There in chapter are the information about the generation of radio active wastes, such as its definition, Origin, classification and stage of radioactive waste management. In addition there are information about the current state of research and technologies which have been proposed for the treatment of radio active waste, their advantages and disadvantages, in special case of the electro chemical techniques to treat radioactive waste with theoretical consideration and case of study, At the end of this chapter, there is information about risk assessment and development of future strategies.
There are many use of radioactive material which improve of facilitate human activities or quality from power generation to supply entire cities or areas, to medical and industrial uses, even the smoke detector in building. All these application generate radioactive waste that may represent risk to the environment or of human being, but it is necessary to have special attention to the management of radio waste.
RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL –
The chapter deals with the variety of which radioactive wastes are disposed of, land burial, deposition into geological and storage of radioactive waste in seas oceans. There are two two fundamental approach to radioactive and its disposal, dilution and dispersion and containment of the radioactive material and its grounds, preventing contact with the environment, current technical and economics the analyses have product is 2-3 fold less fixation of storage in container. An intensive search is therefore being made for new suitable fixation methods that would be make radioactive waste disposal more economic and safer for man and his environment. The siting of nuclear installations is the first of range measure for securing their nuclear and radiation safety. This range include project, production, construction, installation, commissioning of operation, close down and the safeguarding of quality of all stages, the problems of siting consists mainly in solving the extremely complex system of intern relations between the nuclear installation and the surrounding area, guided by the efforts and find an optimal solution. The radioactive substance must not be released from from the disposal site to such extent as become hazard to be population.
Treatment of aqueous waste
The processes available for treating aqueous radioactive waste are mainly: ion exchange/sorption, chemical precipitation, evaporation or ultra filtration/reverse osmosis. However, liquid containing suspended matter must be treated to remove the particulates before primary treatment or after it. Sedimentation, decantation, filtration or centrifugation are treatments used commonly to clear
Chemical precipitation processes are regularly used for removing radioactivity from low and intermediate level aqueous wastes at fuel reprocessing facilities, research laboratories and power stations. Precipitation processes are greatly versatile, relatively low investment and operational costs; and may treat from large volumes of liquid effluents containing relatively low concentrations of active species to those containing large amounts of particulates or high concentrations of inactive salts. However, in some cases, a pretreatment stage, such as oxidization of organic contaminants, decomposition of complexed species, pH adjustment, change of the valency state or adjust the ionic species, should be applied prior to the formation of precipitate in order to improve the process.