business pioneers to act before it was past the point of no return.  This new version was set off by the way that following 10 years, those troublesome powers had bloomed into considerable issues. And surprisingly however the issues have deteriorated, scarcely any organizations have ventured up to address them. We had examined various firms that had effectively evolved productive organizations that had relieving impacts. However, very few. The new version is an endeavor to clarify what’s going on—kind of a fire ringer in the evening—and give a guide and extra models for organizations to follow.

Feeling alone

LONELINESS is packed with feelings and emotions. It can consume you at any time – day or night – and create havoc with your emotions. Feeling lonely can cause you to lose perspective and, sometimes, to lose all hope. Even before COVID, we lived in an isolated culture where people were starved for connection. And now with the fear of COVID, loneliness is even more intensified.

There are days when my life is filled with the sound of voices on the phone, or pictures of friends on Zoom and Facetime, and yet, I feel alone. There have been times in my life when I would walk in a church filled with people, or show up at a party where I knew everyone, and yet, I felt alone. At some point, we’ve all experienced feelings of being alone and the shadow of loneliness that follows close behind.

Being alone isn’t a bad thing. It’s a good, necessary, healthy thing. It’s a time to reflect, to appreciate, to think, to create, to process your life. Reflection and synthesis of ideas is crucial to learning and growing, and for many people this can only be done when they are alone. Kierkegaard nails this with one of my favorite quotes: “Life can only be understood backwards, but it must be lived forwards.” Damn, Kierkegaard, I bet you spent a ton of time alone.

So why are we so damned afraid of being alone?

Because we’re afraid others will think we’re lonely. There’s something wrong with lonely people, or else why wouldn’t they have people around them? There must be something broken about them! If you learn someone is lonely, you best stay away from them. Leave them to their cats. Loneliness results in more loneliness; it’s a beast that feeds itself. (Please know that I don’t believe any of this — or at least I don’t want to, but these are thoughts that I hear in my head, because Society)

I’m not lonely! I have 2200 facebook friends. Look at all the things I share. Look at all those likes! I have all the likes! And retweets. Don’t even get me started on retweets. I have to call them RTs because I get so many I don’t even have time for all those other letters. Look at me on Instagram! Follow me! #TeamFollowBack Connect with me! Please, please, connect with me. How am I so damned lonely?! Nobody else feels this lonely. Look at all the friends they have on Facebook. Look at all those likes they’re getting…

We are living in a time when it’s easy to feel uncomfortable being alone, because there are so many ways you can “be” with other people. So we’re never truly alone. And that makes it ever more uncomfortable when we feel lonely.

I saw someone post a photo on Facebook last Friday night of themselves with a glass of wine and the caption “Relaxing into a much-needed quiet Friday night date with myself. #DontHate”

The irony hurt. If you really want to be alone, WHY ARE YOU TELLING THE WHOLE WORLD, my brain yelled.

Then I realized I knew the answer: this person is uncomfortable being alone on a Friday night, and this is how they are trying to mitigate that discomfort.

They are seeing all of their friends posting photos of their fun nights out with dozens of people and having so much fun and internalizing all of this as something being wrong with them. Maybe they chose to be alone tonight, or maybe they got ditched by a friend, or maybe they wanted to go out and don’t really have any friends who wanted to go out with them, but, whatever the case, they were probably terrified they would slip from enjoying a night alone into being lonely on a Friday night. The first is good. The second is bad. And maybe a “like” or a reassuring comment would stave that off.

spend a lot of time on the road traveling alone. And during the day, when I’m performing, or visiting a campus, or flying, eating, writing — keeping my mind busy — I’m on the road traveling alone; I’m not lonely on the road. And I enjoy it. I enjoy the aloneness. I thrive in it. But at night, when I get back to my hotel room and plop down on the bed, I regularly toe the line between being alone and being lonely.

I am usually good at landing on the enjoying a night alone side of the line, but sometimes, usually after a particularly long stretch on the road, of if a show doesn’t go as well as I want it to, I’ll find myself stumbling onto the lonely side. It probably doesn’t help that I have this disgusting and self-body-destroying habit of having a huge pizza delivered to my hotel room and eating it by myself in my underwear. And, as I am typing that, I am reminded of this

Tips for safe internet banking

All through the year, banks and financial institution are taking up innovative measures to protect its customers from such banking frauds. But sometimes it’s our very own negligence that makes us fall prey to such thefts. Whilst, both the banks and financial institutions are doing their part, we should too adopt a cautious attitude to protect ourselves. So, to help you out in this process, we have a gathered a list of some tips for safe internet banking that you can consider doing.

Digital advancements have made our lives much easier, we can now order food or purchase things in the comfort of our homes. These rapidly evolving advancements are also transforming the banking and financial sector in India. Whether someone is transferring funds, paying a bill or applying for such loans such technologies are enabling customers to do it in a more efficient and effective way. The number of users opting for internet banking is expected to double by 2020, making India an important hub for financial innovation. However, internet banking, just like like any other medium if not done with utmost precaution can prove to be risky. There are scams like phishing( fraudulent means for attaining confidential information) associated with internet banking which enables a third-party to access and misuse your personal information.

Banking online has made managing money a lot more convenient than it used to be. We don’t have to visit the bank to transfer our funds, or wait for the next paper statement to know what the balance is. All that information is at our fingertips. But while online banking has made things easier for us, it’s also made things easier for thieves.

Criminals don’t need to plan a heist to rob someone’s bank account anymore. All they need to do is wait for you to let your guard down and expose your personal information, or send out a virus that will collect the information. The only way to avoid becoming a thief’s next victim is to carefully guard your personal information and always practice these online banking safety tips. 

1. Don’t access your bank accounts on public Wi-Fi

When you’re on public Wi-Fi, hackers can more easily access your computer and steal personal information from it. You should never access your bank’s website through a computer, tablet, or mobile phone unless you’re on a secure Wi-Fi network with a password, or using your own cell phone data connection. This is much more difficult for thieves to hack, so it keeps your information safer.

2. Avoid saving your login information

Some websites give you the option to save your login information for future use, but if someone uses your computer or mobile device after you, they could gain access to your bank accounts. To at least help prevent this from happening, many banking sites now time out after a certain number of minutes of inactivity, and do not save your information.

3. Use strong passwords and change them often

Strong passwords have a mix of upper- and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols. Many banks now require your online accounts to carry a password meeting these requirements. You should also change your password every couple of months, and use different passwords for all of your online accounts so that hackers will have a more difficult time gaining access to your information.

4. Use two-factor authentication whenever possible

Two-factor authentication is the next level of security that many banks are now offering. Usually, you give your bank your phone number, and it texts a code when you log in online. Some banks also enable you to request a code via email or a phone call. You must enter this code in addition to your password to log in. This way, even if someone has stolen your password, they cannot access your accounts. It’s another hoop to jump through, but it could help keep your money safe, so set it up if your bank offers it.

Internet Banking

The innovations of information technology and internet have opened the new horizons to the Banking service delivery to the customers. Banking services are available on the finger tips of the customer via Internet Banking. Internet Banking, Net Banking or online banking allows you to perform various financial and non-financial transactions in your account with a click of button without visiting branch or ATM. It offers you a whole lot of features that earlier available only with the branch

In today’s fast-paced life, you need on-demand banking solutions for a better lifestyle. Internet Banking service gives you complete control over fund in your accounts online. Say bid-adieu to long queues and tired teller counter clerk. Now do banking from the comfort of your home or office, vacations ANYWHERE and ANYTIME!

Internet banking allows banking user to get connected to it’s bank’s internet banking portal to perform desire banking functions. If you are a Bank customer then you can avail Internet Banking facility after having received secure access of your net banking account from your bank. After secure login you will have direct access to your account. All the banking functions, financial and non-financials, that bank has made available on the internet banking mode will be displayed in menu of your online user account. You can select to perform any transaction and further result will be as per the policy for the nature of the service.

Your internet banking works on the concept of data centralization in the core banking system and allowing restricted access through net banking channel.

You must be apprehensive about the safety and security of online banking. Nelito’s Internet Banking product has following features to make your banking safe and secure:

  • Internet Banking product is developed on SSL protocol and 128-bit encryption technology to provide a secure channel for data exchange – which keeps your online banking data secure and safe.
  • Customer login is also verified at 2 levels by userid-password combination and PAN Number or Date of Birth authentications.
  • 2 Factor Authentication (2FA) requires you to input OTP (One Time Password) sent only on to your registered mobile number for all key transactions.
  • Your login session gets expired after a certain period in case there is no activity in your logged in session. This secures any unauthorized access to your logged in session.
  • Tracking of wrong OTP and passwork attempts.

Thus your Netbanking is safe, fast and secure, enabling you to perform your banking transaction with total peace of mind .

Range of services and features on internet banking includes:

  • Account Balance of all accounts linked to your customer ID
  • View and Download account statement.
  • Fund transfer through NEFT & RTGS
  • Avail Different Deposit Schemes and Banking Services like insurance, credit cards, demand draft etc.
  • Cheque Status and Stop Payment Request
  • Pay government taxes
  • Pay online your utility bills like Electricity, Telephone, Subscription payments along with Charity and Donation.
  • Recharge your mobile/DTH connection.
  • 24 x 7 Money Transfer through IMPS
  • Set up standing instructions for transfer of fixed amount to be executed at fixed intervals.
  • Various non-financial transactions like cheque book request, profile change, KYC, inquiries 

FEMALE FOETICIDE

INTRODUCTION

Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal of killing female takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female foeticide , the selective abortion of female fetuses is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female foeticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the feature bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female foeticide is a penal offence. Although. Female infanticide has long been committed in India , foeticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed tide of this abhorrent practice.

See the source image

 CAUSES OF FEMALE FOETICIDE

Female feticide has been practice foe periods especially for the families who have a preference only male child. Several religious, social, financial and emotional are the reason for female foeticide. Therefore the time has been changed how much However, many reasons and beliefs are ongoing in some families. Some main reason for female foeticide are:

Generally, parents don’t want a girl baby because they have to give a big amount as a dowry at daughters marriage.

There is a faith that girls are always consumer and boys are the only producers. This parents understand that son will earn money for the whole life and care their parents however girls will get married a day and will have a separate family.

There is a belief that the son will carry the name of the family in future however the girl has to Carry the husband’s family.

This is a prestige issue in society for parent and grandparent to have a boy baby in the family besides having a daughter.

There is a stress on the new bride of the family to give birth to male child so she is enforced to go for sex recognition and abort if girl baby.

Illiteracy, insecurity and poverty of people in society are also major reasons for girl baby burden.

JUDICIAL RESPONSES

Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themed v Union Of India –

The petition was filed by an NGO and Social activist Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes (CEHAT) a research centre of Anusandhan Trust based in Pune and Mumbai and others filed this writ petition against a social evil-female feticide very much prevailing in our society.

DECISION : in a response to the petition, the court issued in notice to the central and state governments to file replies to central government. The central sepervisory board, state Governments under the administration. And to appoint appropriate authorities at district and sub district level. Directions stated that the list of the members appointed should be published in the print and electronic media. Appropriate authorities were further directed to send a quarterly report to the central supervisory board. Public awareness against the practice of prenatal sex determination.

Supreme court directed state governments to take further steps to enforce the law and the secretary. Department of family welfare was directed to file an affidavit indicating the status of actions taken. Supreme court directed 9 companies to supply the information of the machines sold to various clinics in the last 5 years. Details of about 11,200 machines from all these companies and fed into commion data base. Addresses received from the manufacturers were also sent to concerned states and to launch prosecution against those bodies using ultrasound machines that had filed yo get themselves registered under the act. The court directed that the ultrasound machine/scanners be sealed and seized if they were being used without registration. Three associations viz., The Indian Medical Association [IMA], Indian Radiologist Association [IRA], and the Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Societies of India [FOGS] were asked to furnish details of the members using these machines. Since the supreme court directive 99 cases were registered and in 232 cases ultrasound machines, other equipment and records were seized. Today there is an estimated 2509 ultrasound machines in the country, of these 15000 have been registered. State governments havve communicated to the central government in writing the according to official reports received, they are satisfied that sex determination services are no longer being provided in their respective states.

However, it is widely believed thaat while these services are no longer openly available their clandestine availability and utilization continues all over the country. The observation of the National inspection and Monitoring Commission confirm this situation and endorse the need for stricter enforcement of laws.

Impact of female foeticide on the sex ratio

 ratio denotes the ratio of females to male in a specific region. Many practices like female foeticide and female infanticide ( killing a baby girl after her birth) have been had a contrary influence on the sex ratio. Thus it rises and promotes many social evils.

As per the decennial Indian census, Sex ratio of India is 107.48. It means 197.48 males per 100 females in 2019. Therefore India has 930 females per 1000 males. So, India has 48.20%female population compare to 51.80% male population

EFFECTIVE MEASURES TO CONTROL

Some measures are:

1. There should be registration of all the nursing homes and rigorous action should be taken against the defaulters.

2. Government must deploy national wide campaign to spread cognizance among the people. They should aware the people about the importance of girls and should not consider them as stigma to their families.

3. More reservation should be given to the girls in education. Government should provide financial support to those families who are not able to educate their children. Proper measures should be taken to implement anti dowry law and culprits should be punished. Government should provide financial support for the marriage of girls belonging to poor families.

4. Emphasis should be given to women empowerment. Women education will help in eradicating this problem. As the women will become independent, they can take decision according to their volition.

5. There is a need of remove the myth of sin preference from our society only then this problem can be tackled.

LAWS

1. The constitution of India, 1950

Section 312 of the Indian Penal Code 1860 read wIth the Medical termination of pregnancy Act, 1971 where all the restrictions imposed therein, including the time limit of 20 weeks, other than the ones to ensure good medical conditions, infringe the right to abortion and the right to health, which emanate from right to life as guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution. Right to abortion is a species of right to privacy, which is again proclaimed a continuance of the right to life under Article 21 of the Constitution.

2. The Indian Penal Code, 1860

Sections 312-316 of the Indian Penal Code deak with the miscarriage and death of an unborn child aand depending on the severity and intention with which the crime is committed , the penalties range from seven years of imprisonment and fine to life imprisonment

3. The medical termination of pregnancy Act, 1971

The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 was conceived as a tool to let the pregnant women decide on the number and frequency of children. It further gave them the right to decide on having or not having the child. However, this good intentioned steo was being misused to force women to abort the female child. In order to do away with the lacunE inherent in previous legislation, the Pre- natal Diagnostic Techniques ( regulations and prevention of Misuse) Act was passed in sex of the foetus and stipulated punishment for the violation of provisions thereof. It also provided for mandatory registration of genetic counseling centers, clinics, hospitals, nursing homes, etc

POINT OF VIEW

These unscrupulous murders of female or girls is justified on two grounds. First, it reduces the population and second is that ghe loor parents will be saved from the expamses which thay would have to incur in the marriage of their daughter if she had born. So the murder of a female foetus is considered to be a solution to two major problems i.e. population problem and dowry. But how far are thse grounds justified . India was the first country to adopt family planning as an official programme to reduce the birthrate. But population of the country is still growing. One of the reasons for the growth of population in India is the desure for a son

Today the sex determination tests have provided an easy way out to know whether or not a woman will get a son

None of the arguments given in favour of the continuance of sex determination tests holds good. It is true that people should have every right to plan their families. If a man has a daughter and he wants son let have it. But difficulty lies if he wants son only. How far is correct to permit him to do do. The sex determination test is used to destroy the female foetus than to control the number of children or to have a child of the sex of one’s choice. In India the choice is always male child and it is the female only that is unwanted child.

CONCLUSION

“Yatra Naranthya Pujyathe Raman The Tatra Devatha” has been our culture. In our country a girl is worshiped as a Devi on one hand and denied ger existence on the other as if she has no right to live. Time has perhaps come for us to get rid of male chauvinism and treat children as gifts of nature regardless of their gender. We cannot imagine a society in the future where there will be only males and no females. The society will be full of crimes and evils. Only if legislations enacted in this behalf are not sufficient. Orthodox views regarding women need to be changed. The PNDT Act should penalize and punish the violators of this crime strictly. The pernicious acts of females foeticide and coercive abortions have to end before women becomes endangered species.

REFERENCES

1. Manjeet Rathe, Eradicate scourge of female Foeticide, people’s Democracy, vol xxv, no. 39

2. Manmeet kaur, female foeticide: A Sociological Perspective, the journal of Family Welfare, vol39(1), March 1993

3. Pre-natal Diagnostics Techniques ( Regulations and Prevention of Misuse) Act 1994

4. Supreme Court On Women Justice by Prof. Satish C. Shastri

5. Indiankanoon.org

What does the JOY BANGLA motto help you to remember

During the 2021 West Bengal gathering decisions Didi over and again utilized the motto Joy Bangla. A non-Bengali saw the same old thing about the trademark and thought it’s anything but a territorial motto. That is till I talked with a senior Bengali companion. Joy Bangla was actually the authority motto of Bangladesh’s battle for opportunity during the 1970s. This was authored to underscore the ethnic/phonetic way of life as against the ravaging West Pakistan armed force and government who needed to stifle Bengali culture, language and so forth by compelling Urdu as true language. The Joy Bangla motto represents this viewpoint.

The utilization of this trademark recommends uncannily a similar expectation of featuring Bangla as against the mastery of non-Bengali culture and different powers from Delhi where BJP Rules. Basically put the motto inferred, BJP are outcasts very much like the Pakistan Army was in East Bengal who wish to force their language on the Bengalis and along these lines stifle Bengali language, culture. The word utilized by Didi to depict the BJP is “Bohiragoto”. As per a tweet by political pundit Sandip Ghosh ‘Bohir implies outside, agoto significance coming from.

The story of outcasts being constantly continued draws out this undercover goal. The persistent refrain is we won’t permit control of our territory by pariahs and encroach on our language and culture. This is plainly like what occurred in Bangladesh that is the reason the trademark Jai Sri Ram causes outrage and interruption of political action, despite the fact that Sri Ram is loved in West Bengal.

What the TMC is passing up is a great opportunity that Kolkata is a cosmopolitan city. By ideals of being the capital of British India sooner or later, it pulled in individuals from everywhere India. Bhabanipur is known for its Gujarati and Punjabi Sikh populace. Chinatown is the place where for the most part Chinese live. Jews, Armenians and Anglo-Indians live in Kolkata as well.” Not to fail to remember the Marwaris. An inhabitant Indian however non-occupant Bengali says these networks have gotten more Bengali than him. They have gotten Bengali as the state’s way of life and language has developed on and turned into a natural piece of them.

In this political race networks living for ages have become pariahs in West Bengal. This could unfavorably influence social security in the city. As indicated by this ANI report of March 29 “Didi charges that Bengalis would be driven out of Bengal if BJP wins.” Such explanations could spellbind local people against the rest. Alternately, TMC has not offered expressions of their being outcasts against unlawful Rohingya foreigners who have gotten comfortable in the New Town region or against the illicit Bangladeshi settlers. Maybe, on the grounds that they are Bengali.Over the years illicit penetration from Bangladesh has made three regions to be specific Malda, Murshidabad and West Dinajpur Muslim larger part. Not a word about these pariahs. More about this later.

What Is the Best Time to Post a Blog and How to Test it?

Are you wondering when should you publish blog posts? Do you want to hit that sweet spot where you get the most traffic, social shares, and comments?

If you’ve just written a great blog post and want it to go viral, then publishing time can play an important role.

In this article, we’ll show you what is the best time to post a blog by going through key facts. We’ll also show you how you can test the best time to take your blogs live.

Let’s kick things off with a look at…

Best Time of Day to Post a Blog for More Pageviews

As you start blogging, you’ll have many questions like what time of day should you publish a post. Or which days are best for getting the most traffic.

To answers such queries, different studies have been done where agencies and websites have gone through tons of data.

And among them is a study conducted by Shareaholic in 2011 that shows the best time to publish a blog post is early morning between 7 AM to 1 PM EST on weekdays.

The peak is between 9 AM and 10 AM, which shows when you can schedule or publish your posts.

Building upon the same point,

shows that 70% of users read blogs in the morning (during the AM hours).

&It makes sense as people starting their day would be going through emails, planning their week, and reading up on the latest news.

That said, people do read blogs throughout the day, so you can publish posts in the later hours as well. Now let’s see which days you should take your blogs live.

Best Days to Publish a Blog Post for Traffic

Along with time, different studies show that posting blogs on certain days can help generate more traffic. And which days are we talking about?

Shareaholic suggested that the best day to post a blog is Monday if you want more pageviews. Similarly, Kissmetrics also says that Monday is the best to publish a post and generate traffic.

What’s the Best Time to Post a Blog for Social Shares?

When it comes to engaging people on social media, you’d want to push your blog post when your users are active.

And to give you an idea of what’s the best day for getting social shares, consider a study by TrackMaven. They analyzed 65,000+ blogs and suggested that blogs published on a Sunday get

A possible reason for this could be that on the weekend’s people have more time to read through your content and then come up with a reply.

So, if you have a topic that wants user opinion or start a conversation, then this is the best time to post a blog.

But what if these times don’t work for your website? How can you find the best publishing day and hour for your content pieces? Let’s find out.

How to Test the Best Time to Post a Blog?

The researches we’ve shown you in our article provide a benchmark but in reality, there’s no best time to publish blogs.

That’s because these studies use their own samples of websites to provide a generalized conclusion. And most of them are very old, going back to 2011.

A better way to find the best time to post a blog is by doing your own testing. By monitoring which days and time you get most visitors and engagement, you’ll know the optimal time of publishing.

And the best tool to help you out is MonsterInsights. It’s the leading WordPress plugin for Google Analytics and makes decision making easy by providing insights about your site’s performance with detailed reports inside your dashboard.

MonsterInsights makes it super easy to set up custom dimensions on your website and start tracking custom data of your choice in Google Analytics.

With the help of its Custom Dimensions Addon, you can exactly see what’s the best time to post a blog. Not only that, you can set up custom tracking of individual authors, post types, category and more.

You can follow our complete guide to custom dimensions in Google Analytics for configuring tracking of best publishing times.

Unemployment-hindrance to development

Unemployment became a never ending war problem in front of our country .But the outbreak of covid19 make this problem more dense. Now along with the problem of unemployment the problem of disguised employment is in front of us. Unemployment means the numbers of individuals in the state are finding jobs for which they are fit, and they are willing to, but not getting that. Or simply a person is willing for a paid job or searching for one. It is a curse to society and decreases the economic growth of the country. The particular age group of unemployment is adults. The main reason for unemployment is the rapidly increasing population is one of the most affecting factors of unemployment. Slow economic growth, industrial growth is also the main reason for unemployment.
Unemployment leads to an increase in poverty and sets back the economic growth of the country. The women’s unemployment rate is higher in rural areas than in urban sectors of the country. Unemployment also misguides or makes our youth helpless to do criminal activities. The migration of people from rural to urban areas for the search of the job also affects it. As the demand for jobs is high and the number of posts is less. Unemployment is also a reason for our youth is getting addicted to drugs. Due to lack of a job, they get addicted to drugs, alcohol, and may even get into criminal activities. The government, as well as the society or we, should focus on population control and make people aware of its ill effects, long-time advantages, and ways to control which help the government to provide jobs to needy ones if there are some limited members.
Agriculture is the backbone of our economy. Agriculture in India is not developed enough to accommodate all the unemployed youth. Our agriculture is still dependent on old and traditional ways of farming. And our education should also be upgraded as it mainly focuses on practical aspects of learning, should offer the vocational course and with that indirectly it will give the job to teachers.

Mob lynching-to what extent correct?

Mob Lynching is an open punishment applied by a gather that does not have the authority to do so. Most times, lynching occurs when a group believes that a person has committed a crime, even if it has not been trialed or convicted. lynching’s practice may include public hangings, tar, and feathering, or other forms of extreme punishment or execution performed in public. Lynching differs from uncommon types of punishment because the public performs it outside the legal system. This is often handled by a group of people. Lynching is a mob justice in which ordinary people come together to terrorize or punish someone they think violates a legal, moral, and social standard. Today in our society cases of mob-lynching occur in the name of homecoming, love jihad, cow protection, and self-defense camps, the longstanding issues of communalism against the community are being expressed now as violence. The crowd is making a target of people .also many cases recorder where There is an attempt to provoke communities suffering from such attacks. 

The instant “justice” of the crowd also reveals the breaking of people’s confidence in law and order. mass lynching cases are mainly caused by the spread of rumors, suspicions, or religious beliefs. If we understand the events in what order they happened then, we may consider that some were the consequences of caste-based horrors, some were because of religious beliefs, and the rest was because of false news or rumors.

No doubt we should respect religious beliefs, but what if few people kill a person based on suspicion or suspicion? But the main question is that too what extend it is justified to take law in the hands. And to do injustice with someone in the name of the justice. Now need of the time is that government itself investigate the matter and give punishment to those who are culprit.

 

Evil corruption

Corruption refers to a form of criminal activity or dishonesty. It refers to an evil act by an individual or a group. It includes activities like bribery or embezzlement. Most people in positions of authority are susceptible to Corruption. Corruption certainly reflects greedy and selfish behavior. Bribery is the most common method of Corruption which involves improper use of favors and gifts in exchange for personal gain. the favors include money, gifts, company shares, sexual favors, employment, entertainment, and political benefits. Also, the personal gain can be – giving preferential treatment and overlooking crime.

One important way of preventing Corruption is to give a better salary in a government job. Many government employees receive pretty low salaries. so they resort to bribery to meet their expenses. So, government employees should receive higher salaries. , high salaries would reduce their motivation and resolve to engage in bribery. By Increasing the number of workers we can curb Corruption. In many government offices, the workload is very high. This provides an opportunity to slow down the work of government employees. Consequently, these employees then indulge in bribery in return for faster delivery of work. Hence, this opportunity to bribe can be removed by bringing in more employees in government offices.

Strong laws are very important for stopping Corruption. strict punishments need to be meted out to guilty individuals. Furthermore, there should be an efficient and quick implementation of strict laws. Applying cameras in workplaces is an excellent way to prevent corruption. Above all, many individuals would refrain from indulging in Corruption due to fear of being caught. Furthermore, these individuals would have otherwise engaged in Corruption. Furthermore, the politician supports them due to the benefits they receive. Corruption is a great evil in society. This evil should be quickly eliminated from society. 

Prominence of education

Education is the act of discovering things around us. And so the prominence of the education in a person life. To discover the real meaning of life. We need to educate not ourselves but our environment also. Education helps us to easily recognize and deal with any difficulty and makes balance throughout the whole life in every aspect. Education is the first and foremost right of every human being. And therefore we have the right to education in our constitution. Without education we are incomplete and our lives are useless. Education helps us to set a goal and go ahead by working on that throughout life. It improves our knowledge, skill, confidence level, and personality. It empowers us intellectually to interact with others in our life. Education brings maturity and teaches us to live in a society with changing environment. For adaptability, education is a must. It is the way to social development, economic growth, and technological development. For being a proper social person we need to educate ourselves.

Education plays a great role in everyone’s life by building personality, improving knowledge and skill, and providing a feeling of well-being for a person. Education has been divided into three categories in our country as Primary education, Secondary education, and Higher Secondary education. It develops our analytical skills, character, and overall personality. Education plays a pivotal role in nourishing his present and future by ensuring aim of the life. 

Every child must to go school at his/her appropriate age as everyone has equal rights to education from birth. The growth and development of any country depend on the quality of the education system set for young ones in schools and colleges. However, the education system in every area of the country is not the same so the proper growth and development of the people and society vary according to the weak and strong education system of the particular region. The future of our country is the youth and the more our youth will learn more advanced our nation will become.

Agony of covid19

COVID has not only affected us by entering our bodies but the agony of Losing family members, jobs, income, a completely disrupted education system, and constant fear of what next have severely damaged the peace of people. Even doctors, nurses are under the agony of constant threat and tremendous work pressure. Oxygen plants are being constructed and vaccines are being produced, however, what the mind has been going through cannot be cured by steroids or vaccines.

These are some of the thoughts that haunt many of us who are infected or have lost people close to us due to COVID. Whenever we surf the internet through information pieces or even when we watch the news, we see they offer COVID helpline numbers, hospital details, and other valuable information on how to tackle COVID. In the same way, we can have a COVID Mental Health support helpline, wherein people can interact with therapists or more precisely connect to somebody who can listen and feel empathetically.

At this point advice like yoga, meditation, or “keep yourself engaged” does not work. There has to be sharing, there has to be handholding throughout the process of recovery. To heal completely from COVID or COVID implications the mind needs to be healed as well and we all have to pay attention to this

Mental Sickness

Covid-19 has shaken the entire world. Even though Major Pharma companies have developed vaccines intending to end the pandemic. we are still struggling to find an end to this pandemic. One of the issues that India faces is the delay in immunizing the population again Covid-19. The delay is partly due to overpopulation. And If the vaccines are not effective against the new variant, it needs to be redesigned to combat the new variant, prolonging the pandemic.

Due to covid, our country has to suffer Major economies struggle to cope with the health care burden as millions of infected people need hospitalization for several days, depending on the severity of the disease.

No one knows when lockdown will be enforced again to control the situation. Many are losing their families and not allowed to attend the final rites due to strict quarantine and lockdown measures. Along with these major problems This disease has seriously created mental health issues, and it may take years to recover from such mental health conditions. Governments have to set up a separate budget to manage increasing mental health issues. The freedom to move around has now been crippled by Covid-19, and most people in lockdown are confined in a small space, limiting them to have face-to-face interactions with their dear ones and friends. It has affected people from all walks of life and has led to mental health issues. It is hard to find a common solution to all as mental health issues differ from person to person. Students are the worst affected community as Many schools and colleges have resorted to online teaching, which isn’t as good as a regular session. 

The digital screen has now become our portal to communicate with the outside world. Many children have lost their parents in this second wave in India and have become orphans since then. There were several appeals to the Government of India requesting to support the children who have lost their parents/guardians/adopted parents. In such a drastic situation people are feeling alone. The best thing to overcome negative thoughts is by performing regular meditation and yoga, listen to music, news, recall sweet memories, watch favorite movies, plays, and read books. Only by overcoming our negative thoughts we can overcome mental sickeness.

Friends meaning

WHAT IS FRIENDSHIP?

The defining characteristic of friendship is a preference for a particular person. However, different people may have distinct definitions of and requirements for friendship. For example, very young children may refer to someone as their “best friend” two minutes after meeting, while very shy people or individuals from reserved cultures may report having only a handful of friends during their entire lives.

There’s no absolute definition of what does or does not constitute a friendship. However, some common traits of friendship include:

  • Some degree of commitment, both to the friendship and to the other person’s well-being.
  • A desire for “regular” contact with the other person. “Regular” contact could occur once every two days or once every two years.
  • Mutual trust, concern, and compassion.
  • Shared interests, opinions, beliefs, or hobbies.
  • Shared knowledge about one another’s lives, emotions, fears, or interests.
  • Feelings of love, respect, admiration, or appreciation.

Anthropologist Robin Dunbar theorized there was a limit to how many friendships an individual can have. In general, most humans have up to 150 friends, 50 good friends, 15 close friends, and 5 intimate friends. These numbers have shown to be consistent across time, from hunter-gather societies to the age of social media.

FRIENDSHIP AND GENDER

Culture strongly affects people’s understanding of friendship. In the United States and many other industrialized wealthy nations, women tend to have more friendships than men and to invest more energy in those friendships. Romantic relationships are, for many men, a sole or primary source of friendship. So as children grow into adolescents and adolescents become adults, boys may have fewer and fewer friendships.

Cultural norms suggest that women are “better” at friendship, more communicative, or more in need of intimacy from friends. This can create a self-fulfilling prophecy in which women are more likely to have friends. Women also spend more time investing in their friendships. A man might only talk to his closest friend once every few months, while on average, women in the U.S. tend to talk longer and more frequently to their friends.

Among people in long-term relationships, women tend to do more work to sustain friendships and other close relationships. This might include sending Christmas cards, remembering birthdays, making phone calls, and updating friends on major life events.

Researchers are increasingly sounding alarm bells about an epidemic of loneliness. Loneliness can shorten a person’s life and erode their health. It may even pose greater public health risks than smoking. This suggests that gender norms about friendships may actually harm men’s health. As marriage rates decline, men without friendships may feel progressively more isolated.

Gender may also affect whom one chooses as a friend. A 2018 study found that gender discrimination can decrease the likelihood that a person will form friendships with members of a different gender. Cross-gender friendships can foster empathy, break down gender barriers, and undermine gender stereotypes. Gender norms that undermine these friendships may therefore perpetuate gender stereotypes and misogyny.

FRIENDSHIP ACROSS A LIFESPAN

Lifelong friendships can be immensely rewarding. People may draw inspiration from talking to those who knew them when they were young. Lifelong friends connect people to their history, offer insight on how a person has changed and evolved, and are often deeply connected to one another’s families. These friendships offer a sense of permanency and consistency that can be deeply reassuring at times of ambivalence, loss, or anxiety.

Sustaining a friendship across a lifespan, however, can be difficult. People’s interests and lifestyles change as they age. In childhood, a friendship might be based upon geographic closeness or a single shared interest. So a move or a change of interests can affect even long-term friendships.

Some barriers to sustaining lifelong friendships include:

  • Changes in lifestyle. For example, if one friend has a child and a marriage and the other does not, the two may struggle to relate to one another.
  • Geographic distance. Childhood friends often walk next door or hitch a ride from a parent to see one another. When time together requires a plane or long car ride, the friendship is harder to nurture.
  • Time constraints. People’s lives tend to become more demanding as they get married, have children, become caregivers for aging parents, embark on challenging careers, and accrue more financial obligations. Finding time for friends can be difficult in adulthood, especially when friends have very different lifestyles or do not live near one another.
  • Cultural values surrounding friendship. In the U.S. and in many other countries, romantic relationships are treated as the primary and most important relationship. This can cause some people to value their friendships less as they enter adult romantic relationships.
  • Shifting understandings of friendship. There’s no “right” way to have a friendship. One of the challenges of sustaining a friendship is finding a shared understanding of what the friendship should look like—how frequently to talk, what to talk about, how openly to discuss disagreements, etc. As childhood friends grow up, their desires for their friendships may change. This can leave one friend feeling like the friendship doesn’t offer enough, while the other friend feels the friendship demands too much.

5 Point Something on Judicial Review and Judicial Activism

  • INRODUCTION

In the enforcement of law, the Judiciary is in charge of three roles, firstly, as an interpreter of the constitution to eliminate any ambiguity in the language of the provisions given in the constitution; secondly, as the protector of fundamental rights which are guaranteed by the constitution to its people; and thirdly, to resolve the disputes which have been appealed after being heard in the lower judiciary.

In India the judiciary is the only authority that interprets the Constitution. By this it is meant that the Judiciary acts like the protector of the Constitution. It prevents the harm done by the executive and legislative. It provides the general public their rights that have been prescribed in the Constitution under the Directive Principles of State Policy. Judicial Review is the power of judiciary to review the laws and determine their validity. Judicial Review has not been defined in the Indian Constitution. It does not direct judicial system to practice the judicial review but it is deep rooted in the constitution itself. For instance, Article 13 states that ‘all laws in force in the territory of India before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of Part III shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.’

In this sense ‘judicial activism’ is treated as a necessary consequence of judicial review. Assertion of judiciary and its powers is judicial activism. The Indian courts have achieved readiness in exercising their power to cherish the values of constitution to an extent that Judicial Review has taken form of Judicial Activism. In other words, Judicial Activism is bringing justice to the doorstep of people, especially who are vulnerable. It is not something that has been invented by the courts but the lawyers, i.e. the activists themselves. It has its roots in the Article 21, ‘Right to life and liberty of a citizen’. Precisely, it is a philosophy which involves the personal views and understandings of a judge with regard to a statute. It is activism regarding a public policy and its benefits instead of constitutionalism.

  • PROS AND CONS

JUDICIAL REVEIW

PROS

  • It offers a route to justice for those adversely affected by public body decision making
  • It performs an essential tasks in that it allows the courts and judiciary oversight of government decision making, be that central or local government, or parts of the state that implement government policy.
  • Judicial review allows the Supreme Court to take an active role in ensuring that the other branches of government abide by the constitution. If two laws conflict with each other, the Court must decide on the operation of each.

CONS

The concept of Judicial Review does not consist of negative aspects but here are some limitations of the Judicial review.

  • Only the procedure followed by the authority in reaching the decision can be checked not the decision. The court is only allowed to check and limit the procedure not the decision.
  • The power is delegated to superior courts only, i.e. Supreme Court and High Courts.
  • The court cannot be involved in policy matters and political doubts unless absolutely necessary.
  • It is temporary in nature. Law once passed may become unconstitutional with changed situation; this may create vacuum in legal system. Hence, it can be said that directions given by court would be binding only till legislation is enacted.
  • The court can interpret and invalidate a law but it cannot itself make laws.

JUDICIAL ACTIVISM

PROS

  • It provides a system of checks and balances to the other government branches. Judicial Activism is a delicate exercise involving creativity. It brings out required innovation in the form of a solution.
  • Judicial Activism provides judges to use their personal wisdom in cases where the law failed to provide a balance.
  • Judicial Activism also provides insights into the issues. The reason why this is a good thing is that it shows the instilled trust placed in the justice system and its judgments.
  • Many a time public power harms the people, so it becomes necessary for the judiciary to check misuse of public power.
  • It provides speedy solutions where the legislature gets stuck in the issue of majority.

CONS

  • Judges can override any existing law. Hence, it clearly violates the line drawn by the constitution.
  • The judicial opinions of the judges become standards for ruling other cases.
  • Judgment may be influenced by personal or selfish motives. It can further harm the public at large.
  • Repeated interference of courts can erode the faith of the people in the quality, integrity and efficiency of governmental institutions.
  • Courts limit the functioning of government, when it exceeds its power and to stop any abuse or misuse of power by government agencies.
  • PRECEDENT CASES

JUDICIAL REVIEW

  • Indira Gandhi vs. Raj Naraian
  • Marbury vs. Madison
  • Chandra Kumar vs. Union of India and others

JUDICIAL ACTIVISM

  • Keshvanand Bharati vs. State of Kerala
  • Minerva Mills vs. Union of India
  • SP vs. Union of India
  • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN JUDICIAL REVIEW AND JUDICIAL ACTIVISM
Judicial review is a through which a court can review an administrative action by a public body and safeguard declarations or orders. Judicial activism means judicial rulings based on personal or political considerations rather than on existing law. 
The power of Judicial Review comes from the Constitution of India itself (Article 13). The authority of judicial review is suggested to protect and implement the fundamental rights defined in Part III of the Constitution. Judicial Activism also has its roots in the Constitution of India. It has its roots in the Article 21, ‘Right to life and liberty of a citizen’.
Judicial review is concerned with the power of the Court.Judicial activism is concerned with the manner in which the power is being exercised.
Power of judicial review follows from various provisions of the Constitution of India itself like Articles 13(2), 32, 226, 227,136,141 etc.Judicial activism on the other hand is more to do with the attitude of a judge handling the case and is thus an attribute of the personality of the judge other than any provisions in the legal system.
   
  • SUMMARY

It can be said that judicial review and judicial activism is a highly developing and complex concepts. Judicial review has its root long back and its scope and extent varies from case to case. The growth of judicial review is the inevitable response of the judiciary to ensure proper check on the exercise of public power. Growing awareness of the rights in the people; the trend of judicial scrutiny of every significant governmental action and the readiness even of the executive to seek judicial determination of debatable or controversial issues, at times, may be, to avoid its accountability for the decision, have all resulted in the increasing significance of the role of the judiciary. There is a general perception that the judiciary in this country has been active in expansion of the field of judicial review into non-traditional areas, which earlier were considered beyond judicial purview. The judges have a duty to perform, which is even more onerous to keep the judicial ship afloat on even keel. It must avoid making any ad hoc decision without the foundation of a juristic principle, particularly, when the decision appears to break new grounds.

Judicial Activism is an obligation to be shouldered and not to be shirked by the judiciary when occasion and opportunity arise and demand the same. Otherwise, the judiciary will be failing to redeem the obligations to the people in accordance with the letter and spirit of the Constitution.

Judicial review has sound justification in the function of upholding constitutional supremacy. The supremacy of Constitution itself is embedded in convincing facts of public confidence. The role of judiciary is that of sentinel qui vive (on guard). The role of judiciary in the domain of review of legislation and administrative action has reinforced faith of people in good law and good governance. Judicial review and judicial activism has been treated as the most essential function of the judiciary to set right the lapses in all the administrative actions in the interest of justice.

Why unemployment occurs?

Being 2nd in terms of the population can seem a curse to our country especially in terms of employment. The competition that youngsters face these days is because of this population. Even those who get a job didn’t get the desired salary. Most employees are not paid in proportion to the work that we put in. What’s more, this is not a new problem or one that has been created by a single government. In our country, low monthly incomes are a norm – across all states, and as a consequence, wage inequality remains high. Wage growth significantly trails economic growth in the country. The sluggish growth of our GDP has led to a rise in inequality and widened the economic divide between rural and urban India.

The sad part is that India’s unemployed are mostly the higher educated and the young. And those who have jobs are not satisfied enough. If you believe that only a few people at the top are getting huge paychecks, think again. Because data suggest that we aren’t creating too many high-paying jobs either. And even though labor productivity has risen in India, growth in remuneration has remained slow. The sad part is statistic, graphs of unemployment are still the same. The new jobs and opportunities are nothing in front of our population. This problem needs to review and can be to some extent need to be solved through bargaining power. Skilling, sometimes, multi-skilling at all levels is the most effective way to fight the wage crisis and the coming job crisis -the crucial designation before talent can be matched with demand. If the skilling exception isn’t corrected, job seekers will end up in the bad job trap. Skills produce productivity, and productivity brings with it higher pay.

The problem is that the business power of workers in India is low and getting more worse. Wage changes are also a result of changes in the way of production. Throughout the last few years, production has become more capital intensive or less dependent on labor in nearly every manufacturing industry in the organized and unorganized sectors. This is true, if to a lesser extent, for agriculture and services as well. While technical know-how and increased use of machinery is a change that needs to be welcomed since it translates to increased productivity, in labor surplus economies like India, the enhanced productivity does not automatically translate to higher wages for employees. Therefore need of the time is to cope up with the desired need of the institutes and became more high tech by learning more digital skills.

Pandemic, Placement, and Future of young generation.

Covid19 binds us to our shelters, and study remains restricted to computer screens. In one way or another way, covid19 does impact the life of the people. So to the final year students. Due to covid19 outbreak and lockdown, many students did not receive their job letters those who received them faced delaying joining dates even after getting hired. some students did not get a call back from the employer regarding their status of employment. Along with elders, students were hoping too for things to get back to normal But the second wave of the virus crushed all the hopes of the students. Students will have to set in the new normal of digitization.


Firms have changed their hiring process also from full-time to unpaid or stipend-based internships, to cut costs. Companies are even reducing the number of hiring employees and are also offering comparatively lower compensation packages. Only a few companies have joined so far for placement in the but only with minimal vacancies. besides affecting the health sector, Covid19 has also posed major setbacks for small businesses and it’s going to affect freshers.

Marginal or no placements have hugely affected students. There’s a persistent fear of remaining unemployed even after college ends. Sadly, the institutions no longer take the responsibility of getting their students placed and ensuring their economic and financial safety. Also, there’s a lack of strategy behind planning placement drives. Government should interrupt to negotiate between the colleges and companies for the interest of the students.. The government has to put in extra effort to ensure that unemployment levels among the youth do not increase further. A lot of people lost their jobs during the pandemic. Now, the challenge in front of freshers is to compete with those who are experienced enough but unemployed. Our state should look into this matter and try to create job opportunities for the youth so that the number of unemployed population could be declined.

MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE

Medical Negligence And Law In India - An Analysis - iPleaders

ABSRACT

With the advancement of technology, many incurable diseases are now curable. Not only this but now people live longer than the earlier times as there are several developments in the field of medicine. With the time medicines and technology has changed but one thing that hasn’t changed is Medical Negligence. Even now, when we promise best medications and facility to patients, there are a number of evident cases which bring to our notice the medical malpractice that prevails in the recent times. Every practitioner possessing some skill owes a duty to the one he provides service to. Often, due to the carelessness of the practitioner this duty is breached on his part and as a consequence thereof the consumer suffers an injury/damage/loss.

A shocking fact is that even with advance technologies, cases of negligence haven’t decreased to a noticeable extent. The most vulnerable person in the relation is the patient who expects to get treated but instead suffers a greater loss. In the crucial time of covid-19 pandemic, it is essential to note that the practice can be proved harmful o he citizens of our country. The virus is contagious and can spread from one to another quickly if not brought under control. But the number of increasing cases tells us a different story; it gives us the evidence of poor management and medical facilities. This research paper aims to focus on the concept and cases of medical negligence in light of current scenario of pandemic.

Keywords: Negligence, Medical Negligence, Duty, Liability, Covid-19, Compensation, Injury.

INTRODUCTION

When one person owes duty to the other and commits a breach of the same which results damage to the other, the person is said to commit negligence. Medical Negligence refers to negligence committed by a professional in the field of medicine. A Medical Practitioner at general needs to maintain a standard of care and in case they fail to do the same, they are liable for the damage made. The concept of medical negligence has developed to punish the wrongdoer and bring justice to the person who has suffered loss due to negligent behavior  of the latter. Negligence is punishable under many laws including Tort, Contract Act, Consumer protection Act and the IPC.

By the years, numerous patients have died, had permanent injuries, miscarriage, disablement and more due to the medical negligence of a professional. A patient is a consumer and expects necessary care to be practiced by the professional. However not every harm caused to patient during treatment is punishable or result of a negligent behavior. A professional is liable only to the extent to which the skills of a person in that field are considered reasonable. A doctor is expected to provide services which heal the patient and makes him/her physically fit. He is required to have the necessary skills and knowledge for the purpose and exercise reasonable degree of care. The standard of skills and care depends upon the qualification of the person. A doctor is expected to have more skills than an average nurse may have. Medical practice falls under the ambit of services, the Supreme Court in the case Indian Medical Association v. V.P. Santha explained[1]:

“Services rendered to a patient by a medical practitioner (except where the doctor renders services free of charge to every patient or under a contract of personal service), by way of consultation, diagnosis and treatment, both medicinal and surgical, would fall within ambit of service as defined in Section 2(1)(o) of the Act”.

Medical Negligence is a serious issue and has been prevalent irrespective of the time. A person with no knowledge and skills that are required to treat a particular injury or disease is expected to commit negligence. The harm caused can vary from a temporary disability to death of the person. Generally, doctors indulge in activities like wrong treatment, overdose of medicines, carelessness about the health and capacity. If a patient suffering from Hepatitis and Jaundice gets a surgery without getting initial checkup for diseases and gets into even more serious condition that could even result into death if gets more serious, the doctor is liable for the negligence.[2] In such cases the doctors are liable for medical negligence in the treatment of patients and shall compensate or even be punished for the same.

HISTORY

The idea of medical negligence is around many years old. The Babylonian lords Hammurabi present a law against the doctors whose patient loses an eye. The discipline for such acts of neglect was to cut the hand of the doctor or specialist. Indeed, even the Egyptian and Roman law had such comparable arrangements for clinical acts of neglect causing demise or genuine wounds to the patient.[3] During British rule, English custom-based law was presented in the organization of equity in India. Mr. Wheeler, 555 individual from committee, Sea client and boss Justice of choultry in Chennai kicked the bucket because of utilization of wrong prescriptions. Dr. Samuels were attempted and absolved by the fantastic Jury when the Bill of Ignoramus[4] was acquired. Before the presentation of the Constitution of India 1950, countless English standards of law of misdeeds were followed and applied by the Indian courts.

The very first case at any point recorded under English law was in year 1374 against a specialist J. Mert; the opposite party had a physical issue in his hand because of wrong treatment. In USA, the primary case was recorded was in the year 1794, the case is known as Dr. Cross v. Guthrie[5]. For this situation patient’s significant other sued Dr. Cross, a doctor after the patient passed on because of postoperative mastectomy (bosom expulsion medical procedure) inconveniences three hours after activity. The remuneration of 40 pound was granted to defendant party.

In Kautilya’s Arthashastra, the laws relating to weight and measures at that time are depicted. Similarly, Yajnavalkya has given his views on weights and measures and adulteration of food, punishments with regard to it in Yajnavalkya samhita. Main provisions of Yajnavalkya samhita cover transactions related to sale and purchase. It also has regulations related to the sale of sample. He took into account the hard conditions faced by the purchaser and framed rules for their protection by giving them time to judge the utility of goods purchased and giving them the right to return goods. One fine elaborative mechanism of pricing policy and profit ratio charged by traders on the sold goods has been prescribed in the samhita. He also developed a concept of constructive theft. It includes the widespread deceitful practice of goldsmiths. The malicious practices ornament makers were prevalent in the ancient times as well and in order to protect the consumers from the same he (Yajnavalkya) prescribed certain standard norms. These norms included rules regarding ornaments so that the goldsmith cannot claim on great wastage and in case they do, they will be punished for the same.

The Indian common law on negligence basically is the appointed authority made custom-based law followed in England for quite a long time. In the lead of hearings, the law considers an assortment of levels of capability, and in this manner an assortment of guidelines, as long as the level of skill which can be normal from any given proficient is promptly obvious from his specific capability for example that he is an overall specialist as opposed to a pro. Be that as it may, each expert must accomplish a satisfactory degree of basic competence. When assessing whether or not a professional has been negligent, the courts will normally use as their benchmark the common practice within the relevant profession. However, where they consider that a profession adopts an unjustifiably lax practice, they may condemn the common standard as negligent.[6]

MEDICAL NEGLIGENCE

Meaning of Negligence

Eminent jurists and judges have exclaimed that there are many meanings to negligence. The Apex Court in the case of Jacob Mathew v. State of Punjab[7] stated,

“Negligence is the breach of a duty caused by the omission to do something which a reasonable man, guided by those considerations which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs would do, or doing something which a prudent and reasonable man would not do. Actionable negligence consists in the neglect of the use of ordinary care or skill towards a person to whom the defendant owes the duty of observing ordinary care and skill, by which neglect the plaintiff has suffered injury to his person or property.”

In usual meaning, negligence means carelessness towards something but in legal language it is the breach duty to exercise a certain standard of care that has resulted in some sort of injury. In the case of negligence the injury is generally foreseeable, hence a man, in order to prevent any harm or injury is expected to be preventive in his actions. There are cases when a man is careful but not accordingly to the situation which may also result in injury. If a person boards a train which has just started moving but forgets to close the door of the boogie, it creates danger for the people standing on the platform. And if a porter standing on the platform gets injured, the latter is liable for his carelessness as it is a duty of the boarding people to close the door as to prevent any injury to others.[8]

Medical Negligence

Professionals in the law of negligence are lawyers, doctors and architects. Professing a special skill requires adequate practice and knowledge of the task undertaken. This is the reason a medical practitioner is said to ‘practice medicine’, even if the field requires proficiency a lawyer or doctor doesn’t assure his clients of 100% success. The only assurance that can be given is that the person is proficient in the required skill and while undertaking the certain task will handle it with reasonable competence.[9]The Apex court held that a person can be held liable for negligence on two findings, ‘either he was not possessed with the requisite skill which he professed to have possessed, or, he did not exercise, with reasonable competence in the given case, the skill which he did possess’.

“In my opinion, our health care system has failed when a doctor fails to treat an illness that is treatable.”  – Kevin Alan Lee.

In the case Indian Medical Association v. V.P. Santha[10], the judges explained the difference between “occupational liability” and “professional liability”. They state that a profession consists of success and failures and those we cannot expect the doctor or medical practitioner to always have success in every case. The liability can only be decided on analyzing the case as the standard of care differs from case to case. A case of patient suffering from flu requires less care than a person suffering from cancer. Also the possibility of healing also depends on the case and its severity. In M/s Spring Meadows Hospital v. Harjot Ahluwalia[11], the Court observed, that the judgment depends on case to case. If the error made by the person in charge would not have been made by an ordinary person competent and skilled to the same extent as the defendant acting with reasonable care, he must be held negligent. While if the error made by him could have been made by an ordinary person in the same situation he must not be held negligent. A homeopathic doctor giving allopathic medicine which causes the patient’s death has been negligent and is liable to compensate as he was entitled to practice homeopathy only.[12]

Also, the term accident should not be confused with the consequence of negligence. Accident has a wider meaning. An accident means an unintended and unforeseen injurious occurrence; something that occurs in the usual course of events or that could not be reasonably anticipated.[13]

Res ipso loquitur[14] in Medical Negligence

The principle of res ipso loquitur is also applicable in the field of medical negligence. If the accident occurred would not have occurred if the management would have taken essential care and preventive measures, it proves to be an evidence for the liability. In such cases the management or the servants have been negligent towards their duties which resulted in the injury caused to the patient. In the case of Ashish Kumar Mazumdar v. Aishi Ram Batra Charitable Hospital Trust,[15] the patient has fallen out of the window of a hospital room, which clearly showed the negligence of the hospital staff. A three-judge bench of the Supreme Court applied the principle of res ipsa loquitur held the hospital liable for the absence of duty of care.

ESSENTIALS OF NEGLIGENCE

Negligence is the breach of a duty that a person owes to the other, caused by an omission which an ordinary man guided by the considerations of human conduct would not do; and the breach has resulted into an injury or damage to the person. Negligence has three essential components: ‘duty’, ‘breach’, ‘damage’.

The duty of care owed to the plaintiff;

The breach of duty on the part of defendant;

The damage caused to the plaintiff as a result of the breach.

Duty of the Doctor to attend a patient

If a doctor does not care to attend a patient in need to be admitted or attended the doctor will be held liable to compensate for any kind of loss that the patient suffers. There are many cases in which due to the non availability of the doctor at the time a patient has to suffer great injuries and even death. It was held inSishir Rajan Saha v. The state of Tripura[16]  that if a doctor is not available to attend a patient he will be liable for the damage caused. In the recent case, the petitioner’s son met an accident while coming to Udaipur from Agartala on scooter. He was admitted to the G.B. Hospital, Agartala in the emergency ward. The senior doctor, Dr. P. Roy who was a specialist in the field wasn’t available in the hospital at the time. He was continuously contacted and called to the hospital but chose to ignore as he was busy attending his patients in private. As a result the patient gave in to his injuries and died. The Court held the doctor liable to compensate Rs. 1, 25,000 to the father of the deceased. The Court also directed the Government hospitals to upgrade their services.

Duty of care

When a doctor attends his patient, he owes certain duties towards the patient:

  1. A duty in deciding whether to take the case,
  2. A duty in deciding the kind of treatment to give,
  3. A duty of care in the administration of the treatment.

In Dr. Lakshman Bal Krishna Joshi v. Trimbak Bapu Godbole[17], the respondent’s son who was 20 years old met an accident on a beach and as a result femur of his left leg was fractured. He was taken to the appellant’s hospital and during the treatment of reducing the fracture; the appellant gave him a single dose of morphia injection instead of giving an anesthetic. He used excessive force in handling the fracture and pulled the injured leg with three attendants. Then he put his leg into plaster of paris splints. The treatment gave a shock to the patient and as a consequence thereof he died. The doctor was held guilty of negligence by the Supreme Court.

In the recent case, the court held, “The petitioner must bring to his task a reasonable degree of skill and knowledge and must exercise a reasonable degree of care. Neither the very highest nor the very low degree of care and competence judged in the light of the particular circumstance of each case is what the law requires. The doctor, no doubt, has discretion in choosing treatment which he proposes to give to the patient and such discretion is relatively ampler in cases of emergency.”

In the case of Jagdish Ram v. State of H.P.[18], it was held that ‘ Before performing any surgery the chart revealing information about the amount of anesthesia ad allergies of the patient should be mentioned so that an anesthetist can provide ample amount of medicines to the patient’. The doctor in this case gave an overdose of anesthesia to the patient and as a result thereof the patient dies. The doctor was held liable for the negligence on his part.

Thus, a treatment found to be not in accordance with medical protocol would be a case of medical negligence.[19] The doctor cannot be made liable for negligence in case when things have gone wrong. But if a doctor fails to provide medication necessary to the treatment and health of the patient, no one but the doctor is to be held liable for the act.

NEGLIGENCE DURING THE COVID-19 PHASE

With the COVID 19 pandemic surrounding the globe and in excess of 2 million active instances of the same, the caring administrations by the medical experts is the main redeeming quality going with the careful steps that are the duty of the considerable number of citizens. Be that as it may, the security of the residents is being taken consideration by the clinical organization yet what it involves for the clinical clique who is over and over being blamed for negligence in discharge of average duty. On one hand the medical practitioners are being hailed as ‘Corona warriors’ but on the other hand, with the increase in cases wouldn’t there be a increase in negligence?

India had only 111 Covid-19 testing   centers to deal with a population of 1.35 billion people. This accounts to the medical negligence of the practitioners along with the hospital administrations especially at a time when every state is trying to reduce the number of cases. The number of beds available in the hospitals is comparatively less and as a result the citizens are dependent on understaffed and under-funded state run health facilities for COVID 19 diagnosis and treatment. This is a serious issue as people do not believe on the state authorities. A lady who was quarantined after her Spain visit states that there is a lack of basic amenities in the hospitals. People fear to come forward as they doubt the skills of the administration to treat their disease. Global health experts claimed that India does not have enough infrastructure and other facilities to face the pandemic. The claim nearly became evident with the increasing number of cases in India. Not only hospital authorities but the government has been lacking service, testing is another major concern. India has performed a little over 100,000 tests — a rate of nearly 47 tests per million people compared with 4,572 tests per million in the U.S., 2,753 tests per million in the U.K, and 8,800 per million in South Korea[20]. At present, India is not adequately testing to identify new cases, which might be hiding the true number of cases. An incident of severe medical negligence was noted when the Patna All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS-P) handed over the body of a COVID-19 positive patient to his family members.

In the midst of the vulnerability made by the COVID-19 pandemic, the judiciary remains the sole symbol of would like to review the worries of residents oppressed by the absence of satisfactory medical framework and the rising occasions of clinical negligence. There is trust that vital estimates will be taken by the Supreme Court, to safeguard the confidence and any expectation of the individuals.

CONCLUSION

Medical Negligence is, by and by, a hard issue to set up. On the off chance that negligence cases result from the current emergency, they will be tried comparable to target norms of care. The courts will think about the real factors and conditions of the case, including that the medicinal services staff were acting in an emergency. Considering past cases and the law’s methodology, the significance of clinical rules, conventions, staff preparing, ability appraisal, and enlistment expect a fundamental centrality, and all means should be completely reported. Documentation of steps taken in every one of these issues will demonstrate pivotal in safeguarding any cases brought. In any case, the COVID 19 is a phenomenal occasion and the relevance of the above laws in such conditions of most extreme criticality and affectability stays to be questionable. After the lockdown ends it would be unmistakable component of the lawful framework to observe such case emerging out of clinical carelessness in taking care of crown positive patients.

It isn’t expressed that specialists (doctors) are careless or reckless, however while carrying out a duty which requires a great deal of knowledge and care, regularly numerous experts fail to perform their duty towards the patient. Medication which is perhaps the noblest profession requires setting a domain which can profit the victims of different diseases. Numerous specialists even the expert in some cases dismisses little things to be dealt with while practicing which may bring about harms to the patients that could have been maintained with a permanent disability from that time or even the demise of the patients.

This type of negligence makes patients more prone to harm than to heal. And to avoid these sorts of accidents, prevention and careful behavior of doctors is important. The most prevalent way of doing this is relevant laws and statutes to ensure a patients well being. In a case where a US-based doctor who was Indian from origin lost his 29-year-old wife who was a child psychologist during their visit to India fifteen years ago. The Supreme Court asked the Kolkata-based hospital and three doctors to pay over Rs 11.41 crore[21]. “A bench of justices C K Prasad and V Gopala Gowda arrived at a figure of Rs 6.08 crore as compensation after considering aspects such as loss of consortium, pain and suffering and the cost of litigation.”

Another such case was noted where the Apex Court awarded a compensation of 1.8 crores to a women who had lost her eyes in 1996.[22] Cases like this are evidence of the medical malpractice in India. The government requires making strict rules to prevent the same, so that the justice prevails. People of India should be provided with adequate medical facilities, hygiene and sanitation. Laws should be strict for not only medicine but for all such professions to maintain a certain standard of care and prevent breach of duty.


[1] (1995) 6 SCC 651.

[2] AIR 2012 M.P. 21

[3] Tapas Kumar Koley, Medical Negligence and Law in India.

[4] “We are ignorant”. This was the word used by the grand Jury to discuss a bill of indictment and was used in the sense of not a true bill or not found. available at : https://www.etymonline.com/word/ignoramus( Last visited on March 12,2018)

[5] 2 Root 90 (Conn. 1794)

[6] Edward Wong Finance Co Ltd v. Johnson, Stokes, [1984] AC 296

[7] AIR 2005 S.C. 3180

[8] Booker v. Wenborn (1962) 1 W.L.R. 162.

[9] Jacob Mathew v. State of Punjab

[10] (1995) 6 SCC 651.

[11] (1988) 4 S.C.C. 39.

[12] Poonam Verma v. Ashwin Patel and Ors. (1996) 4 S.C.C. 332

[13] Black’s Law Dictionary, 7th edition

[14] The principle that the mere occurrence of some types of accident is sufficient to imply negligence.

[15] AIR 2014 S.C. 2061.

[16] AIR 2002 Gauhati 102.

[17] AIR 1989 185

[18] A.I.R. 2007 (NOC) 2498 (H.P.)

[19] Malay Kumar Ganguly v. Sukumar Mukherjee AIR 2010 S.C. 1162.

[20] https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-51922204

[21] THE OUTLOOK

[22] Krishna Iyer v. State of Tamilnadu and Others, 2015 STPL(Web) 1239 SC

The ruthless approach of private institutes.

Right to education a right that is just on the paper. The pandemic situation makes access to education more challenging. The expensive fees of institutes, colleges, and tuition teachers along with the cost of digital gadgets. Make it a dream for the unprivileged child. Along with expensive gadgets, the additional cost of the internet is a matter of concern. This all thing make together cost of education very expensive. That is not affordable for all. The Pandemic hit makes our environment full of grief. Many lost their loved ones as well as earning hands. The question is in that situation how an innocent child pays for the education expenses. the answer is simple. The unprivileged child eventually drops out of school. People have to deal with financial pressure and subsequent anxiety. The pandemic has financially impacted the Indian middle and upper-middle class. Also many lost their jobs during the covid19 hit. The savings are diverted towards the needs. The reduction in earnings with the additional monthly cost of electricity, rent, and other bills make education cost impracticable.

Even during this time that certain private colleges are charging mercilessly an expensive amount of fees. This has put enormous pressure on families that sometimes have only one earning member per family. OR those who lost only earning members of the family. They have continued with their regular scheme of fees without issuing even the slightest bit of deduction. Even the government is not supporting the pitty family;
Even though government gives the judgment that Colleges should not charge more than the students’ tuition fees because they practically have online-only classes. Many students think it is not justified to charge students for the facilities they are no costs such as the library, sports grounds, canteen, etc. Some colleges have given ridiculous explanations about electricity bills, infrastructural cost and maintenance fees. But on the ground private institution didn’t care about this judgment and continue to charge whole fees from the students.
The colleges even ruthlessly pressuring the students and the parents to pay the semester fees on time, which would result in serious consequences if not paid. Private colleges are still looking at their profit margin even during a pandemic. The second wave hit more badly than the first wave. half of the population is covid positive. and admitted to the hospital looking for the medicine, oxygen cylinder, and ICU wards. The grief situation as well as the financial expense in the medical treatment. Given the scarcity of beds, private hospitals are charging a huge amount to the patients’ families. They have no option but to comply. The medical expenses are an additional burden that they have to bear. The bills keep adding and resulted in borrowing .and then never adding a circle of depth began. In such a sad situation how can a student pay his fees?

The students not only have to give compulsory examinations but they also have to pay with the financial expenses. Owing to this expense, students in the middle and lower strata of society are thinking to drop out the college. They are taking up whatever odd jobs they can get with little pay to support their family. Many of them had plans to pursue degrees post-graduation, but they have no option but to give up given the circumstances. In certain families with more than two children, it is becoming an increasing burden for the earning member to keep up with the rising expenses.

Lack of income source, lack of money, and diversion of savings towards basic needs as well as medical expenditures are some of the reasons stated by students facing such a crisis. Even authorities are not assisting the common people. Government is silent on this issue. That’s the reason many students give theatre life as being hopeless by committing suicide. Students want the college to either waive off the fees or provide them with some aid or assistance. The absolute lack of understanding for students has been reflected by these colleges. The mental fatigue and pain caused by this constant pressure are harmful to the well-being of students and parents as well.
It is unfair on the part of private colleges to seek their profits during the pandemic situation. Instead of charging such a high amount, they should either waive it off for students going through a financial crisis or charge them just the tuition fee. The students are already facing mental pressure and anxiety. There is a lack of accessibility to online education existing already. Some have had to purchase laptops, good mobile sets, and costly data packs to attend classes. To assume that everyone’s financial condition will remain unaffected because they belong to a privileged background is wrong and fallacious.
Some colleges are giving excuses that they have to pay to there teachers. Therefore they have to ask for money. But it is not convincing enough for the students who have time and again asked for a breakup of the fee structure. The students are helpless at this point. Even after approaching multiple authorities, they have not received a helpful solution. We can help these needy students through our small contribution. We common people should assist those who are in need.

US government office to begin giving visa talks with openings for Indian understudies.

The Minister Counselor for Consular Affairs at the US consulate on Sunday said in a meeting that the US mission in India is effectively working to oblige whatever number understudy visa candidates as could reasonably be expected in July and August, and working with their authentic travel stayed a first concern for it. Understudy visa candidates needn’t bother with a sped up arrangement to plan their visa meet. On June 14, we will open July and August arrangements for understudies, he added.He said that the US-bound understudies won’t need any verification of COVID-19 immunization to enter the country. They will require a negative report of their COVID-19 test taken inside 72 hours preceding their takeoff.

The government office will begin giving visa talks with openings for Indian understudies from Monday. We perceive the pressure and nervousness this has caused to understudies and their families, and we are effectively attempting to oblige whatever number understudy visa candidates as could be allowed in July and August. Working with genuine understudy travel to the United States remains a main concern for the US Mission to India, Heflin told PTI. At the point when I got some information about the rising vulnerability among the Indian understudies needing to go to the US, which had forced new travel limitations in May.

Understudies getting back to scholastic projects that resume on or after August 1 may head out to the United States as long as 30 days before the program resumes. There is no National Interest Exception needed in the present circumstance. Its suggested for proceeding with understudies examine their particular resumption plans with their individual colleges to foster a movement timeline.The National Interest Exceptions permit travel to the US for people whose passage is considered of public interest. They expect to begin an escalated two months of meeting understudy visa candidates on July 1. We will intend to open however many arrangements as we can securely oblige, in view of nearby pandemic conditions across India.Asked about misgivings identifying with immunization, the authority said verification of inoculation isn’t needed to enter the United States.Please note that evidence of a negative COVID-19 test outcome, taken inside 3days of your flight’s takeoff, is needed to load onto a flight and for passage into the United States.

While confirmation of inoculation isn’t needed to enter the United States, singular schools or establishments may set their own prerequisites. The US instruction framework works freely from the central government, and understudies ought to counsel intimately with their host organization to guarantee consistence with singular inoculation necessities,” he added.There are in excess of 4,500 certify colleges in the US that work self-governing, and the strategy embraced by one school for its understudies and training local area may not be equivalent to that for another one.It’s inquired as to whether an exemption will be considered for a parent who wishes to go with an understudy made a beeline for the US, the authority said guardians going to the country, all things considered, will be named vacationers.

Considering flooding COVID-19 diseases in India, President Joe Biden approved a movement restrict for certain non-foreigners from India under a Presidential Proclamation that became effective on May 4.Presidential Proclamation 10199 just applies to non-residents who have been truly present in India inside the 14 days going before their application for section to the United States. The US Embassy and US Consulates don’t give exhortation on explicit travel arranging. It is said that understudy visa candidates with a dropped arrangement should make another arrangement and that new understudy visa arrangements will be made accessible on a first-come, first-served basis.It is likewise inquired as to whether wards of somebody having a legitimate H1B visa are considered for NIE waiver, he said such individuals, who have distinct designs to travel and can exhibit their capability for a NIE, may contact the government office or consulate.To a question on whether close relatives of a US resident can get a facilitated visa if the US resident is wanting to travel soon, Heflin said assisted visa arrangements are arbitrated dependent on the candidate’s motivation of movement.

Child Labor and the miserable fate of unprivileged children.

Youth is the future of the country. if this statement is true. Then why our country is not able to eradicate the sin of child labor? we encounter the term child labor every time. and take it very casually. That’s the reason it still prevails within our society. we can find children doing work in 

Every city, lane, and corner of society. We have been taught since our childhood that child labor is wrong. the future is in the hand of the young fellow who is making their livelihoods in factories, big industries, and local vendors and shops working endlessly.

Why this young fellow has to deprived of their education? why their childhood is stolen from them? why do they bear to do the work from such a young age? While other children are enjoying their childhood.Why some unprivileged kids have to work with heavy machinery and weapons under a huge risk to their health, just to earn a two-figure income to afford a single meal. children have to resort to working and earning, instead of learning. who is responsible for their worst situation? The ones who should be earning are the young and unemployed youth, who are sitting at home without any scope for jobs. who will take responsibility for them? The need of the hour is to provide these children education They are the future of India, and they deserve an education.

Child labor means exploitation of children through any work that deprives them of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially, or morally harmful.  The practice of child labor is a crime ad people employing it people are the biggest criminals of Indian society. Another reason why child labor is wrong is that by making a child work, we are decreasing the quality of our education system and spoiling the innocent life of that child.

These children are suffering in the dark world of mental and physical pressure. by allowing these children to work in our houses and societies, as by employing them we are spoiling their future and career.

child labor is the evil part of society and needs to be eliminated. 

By taking the labor of children we are spoiling the life of an innocent child for their cheap labor and our selfish motives. If we want to maintain the quality of the education system, we have to educate children, especially those from rural areas who are deprived of education, basic amenities, and other advancement opportunities.

For the progress of society and our economy, this evil practice needs to be removed. so that our economy will be balanced so flawlessly that there will be no cases of poverty and child labor in the upcoming years. We should not forget that child labor arises from poverty, so we need to eradicate their poverty level through the power of education leading them towards their career goals.

The lack of knowledge and skill leads to child labor. Therefore the need for time is to increase the accessibility of education to everyone. we need to start moe initiatives like mid-day meal. to increase the reach of students to education.

Digital Disparity.

Covid19 expanded the digital divide. And shows the disparities within the society between the rural and urban, rich and poor. Lockdown compelled the shift to the virtual model. some of the students managed to receive an education without any obstacles. but many unprivileged students have been deprived of it. resulted in drop out of college and institutes due to the financial crisis of lockdown. Before the pandemic differences prevail in access to education but corona widened the gap. Rural areas have severe internet connectivity problems but Half of India’s population is living in rural parts of the country.

India is the second-largest populated country in the world. But it is a developing country. to maintain education for all during the lockdown when the schools are shut is quite challenging. the digital divide between the government and private institutes can be witnessed. Virtual learning wasn’t much challenging for private school students. Unlike the students of the government schools, who didn’t have access to the digital equipment. the Unprivileged children can’t afford access to quality internet and gadgets. Thus being deprived of education. The right to education is meaningless in the covid scenario. The government needs to bridge the digital divide to ensure students’ education. Some students are ahead of others. As many students drop out of school due to financial problems.

 Access to the internet on their mobile phones is a matter of concern as well. The need of the time is to provide digital infrastructure and tools access to unprivileged ones to access online classes. The digital divide has led to incidences of student suicides. many students committed suicide after drop out. Even in urban areas, disparities prevail. those living in slumps and downtrodden areas can’t afford education.

The government needs to focus on technology and extending the vision of digital India.

Those who have access to education face many hurdles such as in assembling notes, in paying attention due to bad network coverage. Getting time to do self-study is also difficult. preparation of online tests is another problem. seeking notes from some of the online sources is also difficult because some websites charge for the subscription which is not possible for everyone. students have to sit in front of the computer screen for many hours and Practical knowledge is not possible during the pandemic because it is hard for the students to perform practical virtually. even for teachers, it is difficult to prepare presentations for the students. 

pandemic hit increases our dependence on technology. The focus had always been on practical knowledge and skills. we are being actively tested for our knowledge without any proper structure of assessment. Most importantly, not all teachers are not good at technical stuff to manage classes or material distribution.

. COVID-19 also raised prominent questions about the need, significance, and value of virtual learning platforms. The majority of the students have been affected negatively and therefore the government should come up with such education policies that would benefit all the students. Common people also need to volunteer to lead a hand to needy people.

The complex paradigm of streams.

“Now what?”This question every student encounter in life after completing school. A career plan is the most significant and difficult question of life. Our whole life depends on this small question. Sometimes we choose our path and sometimes our society decides for us. 

The question  “What do I want to do in life?” is hard to answer.

It is tough for a school student to find their path at such a young age, because of the complicated model of ‘streams’. Studying science means you are limited to the medical and the engineering line. Studying commerce means being captured in chartered accountancy, banking, and finance and learning humanities imply that I must choose to become a lawyer or journalist.

The problem is the high competition within society The tragic fact is that we can never come back from this model of education, studies, and streams. we don’t have the right to choose subjects that are a combination of different streams. The reason streams are a challenge for us is that they directly affect our careers. Choosing a career is choosing life. As a career is related to financial independence. The question became more significant. every parent expects from there child to pursue a career that has the reputation, high earning prospect, and quite popular in society. Boys, in particular, are supposed to choose a career that can support their families financially one day. Today passion and happiness don’t matter when it comes to a career. The thing that matters for society is the reputation of the career. For society, boys should not go for teaching jobs, fashion designing and cooking are something that society doesn’t consider ideal jobs. some jobs are called ‘feminine jobs’ not meant for boys. Like cooking is related to females. Some jobs get undermined like fashion designing is compared to tailoring.

Students’ choices are also impacted badly by the stereotypes and repercussions. and they have to choose paths unwillingly as per society’s concern. Even though we are heading towards an impartial society, such differences prevail in our society. The ‘pay scale’ affects the choice of career. Women are still paid less and the gender pay gap continues to widen. 

Lack of awareness of new opportunities is a major challenge that school students face. We are not aware of the options beyond the ‘visible careers’. Visible careers are those careers that we see in everyday life, such as doctors, teachers, engineers, journalists, politicians, and businessmen. We lack knowledge about other options we have. There is a world beyond these visible careers: such as being a therapist, an urban planner, a singer, a beautician, a blogger.

so many jobs are available now because of the internet. such jobs can provide a great opportunity to the newcomer. Like social media marketing, a YouTuber, a blogger, a digital marketer. But the problem is students don’t have access to and knowledge of this career.

 Your career should be based on your strengths. The best choice of career comes from one’s passions and hobbies. Your career should inspire you and be the reason for your existence. It is you who can decide your career, not others. and being yourself and the following passion makes you happier.

Traditional education system how much effective?

Covid Pandemic left many Indians unemployed. While unemployment has always been a cause of attention for India. But mandatory experience and training made it more worse and challenging. the lack of practical skills holds us back. The recent unemployment numbers among educated youth show the drawback of India’s faulty education system and the lack of the right learning opportunities for young professionals.

 The government of India wanted to create a workforce of skilled professionals but the coronavirus pandemic made the situation drastic and critical. There was a time when a degree could help a person getting a desired job. But with more competition., a degree is not sufficient itself. The biggest issue is practical knowledge with theoretical knowledge. Classroom learning is more focused on theory. When students step into the professional world, they find themselves not capable enough to handle the work because of the drawbacks of our education system. Our country has educated unemployed people. Shows the inadequacies in our education system.

companies want educated fellows with practical skills. That our education system is unable to give. Because it is limited to academics. Youth lack new-age skills that companies need from their employees. With limited online and offline courses for industry-specific training such as engineering, IT, etc., Most young professionals lack confidence while dealing with problems at their workplace. Moreover, since schools, colleges and universities are following the traditional system of education. it acts as a hurdle when professionals come to face real-life circumstances.

Students need to develop new skills. So that student can learn something above education and makes students ready to be professionals. India has the potential to be a preferred destination for global sourcing. Skill development can bring this to reality by instilling more confidence in young professionals. As their skill increases their employability will increase, and ultimately lead to the nation’s financial growth.

The government needs to assist India’s workforce informally trained. With immediate competition, we need to adopt better strategies too. we need to improve standards of education and adopt newer methods. The higher the standards of training and skill development, the better our workforce can be. The country National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) can also contribute to solving the problem by creating more awareness and come up with suitable programs that can help professionals.

Transformation can only come with the government. The education system, industries, and students collectively understand and recognized the significance of skill improvement.

A new version of Censorship.

 As per the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MEITy), social media platforms like Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, and Instagram have to follow the new Guidelines of government failing which can lead to a ban. guidelines were issued in February 2021, and social media platforms had around 3 months to acquire these guidelines. The companies are yet to respond to the Intermediary Guidelines. The decision taken due to the fake headlines do nothing but spread fear among people. 

According to the constitution, India is a democracy at least on pen and paper. However, certain powerful people in the Central Government, to strengthen power, are now trying to silence free speech on social media. Free speech is a right granted to all human beings globally. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) recognizes it as a fundamental right. India happens to be one having this right. This means, Indian citizens should have access to this right, and it’s the government’s responsibility to see that this right is being protected.

Yet, these powerful individuals within the Central Government, have time and again gone to unbelievable measures to control this right. 

. The disappointed young people of today turn to social media to express their objections about everything they found mistaken or unsuitable. Be it a person of any class, culture, community, and religion. everyone turns to the internet. And the only way to check these critics would be by introducing “Agreement Officers”.That is exactly what the government has done through its intermediary guidelines to check who’s saying what on the internet.

If this guideline came into being. There exists no mechanism for the common mass to raise their voices. The only time when the masses get to raise their voice is during the elections. But then again, it’s the media that controls the elections these days. Unfortunately, reporting is done in such a way that we’re persuaded in support of a particular political party. This plan, if achieved, will badly affect the very foundation of our democracy.

Criticism makes democracy strong. But these guidelines go against it.

Maybe government believes that criticism isn’t important anymore and hence has concluded that the internet should be controlled. It’s dishonest of this country to say that other countries are trying to crush free speech.

The government needs to come into a discussion with the social media companies and the common people. But the government didn’t give a single thought to it. It is nothing but censorship in disguise.

live-In Relationships Illegal or not?

Denial of granting protection to a couple who are in a live-in relationship only because it is socially and morally unacceptable. is it justified on the part of Punjab and Haryana High Court? The boy and the girl had been in a living relationship that goes against the girl’s parents will.

The couple asked for protection from the court for their life and liberty after being frightened by their families. Unfortunately, they were denied protection. the denial of their right under Article 21, in this case, is inappropriate. The judgment by the court seizes their identity as per Article 21 as well as the right to “life or liberty”.Article 21 declares that every individual has the right to their life or personal liberty. Therefore to secure their right the couple moved before the Punjab and Haryana High Court for the protection under Article 21, which is dismissed by the court on the ground of social and moral unacceptability. while rejecting the petition, the high court interpreted that the term “person” means those who are recognized by law as being capable of having legal rights and being bound by legal duties, not a couple. After getting married, a man and woman are considered capable of having legal rights and duties known as rights in the institution of marriage. But only when the marriage has been done as per their respective marriage laws in force in India.

The denial of the right to life and liberty is completely inappropriate in the law. Since no law in India criminalizes pre-marriage, it would be more like legislation by the judiciary to hold pre-marriage illegal based on social morals. There is no force of law in an opinion that has been embraced by the conservative majoritarian masses of India who find it illegitimate. The decision rendered by the Punjab and Haryana High court erred in ascertaining the aforesaid point. In place of assistance, the couple became the subject of discrimination held by the conservative majoritarian masses.

Why Asbestos removal is vital ?

Asbestos is a natural mineral constituted of soft and flexible fibers that are resistant to heat, electricity, and corrosion. These characteristics make the mineral valuable, but also make its exposure highly toxic. Asbestos removal is indispensable because it causes severe health problems such as cancer. Also some fatal issues, including asbestosis, mesothelioma. The most critical part of it is that some don’t reveal immediately but remain in your system for a longer period, sometimes years later. If high levels of asbestos exist in the house then its inhaling can lead to severe health problems such as mesothelioma, a form of lung cancer that can cause respiratory problems, ranging from a simple cough, allergies, and pneumonia. If you breathe asbestos fibers, this can get trapped in your lungs and can damage your lungs very severely if not removed properly. It may not even be possible to breathe because it will make you cough. The dust is terrible too because it can enter your lungs and get trapped in them. Some cases have shown that asbestos particles can go up to the lungs.

Even if someone does not get lung cancer due to their exposure to it, they will still experience many other health hazards. Direct contact with asbestos materials can easily penetrate your skin or you could suffer from skin irritation. Asbestos is not easily noticeable, but it may be everywhere. A toxin that’s slowly wreaking havoc on your health. accompanying health problems, it can decrease your property value also. Chances are you could lose a potential buyer if asbestos is not properly removed from your house. Asbestos Poses Environmental Dangers as its materials are not easily separable and fibers are microscopic. its removal requires special equipment. With the smallest cracks or gaps in your walls or floors, you can easily be exposed to high quantities of asbestos. That makes quick treatment of asbestos even more indispensable.

importance of internship and training.

In today’s digital era, competitiveness rise seriously. To be effective as an employee we need practical assistance and training. The practical experience and training not only help us to be productive but helps in magnifying our skills. Every time we learn a new skill it added to our personality development. Now companies are looking for a well-groomed personality. Internships are good means to enhance our knowledge, skills and to learn something effectively and practically. For the right utilization of the spare time, Internships are good means. Also, it is added to our resume and curriculum vitae. which increases the possibilities of selection during the placement. Internship and training are of different varieties. Some are in the workplace and some are work from home. Both means are useful in their way. Through the workplace internship, you can get practical experience and more chances of interaction with new people. Possibly you will find a great mentor in that way for your career guidance. And through work from home, you can save your time and devote it to learning something else. Every year, Government invests a big chunk in the training of the students. Because training increases the productivity of human capital. That will help in the long run students. For professional courses such as business and management. It is advisable to have prior experience. So that you became proficient enough to answer the practical solution of the problems. When you involve in training and internship you learn how to manage the work at the basic level. That will enhance your problem-solving and analytical skills.

Even our finance minister Nirmala Sitaram begin her work being a salesgirl. Ambani the leading and renounced groups come into existence after continuous years of hard work. Most intellectuals and psychologists recommend students to go for the internship because it will increase their knowledge, confidence to face the problem during work. Just as the college experience helps in dealing with the office environment. Similarly, internships help the student to identify the problems that they can deal with during work, with the identification of problem. students can look for the possible solution at the bottom level. Such experience helps students in the long run. So students should look for the internship. A career such as marketing, business, management is something that can be handled only when you exercise them on daily basis. So internship helps you in getting practical knowledge. In addition to it, things like content writing can be learned only by practice. For the practice, you can opt the internship. That will invest your time properly that you can waste here and there in other activities. Especially during summer vacations, you can utilize your time through involving in any internship.

Research shows that those students who indulge in internships are more productive and good at problem-solving than those who are much in academics. Academic knowledge is vital to understand the problem But if you want solutions, you should go for the practical experience that only training and internship can give you. In fact placement cells in the colleges also look for students who have practical experience. During the internship, you will learn some vital skills as well like confidence and body language. Internships and training also make your financial security. Some internship provides stipend also for the work. Also, expertise in work during the internship can lead you to get a permanent job. As some agencies provide regular or permanent jobs to their best employers during the work. Many students receive jobs while doing the internship. Especially look at the intens for hire. Therefore internship and training have a significant place in a student’s life. Even Doctors and Engineers have to go through technical training before beginning their work.

mental illness during pandemic

Mental Illness during Pandemic.
Covid19 pandemic hit the masses most severely mentally. The trauma from looking for the medicine, hospital beds to dealing with the mass of dead bodies, from being left jobless to mass migration and suffering. These all circumstances severely impacted our mental state. A tremendous number of people have lost their dear ones. And some are fighting for their life. While their loved ones and family are busy in the constant search of medicines and oxygen cylinders. Those who are safe are also suffering from mental illness by looking at their environment. Full of grief, devastation. This time is very hard. And financial crisis makes this problem. So many families especially of the lower class. Left without money and aid. Those who earn daily and labor are struggling a lot. These financial bottlenecks resulted in mental illness. Especially those students who are handling the digital divide. Faces stress and mental illness. All students couldn’t afford online education due to a lack of digital gadgets. That acts as a hindrance to the growth and education of unprivileged students. The cost of academic education and institution creates a financial burden for the students and the family. some can deal with it. But those who couldn’t eventually end up dropping out there college and institute. That leads to mental stress among the students. Recently, the cases of suicide by students increase manifold. That shows how mentally covid have impacted the students. Therefore cases of suicides are reported manifold. Students who are privilege enough. Also facing mental trauma. Online education also created an additional problem, technical glitches, electricity problems, access to devices, are major problems related to online education. That cause mental stress, headache as well as eyesight problems. This problem can be overcome through everyone’s participation. All need to contribute. By providing financial aid to the needy. And by including in the conversation as much as possible with our friends and family in this hard time. Chatting with each other acts as a medicine to cure the ailment of mental stress.

Students misery

The covid pandemic not only impacted adults but students also. At one place the children lost their childhood and on the other hand, students are concerned about their career, future that seem bleak to them due to covid devastating impact on the economy.

 one of the most significant reasons is finance and the need for funds. Students are concerned because the global pandemic has created havoc in the employment sector. This resulted in many job losses in the informal sector. As the country is closed so those earning money daily and business have to suffer. The question of school, college, and tuition fees is another issue. This, in turn, has been magnified in the lives of the students and the youth of the country. The financial crisis within the family has bothered almost the majority of the population, especially the students.

The very first concern is the digital divide. Accessibility of digital gadgets especially among the lower economic classes. Eventually, which means withdrawing from school to some students. Being already distorted by financial emergencies, the necessity of digital devices acts as a hindrance in the way of student learning. leading to many students dropping out from formal courses and institutes. increasingly pitted against the highly competitive labor market with most being trapped in the vicious cycle of underpaid labor or disguised unemployment.

The government too is not in a position to solve this problem of digital devices because of treatment and aid expenses.

this economic crisis has an unfortunate effect on the mind of the students. The financial dependence on the family, often severe, mostly reduces them as isolated victims. It also hinders the access to academic opportunities of the student. . Many family members getting affected and the huge expense occurs on treatment, amidst the acute scarcity of oxygen cylinders and other medical pieces of equipment.

The students are facing the problem of academic costs at the same time when a lump sum amount is required for admission failing which the seat might get canceled.

Further, the debt trap will lead to a greater burden in the future for repayment with interest, leading to more psychological suffering. The hostility between maintaining academic costs as well as fending for health expenditure has had severe effects on the young minds, putting their future and aspirations at stake. In this situation, a and well-planned approach is needed to address the issue of financial crisis which can be aided by the government. 

Is it a Happy New Year?

The Year 2021, this year seems like giant waves of oceans going down and down. Our country gets badly downtrodden due to the social, political, and economic issues that continue to prevail, due to an invisible enemy in the form of the deadly virus.

This virus shows no mercy to anyone doesn’t matter which class, culture, and religion person belongs to; it spares no one. As the cases went up, so did the false WhatsApp forwards, chaos, panic-buying, and fear among people. The increased cases and dilemma is frightful people. As people taking hurt over their mental health, too.

From the news of unknown viruses to fearing even a slight increase in body temperature, to look for medicines and oxygen cylinders, people have experienced it all. In the beginning. To ‘deal with a spontaneous and devastating situation the Indian government announced an out-and-out 40-day lockdown. Everything came to a standstill—except divisive journalism and discrimination.

While most people don’t have the privilege and luxury to stay home, quarantine isn’t a blessing for many. it lead rise in mental illness since the coronavirus outbreak. The level of stress and anxiety has heightened.

The apprehension about job security, draining of savings, or unavailability of basic things for survival, ambiguity. People who were already suffering from mental illnesses looked upon engaging themselves in outdoor activities and meeting their dear ones as the only coping mechanism. Now they have no option but to dive into the same misery they were battling. along with that crimes such as theft, murder, extortion, molestation, etc., are increasing at an unpredicted rate

COVID-19 is just not another death-dealing health hazard. It has more profound implications that society would have to bear post lockdown too.

Enlightenment as a mass betrayal

The radio, newspaper, and TV. All are mediums of communication. They all were invented to enlighten human beings. Every creation has its purpose So they have. It’s true that for daily information we depend on this medium but does this products assisting us. Or it’s just deception. The reality is they are a tool in hands of cooperation to earn profit. And increase their business. Providing information is just a business. we get only that much information that cooperates giants want. As half of the media is dominated by politicians and giant cooperates. That influences their credibility. Hard to believe but this is a bitter truth. this invention acts like a tool in those hand who have money. consumerism is created intentionally through media in the form of advertisement. Advertisement creates a desire in human beings. This desire resulted in more consumption thus adding profit to the big giants. That shows how people are betrayed. Today content is created in such a way that doesn’t make a person intellectual. But merely a passive consumer.
In this gamble and deception, along with corporate giants, politicians are also involved. They use the mediums to propagate their message. Thus people consider the propagated message as truth. Start believing it and thus there ideology and perspective got to change. These tactics can be a hindrance to the democracy and sovereignty of the country. The enlightenment that media promise somehow vanishes because of the huge enrollment of money. People themself need to enlighten. By becoming the active audience by actively analyzing, understanding every message. We can be saved from this mass deception through the mass medium. Just we need to be vigilant in our approach whenever we encounter a media product. we need to understand the hidden motive behind that content. We need to know who is the creator of the content. And what purpose the content fulfills for the creator. Thus content by media or medium of communication needs to be observed. To better understand them. To save ourselves from enlightenment as mass deception.

“Online Education and Digital Divide”

 

Recently our Union minister Prakash Javadekar said in the Lok Sabha, “No child was deprived of online education during the pandemic as the government had taken several steps in that direction.” Such a statement is nothing but a mere lie when we encounter reality.

A majority of Indian school students do not have the means or privilege for online education. Some face network and technical glitches. Some face electricity problem. The non-availability of gadgets is another problem. Accessible and compulsory education has always been a challenge in India. Right to education is something that is written merely on paper not exist in the real world. The pandemic broadened the pre-existing gap making online education a commodity of sheer privilege. During the lockdown, thousands of students have suffered due to the digital divide. Taking the example of the Indian state with the highest literacy rate, Kerala witnessed numerous cases where students took away their lives due to a lack of accessibility to digital tools. sometimes Internet accessibility act as a hindrance.

 the obvious failure of the system and concerned authorities witnessed from the devastating act of suicide by the students. Not just that; for powering devices, access to electricity is crucial for digital education. Some states such as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have a severe problem with electricity.

In the rural area, the houses received electricity for less than 12 hours a day. most of India’s population lives in villages where only 15% of rural households have access to internet services. Whereas in urban areas, it’s 42%. Moreover, India witnessed a spike in unemployment during the lockdown affecting the livelihood of millions.

Especially compulsion of electronic gadgets for online education became a severe problem as in rural areas subsistence is very difficult. Not every rural person could afford expensive gadgets. In most households with a meager income, eating three meals a day was not guaranteed, purchasing costly internet plans or devices cost them a fortune. From mortgaging assets to cutting off on essential household expenses, families have done it all to make online education a possibility when the government schemes failed to reach the neediest. 

Although several NGOs, social groups, and individuals rose to link this digital gap by sponsoring smartphones and laptops, the negligence by the authorities can’t be overlooked. An ordinary Indian citizen expects its government is to at least acknowledge the problem. After all, how will one solve the problem if one does not acknowledge it!

Nepotism in today’s Bollywood

we are living in a feudal society, but still, nepotism permeates everyone. however, the film industry is trapped in nepotism.
Nepotism can be defined as an act of using power or position in an unethical manner to get the dear ones in the same field. It not only exists in business but also in the Bollywood industry. this topic has been raised many times in the Bollywood industry and unfortunately having a negative impact rather than a positive impact on the lives of celebrities. Before the incident of Sushant Singh Rajput, this topic was not discussed seriously. But after his death, Bollywood was trapped in nepotism and many celebrities were interrogated. many celebrities talked about nepotism openly. Some talked positively and some in a negative manner.
Kangana Ranaut came into the industry in 2006 with the movie Gangster. She was the one to raise this topic negatively as she labelled filmmaker Karan Johar as the flag bearer of nepotism in the show Koffee with Karan. Due to this, she gained prominence. She also called Tapsee Panu and Swara Bhaser outsider. After Sushant Singh Rajput death many actors were trolled and questioned on nepotism . Because of this, many celebrities also lost fan following.
We often say that some star kids are excellent actors and done their work very well. But we said some not all because some star kids don’t take their work seriously and due to the lack of seriousness films get flopped. Nothing is wrong with exercising power based on one’s family background/star kids, but at least chance should be given to the newcomers or outsiders and even to those who don’t have any connections or godfather in Bollywood. So, they can make their names and show their talent to the public.

Real Happiness

Today in this consumerist world, the actual meaning and definition of happiness got changed. Earlier the happiness lies within the relations between the people. But growing industrialization and materialistic nature. Change the meaning of happiness for common people. today’s happiness is not the smile of the people. But the luxury became the source of joy and happiness. Social media and the internet managed to make human beings individualistic. Relation and ties among the masses are just a matter of messages. The real happiness now lies in materials and luxuries. Humans want more and more. The never-ending demand and grief of the human have wiped the concept of the real happiness. It changed its meaning. It alters its values. The early tradition, rituals, and get together don’t matter anymore. Today rituals are just a matter of fun. People don’t believe in meeting with each other. Humans today happy in the isolation. With all the materialistic objects and comfort. But if material and luxury are not happiness. Then what is happiness? It is something that we get after seeing someone happy. It is something we get after helping someone else. By looking after anyone else than yourself. It means keeping aside the greed and doing generous work. It means sidelining your sorrow, ego for someone else happiness. The sad fact is that today humans do not look after happiness. Now the happiness doesn’t matter to humans. Human is lost somewhere in the consumerist world. And so human happiness also lost.
The need of the time is to look for the real happiness. To realize that real happiness comes when you do something for someone else. Materialistic things can give you comfort and luxurious life. But it can’t give you that warmth that happiness that feeling that a real human being can give you. Human being need to understand his/her role as a human And need to look after other people to there dearest one. So that along with happiness ,humanity can be saved.

Biden Rules begins

President Joe Biden has baited office in a country looking prominently different than it did on his forefather’s inauguration Day.Covid19 has killed more than 4,00,000 Americans, with a big part of socio-economic toll impute to federal Mismanagement, The US has also renounced its role as leader of the free world, squabbled with democratic allies while keeping authority populist’s everywhere, snicker at its post-truth misadventures. This month’s attack on the capital represented the domestic broadcast has poisoned the polity. In the short, the new administration has its work cut out invent correctives at multiple levels. It is a mighty challenge. But democracy is hypothetical on elections making a difference.

The promise of a new dawn is both powerful and credible. The diversity, temperance, and experience of the incoming cabinet strongly suggest that they have a good measure of the problems at hand, and the ambition to attempt solutions one clear aspirational target is 100 million doses of covid19 vaccines n the first 100 days. Then, Janet L Yellen, who will be the new treasury secretary and America’s top economic diplomat, has verbalized as priorities both addressing the economic damage of the pandemic at home and repairing relationships with various allies abroad to take on china’s (illegal, unfair and abusive practices) collectively.
After the vain of institutions and Clutter or flailing seen in the Trump years, it will indeed take solid international cooperation to revitalize the global rules-based order. The incoming secretary of state Antony Blinking has shown a welcome so be saying,(We’ll engage the world, not as it was, but as it is)Pragmatically speaking, rebukes on human rights issues for India may be part and parcel of Washington’ liberal festival alongside the many Indian and American in the Biden Team.

Women empowerment

Amongst covid-19 pandemic, 2021 budget has potential to increase women labor force participation up to 2 percent this year.

Nirmala Sitaraman, Minister of finance, the government of

India shared that budget 2021 has the potential to increase the employment of

women. COVID-19 pandemic had disproportionately impacted women

forcing them to drop out of the workforce. The women labor force participation according to the center comes down from 25 percent to 21 percent, due to job loss by women. In urban India only 12 out of every 100 still employed are women, a shocking

statistic, down from the already low 18. No doubt the covid 19 pandemics have resulted in many challenges such as pay disparities and expensive child care is an economic downturn that hit women workers measurably harder than men. Whenever the economy shrinks people lose jobs, then look for another job but women aren’t sitting it out so much as being pushed out by disproportionate job loss, 

lack of child care, pay disparities, and lack of public policy to support working women. women with children are much more likely to report that working from home has hurt their productivity and affected their careers  .there are three drivers of increased women labor force participation 1.Jobs that exist in locations where the woman has family support.2) Contemporary and new skilling (like digital marketing, for instance) that allows for marketability3) A government mandate that enables small businesses to be rewarded for hiring more women. The allowance of women to work in all shifts is a move towards reducing the gender divide brought in by COVID-19. This will help industries such as IT and BPO in Special Economic Zone’s, manufacturing companies in sectors such as Textiles, Pharma- as well as large organizations with a national presence. The textile industry, one of India’s ancient industries that employ the largest numbers of women has received a big stimulus with the announcement of seven Textile Parks. The third aspect which would allow small businesses to be rewarded for hiring women has not seen any pull in any of the budgets presented in the few last years. Large organizations in metropolitan cities have already bought the business case for both genders that led to women’s employment being enhanced. It is the 2 and 3 level metropolitan cities and towns that need the influence of involvement. And this is where there is a large population of women – educated, career-seeking, and yet unable to earn

reasonable money due to the non-availability of jobs matching their aspirations. As per data, young women in the age group of 20-24 across urban locales, are more interested in being employed than similar-aged women in rural India. As such, this is a very important talent pool, waiting to be engaged. The BPO and micro-enterprises in these locations will require a stimulus to engage women more proactively. Had the budget addressed this, by providing a bit small, yet encouraging a sum of money to employers of women, India would have seen a jump in women’s job creation to almost double-digit increases, which will have a multiplier effect on the economy.

WhatsApp’s new privacy policy.

Identifiable living individual and includes names, email Ids, ID
card numbers, physical and IP addresses. Data is the large
collection of information that is stored in a computer or on a
network. Data is collected and handled by entities called data
fiduciaries. The processing of this data has become an
important source of profits for big corporations. Companies,
governments, and political parties find it valuable because
they can use it to find the most convincing ways to advertise
online. The physical attributes of data where data is stored,
where it is sent, where it is turned into something useful are
called data flows.

WhatsApp’s decision to delay the update of its privacy policy,
following a backlash from its users, is an implicit
acknowledgement of the increasing role played by
perceptions about privacy in the continued well-being of a
popular service. Problems for the Facebook-owned app
started earlier this January when it announced an update to
its terms of service and privacy policy, according to which users would no longer be able to opt out of sharing data with
Facebook.

February 8 was kept as the deadline for the new terms to be
accepted. This triggered a mass withdrawal from WhatsApp,
the likes of which it has never encountered, not even in the
aftermath of the Cambridge Analytical scandal, which did
bring a lot of bad press to its parent, or when the messaging
app’s co-founders called it quits a few years ago. The
WhatsApp policy update has clearly spooked many users,
who, concerned about their privacy getting compromised,
have shifted to alternative platforms such as Signal and
Telegram. WhatsApp has asked for data which contains your account
information such as Phone number, the name attached to
the account, the profile photo you currently have for
WhatsApp, the device you are using, the time when you have
been online, all your contacts, all group names of which you
are a part of, the device type, the IP address, device build
number, device manufacturer, details of the web/desktop
version and the platform which is used for WhatsApp Web,
your Status.

It also has the exact time when you set the
current profile photo and the current status message. The list
includes all contacts with whom you would have chatted on
WhatsApp, and only the mobile phone numbers are
mentioned. It also has your settings for the app, including the
privacy settings for Last Seen, Profile Photo, About Privacy

and Status Privacy. It also includes a list of the all numbers
you have blocked and whether you have Read Receipt on or
off. The issue has once again raised questions about what
constitutes legitimate uses of data and how businesses,
governments and political parties can and cannot use data .A
White Paper produced by a government-appointed
committee, headed by retired judge B.N. Srikrishna , which is
formulating a national data protection law for India and its people to safeguard there interest.

West Bengal Governor Jagdeep Dhankha calls Chief Secretary HK Dwivedi over lawfulness circumstance in post-poll Bengal

Secretary HK Dwivedi on Monday to discover the means being taken by the organization to manage the “incredibly disturbing” law and order circumstance in post-survey Bengal, which he named as “retributive viciousness”.

Dhankhar, who has been in constant disagreement with the Mamata Banerjee-drove government over the post-survey viciousness, scored up the charges to another level on Sunday, by tweeting: “Amazingly disturbing law and request situation. The security climate is genuinely settled. In a particularly dreary circumstance called upon (the) boss secretary to brief me on the rule of peace and law circumstance on Monday and show all means required to contain post-survey viciousness.”

“The state is in (the) grip of unprecedented post poll retributive violence at an unimaginable scale, with lakhs of people being displaced and property worth hundreds of crores vandalised. Rampant vandalism and hooliganism have resulted in large scale arson, loot, destruction of property,” he tweeted.

“Police is locked in as an augmentation of the decision regulation to let free malevolence on political rivals. In a particularly bleak circumstance, the main secretary of the state will be called upon to brief me desperately on Monday, seventh June, and demonstrate all means required to contain post-survey savagery,” Dhankhar said.

The lead representative claimed that individuals who have cast a ballot against the TMC were casualties of “designated viciousness”. Transferring a video in his Twitter handle, the lead representative said, “this to ‘rebuff and teach’ rivals for ‘setting out to cast a ballot in a majority rule government”.

Censuring the supposed occurrences of viciousness and “social blacklist and forswearing of advantages to individuals who had decided in favor of the TMC rivals”, he said individuals are compelled to pay “coercion charges for living in their own home or maintaining their own business”.

“Democratic values are openly shredded and trampled upon by the ruling party. People are in mortal fear of the police and that in turn is at the feet of the ruling party rogue elements,” he tweeted.

He kept up that the state functionaries “are not perceiving this discomfort, substantially less finding a way ways to contain it”.

The lead representative and the main pastor have been occupied with a conflict of words regarding post-survey brutality and the lead representative’s visit to Sitalkuchi in Coochbehar and Nandigram.

Media mere puppet for politicians and giant corporations.

Media, the fourth pillar of democracy act like a puppet in front of politicians lately. With many toolkits, cases highlight. Excessive paid news reporting during Election. Exhibits how media is governed by political parties. Today massive advertisement by the political parties shows the nexus between media and political parties. Showcase their close economic connections. Media also alleged for running agenda and propaganda for their allied politician during elections. Which hampered the credibility of the media. Many journalists appear to favor their alleged political parties openly in their text, report, and debate. Even the questions asked in interviews are biased one sustaining only one side or party. Its been observed during elections, this funding increase manifold. To dominate media investment partnership, toolkit, gifts, privileges are some tactics that political parties used without coming into suspicion. Such malpractice is performed by political parties to bribe the Media. To use it as a weapon during election campaigns. witnessed in the way media seems divided in their message. They showcase only the positive side of their party, their positive work shaping the idea and ideology of the common people. Media runs agenda and propaganda to deviate audience from the basic problem of the society and shift towards the direction their funders want. media propagates only those messages there supportive parties want. Maximum paid news reports are linked with political parties. Many politician leaders names are highlighted and summoned by the election campaign. But lack of proof and unwillingness lead to no fruitful result. And no severe action was taken place. Now media listen and write only what there investor wants. The incomplete, partial and biased information shared by the news channel became a hindrance for the sovereignty of the country. Severe actions and identification of the political parties became the necessity of time. the large number of manipulation on the part of the media shows that it has lost the credibility and trust that people have in them prior. Passive audience are consuming the biased or manufactured message that can hamper the autonomy and sovereignty of the country. Nowadays, Beside politicians many private institutions and cooperate giants seem to invest their large chunks in the media .For example, Mukesh Ambani, his family and friends owned INX Media recently. That show media became a puppet now.

Child Adoption according to the Hindu Law

Introduction

Children are the future of our country. But many children are abandoned and sent to orphanages where a part of them face abuse and exploitation. In many cases it has been evident that such children become victims of human trafficking and even go through sexual harassment. Whereas, part of fortunate cases show some abandoned children are taken in for adoption. Adoption is that the act of agreeing with approval. Adoption may be a legal process that makes a parent child relation between persons not related by blood. An adopted child is entitled to any or all privileges as almost like natural-born child. Adoptive child also has right to inherit. It’s usually called as the legal process of becoming non-biological parent. The adopted son is then taken as being born within the new family and acquires rights, duties and standing there only, and his tie with the old family involves an end.

Every religion has its own laws regarding adoption. There’s no uniform law of adoption. Though adoption is that the legal process of actual giving and taking of a baby, it also forms the topic matter of private laws. Thus, Muslims, Christians, and Parsis don’t have their adoption laws; they approach to the court under The Guardians and Wards Act, 1890. They’ll take the kid under the provisions of the said Act. When child grew up and attain age of majority, he wouldn’t under the requirement of the adoption law the least bit. And this child also doesn’t have right of inheritance over the property of guardians.

Under the laws of The Guardians and Wards Act, 1890, a foreigner can even adopt a toddler. If the guardian wants to require the kid to outside the country, he shall take the court’s permission which process will govern under the adoption process in foreign law. Hindu law, Muslim law and also the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890, are containing three different provisions of adoption.

Hindu Law

The Hindu Law legalizes the child adoption in India. The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 defines the adoption and legalizes it. The Act directs that the adopted children are equal to the natural child and they have all the rights that the natural children have. There must be no discrimination among the natural and adopted child. They have the right to inherit. Earlier according to the adoption laws any person could not adopt a girl child but after The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 got commenced female child also got included under the adoption. Adopted child not only creates a relation between children and parents, but also it creates a new family for the adopted child. Also, any girl child adopted under the Hindu law should be treated like a natural child and there must not be any discrimination between a boy and a girl child. 

This Act contains capacity of person to adopt a child and requisites which the child should fulfill for being given in adoption. All the important aspects regarding the procedure of adoption of a child mentioned under the same Act. Adoption under Hindu law includes Budhists, Jains, Sikhs and Hindu religion.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak vs Shri Shriniwas Pandit[1]

In this case the Privy Council observed that adoption among Hindus is not only for having a legal children but it is also a religious rite meant to perform obligations and sacrifices which would allow the soul of the deceased father to pass from Hades to the paradise. 

Amarendra Man Singh Bhramarbar vs Sanatan Singh[2]

In this case the Privy Council observed that the foundation of the Brahmanical doctrine of adoption is a duty which every Hindu owes to his ancestors for the continuance of the generation and the performance of the necessary rites. Adoption is a part of the customs. The burden of proving the validity of adoption falls on the person who claims it under the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956.    

Binapani Samanta vs Sambhu Mondal & Ors

In this case the petitioner filed a petition challenging the defendant who is the probate of the will on the basis that she was the adopted daughter of the deceased and that the probate is fraudulent. But she failed to prove the burden of proof and of the validity of the adoption. It was held that she could not challenge as she failed to prove the validity of probate.

Requisites of valid adoption

 Section 6 of The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 describes it, the requisites are-

  1. A person who is giving in a child for adoption must have the capacity to do the same.
  2. A person who is given in adoption must be capable for being taken in adoption.
  3. Adoptive father and mother must have the capacity and right to do adopt a child.

Smt. Malati Roy Chowdhury vs Sudhindranath Majumdar And Ors.[3]

In this case, the petitioner filed the case for the right of married women of adoption because according to the HAMA act married women were not allowed to adopt a child. Not even with the consent of her husband thus this case was related to gender discrimination. The court stated for this judgment is “Adoption has to be taken factually or legally by the male in case of marriage, and not by the wife. In other words, the wife cannot adopt a child even with the consent of the husband”. 

Brijendra Singh vs The State of M.P[4]

This case overruled the case of Malti Roy, in this case. It was observed by the court that the case was a big disappointment. In this case, a disabled lady was married to man according to the village custom that was a virgin girl must get married. Her husband left her and so she adopted a son after whole 22 years of her marriage. In the other case, disputes were under the agriculture land ceiling law. She a declared that the appellant was her adopted son. The suit was decreed by the trial court and it was affirmed by the first appellate court. Madhya Pradesh High Court on the second appeal in the court held that, given the provisions of section 8(c) of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956, the adoption was not valid. The argument by her side that she is leading a life like a divorced woman was not acceptable because there is a great difference between a female Hindu who is divorced and a female who is leading a life as a divorced woman. 

After this case a new Act was established in the favor of married women. The Gender Discrimination Act which is a personal law was amended in the year 2010. It gives right to married woman to adopt a child with husband’s consent but that will not change the fate of a married woman in the position of the disabled, deserted, “divorced-like” lady in this case. 

Capacity of males to take in adoption

Section 7 of The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 describes it; the man must be of sound mind and must be a major. If the wife of the man is alive then he is not allowed to adopt a child without the consent of his wife. Unless she completely and finally ceased to be Hindu or renounced the world or any competent court has declared her to be incompetent. If a person happens to have more than one wife, he must take consent of all wives. 

Capacity of females to take in adoption

Section 8 of The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 describes it; the woman must be of sound mind and must be a major. If husband of the woman is alive then she is not allowed to adopt a child without the consent of her husband. Unless he completely and finally ceased to be a Hindu renounced the world or competent court declared him incompetent. Section 8 also gives a widow the right to adopt a son or a daughter for her. The result of this is that for all purposes the child adopted in effect becomes the natural son or daughter not only of the widow but also of her deceased husband as well.

Deen Dayal Vs. Sanjeev Kumar

In this case, the mother’s consent is equally mandatory in giving and taking of a child in adoption. Thus, an adoption, even through, registered, where the child was given in adoption by the natural father but without the consent of the mother was held to be invalid. 

Who may give in adoption?

Section 9 of The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 describes it, a person is capable of giving in adoption – No individual other than the mother and father of kid could have the authority to give a kid for adoption. The two have equivalent rights to give a kid in adoption. In the case that both the father and mother have passed away, or totally denied the world or authorized court announced them as of unsound mind; the guardian of the kid will have the option to give a youngster in adoption.

Who may be adopted?

Section 10 of The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 describes it, for valid adoption of a child, he should be Hindu by religion. The child must not have been adopted earlier. He or she should not be married, unless there is a custom which permits a person to get married. He or she should not have completed the age of 15 years unless there is any custom which allows a child to do so.

Kumar Sursen vs The State of Bihar[5]

In this case, the issue of the adoption of a Muslim child by Hindu parents was brought up before the court. The child was supposedly brought up by Hindu parents since a very tender age and they treated him like their own son. The court, however, denied to give him the status of an ‘adopted child’ because of the specified provision of section 10(i)[6] of the Act.

Age difference

There must be an age gap of 21 years or more between the child and the parent. In case adoption is by a male and child getting adopted is female, the adoptive father must be at least twenty one year older than the child. And in case the adoption is by a female and the child getting adopted is male, the adoptive mother must be at least twenty one year older than the child.

Other provision like the ceremony of Datta Homam isn’t compulsory (section 11), adoptive father or mother shall not be bereft of their power to transfer the property merely by reason of adoption of a kid (section 13), etc. is additionally important.

Uma Prasad vs Smt. Padmawati And Ors.[7]

In this case, the claim of an adopted son on properties was challenged on the grounds that the boy was above 15 when he was adopted. And that the adoption was invalid. However, the parties, Agarwals by caste, succeeded in proving the exception that they were governed by ancient customs and usage, which allowed the adoption of a boy over the age of 15. The adoption was held to be valid.   


[1] (1915) 17 BOMLR 527

[2] (1933) 35 BOMLR 859

[3] AIR 2007 Cal 4, (2007) 1 CALLT 323 H

[4] (2016) 10 SCC 220

[5] AIR 2008 Pat 24

[6] 10. Persons who may be adopted.—No person shall be capable of being taken in adoption unless the following conditions are fulfilled, namely:—

(i) he or she is a Hindu;

[7] 1999 (2) MPLJ 502

Difference between Civil law and Criminal law.

All you need to know about Criminal Law: An Insight

What is Criminal Law?

Criminal law relates to the offences that negatively affect society as a whole, rather than just one person. Criminal laws are put in place by Parliament to prevent breaches of conduct which they deem as harmful towards the whole of society. If a person breaches criminal law, then they will face criminal prosecution by the state. Criminal proceedings are brought by the Crown Prosecution Service and will be heard in Magistrates’ Court or the Crown Court. If you are then convicted, you may receive a prison sentence or a community order. The standard of proof for criminal law cases is “beyond a reasonable doubt” or “certain so you can be sure.” These both mean the same thing.

Examples of criminal offences include:

Murder, Manslaughter, Fraud, Assault, Sexual Offences, Burglary, etc.

Civil Law High Res Stock Images | Shutterstock

What is Civil Law?

Civil law is more concerned with cases between individual people where one person commits an offence which is harmful towards another person, their rights or their property. Civil law also settles disputes between individuals and organisations. If you are convicted of a civil offence, you are not likely to be sent to prison, but most often will become liable for compensation. The standard of proof for civil law cases is “the balance of probabilities.” However, certain civil offences such as disciplinary proceedings for solicitor misconduct can use the higher standard of “beyond reasonable doubt.”

Examples of civil offences include:

Personal injury, Breaches of contract, Employment tribunals, Negligence, etc.

Civil LawCriminal Law
Civil Law is a general law which deals with disputes between organizations or individuals or between the two. The wrongdoer, as per the civil law will has to compensate the affected party.Criminal Law deals with crimes and offences that are committed against the society. It deals with crime and legal punishment of offences.
Civil Law is generally initiated by the aggrieved individual or organisation or also known as ‘plaintiff.’The Government files the petition in case of criminal law.
In case of Civil Law, to start a case, the aggrieved party needs to file a case in the Court or TribunalAs per Criminal Law, to start a case, a petition cannot be filed directly in a court, rather the complaint should be first registered with the police, and the crime needs to be investigated by the Police. Thereafter a case can be filed in the court.
The objective of Civil Law is to protect the rights of an individual or organization and make sure that he or the concerned organization receives the compensation for the wrongs that they have suffered. The purpose of Criminal Law is to maintain law and order and protect society by punishing the wrongdoer.
In Civil Law, the wrongdoer gets sued by the complainant or the aggrieved party.In Criminal Law, the accused person will be prosecuted in the court of law.
In the case of Civil Law, there is no punishment like Criminal Law, but the aggrieved party receives the compensation and the dispute gets settled.In the case of Criminal Law, punishment is meted out as per the seriousness of the criminal offence committed or a fine could be imposed.
In the case of Civil Law, the power of the court is to pass judgement or injunction to compensate for damages caused to the aggrieved party.In the case of Criminal Law, the powers of the court are charging a fine, imprisonment to the guilty of a crime, or discharge of the defendant.
In Civil Law cases, the defendant is considered to be either liable or not liable.In Criminal cases, the defendant is considered either guilty or not guilty by the court.

LEGISLATIVE AND JUDICIAL ATTEMPTS TO BURY THE BASIC STRUCTURE DOCTRINE

Introduction:

The doctrine of basic structure is not defined in the constitution of India. The term has evolved as a result of various judicial decisions by the years. The Basic Structure Doctrine of Constitution of India states that the parliament can neither destroy nor alter the basic structure of the Indian constitution. The doctrine is applicable only to the constitutional amendments.

The basic features of the Constitution are:

  1. Supremacy of the constitution.
  2. Republican and democratic form of government.
  3. Secular character of the constitution.
  4. Federal character of the constitution.
  5. Separation of power.
  6. Unity and Sovereignty of India.
  7. Individual freedom.

                                                                                                                                                      Within their respective jurisdictions, the Parliament and the state legislatures are entitled to make suitable laws for the sake of people. The Bills regarding amendment of Constitution can only be passed by the Parliament itself. But the power is absolute and limited to some aspect. The Supreme Court of India holds the power to declare any law which it considers inconsistent with the Constitution invalid. In other words if any bill is passed by the Parliament which does not follows the ideals of the Constitution will be held invalid and void by the Supreme court. This doctrine has been laid by the Supreme Court to ensure and preserve the will of the Constitution and the ideology behind it. Hence, the Parliament cannot destroy or alter the basic structure of the Constitution. 

Evolution of the Basic Structure Doctrine:

The term Basic structure Doctrine has evolved through various decisions of the Supreme Court on the powers of parliament and judiciary. There was a dilemma between Article 13 and Article 368, the question raised was which of the Article had an overriding effect on the other.

Shankari Prasad vs. Union of India[1] (1951)

In this case, the First amendment was challenged on the ground that it is in violation to the Part-III of the constitution. Therefore, it was suggested that it should be considered invalid and void. The Supreme Court held that the Article 368 of the Constitution states, ‘the Parliament has the power to amend any part of the constitution including fundamental rights.’

In Sajjan Singh Vs State of Rajasthan[2] case in 1965 the Court gave the same ruling.

Golak Nath vs State of Punjab[3]

In this case in 1967, the Supreme Court held that the Parliament is not empowered to amend Part III of the constitution as the fundamental rights are immutable. The Supreme Court overruled its earlier decision.  According to the Supreme Court ruling, Article 368 lays down the procedure to amend the constitution, that does not give absolute powers to the parliament and to amend any part of the constitution.

The 24th Constitution Amendment Act

In 1971, the Parliament passed the 24th Constitution amendment act. The act gave absolute power to the parliament, in order to make any changes in the constitution and also the fundamental rights. It also made it obligatory for the President to give his assent on all the Constitution Amendment bills sent to him. This move was executed evidently in the favor of Smt. Indira Gandhi and her government.

Kesavananda Bharti vs. State of Kerala[4]

In this case, the Supreme Court upheld the validity of the 24th Constitution Amendment Act and reviewed its decision in the Golaknath case. The Supreme Court held that the Parliament has power to amend any provision of the constitution but the basic structure of the constitution is to be maintained as it is. But the Apex Court has not provided any clear definition for the term basic structure. It held that the “basic structure of the Constitution could not be abrogated even by a constitutional amendment”.

Attempts to bury the Basic Structure Doctrine:   Many politicians, experts and ministers were against the basic structure defined by the earlier cases. This led to challenges against the verdict of the court. In 1975, the Supreme Court reaffirmed the concept of Basic Structure Doctrine. This happened when the victory of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in the elections was upheld by the Allahabad High Court on the grounds of electoral malpractice. Justice Krishna Iyer granted a stay allowing Indira Gandhi to work as the Prime Minister on the condition that she would not draw salary and speak or vote until the case was decided. But, while the court was hearing the case, the parliament passed the Thirty- ninth amendment o the constitution. This amendment removed the authority of the Supreme Court to handle cases with regard to elections of President, Prime Minister and the speaker of Lok Sabha.  Instead a body will be constituted for resolving such disputes. The aim of the bill was evidently to benefit Smt. Indira Gandhi. Some amendments were also made to the Representation of Peoples Acts of 1951 and 1974 and placed in the Ninth Schedule along with

the Election Laws Amendment Act, 1975. The mala fide intention of the government to save the face of Indira Gandhi in case the Court passed a verdict against them was proved by the hurry in which the Thirty-ninth amendment was passed. The bill was introduced on 7th of August, passed by the Lok Sabha the same day, and Rajya Sabha the next day, the President passed it giving his assent 2 days later and it was gazetted on 10th August. The counsel for the opposing party challenging Indira Gandhi argued that the amendment violated the basic structure of Constitution and hence should be held unconstitutional.  It affected the power of judicial review and the basic features including conducting of free and fair elections. They also argued that the Parliament is not empowered to decide if the election were valid or not stating the incompetency to use its constituent power to hold an election that was declared void by the High court. The court upheld the amended laws, striking down the law which restricted the power of judiciary to adjudicate the situation. The judges grudgingly accepted the Parliaments power to pass overriding laws.

Within three days of the decision of the election case, C.J. Ray convened to review the Keshavanandan Bharti case verdict with regard to a number of land ceiling petitions. The opposing party’s counsel argued that it was an unnecessary move. The bench dissolved soon after it and people doubted the government’s indirect involvement in the issue. The National emergency was declared in 1975. Soon after the Congress party constituted a committee with Sardar Swaran Singh its chairman to review the question of amending the Constitution. Through the 42nd amendment several changes were incorporated which also included that any amendments by the Parliament in the past or in future in the constitution cannot be questioned by the court.

Minerva Mills and the Waman Rao cases[5]

In this case the owners of Minerva mills challenged the 42nd amendment in the Supreme Court. Mr. N.A. Palkhivala from the side of petitioners decided not to challenge the government’s action instead he framed the challenge to Parliament’s power to amend the Constitution. He argued that the section 55 of the amendment provided unlimited power to the Parliament. He added that Article 31 C violated the Preamble and the basic structure doctrine, hence should be declared unconstitutional. It also took away the power of judicial review.

The majority judgment (4:1) held the amendment to Article 31C unconstitutional.’ It destroyed the harmony and balance between fundamental rights and directive principles which is an essential or basic feature of the Constitution.’ In another case relating to a similar dispute involving agricultural property the apex court, held that all constitutional amendments made after the date of the Kesavananda Bharati are subject to judicial review as the same procedure as prior to the 42nd amendment.



[1] AIR. 1951 SC 458

[2] AIR 1954 Raj 301

[3] 1967 AIR 1643, 1967 SCR (2) 762

[4] 1973 4 SCC 225

[5] 1980 AIR 1789

DO NOT TAKE CITIZENS OF INDIA FOR GRANTED…!!!

A message from a frustrated Indian to every politician of the country

Being hit the worst by the second wave of the pandemic, Indians find it difficult on who to blame. Is the Government responsible and if Yes then which?

We all know about the situation of India and the frontline workers of India. Oxygen has become a new stock currency in India. In economy of class X we learnt that when the situation worsens, the community work becomes essential for development from the current situation. But how will those people understand this concept who have never been to school. Here I am talking about our politicians. But wait there are many who are graduates and post-graduates from the best universities around the world. Yes they are and still I think they might have skipped the economy class.

While the people of this country are dying, what politicians focus on is how to clear their image and win votes for the next elections. I won’t specifically mention a particular political party here because none of them have proved their potential in these time of pandemic. If Shiv Sena had been potential virus wouldn’t have affected the economic hub of India, had congress been potential corona wouldn’t be prevalent in Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh etc., there wouldn’t be oxygen shortage in Delhi if Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) was vigil towards the second wave, Not every second person would test positive in Bengal if Trinamool Congress (TMC) paid heed to the warnings of second wave in February, Had BJP been a little focused on building the Health Infrastructure rather than Central Vista there wouldn’t be bodies floating in the holy rivers of India. Following the list are CPI, DMK and many other regional parties who failed their netizens while playing their dirty politics.

Still when we see them addressing the public, all we can see is spreading hatred against the other political party. Really? Where do you get so many guts from? We need to stop flattering these corrupt politicians who only care about their own image. We as Indians need to stand up against the destruction being done to our democratic country. We need to raise our voice to teach the real meaning of democracy to those deaf sitting in the Parliament.

Democracy means, ‘of the people, by the people and to the people’. They need to realize this meaning because these politicians have really spoiled the infrastructure of our country for their well-being. They can’t drive people because it is people’s right to drive them. This is Democracy and not Dictatorship. Stop tweeting 6 tweets a day and start working for those who elected you.

They need to see what it feels like to beg for oxygen and lose our loved one just because they were busy protecting their image and spreading hatred. Every Politician must understand there are 140 crore citizens in India, they don’t even know the consequences if all these people stand together against them at once. Do not take the citizens of India for granted, I repeat DO NOT TAKE CITIZENS OF INDIA FOR GRANTED.

We as Indians stand united against any wrong that is being done towards our country.

Marriage or Career?

While most of the women living in the modern society will choose career over marriage, why is the society uncomfortable with their choices?

Image Souce: YourStory

Women have evolved from a dependent gender to a representative individual in the society. When most of the women earn their living on their own, there are many people who keep on forcing them to give up their career choices. Why is society so much uncomfortable in accepting the independent state of a woman?

You might be thinking that in what era am I living in; aren’t things like these extinct already. But in an answer I would like to say ‘NO’. Even today society wants women to stay at home because ‘Agar zyada padhi likhi hogi toh zyada zubaan chalegi iski’ (If she is more educated, she’ll have more opinions) Wait… What? Why do you want to have a submissive, Why do you want women to follow your orders, Why such dominance over a specific gender?

These are some basic questions asked by every woman at one or the other place in her life. Sometimes these questions have brought revolutions in the old customs and sometimes these questions fade in the screams of domestic violence, rapes, molestation, etc.

With the spread of awareness, many women are getting justice against these crimes but who will get justice for women who are suffering everyday because of their own family members?

Yes, you read that right. These wrongs aren’t highlighted but one in every three woman in India faces the pressure of marriage. She is forced to continue her studies after the marriage. Women aren’t allowed to have jobs in which they earn more than their subsequent other. Fathers and Husbands want their daughter to be dependent on them because they think that the day she becomes independent ‘Ladki haath se nikal jaegi’ (We’ll lose the hold of our daughter).

I’ll tell you one story which took place recently with me, One of my friend stopped talking to me. All of a sudden, She blocked all my calls and messages. I stopped contacting her after trying for a while. After few months, I get to know the reason. The reason left me speechless. Loosely putting in her words, ‘When I placed my desire to have a part-time job, Mom scolded me and told me not to contact you anymore. She thinks you are a bad influence and all these seeds of being independent are sown into me by you.’

Amazing! Isn’t it? And I’m not building up this story for this article. This is a true story of me and my friend. If speaking up for yourself makes someone a bad influence then we really need to re-consider our thoughts and customs.

Family needs to choose between a submissive unhappy daughter and an independent happy daughter. Because its high time we start to address the issues which bachelor women faces not only from the society but their families as well.

On this International Family Day, I’d like to address every person with a family to treat their daughters as their own family and not like ‘Paraya Dhan’ (Other’s wealth); I’d also like to tell the daughters to stand up for themselves and not make any decision due to family or societal pressure.

I’d like to conclude this feature with the words of a famous singer:

People are going to judge you anyway, so you might as well do what you want.

Taylor Swift

‘Where is my BEST HUSBAND Award?’

“She’s not even appreciating me for doing the household chores and managing the kids myself for the whole day…!!!”

Excuse me, What? Are you asking for an award just because you did the work that women have been doing almost everyday since ages? 

This might sound astonishing to you but this is what our society has been fighting for. By ‘Our Society’, I indirectly mean to point out ‘Our patriarchal Society’. 

Image Source: ThoughtCo.

We hear this word ‘Patriarchy’ on a day-to-day basis now, but what is the meaning of this word? Patriarchy simply means the supremacy of the male members of the family. What it indirectly hints at is the inferiority of the female members. We have witnessed this patriarchy since we were kids. Don’t tell me you did not. When you were asked who your superhero is, Didn’t you respond- Dad? We have always seen our mothers working day and night at home doing all the household chores, managing the kids, cooking the food and yet no one has ever appreciated her work. This is a very minute example for the patriarchal system that continues to be passed on as a legacy to every next generation. 

But didn’t patriarchy exist before? And if it did then why was it not so much talked about? The simple answer to this is the lack of awareness among the women to acknowledge the wrongs being done to them. And one cannot fight the issue which is not even accepted as an issue. In the times of our grandparents, everyone believed this is how life ought to be and thus women accepted every dominance done by the opposite gender. 

Today the means of communications have excelled and it has become quite easy for us to know what is going on in the other parts of the world. Because of the developed communication, social media and other sources, the women are aware of what is wrong and as the common proverb of hindi says, ‘Bardaasht karne ki bhi hadd hoti hai, jab sanyam ka ghada bhar jaata hai toh wo toot jaata hai’ Loosely translated: There is a limit to tolerate and when enough of the patience is tested, it breaks. This can also be the reason why women are raising their voices against the patriarchal norms. 

While there are so many patriarchal customs being followed in our society, there are still many who deny it exists. For those denying these, some of them are listed below:

Dowry System: 

  • This is one of the major reasons why women are considered as a liability on the family. There’s a celebration on the birth of the boy child whereas the family mourns when a girl child is born because when she’ll be married the family will have to arrange the dowry. As a solution to this many girl children are killed as a foetus whereas others are drowned in the milk vessel after birth. 
  • If somehow the girl manages to escape the cruelty from their paternal family, she is killed by her in-laws if they are not satisfied with the dowry. This is termed as ‘dowry death’ in our Indian constitution. According to Indian National Crime Record Bureau, there were 8,239 dowry death cases, 1,285 cases of attempted dowry deaths, and another 4,890 cases with pending investigations in 2009.

Sati Pratha: 

  • ‘Shave her head, break her bangles’; ‘Who will take care of the child, you must remarry’. These are two different cases- First, when the husband dies; Second, when the wife dies.
  • It has always been believed in our Indian society that a woman’s life is nothing after her husband. After the death of a husband, a widow is seen as a public property by other men and as unluck by her own family. She is not allowed to enter holy events because her presence is considered inauspicious. Imagining the atrocities of this, many women wilfully gave up their lives by sitting alive on the burning pyre. 

Ridiculous, Isn’t it? But many of these customs have been eradicated with the help of new laws and orders regulated by our constitution. In modern India, people have derived modern ways of formulating the patriarchy. Some of them can be listed as:

Unequal Pay: 

  • When there is no inequality found in assigning the tasks to women, there is a major difference found in their pay-scale. This is one of the major issues found in the corporate world and even the movie industry. This issue needs to be spoken of. 

Lack of policies: 

  • While many companies offer paid maternity leave, there are still many companies who fail to provide the same. Left with no option, women have to leave their jobs. There is still the lack of creche facilities in every domain of the work sector. While fathers enjoy their fatherhood, we need to ask the mothers who lost their careers for their child. 
  • Many companies lack the policies to safeguard women’s right resulting in the rise sexual harassment cases at work place. Due to the lack of these policies today only 6% of urban women enjoy employment. 

Overburdening: 

  • Some years ago, women used to manage the household. With the increasing inflation rate, it has become almost inevitable for women to not work. Women are stepping forward to share the responsibilities of their husbands, but this case isn’t vice versa.
  • With women stepping into the work-sector their workload seems to just have increased. Now they have to manage their work at the workplace and also complete their household chores. Too unfair!

For how many is this overburdening going to continue? It is high time for every woman to speak against injustice. Our Society really needs to understand that, ‘Women are not the goddess of sacrifice neither are they a sexual toy to be played with.’ As our former Prime Minister said: You can tell the condition of a Nation by looking at the status of its Women, Women are not a liability for the nation, instead they are an asset.

THE SUFFEREING OF INDIAN FARMERS

Thousands of farmers from Haryana and Punjab have surrounded Delhi for the past four months in defiance of the three ordinances passed by the Indian parliament on September 14, 2020. This protest, which has gathered thousands of farmers in the capital and set up camp on three major sites in the city, is being dubbed the single largest protest in human history. Farmers are expressing their dissatisfaction with the bills, fearing that they will simply empower big companies and leave farmers at their mercy.

Farmers- The Core of Our Economy

India’s agricultural sector has shown resilience in the face of COVID-induced lockdowns, according to the Economic Survey 2020-2021. Agriculture and related activities were the only bright spot in an otherwise dismal GDP efficiency, growing at a rate of 3.4 percent at constant prices in 2020-21. The agriculture sector employs more than half of the country’s workforce. We must comprehend our farmers’ plight and the difficulties they have faced. Be it colonial-induced famines, landowner exploitation, debt burdens, recent locust invasions, crop destruction due to severe weather conditions, or alarmingly high suicide rates. It is our responsibility to listen carefully and understand their concerns as well as the reasons for their dissatisfaction.

The Modifications has been Simplified

The three farm bills proposed are as follows –

The Essential Commodities Act (which is based on a colonial-era law governing the quantity of produce that can be stored or sold) only provides for the control of particular food products in the event of natural disasters or war.

This amendment restricts the ability of the federal government and states to enforce stock and price limits. These restrictions should only be enforced in an emergency. As a result, large companies now have complete leverage over resources such as cereals, pulses, edible oil, onions, and potatoes.

The Farmers’ Produce Exchange and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Bill, also known as the APMC Bypass Bill, addresses the mechanism that now allows farmers to trade their produce both intra-state and inter-state. Previously, they could only carry their produce to the APMC (Agricultural Produce Market Committee) Mandis, no matter how far away they were. This bill also provides for electronic produce trading and e-commerce. It prohibits the state government from charging farmers or electronic trading platforms a market fee for selling produce outside of the designated mandi.

The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Bill, the third bill, allows farmers to participate in “contract farming,” which allows them to enter into a contract with Agri-firms or large buyers for a specific crop at a predetermined price.

What is the aim of Farmer’s Mobilization

The aim of these bills appears to be to benefit and enable farmers to sell at larger markets without being taxed, engage in e-commerce, minimise interactions with middlemen, and incorporate technology into their farming practises. All of this is made possible by the ruling party’s deregulatory reforms, which encourage privatisation. In India, contract farming is not a new phenomenon. Contract farming has already been tried by the governments of Punjab and Gujarat. Their knowledge will aid us in determining the possible consequences of the new legislation in other parts of the world. Let’s take a peek at the state of Punjab. For more than three decades, PepsiCo has been involved in contract farming and has proven to be profitable. Farmers’ incomes increased as a result of the increased jobs. PepsiCo’s arrival ushered in a potato revolt. Small-scale or neglected producers, on the other hand, are said to be dissatisfied. Sunara Singh, a 15-acre farmer, claims that small-scale farmers who try to sell a few kilos of produce (as opposed to the tonnes sold by large-scale farmers) are not even spoken to politely or given gate passes to PepsiCo’s premises, as stated by Basant Kumar in an article for NewsLaundary in October 2020.

Another issue with the proposed laws is that, in the event of a conflict between a large company and a farmer, most small farmers have little resources in terms of time, funding, or legal skills. Farmers are unable to resolve cases ex post facto in either a civil or SDM (Sub-district magistrate) court due to a lack of documentary evidence to support their claims. The farmer will eventually be at the mercy of the corporate buyer. The bill mentions a Minimum Sales Price (MSP) for the crops, but no concrete legislation is in place to enact it. MSP does not have a statutory backup. MSP serves as a benchmark or signal price for all crop trade in the United States.

“The point is that in a country where 86 per cent of farmers have a land of the size of
fewer than two hectares, you can’t expect the farmer to carry his produce to far off
places to sell. What we need is an assured price for the farmers. If the markets are
saying they will provide a higher price to farmers, the question is a higher price to
what? There must be some benchmark.” Says Davindar Sharma, a food and trade policy
analyst at Al Jazeera.

The Agriculture Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) Act, also known as the Mandi system, was repealed by the state government of Bihar in 2006. “The financial situation of 94% of farmers in Bihar — who didn’t go to mandis or weren’t covered under minimum support price (MSP) — should have improved in the past 14 years, but their situation has worsened,” says economist DM Diwakar. This goes on to show that removing and selling agricultural produce outside of the APMC’s jurisdiction has an effect on the MSP that farmers are obligated to earn while trading inside the APMC Market Yard.

Educate, Organize, Agitate and Fact-Check!

Freedom of speech is important in a democracy. It must encourage people to express themselves, whether via social media sites, toolkits, or rallies. Tear gas and water cannons were used on protesters, demonstrators were arrested for standing up for their cause or without overt proof of a foreign plot, and the right to private counsel was denied during remand.

The Indian media has based its attention on the forces that have created instability, losing sight of the true causes of the unrest. Is it fair to ignore or, to put it another way, ridicule the majority of demonstrators who carried out their dissent in accordance with the government’s parameters and routes because a few groups had ulterior motives?

We must educate ourselves from reliable sources and double-check the information we ingest. We appear to equate oppressed people’s rage with their lack of credibility. We must empathise with the agitation and place it in perspective. If we really want to stand in solidarity, we must put an end to the dissemination of misinformation.

INDIA’S CRIPPLING TROPICAL FORESTS EPITOMIZE CARBON SINKS

By the year 2050, the world’s tropical forest supply may be severely depleted. Scientists expect that by 2050, sea levels will have risen to the point where most major cities will be flooded. In the last two decades, neglecting our biodiversity has resulted in four disease outbreaks. Can the human race afford another global epidemic that makes it impossible to breathe?

Carbon sinks are natural processes that absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere; the oceans and forests are the two largest carbon sinks on the planet. Oceans are the world’s main carbon sinks. Plants and soil are the two carbon sinks found in forests. Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere for photosynthesis, and some carbon dioxide is released by the soil as plants die and decompose. In the event of a forest fire, forests will change from carbon sink to carbon source. If forests remain intact, with no leakages such as erosion and deforestation, this trade-off between sink and source can be balanced. Forests’ ability to function as a carbon sink or source is dependent on the balance of photosynthesis and respiration. If you believe it or not, forest soil has sequestered a significant amount of carbon.

When a tree dies and the microbes finish the decomposition process, some of the accumulated carbon is released back into the atmosphere. This method does not result in the complete loss of carbon. A sizable portion of it has remained in the soil. A large area of forest is an excellent example of a carbon sink. “Basically half of the carbon dioxide emissions are consumed by the Earth’s land and ocean,” says Paul Fraser of the Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization.

The titan Amazon basin, which predominantly serves as the largest carbon sink of all of the forests, and benefits us by generating over 20% of the total oxygen production for the earth, is an example of the world’s largest tropical forest, holding up to 40 thousand plant species, 2.5 million insect species, and a myriad variety of wildlife. The Amazon is used to demonstrate how tropical forests can function as a carbon sink. “We have already lost 20% of the Amazon in 2019, and scientists worry that if we lose yet another 5%, the Amazon will hit its tipping point,” says Mike Barrett, WWF Director of Science and Conservation.

India is ranked 9th among the world’s megadiverse countries, with nearly 40,000 plant species and 90,000 animal species living through diverse geographical environments in all four directions. The Northeast (NE), once one of India’s greenest areas, has been slowly losing forest cover for the past 20 years.

According to data mapped by the Global Forest Watch, a repository for global forest data, the rate has doubled. According to a report published by the Deccan Herald in 2018, over 70 percent of the forest cover in the Northeastern states was lost due to deforestation between 2001 and 2018. Infrastructure is essential for the economy, but not at the expense of our aid recipients. The Northeast has been facing a significant threat to its forests for the past two decades as a result of deforestation for coal mining, cement manufacturing, and illegal logging. Deforestation has already wreaked havoc on the Garo Hills of Meghalaya and the Karbi Anglong Hills of Assam. As a result of the Etalin Hydroelectricity Project, the Dibang valley in Arunachal Pradesh is on the verge of losing 2.7 lakh trees. The Northeast is already feeling the heat of forest depletion, with some states experiencing the highest temperature increase in the last two decades. In Karnataka, a similar incident occurred when the long-delayed Hubballi-Ankola railway line was finally approved. This 164-kilometer railway line would cut through the Kali Tiger Reserve and the Bedti Conservation Reserve, destroying more than 80% of the forest cover in the Western Ghats, one of India’s most ecologically sensitive areas. There are fears that the Bannerghatta National Park, which is located in the ESZ (eco-sensitive zone), Bangalore’s only remaining lung space, would lose about 100 square kilometres. The loss of trees would increase carbon emissions, and these forests are home to more than 250 species of plants, birds, animals, and insects that are listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and protected by the Wildlife Protection Act of 197.

Mining and various agricultural and commercial growth projects in India generate at least 1,000 million tonnes of carbon. With the pace at which trees are being cut down, India will experience many stages of ecological cancer. India’s average reported temperature has already increased. Even Antarctica experienced the hottest temperature increase in 141 years, not to mention the July 2019 Heat Wave. According to the World Bank, nearly 1.3 million sq/km of land cover was destroyed between 1990 and 2016, an area greater than South Africa. What are the warning signs if these aren’t them? Tropical woods, unlike the Notre Dame Cathedral, cannot be rebuilt.

As a result, I implore everyone to take responsibility for raising consciousness about these issues and not allowing them to go unnoticed. Begin to shoulder some of the world’s responsibilities. It has been far too long since we have felt a sense of awe for the natural world. In this sense, President John F. Kennedy said, “If not us, who?” When, if not now, would it be?”