Online Shopping

Online buying and selling have become important parts of many people’s lives. Virtual stores allow people to shop from the comfort of their homes without the pressure of a salesperson. Online marketplaces provide a new and more convenient venue for exchanging virtually all types of goods and services.

Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the internet using a web browser or a mobile application. Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly or by searching among alternative vendors using a shopping search engine, which displays the same product’s availability and pricing at different e-retailers. As of 2020, customers can shop online using a range of different computers and devices, including desktop computers, laptops, tablet computers and smartphones. An online shop evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a regular “bricks and mortar retailer or shopping center, the process is called business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping. When an online store is set up to enable businesses to buy from another businesses, the process is called business-to business (B2B) online shopping. A typical online store enables the customer to browser the firm’s range of products and services, view photos or images of the products, along with information about the product specification’s features and prices. Online stores usually enable shoppers to use “search” features to find specific models, brands or items. Online customers must have access to the internet and a valid method of payment i order to complete a transaction, such as a credit card, an interac-enabled debit card, or a service, such as PayPal.For physical products (for example paperback books or clothes), the e-trailer usually sends the file to the customers over the internet. The largest of these online online retailing corporations are Amazon, and eBay.

How does online buying work

Shopping online is just like heading out to the store. You can often but the same products online as available in a brick-and-mortar store and can sometimes score better sales.

  • Finding a product-When you shop online, you have to start by searching for a product. This can be done by visiting a store’s website, or of you are not aware of any store that has the particular item you are looking for, or you’d like to compare prices between stores, you can always search for the items with a search engine and compare the results. On major retail website, companies will have pictures, descriptions and prices. If a company or individual does not have the means to create a website, sometimes sites like Amazon and Etsy make it possible for them to display products or build their own online stores for a monthly fee. Many stores also have placed virtual customer service centers on their websites, so you can either call, email, or chat with a live customer service representative if you have questions.
  • Buying and receiving the product-After selecting product, the website usually has a “checkout” option. When you check out, you are often given a list o shipping and payments options. Shipping options include standard, expedited, or overnight shipping. Depending on the shipping company and your location, standard shipping usually takes seven to twenty one business days, and expedited shipping can take anywhere from two to six business days. There are typically various payments options available.
  • E-Check-This payment options is just like paying directly from your bank account. If you choose to pay by electronic check, you must enter your routing and account numbers. Once this is done, the amount is taken directly from your bank account.
  • Credit card-When you pay by credit card, instead of swiping your card as you would at a brick-and mortar store, you type the required credit card information into the provided fields. Required information includes your credit card number, expiration date, type of card and verification/security number, usually the last three digits on the back of the card above the signature.

Advantages of online trading

  • Convenience
  • Cost savings
  • Variety
  • No pressure
  • easy comparison

Disadvantages of online trading

  • Increased risk of identity theft
  • Vendor fund

Protecting yourself while shopping online

Overall, the advantages of shopping online out weight the disadvantages. That said, it is important to note that while they might be smaller in number,the disadvantages can be a major hardship. While shopping online, it is essential to protect yourself and your information.

  • Invest in technology
  • Be careful
  • Research
  • Shipping check
  • The bottom line

Also make sure that your computer is well protected before you begin any transactions that involves sensitive information. Many scams on the internet can negatively affect your credit score and cost you money, so be proactive in your research to get the most out of shopping online.

How Should a Fresher Prepare for a Job Interview? Basic Tip!

As a fresher, when you step outside and have no idea, how to prepare and how to prepare for Interviews, Then this article is for you.

I am 24 years old, working with an NGO, still a fresher, but I have fought a lot to get off-campus placement. So I will tell you some basic steps as a fresher, how you should proceed to prepare for the interviews. I am assuming, you know the basic tips before your job interview

Be Confident

Be confident, you have prepared well and this should show in your confidence level in the interview.

Try to appear your best at the Interview

Your appearance should convey that you have taken the interview seriously.   Do not try to turn up in the interview in a manner that does not suit you.   Some basics in grooming will help.

a.       Well Groomed Hair
b.      Well Pressed Shirt
c.       Polished Shoes

Know about the company/organization

You should learn as much as you can about the company.  A good place to start is the company’s website.  If you have been referred through a friend also have a frank discussion with him or her.  Also, do a google search  on the company to understand what others are saying about the company.

Be prepared with questions for the Interviewer

Most interviewers will give you a chance to ask questions.  Use this opportunity to show your knowledge and interest in the company.  Also this is a good opportunity to clear any doubts that you have.

Address the Interviewer politely

It is always polite to refer to the Interviewer as SIR or Ma’am.  You can also address them their Surname (Mr. XXX or Mrs. XXX).  Do not use terms such as Honey, Girl, Dude, Yaar etc.

Do not be argumentative

Present your viewpoint and be professional.  If you do not agree with something the Interviewer has said do not spurn it as invalid.  Learn to understand their point of view even if it clashed with your own.  This does not mean that you need to accept their point of view.

Answer clearly and directly

Spell out your ideas as clearly as you can.  Also try to substantiate your ideas with examples.  Don’t be overly wordy and try to keep your answers to the point.  Do not try to deviate too much from the question.

Experience is not what happens to a man.
It is what a man does with what happens to him

Aldous Huxley

GO and Get that JOB!  Good Luck!

Causes of stress on Modern Generation

Stress is actually a normal part of life, at times of serves a useful purpose. Stress can motivate you to get that promotion at work, or run the last mile of a marathon. But if you don’t get a handle on your stress and it becomes long-term, it can seriously interfere with your job, family life, and health. More than half of Americans say they fight with friends and loved ones because of stress, and more than 70% say they experience real physical and emotional symptoms from it.

The present day youth are greatly stressed due to cut-throat competition and consumerist culture. Today, we are living in an age when people are more stressed than relaxed. Due to extreme competitiveness in every aspect of life, there is always a lack of time. This then leads to high level of anxiety, mental tension and of course, the feeling of dissatisfaction.

A cut-throat competition starts at school level with parents pressure-rising children to work extra hard and score high marks in all subjects. Students too feel the pressure of performing better than the rest. Therefore, they get stressed when they are unable to perform according to expectation. The stress builds on until it turns into health hazards, which stays on forever.

Then there is stress at work front, which is worse than scoring high. Students might acquire highest marks, but this does not guarantee that it would land their desired jobs. Even if they do, there are other reasons for one to feel the stress. Desired salary, timely promotion, material growth such as own house and car, marriage etc, often come along with anxiety, stress and lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is suffice to say that the present day youth are greatly stressed and to some extent, the consumerist culture is to be blamed for this.

With the advent of technology and social media platforms like Facebook and Instagram a lot of people get stressed about how they’re living their lives and compare themselves to others. For example, models ad actors/actresses who adhere to the societal perception of beauty, make many people wish to be like them, which cause stress and anxiety when they find it hard to do so. Due to increased use of technology the face to face conversation or meetings have decreased resulting in loneliness, depression and stress. Also, Insomnia caused bu overuse of technological gadgets has decreased the life expectancy of the modern generation. Insomnia also causes stress and fatigue. People’s eyesight has also weakened from a very young age due to expose of the naked eye to the screen of the gadgets. Over usage of gadgets results into stress as people forget to rip away their faces from the smartphones and enjoy nature and its breathtaking views.

Tips to control stress

Fortunately there’s a solution for to avoid stress at all times. Regular exercising or yoga and maintaining good health improves concentration and keeps the mind healthy. It decreases physical ailments reduces behavioral problems reduces depression and stress thus calming one’s mind. One should also spend some quality time with one’s family friends and loved ones, do charity/ community service adopt pets go for walks or pursue a hobby in order to reduce stress.

Mary Kom: The Living Legend

Mangte Chungneijang Mary Kom, popularly known as Mary Kom, is a Manipuri boxer and undoubtedly India’s most and one of the world’s most accomplished female boxers in modern times. Her various accomplishments and her boxing prowess have given her the nickname of ‘Magnificent Mary’, a nickname very fitting for her.

Mary was born in Kangathei village, Moirang Lamkhai in the Churachandpur district of Manipur on the 24th of November, 1982. She hails from a family of farmers and is the eldest of three children; with her having a younger brother and a sister. Throughout her school years, Mary extensively took part in athletics and played many sports; with a special interest in javelin and running. All this changed in 1998. Her fellow statesman, Dingko Singh had just returned from the 1998 Bangkok Asian Games with a Gold medal. Mary, like many other Manipuri youth was inspired by him and decided to give boxing a try. She moved to Imphal and started serious boxing training under the then Manipur State Boxing Coach, M. Narjit Singh. She kept her boxing training a secret from her family, as her father previously had voiced his concern that while boxing her face may get spoiled, thereby ruining her chances of marriage. In the year 2000, she won the state boxing championship, as a result of which she was featured in the newspaper. This led to her family finding out about her career as a boxer. This, along with her love for boxing caused her father to give her his whole hearted support.

Mary Kom’s career is filled with numerous accomplishments, medals and records. Mary’s major achievements and records are:

  • The only female to win the World Amateur Boxing Championship six times
  • The only female boxer to have won a medal in all the first seven World Championships
  • The only boxer, either male or female, to win eight medals at the World Championships
  • The world’s No. 1 female light-flyweight by the International Boxing Association (amateur) [AIBA]
  • The only boxer to win the Asian Amateur Boxing Championship 6 times
  • The only female Indian boxer who qualified for the 2012 London Olympics
  • The first Indian female boxer to win a gold medal at the Asian Games (2014 Incheon Games)
  • The first female Indian boxer to win a gold medal at the Commonwealth Games (2018 Gold Coast Games)

Mary Kom received a Padma Shri in 2006, and a Padma Bhushan in 2013. On 25th April 2016, she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha. In March 2017, she was appointed by the Indian Ministry of Youth and Sports as a national observer for boxing. On the 11th of December 2018, the Government of Manipur bestowed upon her the title of ‘Meethoi Leima’ (exceptional lady). She was awarded the Padma Shri in 2006 and the Padma Bhushan in 2013. On the 25th of January 2020, Mary Kom was awarded with the Padma Vibhushan. She was declared as a female representative of boxing’s athlete ambassadors’ group for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.  

Evil of Corruption

Corruption is the abuse of public or private office for personal or political gain, and it is linked to fraud, tax evasion and money laundering.

Corruption in India is an issue which affects the economy of central, state and local government agencies in many ways. Corruption is blamed for stunting the economy of India. A study conducted by Transparency International in 2005 recorded that more than 62% of Indians had at some point or another paid a bribe to a public official to get a job done. In 2008, another report showed that about 50% of Indians ha first hand experience of paying bribes or using contacts to get services performed by public offices, however, in 2020 their Corruption Perceptions Index ranked the country 86th place out of 180, reflecting steady decline in perception of corruption among people.

The largest contributors to corruption are entitlement programs and social spending schemes enacted by the Indian Government. For Example include the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employments Guarantee Act and the National Rural Health Mission. Other areas of corruption include India’s trucking industry which focused to pay billions of rupees in bribes annually to numerous regulatory and police stops on interstate highways.

Causes

The causes of corruption in India include excessive regulations, complicated tax and licensing systems, numerous government departments with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly of government controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes. There are significant variations in the level of corruption and in the government’s efforts to reduce corruption across India.

Black Money

Black money refers to money that is not fully or legitimately the property of the owner. A government white paper on black money in India suggest two possible sources of black money in India, the first includes activities not permitted by the law, such as crime, drug trade, terrorism and corruption, all of which are illegal in India and secondly, wealth that may have been generated through lawful activity but accumulated by failure to declare income and pay taxes. Some of this black money ends up in illicit, such as deposits in tax haven countries.

Domestic black money

India companies are have been reported to misuse public trusts for money laundering. India has no centralized repository like the registrar of companies for corporate’s of information on public trusts.

  • Gold purchases-In Gujarat, Delhi and many other major cities, sales of gold increased on 9 November, with an increased 20% to 30% premium surging the price as much as Rs.45,000 from the ruling price of Rs.31,900 per 10 grams.
  • Donations-Authorities of Sri Jalakanteshwarar temple at Vellore discovered cash worth Rs. 4.4 million from the temple.
  • Multiple bank transactions-There have also been reports of people circumventing the restrictions imposed on exchange transactions and attempting to convert black money into white by making multiple transactions at different bank branches. People were also getting rid of large amounts of banned currency by sending people in groups to exchange their money at banks. In response, the government announced that it would start making customers with indelible link. This was in addition to other measures proposed to ensure that the exchange transactions are carried out only once, by each person. On 17 November, the government reduced the exchange amount Rs.2,000 to discourage attempts to convert black money into legitimate money
  • Municipal and local tax payments-As the use of the demonetized notes had been allowed by the government for the payment of municipal and local body taxes, leading to people using the demonetized rs.500 and Rs.1000 notes to pay large amounts on outstanding and advance taxes. As a result, revenue collections of the local civic bodies jumped. the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation reported collecting about Rs.1.6 billion in cash payments of outstanding and advance taxes within 4 days.

Efforts on corruption

However, just as elsewhere in the word, the negative effects of corruption are the same, it reduces foreign direct and domestic investments, increases in-quality and poverty, raises the number of freeloaders in the economy, distorts and exploits public investments and reduce public revenues.

LOVE, ACTUALLY

What do millennials want?

The answer seems to be love. But the task of a millennial finding love is fraught with ambiguity

By “What do millennials want?” is a lament that has echoed for the past decade. “Millennials” is a word to indicate the generation that grew up with the Internet, with the luxury of access to information, but a dearth of attention to consume it, the generation that is called too sensitive (you’re telling me I can’tcall them mannequins? Womanaquinns sounds weird!), yet too entitled. It’s the one flouting conventions of pairing off into couples, having babies at the time deemed appropriate by dadima, and (thankfully) acknowledging that sexuality is not binary, but a spectrum. For a group of people that actively defy classification — what do millennials want?

At the risk of sounding cliched (a phrase that is always followed by a resounding cliche), we all want the same thing as the generations before us — love. It’s an easy cliche to indulge in because love is such a catch-all term. It means a myriad of things to different people and, for that same reason, sometimes ends up meaning nothing to everyone.

The task of being a millennial finding ‘love’ in 21st century India is one fraught with ambiguity. If anything, it is the defining quality of this generation. It manifests itself in everything — our films teach us that ‘gusse se nahi, pyaar se darr lagta hai’ (we don’t fear anger, but love) and our news channels teach us that if we hold hands in public we might have to spend the night in jail. Families police our childhoods into reductive gender roles, telling us not to talk to strangers, but have no qualms shoving us into the arms of strangers when they think our age is right. The revelations of the #MeToo movement have shaken the foundations of what gender behaviours will look like in the future. Embodying the millennial paradox, we trawl the Internet looking for love in dating and marriage sites, and yet only a minority of us marry outside our castes and social circles. Millennial Indians have to straddle the line between ghosting and gotras and in it we have to find the definition of love as it might feel right to us.

And here’s a little secret — no generation ever knows what they want till they have it or have just lost it. Everything will be clearer in retrospect, when think tanks classify the generation that detests classification, but till then we have our beloved ambiguity, we have trial-and-error, we have an expanded vocabulary of what love might mean, an evolving world that’s (slowly) accommodating the spectrum of love and sexuality.

When the opportunity to write this column came along I wondered if there was the need for a heterosexual woman’s point of view. My experiences will only be able to reflect the view of an upper caste, upper class, urban, privileged woman. How would I be able to encompass the vastness of the experience of love? Maybe not knowing is why I might make a decent millennial columnist? While I promise that subsequent columns will have humiliating (and possibly hilarious) anecdotes from my personal love life, I hope that you will know that my inbox and heart is always open, to share in your ambiguity about love — for now, that’s what this millennial wants.

Mathematics- Ancient Mathematics History

Mathematics, the science of structure, order, and relation that has evolved from elemental practices of counting, measuring and describing the shapes of objects. It deals with logical reasoning and quantitative calculations, and its development has involved an increasing degree of idealization and abstraction of its subject matter. Since the 17th century, mathematics ha been an indispensable adjunct to the physical sciences and technology, and in more recent times it has assumed a similar role in the quantitative aspects of the life sciences.

In many cultures under the stimulus of the needs of practical pursuits, such as commerce and agriculture mathematics has developed far beyond basic counting. This growth has been greatest in societies complex enough to sustain these activities and to provide leisure for compensation and the opportunity to build on the achievements of earlier mathematics.

All mathematics systems (for example, Euclidean geometry) are combinations of sets of axioms and of theorems that can be logically deduced from the axioms. Inquiries into the logical and philosophical basis of mathematics reduce to questions of whether the axioms of a given system ensure its completeness and its consistency.

As a consequence of the exponential growth of science, most mathematics has developed since the 15th century, and it is a historical fact that, from the 15th century to the late 20th century, new developments in mathematics were largely concentrated in Europe and North America. For these reasons, the bulk of this article is devoted to European development since 1500. This does not mean, however, that development, that development elsewhere have been un-important. Indeed, to understand the history of mathematics in Europe, it is necessary to know its history at least in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, in ancient Greece, and in Islamic civilization from the 9th to the 15th century. The way in which these civilizations influenced one another and the important direct contributions Greece and Islam made to later developments.

India’s contributions to the development of contemporary mathematics were made through the considerable influence of Indian achievements on Islamic mathematics during its formative years. A separate article, South Asian Mathematics, focuses on the early history of mathematics in the Indian subcontinent and the development there of the modern decimal place-value numeral system. The article East Asian mathematics covers the mostly independent development of mathematics in China, Japan, Korea ad Vietnam. The substantive branches of mathematics are treated in several articles.

Ancient mathematical sources

It is important to be aware of the character of the sources for the study of the history of mathematics. The history of Mesopotamian and Egyptian mathematics is based on the extant original documents written by scribes. Although in the case of Egypt these documents are few, they are all of a type and leave little doubt that Egyptian mathematics was, on the whole, elementary and profoundly practical in its orientation. For Mesopotamian mathematics, on the other hand, there are a large number of clay tablets, which reveal mathematical achievements of a much higher order than those of the Egyptians. The tablets indicate that the Mesopotamian had a great deal of remarkable mathematical knowledge , although they offer no evidence that this knowledge was organized into a deductive system. Future research may reveal more about the early development of mathematics in Mesopotamian or about its influence on Greek mathematics.

In modern times the invention of printing has largely solved the problem of obtaining secure texts and has allowed historians of mathematics to concentrate their editorial efforts on the correspondence or the un-published works of mathematicians. However, the exponential growth of mathematics means that, for the period from 19th century on, historians are able to treat only the major figures in any detail. Mathematics like any other human activity has its own fashions, will look like a wave of the future.For this reason, the present article males no attempt to assess the most recent developments in the subjects.

10 Bollywood movies that redefined friendship

The feeling of having a best friend who totally gets you is irreplaceable. Everyone needs a partner in crime to talk and actually do stupid things with, one who cheers you up when you’re feeling low or one who you just have a total blast with when you hang out. We all have those special friends whom we are ready to do literally anything for.There are many ways in which friendship is portrayed in Bollywood. When it comes to movies, everyone is pretty familiar with the main genres. You’ve got your comedies, your dramas, your action films, horror movies, etc. These can then be broken down even further based on their themes. There are period dramas and romantic comedies, sci-fi action films… but one genre that is never mentioned is movies about friendship. While they are not as talked about as other genres but there are plenty of movies which have celebrated this special bond. So what does it take to classify a movie as being about friendship? Basically just a non-romantic relationship needs to be at the center of the film. Bollywood has shown friendship in many different ways till date. Few movies show the great sacrifices a person makes for his friendship while few depict the everyday scenarios that we find ourselves in with our friends. 

Best movies that have changed the definition of friendship in Bollywood:

1. 3 Idiots

3 Idiots

3 Idiots is a comedy – drama unlike any which you have seen so far. Whatever the problem in life is… just say to yourself ‘Aal Izz Well’.. This won’t solve your problems but it will give the courage to face it..” “Chase Excellence and success will follow”.. ” Life is not about getting marks, grades but chasing your dreams”.. These are the golden rules which 3 IDIOTS teaches you in a very light and entertaining way. This film showed us what a crucial influence does friendship have on a person’s life. In the movie Farhan Qureshi (R Madhavan) and Raju Rastogi (Sharman Joshi) play engineering students forced in the rat race of reaching to the top while dealing with their own personal problems. And one man named Ranchoddas “Rancho” Chanchad (Aamir Khan) completely changed their view on life. He helped Farhan gather courage to confront his father and explain the desire to pursue his career as a wildlife photographer instead of an engineer. A career he actually was interested in. He also helped Raju Rastogi defy his fears and gave him enough confident to face them head on. 

2. Sholay

Sholay

“Yeh dosti hum nahin todenge…. todenge dam magar tera saath na chhodenge…..”. These lines itself prove that this movie is all about friendship. Sholay is regarded as an all time classic and one of the most watched movies over the past century. The characters Jai (Amitabh Bachchan) and Veeru (Dharmendra Deol) are still given as examples of great friendship. The movie was a story about these two friends who are appointed by Thakur Baldev Singh (Sanjeev Kumar) the duty to protect a village which is frequently attacked by dacoits. The dacoits are however able to capture Veeru and Basanti (Hema Malini), his love interest. Jai being a true friend that he is scarifies himself just to rescue them. Nothing is bigger than sacrificing your own life for your friendship but that is exactly the kind of friend Jai was.

3. Kuch Kuch Hota Hai

Kuch Kuch Hota Hai

The movie which made friendships day and the friendship band popular again… Kuch Kuch Hota Hai will always have a place in our hearts. On paper it was just a coming of the age romantic drama but for everyone who has seen it, the movie means so much more than that. Kuch Kuch Hota Hai was also the directorial debut for the maestro Karan Johar. The movie spoke about friendship in a very beautiful manner. 
“Pyar dosti hai … agar woh meri sab se achchi dost nahin ban sakti, to main usse kabhi pyar kar hi nahi sakta … kyun ki dosti bina toh pyar hota hi nahin … simple, pyar dosti hai.” This line from Kuch Kuch Hota Hai gets it absolutely spot on. Friendship is indeed the root cause for any romantic relation. In this movie, we got to witness the amazing and fun filled friendship between Rahul Khanna (Shah Rukh Khan) and Anjali Sharma (Kajol) which eventually blossoms into true love.

4. Munnabhai M.B.B.S

Munnabhai M.B.B.S

Munnabhai M.B.B.S is one of the most unorthodox version of a friendship that we have witnessed in Bollywood movies until now. Never the friendship between a goon and his loyal mate was shown in such a light.  Given that his father had wished him to be a medical doctor, he creates the faux Sri Hari Prasad Sharma Charitable Hospital (named after his father) and pretends to live in accordance with this wish whenever his father (Sunil Dutt) and mother (Rohini Hattangadi) visit him in Mumbai. Directed by Rajkumar Hirani, Munna (Sanjay Dutt) is a goon who is determined to get a doctor’s agree after his dad finds out that he isn’t a doctor, a lie that he was living since years. Well for a goon this obviously is not something easy but to help him get through it all was his best buddy Circuit (Arshad Warsi), a guy who is always ready to fulfil any desire that Munna may have. Be it getting an admission in college or even show up with an actual body just because his friend said he wanted one. The term “Jadoo Ki Jhappi” also became very popular after the movie as according to the film a simple hug has magical powers to solve any problem that a person might be facing. This movie was a great example of how friends stick with each other no matter what.

5. Rock On!!

Rock On!!

Released a decade ago, Rock on was the first Rock Musical film that was made in India. This also marked the acting and singing debut of Farhan Akhtar. Rock On!! begins in Mumbai, with the rock band Magik, in 1998. Joseph (Joe) Mascarhenas (Arjun Rampal) is the lead guitarist who feels the necessity to prove his worth as a musician. Aditya Shroff (Farhan Akhtar) is the lead singer who rebelled against his well-to-do family to play music. Rob Nancy (Luke Kenny) who plays keyboards and Kedar Zaveri a.k.a. KD/”Killer Drummer” (Purab Kohli) comprise the remainder of the band. They manage to win a competition in which the winner gets to release their very own music album and the opportunity create a music video. However in the process of singing the contract, ego amongst those friends takes over and they have a fall out. 10 years later they decide to reunite the band for another show. Joe’s wife however holds a grudge against the band and forces him to take up a guitar playing job on cruise ship. In the end, when Joe discovers that Rob has a brain tumour and his last wish is to perform with magic once again, without any hesitation Joe comes through for his friend to fulfil his one last wish.

6. Rang De Basanti

Rang De Basanti

Rang De Basanti is a drama film which was written and directed by Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra. The literal tittle of the film translates to “Paint me with the colours of spring.” It features an ensemble cast comprising Aamir Khan, Siddharth Narayan, Soha Ali Khan, Kunal Kapoor, R. Madhavan, Sharman Joshi, Atul Kulkarni and British actress Alice Patten in the lead roles. Although the film’s primary theme was based on patriotism, it gave an excellent example as to how deep of a bond do friends have and the extent they are willing to go to for their friends. The story is about a British documentary filmmaker who is determined to make a film on Indian freedom fighters based on diary entries by her grandfather, a former officer of the Indian Imperial Police. Upon arriving in India, she asks a group of five young men to act in her film although they weren’t interested in the idea for acting on a documentary on the country. They gradually begin to realize that their own lives are quite similar to the characters they portray in the documentary and that the state of affairs that once plagued the revolutionaries continues to torment their generation. So just like the documentary, these group of friends unite in a revolt against the leaders with the aim to get the truth out in the open which saw their friends sacrifice his life for the country due to the inefficiency of the government.

7. Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani

Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani

Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani is probably remembered for the sizzling chemistry between Ranbir Kapoor and Deepika Padukone but the film also showed how important friendships are in one’s life. Along with Ranbir Kapoor and Deepika Padukone which were seen for the second time together after Bachna Ae Haseeno, this film also starred Aditya Roy Kapur and Kalki Koechlin who were seen as Ranbir Kapoor’s close buddies. The three friends were shown as extremely close and were together since the days of their college. Even after when Kabir Thappar (Ranbir Kapoor) meets them again after a long gap at Aditi Mehra’s (Kalki Koelchin) wedding they are still close as ever. The movie gave a very beautiful message of valuing your friends. It went on to prove that despite having everything you need in life, if you don’t have friends your happiness is incomplete. We must learn to value our friends before it gets to late.

8. Dil Chahta Hai

Dil Chahta Hai

Look around and we bet your group definitely has one Akash, Sameer or Sidharth. Because these were not just characters but real people like us. Dil Chahta Hai is a movie that went on to change Bollywood friendships forever. Who would have thought that the story of three close friends and their messed up lives would connect so well with the generation and remain in everbody’s heart even 16 years later. Dil Chahta Hai can truly be regarded as the game changer for mainstream Hindi cinema. It proved that you don’t need a typical Hero and Heroine pairing for making a commercially successful Bollywood movie. The reason why Dil Chahta Hai has such a special place in all our hearts is because it is so relatable in every aspect. The chemistry between Aamir Khan, Saif Ali Khan and Akshaye Khanna in the movie gave us an accurate reflection of how we talk and behave when with friends. The amazing direction of the movie made it hard to believe that it was Farhan Akhtar’s first film. The trademark scene in which Aamir, Saif and Akshaye gaze at the sun as they are contemplating life and then moments later look at each other and burst out laughing pretty much sums up the film.


9. Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara

Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara

Zoya Akhtar’s Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara is a perfect salute to friendship. It is a journey of three friends who go on a road trip and face the highs and lows of life together. Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara saw Hrithik Roshan (a successful investment banker), Abhay Deol (a wealthy businessman) and Farhan Akhtar (a writer from a modest background) as friends who are not bothered about each other’s family backgrounds. In fact, not only do they have different backgrounds but also contrasting personalities. While Farhan is an extrovert and fun loving, Hrithik is serious and introvert. Despite these differences, they are best of friends who want to be with each other through their ups and downs. They fought with each other, played pranks on others, had their emotional moments, confided in each other, had immense faith in each other and the sport they chose, went on a road trip, stayed awake all night and had hell lot of fun. Hrithik, Farhan and Kabir were perfect as the characters. In the movie, the three friends during their road trip were shown underwater diving, sky diving and running from bulls at the the San Fermin festival which not only showed the love these three friends had for adventure, but also justified how they conquered their fear and learnt to live in the present.

10.Kal Ho Naa Ho

Kal Ho Naa Ho

Kal Ho Naa Ho was a movie that taught us to live life to the fullest. The story was about Naina Catherine Kapur (Preity Zinta), a pessimistic and uptight MBA student who lives in New York City with her widowed mother. With the burden of so many responsibilities and the duty to fulfil them, Naina somewhere forgets to enjoy her own life. And during this phase in her life she comes across a special friend in the form of Aman Mehra (Shah Rukh Khan), a person who wins her heart as with the help of his attitude he begins to solve the problems in Naina’s life and also teaches her to enjoy life again. As Aman learns about his cancer and the limited time that he has left, he tries to make two close friends Rohit Patel (Saif Ali Khan) and Naina fall in love as he does not want Naina to face the burden of his death. He sacrificed his love for her because he valued her too much.

Mirabai Chanu: India’s Newest Olympic Medalist

On the 24th of July, 2021, history was made at the Tokyo International Forum. Saikhom Mirabai Chanu just won India her first medal in the ongoing 2020 Tokyo Olympics in the category of Weightlifting in Women’s 49 kg by claiming the silver medal and earning India it’s highest and second medal in weightlifting after Karnam Malleswari’s bronze medal in the 2000 Sydney Olympics.

Saikhom Mirabai Chanu was born on the 8th of August, 1994 at Nongpok Kakching. It is a village around 30 kms to the east of Imphal, the capital city of Manipur. She belongs to the Meitei, an ethnic group of people who are native of Manipur. Her family consists of her parents and five other siblings; three sisters and two brothers. Her father is a government employee contracted with the publics work department, while her mother sells samosas. Out of all their children, Mirabai was the only child who decided to pursue sports as a profession. Her athletic prowess came to light in her early childhood. According to her mother, a young Mirabai, then in class 6 had told her that she would one day play in the Khuman Lampak Stadium While Mirabai initially wanted to pursue archery, she was unable to do so due to her lack of height (Mirabai Chanu is 4”11). Her weightlifting prowess was known since her early childhood, as a twelve-year-old Mirabai had no difficulty in lifting and carrying weights which even her elder brother had difficulty in trying to pick up. This weightlifting prowess of her inspired her to take up the sport of weightlifting.

Mirabai Chanu with her family
Mirabai Chanu with her family

Mirabai’s first major win in her career as a weightlifter came in the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. She competed in the Women’s 48 kg category and won the silver medal. While Mirabai qualified for and competed in the 2016 Rio Olympics, she was unsuccessful in her endeavor. However, she made a stunning comeback from that defeat the next year in the 2017 World Weightlifting Championships in the Women’s 48 kg category. She won two medals: Gold and Silver. Mirabai won Gold by lifting 109 kg in Clean and Jerk and Silver by lifting 85 kg in Snatch. Her total lifting of lifting 194 kg in total created a record.

Mirabai winning Gold at the  2017 World Weightlifting Championships
Mirabai winning Gold at the 2017 World Weightlifting Championships

In the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games, Mirabai won the first medal with a Gold medal by lifting a total of 196 kg; 110 kg in Clean and Jerk and 85 kg in Snatch. This set a new record for the Commonwealth Games in her weight category. In the 2019 World Weightlifting Championship, Mirabai set a new national record in Women’s 49 kg by lifting a total of 201 kg (87 kg Snatch and 114 kg Clean and Jerk). On the 17th of April 2021, at the 2020 Asian Weightlifting Championship, she set a new world record for Clean and Jerk by lifting 119 kg. She won a bronze medal here. By June 2021, she was second in the rankings for Women’s 49 kg and was the only Indian weightlifter who qualified for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.

Mirabai's Gold medal at the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games
Mirabai’s Gold medal at the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games

On the 24th of July 2021, Mirabai won the Silver medal in the Women’s 49 kg category by lifting 202 kg and created history. She succeeded Karnam Malleswari as the second Indian woman weightlifter to win an Olympic medal. Mirabai holds the honor of winning the highest medal in the weightlifting category in the Olympics that India has ever won. She also set a new Olympic record in the Clean and Jerk category by lifting 115 kg.

Mirabai's historical Silver medal at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics
Mirabai’s historical Silver medal at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics

Mirabai has stated that her triumph at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics is a ‘dream come true’ for her.

Procrastination

Procrastination is the act of delaying or putting off tasks until the last minute, or past their deadline. Some researches define procrastination as a “form of self-regulation failure characterized by the irrational delay of tasks despite potentially negative consequences. No matter how well-organized and committed your are, chances are that you have found yourself frittering away hours on trivial pursuits (watching television, updating your Facebook status, shopping online) when you should have been spending that time on work or school-related projects. Whether you’re putting off finishing a project for work, avoiding homework assignments, or ignoring household chores, procrastination can have a major impact on your job, your grades and your life.

In most cases, procrastination is not a sign of a serious problem. It’s a common tendency that most people give in to at some point or another.

Causes

Remember that time that you thought you had a week left to finish a project that was really due the next day? How about the time you decided not to clean up your apartment because you “didn’t feel like doing it right now?’

We often assume that projects won’t take as long to finish as they really will, which can lead to a false sense of security when we believe that we have plenty of time to complete these tasks. One of the biggest factors contributing to procrastinating is the notion that we have to feel inspired or motivated to work on a tasks at a particular moment. The reality is that if you wait until you’re in the right frame of mind to do certain tasks (especially undesirable ones), you will probably find that the right time simply never comes along and the tasks never gets completed.

The following are the few factors that cause procrastination

Academics

Researchers suggest that procrastination can be particularly pronounced among students. A 2001 meta analysis published in the Psychological Bulletin found that a whopping 80% to 95% of college students procrastinated on the regular basis, particular when it came to completing assignments and course-work.

  • Overestimate how much time they have left to perform tasks
  • Overestimate how motivated they will be in the future
  • Underestimate how long certain activities will take to complete
  • Mistakenly assume that they need to be in the right frame of mind to work on a project

Depression

Procrastination can also be result of depression. Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, ad a lack of energy can make it difficult to start the simple tasks. Depression can also lead to self-doubt. When you can’t figure out how to tackle a project or feel insecure about your abilities, you might find it easier to put it off and working on other tasks.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Procrastination is also pretty common in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder. One reason is that OCD is often linked with mal-adaptive, unhealthy perfectionism, which causes fears about making new mistakes, doubts about whether you are doing something correctly, and worry over other’s expectation ofyou.

People with OCD also often have a propensity toward in-decision, causing them to procrastinate rather than make a decision.

ADHD

Many adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle with procrastination. When you’re so distracted by outside stimuli, as well as internal thoughts, it can be hard to get started on a task, especially if that task is difficult or not interesting in you.

Negative impact on procrastination

It is only in cases where procrastination becomes chronic and begins to have a serious impact on a person’s daily life that it becomes a more serious issue. In such instances, it’s not just a matter of having poor time management skills, it’s a major part of their lifestyle. Perhaps they pay their bills late, don’t start work on big projects until the night before the deadline, delay gift shopping until the day before a birthday, and even file their income tax returns late. Unfortunately, this procrastination can have a serious impact on a number of life areas, including a person’s mental health and social, professional and financial well-being.

  • Higher level of stress and illness
  • Increased burden placed on social relationships
  • Resentment from friends, family, co-workers and fellow student
  • Consequences of delinquent bills and income tax returns

Tips for procrastination

Fortunately, there are a number of different things you can do the fight procrastination and start getting things done on time.

  • Make a to-do list: To help to keep you on track, ,consider placing a due date next to each item.
  • Take baby steps: Break down the items on your list into small, manageable steps so that your tasks don’t seem so overwhelming.
  • Recognize the warming signs: Pay attention to any thoughts of procrastination and do your best to resist the urge. If you begin to think about procrastinating, force yourself to spend a few minutes working on your tasks.
  • Eliminate distraction: Ask yourself what pulls your attention away the most-whether Instagram, Facebook updates, or the local news-and turn off those sources of distraction.
  • Pat yourself on the back: When you finish an item on your to-do list on time, congratulate yourself and reward yourself by indulging in something you find fun.

7 Bollywood Comedians We Grew Up Watching And Miss In The Age Of Stand-Up

Comedy in Bollywood movies in the ‘80s, ‘90s, and the mid-2000s was gold. And so were the comedians who delivered some great light-hearted comedy. In the digital era, where stand-up comedians are ruling the roost, we take a look back at the long-forgotten comedy actors in Bollywood. From Johnny Walker to Rajpal Yadav, here’s a list of comedians we miss watching. 

1. Johnny Lever

Johnny was not only our favourite but Bollywood’s most popular comedian for decades. In his 40-year-long career, he’s featured in more than 200 films. Little did we know that Johnny was the OG stand-up comedian who started his journey by performing comedy acts in musical shows. He was later discovered by Sunil Dutt, who got him his first movie Dard Ka Rishta in 1982. The actor was last seen in Cooli No.1 starring Varun Dhawan.

2. Laxmikant Berde

Salman Khan and Laxmikant Berde’s Jodi was an absolute hit in the ‘90s. But did you know that the comedian who was a constant in every Sooraj Barjatya film, was actually a superstar in Marathi cinema? He was popularly known as the ‘Comedy King’ of Marathi cinema. He made his Bollywood debut with Maine Pyar Kiya in 1989 and featured in a couple of other popular Hindi films including Hum Aapke Hain Koun..!, Mere Sapno Ki Rani, Aarzoo, Saajan, Beta, 100 Days and Anari. His sudden demise in 2004 came as a shock to everyone.

3. Raju Srivastav

Our very dear Gajodhar bhaiya needs no introduction. Much like Laxmikant, Raju also started his Bollywood journey with Maine Pyar Kiya. However, he never got much recognition in Bollywood and rose to fame with The Great Indian Laughter Challenge, an Indian reality stand-up comedy series. Raju is popular for doing some great mimicry.

4. Rajpal Yadav 

The last we saw Rajpal in Coolie No.1 starring Varun Dhawan. There was a time when he delivered some of the most iconic comical roles in the mid-2000s like Lal Hanuman in Bhool Bhulaiyaa, Bandya in Chup Chup Ke, and Chota Don in Bhagam Bhag. His other notable films include Hungama, Mujhse Shaadi Karogi, Partner, and Dhol. How we wish we get to see him more.

5. Johnny Walker

Anand, Hrishikesh Mukherjee

Remember Isa bhai from Anand? Johnny is another iconic comedian from the bygone era who never failed to crack us up with his distinct voice. Oh, did we mention his signature pencil-thin moustache? Johnny was last seen playing the character of Joseph in Chachi 420. He passed away in 2003, we hope someone with a similar style emerged on the scene.

6. Keshto Mukherjee

Remember the drunk comedian in almost every ‘70s and ‘80s film? The man with a bottle of alcohol who made funny faces just to make us laugh? Keshto made his look legendary and one-of-a-kind, and was perhaps one of the best comedians Indian cinema has ever seen.

7. Mehmood

And we saved the best for the last. Mehmood aka Master Pillai from Padosan is Indian cinema’s best comedian ever. He’s not only featured in more than 300 films but also won several Filmfare Awards for Best Comedian. 

Five Things To See In Albania

Officially known as the Republic of Albania, Albania is a Balkan country located in southeastern Europe. Albania has a very diverse landscape. On one side, the country has the snowy peaks of the Albanian Alps while on the other, the country has the numerous tropical and sunny beaches of the Mediterranean Sea. This variance in the topography has not only lead to a variance in climate, but given rise to a lot of tourists spots.

Compared to its neighbors, Albania is relatively cheaper to visit, while offering similar views and experiences. Albania’s currency is the Albanian Lek and the conversion rate between them is 1 Indian Rupee equaling to 1.39 Albanian Lek. The months from March to June are the best time to visit Albania. Albania has a very rich history owing to it being inhabited by various civilizations over the centuries. This, along with its diverse landscape makes Albania a good tourist location. Whether for its history, natural beauty, or leisure, Albania offers them all.

Here are five places you must check out in Albania!

BUNK’ART

BUNK’ART

BUNK’ART is a series of museums of renovated former bunkers located in and about Tirana, the capital city of Albania. They were built by the former dictator of Albania, Enver Hoxha. It currently serves as a five floor art and history museum and displays the lifestyle in Albania during the 45 years it was under communism.

Mount Dajti

Mount Dajti

Located on the edge of Tirana, Mount Dajti, a designated national park is a paradise for nature lovers. It is filled with forests of different trees like pine and oak. Apart from that, other geographical features seen here are waterfalls, caves, lakes, canyons and an ancient castle too! It is a dream for hikers. For the less adventurous, there is a beautiful cable car line with scenic view of the slopes of Mount Dajti and Tirana city.

Berat

Berat

Berat is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. The architecture of the buildings is rich due to various civilizations making the city their home and leaving their mark on it through the architecture. This has given the city the nickname of the ‘City With a Thousand Windows’. The Berat castle is the city’s main attraction.

Gjirokaster

Gjirokaster

Gjirokaster is another UNESCO World Heritage Site. The older part of the town has homes with roofs of flat stones. This has given it the nickname of the ‘City of Stone’. The town is overlooked by the Gjirokaster Fortress. The Gjirokaster National Folklore Festival is held here every five years. The latest edition of the festival (the eleventh season), originally scheduled for 2020 was rescheduled to 1st May-8th May, 2021 due to the ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic.

Schkoder

Schkoder
From Rozafa Castle

Schkoder is considered to be the cultural capital of Albania. It has various structures of historical importance like Rozafa Castle, the Shirgj Church, the Mesi Bridge, the Lead Mosque and the nearby ruins of Shurdhah island. The Lake of Schkoder, which happens to be the largest lake in South Europe, is also a tourist attraction for both visitors as well as locals; especially during the summer.

Save Trees

Trees are the backbone of all ecosystems on which mankind and other living and non-living being rely. Tress help in maintaining the ecological balance of the earth by emission of oxygen, absorption of carbon dioxide. Most important benefits of trees are, it helps the environment to provide an enormous amount of energy and reduce the toxic carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and pollutants by absorbing. Helps in improving water quality, prevent soil erosion, helps in saving energy. According to U.S Department of Agriculture, 1 acre of forest absorbs six tons of carbon dioxide which is enough to meet the annual needs of 18 people. Consumption and the demand of paper is the most important factor in the depletion of forest trees as to produce 3000 sheets of paper 1 tree ha to be cut.

Beneficial reasons to plant a tress in your yard

Trees are a vital part of our world, and our crucial to our survival. They provide us with the oxygen we need to breathe, shelter for wildlife, and food to eat. But, there’s so much more. Here are the reasons why trees should be a staple in your landscaping.

  • Trees increase property values-Everyone wants their home to have the highest possible property value. Landscaping with trees and plants can increase your property value by as much as 20 percent, according to some estimates. That is a great return on investment in terms of the small amount of upkeep they require.
  • Trees clean the air-A tree can absorb as much as 48 pounds of carbon dioxide each year and can sequester 1 tone of carbon dioxide by the time it reaches 40 years old. In addition, trees absorb odors and pollutant gases such as nitrogen oxides, ammonia, sulphur dioxide and ozone, and filter particulars out of the air by trapping them on their leaves and bark.
  • Trees slow water runoff-Flash flooding can be significantly reduced by plating tress. According to Colorado Blue Spruce, either planted or growing wild, can intercept more than 1000 gallons of water annually when fully grown, which helps recharge underground aquifers.
  • Trees prevent soil erosion-A trees root system binds the soil and its leaves provide a barrier to wind and rain thus preventing soil erosion.
  • Tress help buffer noise pollution-Trees that are planted at strategic points in a neighborhood or around your house can abate major noises. This is especially nice if you live near a freeway or airport.
  • Trees cool our homes, streets, and cities-Trees can cool a city by up to 10 Fahrenheit by shading homes and streets, breaking up urban “heat islands” and releasing water vapor into the sir through their leaves.
  • Trees can save you money on energy costs-Building off the previous point, strategically placed trees can save homeowners up to 25 percent on energy bills by provided shade in the summer and windbreaks in the winter.
  • Trees are beautiful-This is non-brainer. Trees are stunning parts of our natural landscape. From the first buds of spring to the colorful leaves in the fall, trees are gorgeous. They make a great decoration indoors or outdoors.
  • Trees are sacred-Trees were sacred to many ancient worlds, and still hold special meaning in many cultures today. The Druids believed a number of trees to be sacred, including the Ash tree from which healing wands were made. Today,many people in Madagascar worship them because they believe their ancestor’s spirits live in the forests.
  • Medicines are derived from trees-While many drugs that come from plants and tress have been replaced by synthetics, there is no denying how important they are when it comes to modern medicine and research.

Advantages of planting trees in reducing global warming. planting trees can cut air-conditioning or electricity costs up to 50 percent. Planting trees for the environment is good as they are renewable, bio-gradable and recyclable, if we plant 20 million trees, the earth will get with 260 million more tons of oxygen.

Climate change has caused an increase in wildfires all around the world. Planting trees incorrectly or even ignoring them during their first few years of growth, can aid in the spread of forests. This will burn down more tress and further contribute to the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Green Buildings

The Need for Green Buildings

It is an often overlooked and uncommonly known fact that infrastructure like buildings also contribute to the environment strain. Both the construction of buildings as well as their maintenance require the consumption of a lot of electricity, water, energy, as well as raw materials and the like.  They also contribute to emissions released into the environment. According to data from the year 2018, buildings and their related activities had a contribution of around 28 % of the world’s total CO2  emissions. Apart from the environmental aspect, there is the human aspect as well. Often construction workers develop respiratory diseases due to the inhalation of toxic fumes as well as particles let out by the materials used in construction. This situation can be improved by designing sustainable, green buildings.

The Concept of Green Buildings

Green buildings are sustainable infrastructure. They are planned in such a way that right from their design, to other steps such as construction and operation in order to minimize consumption of various resources like energy, water, materials, etc. and make them more efficient. It maintains and improves the quality of the environment in the surrounding area. The important factors to be considered during the planning of a green building are:

  • To maintain a natural habitat in the surrounding areas. Often green buildings have greenery grown in them too
  • To not build in any area which might be even slightly environmentally sensitive
  • To reduce the consumption of natural resources
  • To reduce the amount of water used during building construction
  • To try and reduce the water footprint of the building
  • To reduce energy consumption
  • To use renewable energy
  • To increase the energy efficiency of the building
  • To use sustainable and non-toxic materials in the construction phase
  • To implement and promote recycling technologies in the buildings
  • To design the building in such a way, that it remains durable for as long as possible
  • To create buildings which are adaptable and resilient to various climatic changes and conditions

Evaluation of Green Buildings

With an increase in interest and infrastructure in green buildings, there arose a need to have some sort of regulatory body to oversee the making of standards for the evaluation of green buildings. Both worldwide as well as domestically, regulatory bodies were created to evaluate activities related to green buildings and confer certificates. The granting of these certificates depends on the specific criteria declared by each respective authority.

In India, the Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) is the regulatory authority overseeing green buildings. It is a joint set-up by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and the Government of India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE). GRIHA has multiple types of rating standards for different conditions and building types and infrastructure. They can be viewed here: https://www.grihaindia.org/

Examples of Green Infrastructure

In India:

Suzlon One Earth, Pune

Suzlon One Earth, Pune

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, Hyderabad

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, Hyderabad

CII- Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, Hyderabad

CII- Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, Hyderabad

Internationally:

Olympic House (IOC Headquarters), Lausanne, Switzerland

Olympic House (IOC Headquarters), Lausanne, Switzerland

One Central Park, Sydney, Australia

One Central Park, Sydney, Australia

Amherst College Science Centre, Amherst, Massachusetts

Amherst College Science Centre, Amherst, Massachusetts

A.J.P Abdul Kalam-The Missile Man of India

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 to a Tamil Muslim family in the pilgrimage center of Rameswaram on Pamban Island, then in the Madras Presidency and now in the state of Tamil Nadu. His father Jainulabdeen Marakayar was a boat owner and Imam of a local mosque. His mother Ashiamma was a home-maker. Kalam was the youngest of four brothers and one sister in his family. In school years, Kalam had average grades but was described a s bright and hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn. He spent hours on his studies, especially mathematics. After completing his education at the Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Ramanathapuram, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph’s College Thiruchirapalli, then affiliated with the University of Madras, from he graduated in physics in 1954. He moved to Madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology. While Kalam working on a senior class project, the Dean was dissatisfied with his lack of progress and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished within next three days, Kalam met the deadline, impressing the Dean, who later said to him “I was putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline”. He narrowly missed achieving his dream of becoming a fighter pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers, and only eight positions were available in the IAF (Indian Air Force).\

Career

After graduating from the Madras Institue of Technology in 1960. Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation, as a scientist after becoming a member of the Defense Research and Development Service. He started his career by designing a small hovercraft, but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at DRDO. In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation where he was the project director of India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III), which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980. Kalam project independently at DRDO in 1965. In 1969, Kalam received the government’s approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers. Kalam played a major part in developing many missile under the mission and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, although the projects have been criticized for mismanagement and cost and time overruns. Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation from July 1992 to December 1999. The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period in which he played and intensive political and technological role. Kalam served as the Cheif Project Coordinator, along with Rajagopala Chidambaram, during the testing phase. Media coverage of Kalam during this period made him the country’s best known nuclear scientist. However, the director of the site test K.Santhanam, said that the thermonuclear bomb had been a fizzle and criticized Kalam for issuing an incorrect report. Both Kalam and Chidambaram dismissed the cliams.

This is my first stage in which I learnt leadership from three great teachers-Dr.Vikram Sarabhai, Prof Sathish Dhawan and Dr.Brahm Prakash. This was the time of learning and acquisition of knowledge for me.-A.P.J Abdul Kalam

Presidency

Kalam served as the 11th President of India, succeeding K.R. Narayan. He won the 2002 presidential election with an electoral vote, surpassing the votes won by Lakshmi Sahgal. His team lasted from July 25 2002 to July 25 2007. During his term as president, he was affectionately known as the People’s President saying that signing the Office of Profit Bill was the toughest decision he had taken during his tenure.

Awards

  • 1981-Padma Bhushan-Government of India
  • 1990-Padma Vibhushan-Government of India
  • 1997-Bharat Ratna-Government of India
  • 1997-Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration-Government of India
  • 1998-Veer Savarkar Award-Government of India
  • 2000-SASTRA Ramanujan Prize-Shanmugha Arts, Science, Technology and Research Academy, India
  • 2013-Von Braun Award-National Space Society.

Death

On 27 July 2915, Kalam travelled to Shilliong to deliver a lecture on Creating a Livable Planet Earth at the Indian Institute of Management Shilliong. While climbling a flight of stairs, he experienced some discomfort, but was able to enter the auditorium after a brief rest. At around 6.35 p.m, only five minutes into his lectures, he collapsed. He was rushed to the nearly Bethany Hospital in a critical condition, upon arrival, he lacked a pulse or any other signs of life. Despite being placed in the intensive care unit, Kalam was confirmed dead of a sudden cardiac arrest at 7.45 p.m IST. His last words, to his aide Srijan Pal Singh, were reportedly ‘Funny guy” are you doing well.

Inspirational words

Don’t take rest after your victory because if you fail in second, more lips are waiting to say that your first victory was just luck.

Never give up your dreams no matter how old you are no matter where you are today. Do not give up dreaming for a better tomorrow.

Quarantine Boredom

It’s been almost two years surviving in lockdown and still there is no escape from the boredom which comes along every now and then. Its either scrolling through Instagram, snapping on snapchat, binge watching on Netflix or napping. At this point no one tries to find a way that isn’t entertainment related.

Today we’ll discuss things to do instead of social media.

Staying away from social media will be hard at first, but it may cause you to try new things and have brand new experiences. You may find yourself trying things you never expected, and many things you’ve always wanted to do more of.

What to do instead of scrolling?

Firstly if you want to scroll then let’s try it with a different way.

  • Try scrolling with a productive aim along with a time schedule. Aimlessly scrolling for hours is just going to damage you physically and will just fuel your boredom. Target an hour in the afternoon and scroll through the posts you’d actually want to look at like recipes, restaurants, celebrity’s account, etc. This will actually serve the satisfaction of looking at the posts of your own interest.
  • Listen to a podcast. There are variety of podcasts from educational to comedies. Go with one that interests you.
  • Learn a new language. There are countless of apps that provide you with studying material along with being able to talk to natives of that language. This can help you even in future.
  • Write in a journal. Many of the people think how childish it is to write in a diary about your life but it actually benefits you. Jotting down your thoughts can be good for you mind.

When you cut out or lower the amount of time that you spend on social media, you may find time for things in life that you wouldn’t normally have time to do.

  • Organize your room or closet.
  • Clear out the useless subscriptions from your mail.
  • Clear out the trash your phone to increase your storage.
  • Donate the items that aren’t of your use but could benefit others like books you don’t read anymore, clothes, notebooks, stationary etc.

If you’re looking for things to do instead of social media, making money, improving your financial situation can help you now and well into the future.

  • Answer surveys. There are many sites that pay you for answering and testing products for free.
  • Edit content. Many websites or companies are always looking for aspiring editors and if you have the talent then you should go for it.
  • Find internships. Many many companies are open for work from home internships and you can find the ones that interest you the most.

Now the point here isn’t deleting or removing social media from your life completely but rather decreasing the amount of time you spend on it.

Importance of an Internship

Individuals from different sections of the society often see to get confused with their present career interest or worry about their career goals or want to give shape to their career after a gap. For them, internship exposure can be one of the ways to structure their career.

  • A recent college graduate who could not get a job through college placement and whose resume lacks professional experience can start their career with internship.
  • A mother who took a break from her career to take care of her child and want to start her career again, can join any organisation as an intern to update herself about the market.
  • Internship can be a good strategy for an individual who in his late 30s is planning to switch careers to convert his interest as his profession.

4 ways college students benefit from internships

  • 1. Students can apply their classroom learning in professional environments
  • Students can gain exposure to their chosen field
  • Students can establish critical networking connections
  • Students can gain coveted work experience

“Whenever you are asked if you can do a job, tell ‘em, ‘Certainly I can!’ Then get busy and find out how to do it.”

Shah Rukh Khan

Internships are not limited to college students. Anyone seeking a career change will find that internships introduce them to a new career, help them to explore different skills, and prepare them for new experiences. For college students, summertime is an ideal opportunity to explore career interests while still in school but not actively involved with classroom and homework requirements.

Reasons Why An Internship is Important to All Students

  • Application of education and career exploration. Internships are a great way to apply the knowledge from the classroom to real-world experience. Learning is one thing, but taking those skills into the workforce and applying them is a great way to explore different career paths and specializations that suit individual interests.
  • Gain experience and increase marketability. Having an internship gives you experience in the career field you want to pursue. Not only does this give individuals an edge over other candidates when applying for jobs, it also prepares them for what to expect in their field and increases confidence in their work.
  • Learn how a professional workplace operates. Depending on your major, you may read about how organizations thrive and function in textbooks, hear from guest speakers who talk about organizational structures, or dive into case studies about workplace culture, but nothing compares to living the actual experience.
  • Professionalism. Internships can provide students with the soft skills needed in the workplace and in leadership positions. In a LinkedIn Skills Report (2018), 57% of people rated soft skills as being more important than technical skills. Skills, such as communication, leadership, problem-solving, and teamwork can all be learned through an internship and utilized beyond that experience.
  • Build your resume. Most organizations and jobs that you apply to following graduation want employees to have some sort of professional experience, even for entry-level jobs. In the event that you are a finalist for a position and haven’t had an internship experience but the other finalist has, you may lose out on a job opportunity, so make sure you at least have one internship on your resume before leaving college to give you a leg up on the competition.
  • Figure out what you like and don’t like. While everyone probably wants to walk away from an internship feeling excited and passionate about the experience, there’s a silver-lining to be found if you didn’t enjoy the job: you’ll know what you don’t like. According to an article from monster.com, “figuring out what type of job you don’t want while you’re interning can help prevent you from accepting an ill-fitting job when you graduate.”

Self Confidence

Confidence is something that can be tough thing to build up. Not every one is born with inbuilt sense of self-confidence. Sometime it can be hard to develop confidence, either because personal experiences, have caused you to lose confidence or because you suffer from low self-esteem.

A confident person does what the believe is right, even if it’s unpopular. If that person is willing to take risks then his/her confidence increase. They also admits their mistakes and learns from them. A confident person will be able to accept a compliment and is also optimistic.

Self confidence is very much important because self-confidence is a feeling of trust in one’s abilities, qualities and judgment. Children with a health sense of self-confidence are able to feel good about themselves and know that they deserve respect from others. For example-if a guitarist know how to play a particular song in front of the audience then that’s self-confidence. Confidence in oneself, one’s abilities etc. A measure of one’s belief in one’s own abilities is also termed a s self-confidence.

Confidence can help you take on the world with more energy and determination, resulting in better relationships, quality work and a feeling of being connected with your surroundings. Self-confident people usually can influence others more easily as well as control their own emotions and behaviors more responsibly.

On the other hand, low self-confidence might make you feel full of self-doubt, be passive or submissive, or have difficulty trusting others. You may feel inferior, unloved or be sensitive to criticism. Feeling confident in yourself might depend on the situation. For instance, you can feel very confident in some areas, such as academics, but lack confidence in others, like relationships. Having low or high self-confidence is rarely related to your actual abilities, and mostly based on your perceptions. Perceptions are the way you think about yourself and these thoughts can be flawed.

Low self-confidence might stem from different experiences, such as growing up in an un-supportive and critical environment, being separated from your friends or family for the first time, judging yourself too harshly, or being afraid of failure. People with low self-confidence often have errors in their thinking.

How to increase your self-confidence

  • Recognize and emphasize your strengths. Reward and praise yourself for your efforts and progress.
  • When you stumble on an obstacle,treat yourself with kindness and compassion. Don’t dwell on failure.
  • Set realistic and achievable goals. Do not expect perfection, it is impossible to be perfect in every aspect of life.
  • Slow down when you are feeling intense emotions and think logically about the situations.
  • Challenge making assumptions about yourself, people and situations.
  • Recognize that past negative life experiences do not dictate your future.
  • Express your feelings, beliefs and needs directly and respectful.
  • Learn t say no to unreasonable requests.
  • Individual counseling can also help increase your self-confidence if you need more help.

Still lack confidence

Sometimes the quick fixes don’t help in the long term. If you’re feeling bad and things just don’t seem to be improving, it’s worth talking to someone who knows how to help you. Professionals like psychologists can help you develop strategies to help you build up your confidence. They may also be able to help you understand any underlying problems that might be causing you to feel bad about yourself.

Thor: Ragnarok

Thor: Ragnarok is a 2017 movie released on the 3rd of November. It is an action-adventure superhero movie and is a part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). Thor: Ragnarok is the third part of the ‘Thor’ series, preceeded by Thor (2011) and its sequel, Thor: The Dark World (2013). It is directed by Taika Waititi and stars Chris Hemsworth, Tom Hiddleston, Mark Ruffalo, Tessa Thompson, Cate Blanchett and Jeff Goldblum in main roles. It is written by Eric Pearson, Craig Kyle and Christopher L. Yost.

The story follows a reunited Thor and Loki as, along with the Hulk and a new ally Valkyrie, they attempt to escape the planet Sakaar in order to save their home Asgard from their tyrannical sister Hela and save their realm from the prophesied armageddon of Ragnarok. The movie cast sees Chris Hemsworth reprise his role as Thor the God of Thunder, Tom Hiddleston reprise the role of Loki, God of Mischief and Thor’s younger brother and Mark Ruffalo reprise his role of the Hulk. The franchise sees new additions to the cast in the form of Jeff Goldblum, Tessa Thompson and Cate Blanchett. Tessa Thompson plays the role of Valkyrie, a former Asgardian warrior who once fought against Hela and now lives as an enforcer on Sakaar. Jeff Goldblum plays the Grandmaster, the ruler of Sakaar who imprisons Thor. Cate Blanchett plays the role of Hela, the Goddess of Death and Odin’s firstborn daughter whose ambition is to take over the Nine Realms.

When Thor: Ragnarok was released, it caused quite a lot of discussions between Marvel fans due to the general nature and tone of the movie. Both Thor as well as Thor: The Dark World had a comparatively serious undertone. Thor: Ragnarok is the exact opposite. Thor: Ragnarok is colorful, bright, loud and filled with moments that will have you in stitches. The action sequences in the movie are very good and never feel over-the-top. The entire main cast has done a fantastic job and portrayed their characters wonderfully. The characters themselves are fleshed out and the main quartet of Thor, Loki, the Hulk and Valkyrie have good chemistry with each other. Thor: Ragnarok was well received by both the public as most critics.

Thor Ragnarok cast
The main cast of Thor: Ragnarok with director Taika Waititi

According to director Taika Waititi, many of the movie dialogues, 80 % in his words, are actually improvised. This ended up working out quite well for the movie, as a few of the improvised lines have become iconic and served to enhance the movie experience. The “Get Help” scene was improvised on-the-spot by Chris Hemsworth. It went on to become a fan-favorite scene from the movie. The “He’s a friend from work!” dialogue was an input from a child who had visited the set of Thor: Ragnarok through the ‘Make A Wish’ Foundation. The childhood snake scene was once again an improvisation by Chris Hemsworth.

Get Help scene
The ‘Get Help’ scene
Friend from work
“He’s a friend from work!”
Snake incident
The childhood snake incident

The next installment of the Thor series and the direct successor to Thor: Ragnarok is currently titled Thor: Love and Thunder. It is a part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe’s Phase Four and will be released on the 6th of May, 2022.  

The MCU: Phase Three

The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is a superhero media franchise of different types of media such as movies, television series, digital series among various others, produced and managed by Marvel Studios. They are based on the superhero comics produced by Marvel Comics. The MCU is a shared universe, i.e., all the superhero series take place in the same universe. This leads to different characters from different series crossing paths with each other, and different storylines affecting each other. Currently, the MCU has three complete phases: MCU Phase One, MCU Phase Two and MCU Phase Three. Each phase has its own set of movies. According to popular opinion, Phase Three is generally considered to be the best out of the three. It also marks the conclusion of the current MCU storyline. The current order of watching MCU Phase Three movies are:

  • Captain America: Civil War (2016)
  • Doctor Strange (2016)
  • Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 (2017)
  • Spider-Man: Homecoming (2017)
  • Thor: Ragnarok (2017)
  • Black Panther (2018)
  • Avengers: Infinity War (2018)
  • Ant-Man and the Wasp (2018)
  • Captain Marvel (2019)
  • Avengers: Endgame (2019)
  • Spider-Man: Far From Home (2019)

MCU Phase Three is filled with any excellent movies. Plot-wise, character-wise, action-wise and character-wise, each movie is a delight to watch. These three movies are the best of MCU Phase Three:

Thor: Ragnarok

Thor: Ragnarok

When Thor: Ragnarok was released, Marvel fans all over the world were surprised. While the two previous Thor movies had a serious tone, Thor: Ragnarok is filled with bright humor. It follows Thor and Loki as they, along with the Hulk and a new ally Valkyrie, try to save and reclaim their home Asgard from the forced rule of their estranged sister, Hela. The movie stars Chris Hemsworth as Thor, Tom Hiddleston as Loki, Mark Ruffalo as the Hulk, Tessa Thompson as Valkyrie and Cate Blanchett as Hela.

Captain Marvel

Captain Marvel

Captain Marvel’s release in 2019 marked the first standalone feature for a female hero in Marvel, with an entire movie dedicated to her. Captain Marvel follows the story of Vers, a Kree soldier who’s crash landing on Earth shakes up her entire world. Along with Nick Fury and her friend Maria Rambeau, she must now fight against those she once held dear, including her mentor Yon-Rogg, and goes on to become one of the strongest heroes in the galaxy. The movie stars Brie Larson as Carol Danvers, Sameul L. Jackson as Nick Fury, Lashana Lynch as Maria Rambeau and Jude Law as Yon-Rogg.

Avengers: Endgame

Avengers: Endgame

One of the most highly anticipated movies of the year, Avengers: Endgame was a direct sequel to Avengers: Infinity War, and continued immediately from where it concluded. Avengers: Endgame brings back the avengers and their allies, some old while some new, in a final glorious battle as they take their last stand against Thanos and attempt to restore the universe back to normal. The movie marks the conclusion of the ‘Infinity Saga’ of the MCU, along with character conclusion acts of a few important characters and opens up the next saga of the MCU.

Mirabai Chanu-Biography

From lifting firewood as a kid to being elevated onto international podiums, weightlifter Mirabai Chanu’s story is one of a remarkable rise.

Saikom Mirabi Chanu was born on 8 August 1994 in Nongpok Kakching, Imphal, Manipur, to a Sanamahi Meitei family, is an Indian weightlifter. Ending India’s 21-year wait for a weightlifting medal at the grandest stages of them,star weightlifter Mirabai opened the nation’s medal account in the ongoing Tokyo Olympics 2020 on Saturday. She won Silver medal at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics in Women’s 49kg, helping to secure India its 1st medal of the games. The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi has also congratulated Mirabai for bringing her silver medal from this event. Saying that “India is full of happiness debut and great performance”.

Career

Mirabai Cahnu sprung to International prominence at the age of 20, when she bagged the silver medal in the 48kg category at the 2014 Common Wealth Games in Scotland. Chanu qualified for the 2016 Rio Olympics in the women’s 48kg category. However, she failed to finish the event, owing to no successful lifts in any of her three attempts in the clean and jerk section. In 2017, she won the Gold medal in the women’s 48kg category by lifting a competition record 194kg in total (85kg snatch and 109kg clean and jerk) in the 2017 World Weightlifting Championships held at Anaheim, CA, United States. In 2021, Mirabai Chanu became the 1st and only women Indian weightlifter to qualify for the 2021 summer games by securing the 2nd position in the 49kg category. The 27 year old, lifted 86kg in snatch and then created the world record by lifting a massive 119 kg in the clean and the jerk, for a total of 250 kg, which won her Bronze medal and a ticket to Tokyo Olympics.

Chanu won the silver medal at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, becoming the 1st Indian weightlifter to win silver in Olympics, winning a silver medal in 49 kg weightlifting with a total of 202 kg. Chanu managed to lift a total of 202 kg in the women’s 49 kg category to become the second Indian weightlifter after Karnam Malleshwari to win an Olympic medal. A new Olympic record was registered by Mirabai Chanu with a successful lift of 115 kg in clean and jerk.

Awards and honor

  • Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, highest sporting honor of India. Chanu received this award in the year 2018.
  • Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award of India, Chanu received this award in 2018.

Rs.20 lakhs from the Government of Manipur for the gold medal in the 2017 World Weightlifting Champions.

For winning the silver medal at the 2020 Tokyo Summer Olympics

  • Rs. 50 lakhs from the Government of India.
  • Rs. 1 crore from the Government of Manipu.

After Norman Pritchard, Rajyvardhan Rathore, Sushil Kumar, Vijay Kumar and P.V Sindhu, Chanu is India’s 6th individual silver medalist at the Olympics. “I am very happy, I have been dreaming of this for the past five years. I am very proud of myself right now, I did try for Gold but even silver is a great achievement for me,” Chanu told reporters after her sensational performance at the Tokyo Olympics.

Conclusion

Talent and hard work together can get any person to success, working hard can lead you to success and that success can be more durable because practice makes person perfect. Hard work is the only key to achieving it, it teaches us discipline, dedication and determination. Saikom Mirabai Chanu is the perfect example for hard work and determination.

Friendship-The prefect bond

Friendship is one of the greatest bonds anyone can ever wish for. Lucky are those who have friends they can thrust. Friendship is a devoted relationship between two individuals. They both feel immense care and love for each other. Usually, a friendship is shared by two people who have similar interests and feelings.

The definition of a true friendship is someone who has your back, no matter what. They watch out for you and ensure you are not in danger. They will never purposely lead you into making decisions that aren’t good for you. a true friendship will always have your best interest at heart.

Friendship, a state of enduring affection, esteem, intimacy, and trust between two or few more people. It is recognized by both members of the relationship and is characterized by a bond or tie of reciprocated affection. It is not obligatory, two or four individuals choose to form a friendship with each other.

Friendship means familiar and liking of each other’s mind. People who are friends talk to each other and spend time together. They trust one another and also help each other when they are in trouble or are hurt. Friends are people that can be looked up to and trusted. Usually friends have similar interests.

Being able to have and confidence in your friend is one of the most important requirements of a strong relationship because true friendship means you are able to count on one another. Part of caring for a friend is honoring what they tell you, no matter the significance, with confidentially and respect.

Good friends are loyal and accept you for who you are during the good and bad times. Good friends are also honest, honest enough tell you when you’re not being a good friend yourself. Along with good friends who are present, loyal, and honest, most people want friends who are trustworthy.

A recent Harvard study concluded that having solid friendships in our life even helps promote brain health. Friends choices that keep us strong and allow us to rebound from health issues and disease more quickly. Friendship is also important to our mental health.

Mental health

The lack of friendship has been found to play a role in increasing risk of suicidal ideation among female adolescents, including having more friends who were not themselves friends with one another. However, no similar effect was observed for males. Having few or no friends is a major indicator in the diagnosis of a range of mental disorders. Higher friendships quality directly contributes to self-esteem, self-confidence, and social development. A world Happiness Database study found that people with close friendship did not increase happiness. Other studies have suggested that children who have friendships of a highly quality may be protected against the development of certain disorder, such a s anxiety and depression. Conversely, having few friends is associated with dropping out of school as well as aggression and adult crime. Peer rejection is also associated with lower later aspiration in the work force, and participation in social activities, while higher levels of friendship was associated with higher adult self-esteem.

friendship is in many respects a comfortable love relationship. Friendships involve as little or as much intimacy as the partners are inclined to express at any given time. Friends are not normally obligated to exchange benefits, but do so in ways that are often so natural as to be unwitting.

Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (Save the girl child, educate the girl child)

Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (Save the girl child, educate the girl child), Is a campaign of the government of India that aims to generate awareness and improve the efficiency of welfare services intended for girls in India. we can say that women were dis-empowered instead of being empowered. In order to empower women and give them their full rights,right from the birth the Government of India has launched this scheme. The scheme was launched with an initial funding of Rs.100 crore. It mainly targets the clusters in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarkhand, Punjab, Bihar and Delhi.

Reasons for this initiative

The reduction of in the female population of certain Indian states continues to worsen, as result of the 2011 national census have shown. After the birth of a girl child, she has to face another type of discrimination in terms of education, health, nutrition safety, rights and other needs of the girl child. It has been observed that the trends is most pronounced in relatively prosperous regions of India. The dowry system in India is often blamed, the expectation that a large dowry must be provided for daughters in order for them to marry is frequently cited as a major cause for the problem. Pressure for parents to provide large dowries for their daughters is most intense in prosperous states where high standards of living and modern consumerism, are more prevalent in Indian society. Rates of female foeticide in Madhya Pradesh are increasing, the rate of livebirths was 932 girls per 1000 boys in 2001, which dropped to 918 by 2011. It is expected that if this trend continues by 2021 the number of girls will drop below 900 per 1000 boys.

Support

The Government of India has formed a National Executive Committee to promote Beti Bachao Beti Padao (BBBP) across the country. The committee is organizing a number of programs to promote “Save Girl Child” and “To Educate Girl Child” since January 2015. Dr.Rajendra Phadke is the National Convener of BBBP Abhiyan. The BBBP is also supported by the Indian Medical Association.

Effectiveness

The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) reported that the scheme failed to meet its objectives. As per the CAG data, the sex ratio has deteriorated in many districts of Haryana and Punjab. According to the report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development only Rs.5 crore of a total of Rs.43 crore allotted for the scheme in the financial year 2016-2017 was properly used. As per the government data, more than 56% of funds were spent on publicity from 2014-2015 to 2018-19. Less than 25% of the funds were released to districts and states, and the government did not release more than 19 percent of the funds. Minister of state Ministry of Women and Child Development. Virendra Kumar Khatik, claimed that the sex ratio in 53 put of 161 districts under the scheme declined between 2014-15 and 2016-17. According to experts, the scheme’s minimal success is due to the government’s inability to release funds efficiently and its disproportionate focus on publicity rather than making initiatives in the health and education sectors.

Let’s all join our hands together and save a girl child and educate a girl child.

MCU Phase Two’s Top Three Movies

The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is a superhero media franchise of different types of media such as movies, television series, digital series among various others, produced and managed by Marvel Studios. They are based on the superhero comics produced by Marvel Comics. The MCU is a shared universe, i.e., all the superhero series take place in the same universe. This leads to different characters from different series crossing paths with each other, and different storylines affecting each other. Currently, the MCU has three complete phases: MCU Phase One, MCU Phase Two and MCU Phase Three. Each phase has its own set of movies. The watching order of MCU Phase Two movies are:

  • Iron Man 3 (2013)
  • Thor: The Dark World (2013)
  • Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014)
  • Guardians of the Galaxy (2014)
  • Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015)
  • Ant-Man (2015)

Without further ado, here is MCU’s Phase Two’s top three movies:

Guardians of the Galaxy

Guardians of the Galaxy

If the Earth has the Avengers, outer space has the Guardians of the Galaxy. Peter Quill, an intergalactic smuggler, Gamora, an assassin by trade, bounty hunter Rocket, a genetically-engineered racoon and his partner Groot, a tree-like humanoid along with Drax, a warrior all find themselves brought together by a mysterious Orb. This unlikely rag-tag group must then team up together to prevent the tyrannical war criminal Ronan from obtaining the orb to prevent the whole galaxy from being destroyed. The movie stars Chris Pratt as Peter Quill, Gamora as Zoe Saldanha, Rocket Bradley Cooper as Rocket, Dave Bautista as Drax, Vin Diesel as Groot, and Lee Pace as Ronan. Each of the actors have put up a splendid performance. The movie is peppered with humor, a signature of the Guardians of the Galaxy series; even in its serious moments, however, it never feels forced or out of place. The movie is enjoyable from start to finish and has you rooting for this found family.

Ant -Man

Ant -Man

Released in 2015, Ant-Man is the story of a fugitive turned superhero. The story follows Scott Lang, recently released from prison, who after numerous failed jobs, breaks into the house of a scientist Hank Pym. Instead of finding any valuables, he finds a suit which is able to shrink him in size. Now scared, he attempts to flee but is arrested and then broken out by none other than Hank Pym. Scott, along with Hank and his daughter Hope van Dyne finds himself in a plot to commit the heist of the Yellowjacket, a similar suit made by Pym’s protégé Darren Cross and prevent it from being sold to the criminal group Hydra. The movie stars Paul Rudd as Scott Lang / Ant-Man, Evangeline Lily as Hope van Dyne, Michael Douglas as Hank Pym and Corey Stoll as Darren Cross. The movie is fun to watch, with both hilarious as well as heartfelt moments, and Paul Rudd’s portrayal of Scott Lang is stunning.

Captain America: The Winter Soldier

Captain America: The Winter Soldier

Set two years after the events of The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier explores Steve Rogers acclimatizing to life in the modern world, when he gets entangled in a conspiracy theory involving S.H.I.E.L.D. Along with Nick Fury, S.H.I.E.L.D.’s director, the Black Widow Natasha Romanoff and the Falcon Sam Wilson, he must unearth the secret that threatens S.H.I.E.LD. along with a mysterious assassin known as the Winter Soldier with a connection to his past. The movie stars Chris Evans as Steve Rogers, Samuel L. Jackson as Nick Fury, Scarlet Johansson as Black Widow and Anthony Mackie as Sam Wilson. The movie has very good action scenes and the plot always keeps you guessing as to what comes next.

THE MODERN TECHNOLOGY-GOOD AND BAD EFFECTS

Technology, the application of scientific knowledge to the practical aims of human life, or as it is sometimes phrased, to change and manipulation of the human environment. Technology is the sum of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques processes and the like or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system’ use and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.

History

The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of modern humans. Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history. Approximately 50,000 years ago, the use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of the fully modern language.

Is technology good or bad

These days it’s trendy to talk about technology as if it were purely a bad thing. After all, we’ve got companies violating our privacy and harvesting our data without being transparent about what they’re doing, tools like personal assistants recording us without our knowledge and regular breaches that put our personal information at risk. The same tools we’re concerned about can also makes our lives better from connecting doctors more quickly than ever to patient data to digital bus routes that make transport more efficient. Technology on it’s own isn’t bad or a good thing, it’s how it’s used that matters.

The evolution of technology is beneficial to humans for several reasons. At the medical level, technology can help treat more sick people and consequently save many lives and combat very harmful viruses and bacteria. Technology has also increased the productivity of almost every industry in the world.

Modern technology is used for many lifestyles conveniences from our smartphones to our vehicles, but it’s also saving lives every second by advancing our medical science. Technology allows the world’s most state-of-the-art hospitals to catch and treat diseases faster and more efficient than ever.

Technology reduces the cost of doing much of the work. The lower cost of production helps to increase the profit margin, which is essential in eradicating poverty. Technology opens up doors for new opportunities to do business or work. In turn, it increases the household incomes among the poor population.

Social media and mobile devices may lead to psychological and physical issues, such as eyestrain and difficulty focusing on important tasks. They may also contribute to more serious health conditions, such as depression. The overuse of technology may have a more significant impact on developing children and teenagers.

Technology addiction falls into a category of addiction termed behavioral addictions. Behavioral addictions are widely recognized by mental health and addiction professionals and include other behaviors such as gambling etc.

Conclusion

Technology has made our society make it to the point of ignorance to the fact that there might be a day when our technology does not work and they cannot at the moment live without it.We have grown to rely on our technology to make our lives easier.

The MCU Phase One and its Top 3 Movies

The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is a superhero media franchise of different types of media such as movies, television series, digital series among various others, produced and managed by Marvel Studios. They are based on the superhero comics produced by Marvel Comics. The MCU is a shared universe, i.e., all the superhero series take place in the same universe. This leads to different characters from different series crossing paths with each other, and different storylines affecting each other. Currently, the MCU has three complete phases: MCU Phase One, MCU Phase Two and MCU Phase Three. Each phase has its own set of movies. The current order of watching MCU Phase One movies are:

  • Iron Man (2008)
  • The Incredible Hulk (2008)
  • Iron Man 2 (2010)
  • Thor (2011)
  • Captain America: The First Avenger (2011)
  • Marvel’s The Avengers (2012)

Without further ado, here is MCU’s Phase One’s top three movies:

Marvel’s The Avengers

The Avengers

First in ranking is The Avengers; the culmination of MCU Phase One. It features a dream team of super heroes comprising of Iron Man, the Hulk, Thor, Captain America, Black Widow and Hawkeye, as they work to prevent Thor’s younger brother Loki, along with an alien race known as the Chitauri from taking control over the Earth. The cast comprises of Robert Downey Jr. as Iron Man, Mark Ruffalo as the Hulk, Chris Hemsworth as Thor, Chris Evans as Captain America, Scarlett Johansson as Black Widow, Jeremy Renner as Hawkeye and Tom Hiddleston as Loki. It is directed by Joss Whedon.

Thor

Thor

Released in 2011, Thor follows the story of Asgardian prince Thor, who after an unsuccessful and arrogant attack on the neighboring realm of Jotunheim, gets stripped of his powers and banished from his home realm of Asgard to the realm of Midgard, otherwise known as Earth. He meets and befriends humans, and learns how to act with humility and re-discover himself, all the while as a sinister plot enacted by his younger brother Loki involving Jotunheim looms in the background. The movie stars Chris Hemsworth as Thor, Tom Hiddleston as Loki and Natalie Portman as Jane Foster, a scientist and Thor’s potential love interest. It is directed by Kenneth Branagh.

Captain America: The First Avenger

Captain America

Captain America: The First Avenger is set during the Second World War. The movie follows the journey of a young, weak man named Steve Rogers. He, along with his childhood friend James ‘Bucky’ Barnes decides to enlist in the American military. His weak physiology and health however ends up being a reason for him to be rejected. His unwavering resolve to serve his country during the wartime sees him becoming a volunteer to become an enhanced ‘super-soldier’. He then finds himself in conflict with Hydra, a Nazi science division and their leader, Red Skull. The movie stars Chris Evans as Captain America-Steve Rogers, Sebastian Stan as his childhood friend and later fellow comrade-in-arms James ‘Bucky’ Barnes and Hayley Atwell as Peggy Carter, an officer attached to the Strategic Scientific Reserve and Hugo Weaving as Red Skull.

Music

Music is a pleasant sound which is a combination of melodies and harmony and which soothes you. Music may also refer to the art of composing such pleasant sounds with the help of the various musical instruments. A person who knows music is a musician. The music consists of Sargam, Ragas, Taals etc. The music is not only what is composed of men but also which exists in nature. Have you heard the sound of a waterfall or a flowering river? Could you hear music there? Thus, everything in harmony has music. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, one of the greatest musicians, quoted “The music is not in the notes, but in the silence between”.

Importance of music

Music has great qualities of healing a person emotionally and mentally. Music is a form of meditation. While composing or listening music one tends to forget all his/her worries, sorrows and pains. But, in order to appreciate good music, we need to cultivate our musical taste. It can be cited that in the Dwapar Yug, the Gopis would get mesmerized with the music that flowed from Lord Krishna’s flute. They would surrender themselves to Him. Also, the research has proved that the plants which hear the music grow at a faster rate in comparison to the others.

Magical powers of music

It has a power to cure diseases such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, etc. The power of music can be testified by the legends about Tansen of his bringing the rains by singing Raag Megh Malhar and lighting lamps by Raga Deepak. It also helps in improving the concentration and is thus of great help to the students.

Music and brain health

Music seems to find re-routed paths and that is why it is such a useful tool in terms of helping people with different kinds of brain damage because it can help find new pathways in terms of brain functioning. Th reward system of the brain is highly associated with music. One specific rain formation. known as the striatum discharges substance called Dopamine in reaction to pleasure-related stimulating elements. The processing of music in the brain is done differently, than any other stimulating elements making it important for researchers to understand the effects of music on the brain.

Music therapy

Music therapy an allied health profession, is the clinical and evidence-based use ofmusic interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. Music therapy is a broad field. Music therapists use music-based experiences to address client needs in one or more domains of human functioning cognitive, academic, emotional/physiological, spiritual aesthetics. Music experience are strategically designed to utilize the elements of music for therapeutic effects, including melody, harmony, key mode, meter, rhythm, pitch/range, duration, timbre form, texture and instrumentation.

Evidence suggests that music therapy is beneficial for all individuals both physically and mentally. Benefits of music therapy include improved heart rate, reduced anxiety, stimulation of the brain and improved learning. Music therapists use their techniques to help their patients in many areas, ranging from stress relief before and after surgeries to neuropathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease.One study found that children who listened to music while having an IV inserted into their arms showed less distress and felt less pain than the children who did not listen to music while having an IV inserted. Studies on patients diagnosed with mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression have shown a visible improvements in their mental health after music therapy.

Conclusion

Music may cause you feel joyful, sad, anger, hyped up, relaxed etc and sometimes you can feel more than one emotion during a song. As research shows music not only affects what kind of mood we may be in, but also seem to have a habit of choosing music based on the moods we are already feeling.

Technology and the Environment

How technology can play a role with respect to the environment:

The development of various types of technology in today’s time has given rise to more convenience and efficiency. Technology can be used to properly understand and address important challenges like climate change, degradation of the environment, scarcity of food, management of waste, along with other important global issues and challenges. Data can be consolidated and stored in various information systems online in the form of comprehensive portals. These portals can then be accessed by academicians, scientists, students, environmentalists, and anyone else as they need it. These expansive databases can cover a variety of areas such as wildlife conservation databases, marine flora databases, forest cover databases and the like.

A few technology systems which can be used for the betterment of the environment are:

  • Remote Sensing
  • Google Earth
  • Geographical Information System (GIS)
  • The World Wide Web
  • The database ENVIS: Environmental Information System

Remote Sensing

Remote sensing

Remote Sensing refers to obtaining information of a place from a distance. In this process, the physical characteristics of an area are detected and further monitored through the measurement of its reflected and emitted radiation. This is carried out with the help of remote sensors on satellites. A few applications of remote sensing are:

  • Finding out temperature changes in the ocean and air
  • Tracking changes in forested land
  • Making weather predictions

Google Earth

Google Earth

Google Earth is a map which gives three-dimensional views of the earth with the assistance of satellite imaging and other types of aerially conducted photography. Presently, Google Earth covers around 98% of the earth’s surface. Google earth doesn’t just cover land but also water. Through the use of Google Earth, it is possible to view below the surface of marine bodies and view the ocean floor by the method of bathymetry (study of the underwater depth of an ocean or lake floor).

Geographical Information System (GIS)

Geographical Information System (GIS)

The Geographical Information System is a spatial system which creates, manages, analyzes, organizes and maps different types of geographic data. Using the GIS software, it is possible to visually analyze a large volume of data. Through the usage of GIS, it is possible to bring together and integrate information from varying sources of information and have efficient data distribution and management. It can be used efficiently for Environmental Impact Assessment.

The World Wide Web (WWW)

World Wide Web (WWW)

The WWW is a collection of many electronic documents of varying types. It provides various types of resources about the environment, from journal reports and articles to animations and is available to a wide variety of people, right from students, to scientists to government officials. It provides, free, convenient, accessible, evolving and the latest information.

Database: ENVIS

ENVIS

ENVIS is a database known as the Environmental Information System. It was created by the Indian Ministry of Environment & Forests in 1983. Its goal is to collect environmental information, along with its subsequent organization, storage, recovery and distribution. The role of ENVIS is to provide people like policy makers, researchers and the like with environmental information.

Kahaani: A Review

Kahaani was released on the 9th of March, 2012. It is a thriller movie. It is directed by Sujoy Ghosh and stars Vidya Balan, Parambrata Chatterjee and Nawazuddin Siddiqui in titular roles. The original plot of the movie has come from the director, Sujoy Ghosh himself. He has co-written the script along with Advaita Kala. Set in Kolkata against the backdrop of the Durga Pooja, the film’s story follows the search Vidya Bagchi (played by Vidya Balan), a pregnant woman carries out in search of her missing husband, with the assistance of Kolkata police officer Satyoki ‘Rana’ Sinha (played by Parambrata Chatterjee) and Intelligence Bureau agent Khan (played by Nawazuddin Siddiqui).

Kahaani is a very well-written movie. The story never becomes dull, and keeps you guessing right until the end. The plot twists and turns continuously, right until its shocking climax amid the Durga Pooja celebrations. All the characters have substance to them and make their presence felt in the plot, right from the main cast to the supporting cast. Vidya Balan has been amazing in her portrayal of the protagonist, Vidya Bagchi, seeming to effortlessly capture her strength and vulnerability. The character who will steal your heart, however, is none other than Satyoki ‘Rana’ Sinha. Parambrata Chatterjee has portrayed the kind and innocent police officer effortlessly. Nawazuddin Siddiqui has been perfect as the no-nonsense, ruthless Khan; with him giving a very raw performance. Saswata Chatterjee has given a wonderful performance as the chilling Bob Biswas.

The movie has been shot exclusively in Kolkata. Most of its cast is comprised of local Bengali actors. The director Sujoy Ghosh has expertly made a natural use of the topography and people of Kolkata to give the scenes a more authentic by employing the use of guerilla filmmaking. The filmography has been praised by multiple critics and movie-goers, to the point that some consider even Kolkata the city as a character in the movie.

Kahaani was a box office success. Produced on a budget of 80 million Rupees, it went on to earn a worldwide earning of around 1.04 billion Rupees after a fifty-day cinema run. The movie was praised by multiple critics for its refreshing storyline, fleshed out characters, as well as, use of the city of Kolkata in furthering the narrative. The movie, along with its director and cast has been nominated for various awards. Vidya Balan, in particular, earned may awards due to her stunning portrayal of Vidya Bagchi. The film has in total won twenty-eight awards. In the 58th Filmfare Awards, it won five out of six awards it was nominated in. Sujoy Ghosh and Vidya Balan have won multiple Best Director and Best Lead Actress awards respectively for their performance in the movie. In the 60th National Film Awards, it won Sujoy Ghosh Best Screenplay (Original), Namrata Rao Best Editing and Nawazuddin Siddiqui a Special Jury Award.

Kahaani has a ‘spiritual’ sequel in the form of the 2016 released Kahaani 2: Durga Rani Singh. In 2020, a spin-off of the movie, named Bob Biswas, was announced.

LEARNING TO RELAX….TAKE A MINI VACATION

During the planning of upcoming summer vacation, we all realize how stressed we are with our work and personal life. Not knowing how we could possibly find the time to relax without worrying about everything else in the world that will be going on at home while we’re gone, I did some research to pull together some tips for relaxing vacation.

In order to be able to take a relaxing vacation, you will want to make sure that all your affairs are in order at home, and that your trip is planned out perfectly with no oversights. During your actual trip, you can plan peaceful activities and practice relaxation techniques to keep yourself on track. The main idea of a relaxing vacation is to take away all distractions that will remind you of any stress that you might have left behind. To achieve this, you will need to limit the use of electronic devices, and set the majority of your time to the side in order to find peace and relaxation by yourself during your trip.

For busy workaholics, it can be very difficult to even find the time to take a vacation all for yourself, or better yet being able to actually relax while you are there. With endless phone calls and emails to attend to, taking the time to enjoy your travels might seem like the least of your worries. If you are trying to plan the ultimate vacation where you can allow yourself to completely relax and distress, keep reading this quick guide for how you can achieve this on your next trip. In this article, lets see all the bases when it comes to vacations, from relaxation techniques to planning and even saving money.

How to relax on vacation

  • Take time off of work.
  • Get rid of your electronics.
  • Keep yourself focused on relaxing.
  • Leave some of your schedule open.
  • Occupy yourself with fun activities.
  • Plan lots of relaxing activities, too.
  • Bounce back to your normal schedule toward the end.

The first thing that you will need to do in order to have any hope of a relaxing vacation is to take time off of work. This will include notifying your workplace that you will not be there for a specified amount of time, with an advanced written notice if necessary. In doing this, you should be very clear with your supervisor or business partners that you will not be available to do any work during your vacation. Often times, other people will get the wrong idea about what you really mean when you tell them that you are taking time off of work. To avoid any confused calls from work while you are relaxing on the beach, it is best to let everyone know right away what your going on.

While your on a trip, it is wise to get rid of your electronics a s much as possible. Of course, you will need your smartphone throughout the day to be able to make calls and get directions, but you should not be using it when it is not absolutely necessary. If you have direct access to your text messages and emails at the tip of you fingers all day, you will be tempted to check business when you really shouldn’t be.

To distract yourself from wanting to check your electronics, you should put all your focus in to relaxing during your vacation. This means that if the thought of work or personal matters start to creep into your mind, you must keep yourself on the right track instead of entertaining these urges.

When it comes to what you will actually be doing on your vacation, you should leave some of your schedule open in order to give yourself time to relax. Sometimes when you are extremely stressed out, the only thing that you need is to lay on the beach or take a nap in your giant hotel bed.

For a period of time where you are not busy doing nothing, you can occupy yourself with a few fun activities in the city that you are travelling to. These activities can be anything from guided tours to hikes or sitting down at a restaurant. Basically anything that you plan to participate in can also help you relax at the same time that they are entertaining you. For instance, you can book a trip to the spa or get an in-room massage that might b offered by the hotel you are staying at.

When you are coming toward the end of your relaxing vacation, you will want to ease back into your normal schedule instead of abruptly ending the habits that you have established on your trip. After all, nobody wants to get used to sleeping in until noon every day for a week and then waking up the next day at 7 to jump out of bed and go right back to work. This is especially true when you are travelling outside of the country and have gotten used to any time difference between each location.

In order to slowly bounce back to your normal schedule, you can start to gradually wake up earlier as you get closer to your day of departure. This way, your body will be well rested and ready for anything once you return home.

Sustainable Development: An Overview

The Concept of Sustainable Development

The term ‘Sustainable Development’ was created in 1987 by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). The creation Sustainable Development is a concept in which human society lives in such a way it meets its own present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to come to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is achieved when there is a healthy balance between environment sustainability, social sustainability and economic sustainability. Environment sustainability focuses on continued environmental quality. Social sustainability focuses on human rights, equality, cultural identity, cultural diversity, and rights and equality of people belonging to different races and religions. Economic sustainability focuses on the maintenance of human, natural and social capital which is needed for proper standards of living and income. A balance between all three, ensuring that no other factor is imbalanced or ignored, is what brings about true sustainable development. According to the concept of sustainable development, the regeneration or creation of a resource must be greater than its degeneration or usage. Sustainable development ensures that biodiversity is maintained and preserved.

A few examples of methods and activities which can contribute to sustainable development are:

  • Crop rotation
  • Using wind energy
  • Using solar energy
  • Creating green spaces

Components of Sustainable Development:

As mentioned previously, sustainable development has three components: Environmental sustainability, Social sustainability and Economical sustainability. A few ways they can be achieved are:

Environmental Sustainability:

  • Practice the 3Rs- Reduce, Reuse and Recycle
  • Reduction of emissions released into the environment
  • Reduction or elimination of substances toxic to the environment

Social Sustainability:

  • Ensuring health and safety of local populace
  • Helping out disadvantaged or sidelined communities to progress
  • Improving the basic quality of life everyone should have
  • Ensuring that there is no negative effect or impact on small communities, tribal groups and the like

Economical Sustainability:

  • Creating new markets
  • Creating new sale growth opportunities
  • Improving efficiency
  • Reducing the quantity of raw materials required
  • Implementing cost reduction techniques of various kinds

 Goals for Sustainable Development:

UN Sustainable Goals

In 2015, the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This agenda consists of seventeen sustainable development goals to be met by the year 2030. They are:

  1. No poverty– Extreme poverty for everyone will be eradicated
  2. Zero hunger– End hunger, end malnutrition and make food available to everyone
  3. Good health and well-being– Ensuring healthy lives and well-being of people across all age groups
  4. Quality education– Ensure that all children have access to free and quality primary and secondary education
  5. Gender equality– Empower women and girls and ensure they have fair and equal rights
  6. Clean water and sanitization– Ensuring clean and accessible drinking water to everyone
  7. Affordable and clean energy– Ensure universal access to affordable, modern energy and increase amount of renewable energy in use
  8. Decent work and economic growth– Creating job opportunities and decent jobs, along with achieving higher levels of economic productivity
  9. Industry, innovation and infrastructure– Developing reliable and sustainable infrastructure for all
  10. Reduced inequalities– Empower and promote inclusion of everyone
  11. Sustainable cities and communities– Ensure access of everyone to decent and affordable transport along with improving living conditions of the poor
  12. Responsible production and consumption– Implement sustainable management of resources and promoting the 3Rs
  13. Climate action– Ensure that climate change measures are brought to the forefront
  14. Life below water– Ensure the conservation of marine life and resources and ensure their sustainability
  15. Life on land– Ensure restoration and conservation of biodiversity, ecosystems and degraded land
  16. Peace and justice– Reduce all sorts of violence, end all sorts of violence and injustice towards children and ensure equal access to justice for everyone
  17. Partnerships for the goal– Strengthen support and co-operation among all countries at the international, national or regional level

ENVIRONMENT

Environment means anything that surround us. It can be living (biotic) or non-living (abiotic) things. It includes physical,chemical and other natural forces. Living things live in their environment. They constantly interact with it and adapt themselves to conditions in their environment. In the environment there are different interactions between animals, plants, soil, water and other living and non-living things.

Since everything is part of the environment of something else, the word environment is used to talk about many things. People in different fields of knowledge use the word environment differently. Electromagnetic environment is radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation and magnetic fields. The environment of galaxy refers to conditions of interstellar medium. In psychology and medicine, a person’s environment is the people, physical things and places that the person lives with. The environment affects the growth and development of the person. It affects the person’s , body, mind and heart. The living conditions of living organisms in an environment are affected by the weather or climate changes in the environment.

Importance of environment

we truly cannot understand the real worth of the environment. But we can estimate some of its importance. Environment plays an important role in healthy living and the existence of life on planet earth. Earth is a home for different living species and we all are dependent on the environment on the environment for food, air, water and other needs. Therefore, it is important for every individual to save and protect our environment. The entire life support of humans depends wholly on the environmental factors. It also helps in maintaining various life cycles on earth. Most importantly, our environment is the source of natural beauty and is necessary for maintaining physical and mental health.

Impact of human activities on the environment

In order to meet the basic needs of increases population, the present society has under taken a series of steps like rapid industrialization, unplanned urbanization, over-exploitation of natural sources, etc. There are different types of human activities which are directly attributed to the environmental disasters, which include acid rain, acidification of oceans, change in the climate, deforestation, depletion of an ozone layer, disposal of hazardous wastes, global warming, overpopulation, pollution etc.

Benefits of the environment

The environment gives us countless benefits that we can’t repay our entire life. As they are connected with the forest, tress, animals, water and air. The forests and tress filter the air and absorb harmful gases. Plants purify water, reduce the chances of flood maintain natural balance and many others. Moreover, the environment keeps a close check on the environment and its functioning, it regulates the vital systems that are essential for the ecosystem. Besides, it maintains the culture and quality of life on earth. The environment regulates various natural cycles that happen daily. These cycles help in maintaining the natural balance between living things and the environment.

Disturbance of these things can ultimately affect the life cycle of humans and other living beings. The environment that helped us and other living beings to flourish and grow from thousands of years. The environment provides u fertile land, water, air, livestock and many essential things for survival.

UNEMPLOYMENT CRISIS IN INDIA

Amidst all the problems that exist in India, the unemployment crisis is at the topmost position. A report by Center for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) reveals India’s unexpected increased unemployment rate to 24% in April 2020, then decreasing to 9.1% in December 2020 and 6% in January 2021. Thus impacted as many as around 90 lakh people losing jobs during the worldwide COVID-19 lockdown. The number of unemployed people might have deceased over the period, but unemployment still remains an unsolved problem in India.

Problems caused due to unemployment

Unemployment and poverty goes side by side. The problem of unemployment gives rise to the problem of poverty. Young people after a long time of unemployment find the wrong way to earn money. To get rid from the unemployment stress, they accept alcohol or drugs. The personal and social costs of unemployment include severe financial hardship and poverty, debt, homeless and housing stress, family tensions and breakdown, boredom, alienation, shame and stigma, increased social isolation, crime, erosion of confidence an self-esteem, the atrophying of work skills and ill-health.

Haryana- The highest unemployment rate in India.

Haryana recorded the highest unemployment rate in India, as per the data released by the Center for Monitoring Indian Economy for February 2021. With a 26.4% unemployment rate. Haryana’s unemployment is nearly four times the national average. The spike in the unemployment rate comes after the state saw a considerable dip in the jobless figures in January 2021. In January, the unemployment came down to 17.7% from over 32% in December 2020. Economists and industries have attributed this to extreme volatility in the market.

Types of unemployment crisis in India:

  • Disguised unemployment: When organizations hire employees more than they need.
  • Structural unemployment: When employees skill set mismatch with their jobs roles due to the unavailability of jobs in the market.
  • Seasonal unemployment: When people do not have work during certain seasons of the year, like labourer in India rarely earn through daily wage jobs throughout the year.
  • Technological unemployment: It is when people lose their jobs due to technological advancements. Example- manual processes replaced by digital and automation.
  • Cyclical unemployment: When a massive number of employees are removed from the organization during recessions.
  • Frictional unemployment: When people are unemployed for a short period while searching for a new job or switching between jobs. The reason for this type of unemployment is not a shortage of jobs, instead the employees themselves quit their jobs in search of better job opportunities.

Major causes and impact of unemployment

  • Large population-India has crossed 1,389,456,823 population already with only $1,877 per capital income.
  • Low or no educational levels-As per NSO’s report, India’s average literacy rate is 77.7%. The sad part is, almost 2 million graduates and half a million postgraduates are still unemployed in India.
  • Low employment skills.Around 47% of graduates in India are not suitable for any kind of job role.
  • Job opportunity and skills mismatch-According to a report, 48% of urban youth face the problem of landing a suitable job, 38% of those who are employed are dissatisfied with their current job.
  • Societal responsibilities for women-Only 19.9% of educated women in India are employed, as many of them are graduates but have to get married right after their graduation, others quit jobs due to family responsibilities or pregnancy and maternity gap.

Solutions to unemployment

  • Education-For every problem in the world,education stands as the strongest solution. Education is the basic right of any citizen and it should be provided with minimum fees. Right from equal educational facilities, to skill-based and computer knowledge, the educational system can and should be improved.
  • Career guidance-Job seekers who are educated but could not figure the right career path should consult a career guidance expert. Every industry has numerous career opportunities but Indian workers lack complete awareness about the same. A career guidance expert can help job seekers understand the industry know-how, zero down on the best career option and choose the right career path for them.
  • Skill-based training-Every job role requires a specific skill set and every job seeker should get trained in those skills. Many EdTech startups provide career guidance with industry, job or company-specific training to hone organizational skills. These skills training sessions also include resume through mock interviews and everything that can help job seekers become employable.

Laugh Your Stress Away With These TV Shows

The current pandemic has been very stressful for many people around the world. Uncertainties in employment, increased job stress, academic stress and worry about the spread of the coronavirus and contracting the disease have been a few worries plaguing the minds of many people across the globe. Too much of stress and worrying is bad for both the physical well-being of the body and mental health of the psyche.

It is important to occasionally take a step back from the various problems and worries in life and destress. What better way to do it than with some laughter? The saying ‘Laughter is the Best Medicine’ is actually more than just that. Some of the benefits of laughter are:

  • It is a mood booster– Laughing releases endorphins. Endorphins are hormones which are responsible for the feeling of happiness and pleasure. The more a person laughs, the more endorphins get produced, which consequently lead to more happiness
  • It protects the body from effects of stress– When you laugh, your body’s stress response gets activated and then gets reduced. This causes a increase and subsequent decrease in the blood pressure and the heart rate
  • It gives a boost to the immune system– Prolonged stress and tension can compromise the immune system. Laughter decreases its effects thus strengthening your immune system
  • It protects the heart– Laughing lowers blood pressure, increases blood flow and improves the functioning of blood vessels.

Laugh your way to good health with these five American sitcoms:

Friends

Promotional visual for Friends

No list of the best American sitcoms would be complete without this iconic series. ‘Friends’ narrates the story of a group of six friends – Monica Geller, Rachel Green, Phoebe Buffay, Joey Tribbiani, Chandler Bing and Ross Geller. The series follows their daily ups and downs. The series ran for a decade- from 1994 to 2004. Although some of the jokes and situations may be lost to a lack of relevancy in current times, the humorous situations the characters go through will make you laugh out loud.

Brooklyn Nine-Nine

Promotional visual for Brooklyn Nine-Nine

Ever thought that a comedy cop series couldn’t exist? Brooklyn Nine-Nine is here to prove you wrong! As the name suggests, it’s based in the fictional 99th precinct of Brooklyn, as follows the daily lives of a group of New York Police Department personnel. The shenanigans they get into will have you in stitches the whole time! Season 8, which will also be the final season, comes out on the 12th of August, you might want to catch up on the story till then!

Modern Family

Promotional visual for Modern Family

Tired of seeing dramatic family soap operas? Itching for a family-based show with laughter, heartfelt moments and light-heartedness? Give Modern Family a chance. The show follows the life of the families of Jay Pritchett, his daughter Claire Dunphy and his son Mitchell Pritchett. The show is filmed in a mockumentary style, which further enhances its comedic value.

The Big Bang Theory

Promotional visual for The Big Bang Theory

Love science? Love comedy too? Don’t worry, the Big Bang Theory’s got you covered! This sitcom is centered around five friends- physicists Sheldon Cooper and Leonard Hofstadter, their neighbor Penny who is an aspiring actress and their co-workers, astrophysicist Raj Koothrappali and aerospace engineer Howard Wolowitz and the various humorous situations they experience with each other, their co-workers and other friends.

Young Sheldon

Promotional visual for Young Sheldon

Couldn’t get enough of the Big Bang Theory? Loved Sheldon? Did you want to know more about him and want to see more of him? Watch Young Sheldon! The series is a spin-off acting as a prequel to The Big Bang Theory. The show is a narration of Sheldon about his life as a kid. Follow the hilarious interactions of the child genius and socially inept Sheldon Cooper as he tries to navigate the world!

SUPERSTITION AND INDIA

Superstition refers to any belief or practice that is caused by supernatural causality, and which contradicts modern science. Superstition beliefs and practices often vary from one person to another or from one culture to another, ranging from harmless practices such as lemon-and-chili totems in order to ward off the evil eye to harmful acts like witch-burning. Superstitions have two main causes: cultural tradition and individual experiences. If you grew up steeped in the superstitions of a particular culture or religion, you may carry these beliefs forward, even subconsciously.

Psychologists who have investigated what role superstitions play have found that they derive from the assumption that a connection exists between co-occurring non-related events. For instance, the notion that charms promote good luck, or protect you from bad luck. Superstitions are usually attributed to lack of education. However, this has not always been the case in India, as there are many educated people with beliefs considered superstitions by the public. Being part of religion and tradition practices have been passed down from one generation to another for centuries. The Indian Government has tried to put new laws prohibiting such practices into effect. Due to the rich history of superstitions, these laws often face a lot of opposition from the general public.

Past supersitions

  • Sati system – Sati is the act or custom of a Hindu widow burning herself or being burned to death on the funeral pyre of her husband. After watching Sati of his own sister-in-law, Ram Mohan Roy began campaigning for abolition of the practice in 1811. The practice of Sati was abolished by Governor General Lord William Bentinck in British India. On October 1 1987, the legislative assembly of Rajasthan passed an ordinance against Sati which was later turned into an Act. On 3 January 1988, the Indian parliament passed a new law ( Commission Prevention of Sati Act 1987 )based on Rajasthan’s legislation of 1987.
  • Human sacrifice – Although human sacrifice are not prevalent in India, rare isolated incidents do happen, especially in rural areas. In some cases, human have bee replaced by animals and birds. This has caused backlash from animal rights groups, so in some places they have again been replaced by human affigies. The motives behind these sacrifices include inducing rainfall and helping childless women conceive. It is alleged that cases often go unreported or are covered up. Between 1999 and 2006, about 200 cases of child sacrifices were reported from Uttar Pradesh.

Common Superstitions

  • Itchy palm: Good luck – There are many variations on this superstition. But the idea of having an itchy palm generally refers to someone who is greedy or has an insatiable desire for money. Some believe that if the right palm itches you will meet someone new, while an itchy left palm means that money is coming. Others tell that an itchy right palm means money coming in and a left handed itch foretells money going out.
  • Breaking a mirror – Many superstitions people say that breaking a mirror sets you up for 7 years of bad luck. That may be because 7 years is the time it takes to replace all the cells in your physical body. In a more superstitions time, mirrors were thought to be reflections of the soul. So breaking a mirror was believed to be harmful to the soul.
  • Black cats: Bad luck – This superstitions is a tough one for cats lovers to swallow, but in the middle ages it was thought that witched kept black cats as companions.

Conclusion

A superstition is an irrational fear of what is unknown or mysterious, especially in connection with religion. Being too superstitious is opposite of being materialistic and realistic. It is the belief that certain events bring good or bad luck which cannot be explained by reason or science. In short, superstitions means blind belief.

POLLUTION

Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants. Pollutants can be natural, such as volcanic ash. They can also be created by human activity, such as trash or runoff produced by factories. Pollutants damage the quality of air, water and land.

7 types of pollution

  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • Land pollution
  • Radioactive pollution
  • Thermal pollution
  • Light pollution
  • Sound pollution

Air Pollution

Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust pollen and mold spores may be suspended as particles. Ozone, a gas is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution it’s also called smog. Some air pollutants are poisonous.

Air pollution can cause headaches, dizziness. Long term effects from air pollution include heart disease, lung cancer and respiratory diseases such as emphysema. Air pollution can also cause long-term damage to people’s nerves, brain, kidneys, liver and other organs.

9 best ways to reduce air pollution

  • Using public transports
  • Recycle and reuse
  • No to plastic bags
  • Reduction of forest fires and smoking
  • Use of fans instead of air conditioner
  • Use filters for chimneys
  • Avoid usage of crackers
  • avoid using provide with chemicals
  • Implement Afforestation

Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. They may use the same polluted river water for drinking or bathing or irrigation. The causes of water pollution vary and may be both natural and anthropogenic. However, the most common cause of water pollution are the anthropogenic ones, including Agricultural runoff carrying fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and other pollutants into water bodies such as lakes, river.

Effects of water pollution include

  • Destruction of biodiversity
  • Contamination of the food chain
  • Lack of potable water
  • Disease
  • Infant mortality

8 ways to reduce water pollution

  • Reduce the use of chemicals when cleaning
  • Practice water conservation
  • Dispose of your medications properly
  • Avoid use of pesticides and herbicides
  • Avoid water-polluting recreational activities.
  • Avoid disposing items into the toilet
  • Maintain your vehicle
  • Carryout these practices everywhere

Land pollution

Soil pollution or soil contamination is a part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotics chemicals or other alternation in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals or improper disposal of waste. Soil erosion the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, deforestation and overgrazing is one of the main reasons for soil pollution. Water pollution-the toxic waste material and liquids that are discarded on land contaminate water through the sewage system and sludges.

Various causes of land pollution

  • Deforestation and soil erosion
  • Agricultural activities
  • Mining activities
  • Overcrowded landfills
  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • Construction activities
  • Nuclear waste
  • Sewage treatment
  • Littering

5 best ways to reduce land pollution

  • Eat sustainable foodstuffs, properly recycle batteries, produce homemade compost and dispose of drugs in the places authorized for this purpose.
  • Encourage a more eco-friendly model for industry, farming and stock breeding, among other economic activities.
  • Improve urban planning and transport planning and waste water treatment.
  • Improve the management of mining waste, restore the landscape and conserve topsoil.
  • Involve local communities and indigenous peoples in the design, implementation and assessment of sustainable land and soil management.

Radioactive pollution

The radioactive pollution is defined as the physical pollution of living organisms and their environment as a result of release of radioactive substances into the environment during nuclear explosions and testing of nuclear weapons, nuclear weapon production and decommissioning mining of radioactive ores and handling of radioactive waste, and accidents at nuclear power plants. Exposure of high level of radiation, such as being close to atomic blast, can cause acute health effects such as skin burns and acute radiation syndrome. It can also result in long-term health effects such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Causes of radioactive pollution

  • The use of nuclear weapons as weapons of mass destruction
  • Use of radioisotopes
  • Mining
  • Spillage of radioactive chemicals
  • Tests on radiation

Solution for radioactive pollution – The only options are either to contain the waste storing in tightly closed containers shielded with radiation-protective materials or dilute it. It can also be contained by storage in remote caves or abandoned salt mines

Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution is any deviation from the natural temperature in a habitat and can range from elevated temperature associated with industrial cooling activities to discharges of cold water into streams below large impoundments. The effects of thermal pollution include decrease the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, which aquatic life requires, damage to larvae and eggs of fishes in rivers. Killing off some species of fish and macroinvertibrates that have a limited tolerance for temperature change, and migration of living entities.

Ways to prevent thermal pollution

  • Heated water from the industries can treated before discharging directly to the water bodies.
  • Industrial treated water can be recycled for domestic use or industrial heating.
  • Heated water from the industries can be treated by the installation of cooling ponds and cooling towers.

Light pollution

Light pollution is excessive, misdirected or artificial light. Too much light pollution has consequences it washes out starlight in the night sky, interferes with astronomical research, disrupts ecosystems had adverse health effects and wastes energy.

Light pollution is mainly caused by misdirected excessive, inefficient and unnecessary lighting systems. New energy efficient and cost efficient light sources such as LED will only aggravate light pollution.

Prevention of light pollution

  • Use LED
  • Minimizing the use of lights
  • Glare-free lighting for vehicles driven at night
  • All outdoors lights with glare should be replaced with low-glare alternatives.
  • Colored lights can be used as an option.

Sound pollution

Sound pollution also known as environmental noise or sound pollution is the propagation of noise with ranging impacts on the activity of human or animal life, most of them harmful to a degree. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport and propagation system. It effects millions of people on a daily basis. The most common health problem it causes is Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NHL), can also cause high blood pressure, heart disease, sleep disturbances and stress. These health problems can affect all age group especially children.

Steps to reduce sound pollution

  • Close the windows.
  • Put on earplugs
  • Improve your insulation
  • Invest in noise-canceling headphones
  • Do wall-to-wall carpeting
  • Install a fence

A Brief Insight on Renewable Energy Sources

The conventional and widely used energy sources of today comprise of various types of fossil fuels. The quantity of fossil fuels available is limited in number. Various harmful chemicals like Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and various other hydrocarbons are emitted by their usage. This makes them harmful to the environment and human health in the long run. The usage of such conventional energy sources has been a primary cause of global warming around the world.

This can be combated with the use of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are energy sources obtained from natural sources which are not limited in availability and replenish themselves quickly and regularly. This renewable energy is also known as green energy.

The different types of renewable energy are: Solar energy, Wind energy, Hydro energy, Geothermal energy and Marine energy.

Solar Energy

Solar energy is energy obtained from radiant heat and light obtained from the sun. This is done by the help of techniques such as photovoltaic systems, solar heating, artificial photosynthesis, concentrated solar power plants and the like. Obtained solar energy can then be converted to either thermal energy or electrical energy. It can also be used for the environment-friendly production of hydrogen.

Advantages of using solar energy are:

  • It is a renewable and green source of energy
  • Sunlight is not limited, therefore, there is no risk of running out of the source

Disadvantages of using solar energy are:

  • The process is weather dependent as it relies of the availability of sunlight. Thus, it also cannot be done at night
  • Solar energy systems take up a lot of space and are expensive

Wind Energy

Wind energy is energy which is obtained from mechanical action of the wind. This action is carried out with the help of wind turbines. Through the action of wind turbines, the kinetic energy of the wind gets converted into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy then gets converted into electricity.

Advantages of using wind energy are:

  • The whole process does not release any products harmful to either the environment or human health
  • It is a sustainable energy source

Disadvantages of using wind energy are:

  • Wind turbines can only be built in remote areas where large, unobstructed areas of land are available
  • The wind turbines may pose a risk to birdlife

Hydro Energy

Hydro energy is also known as hydroelectric energy. It is obtained from the construction of hydroelectric power plants in dams over flowing bodies of water like rivers. Similar to the functioning of wind turbines, hydraulic turbines transform the kinetic energy of flowing water into mechanical energy which is further used to create electricity.

Advantages of using hydro energy are:

  • Creation of hydro power plants helps in the creation of water reservoirs
  • It is not limited by time or the sun, i.e., it can be produced continuously

Disadvantages of using hydro energy are:

  • Creation of dams disrupts the water ecosystems
  • Hydro energy power plants can only be constructed over flowing water bodies and therefore are constrained by location

Geothermal Energy

Geothermal energy is obtained from the heat generated from rocks in the Earth’s crust. This energy is harnessed by digging into the crust and using the heat to drive the movement of turbines which generate energy.

Advantages of using geothermal energy are:

  • It does not require any fuel
  • It does not require much maintenance

Disadvantages of using geothermal energy are:

  • It may cause earthquakes
  • The process of digging may cause the release of greenhouse gases from beneath the surface

Efforts should be made to research and explore renewable energies more for the creation of a healthier planet and lifestyle.

DREAMS

MEANING

A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep. The content and function of dreams are not fully understood. Although they have been a topic of scientific, philosophical and religious interest throughout recorded history. Dream interpretation is the attempt at drawing meaning from dreams and searching for an underlying message. The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology.

Rapid Eye Movement

Dreams mainly occur in the rapid-eye movement (REM) stage of sleep when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. REM sleep is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep. At times, dreams occur during other stages of sleep. However, these dreams tends to be much less vivid or memorable. The length of a dream can vary, they may last for a few seconds, or approximately 20-30 minutes. People are more likely to remember the dream if they are awakened during the REM phrase. The average person has three to five dreams at night and some may have up to seven. However, most dream are immediately forgotten. During a full eight-four night sleep, most dreams occur in the typical two hours of REM. Dreams related to work-life experience are associated with REM activity, which suggests that emotional memory processing takes place in REM sleep.

Babies spend almost half of their sleep dreaming, while the elderly spend less than a fifth. Blind people dream in other senses, especially if they lost their sight before the age of seven.

Interpretations

Dream interpretation can be a result of subjective ideas and experiences. One study found that most people believe that ” their dreams reveal meaning hidden truths”. In one study conducted in the United States, South Korea and India, they found that 74% of Indians, 65% of South Korea and 56% of Americans believed their dreams content provided them with meaningful insight into their unconscious beliefs and desires.

The history of dream interpretation

Going back around 5000 years ago in Mesopotamia, the earliest recorded dreams were documented on clay tablets. In the Roman and Greek periods, people believed that dreams were messages sent differently from one or more deities, from deceased people, and that they were the predictors of the future. Then there were cultures that practiced dream incubation, their intention being to cultivate dreams of prophecy.

Nightmare

A nightmare is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong negative emotional response from the mind. Typically fear or horror, but also despair, anxiety and great sadness. The dream may contain situations of danger, discomfort, psychological or physical terror. Sufferers usually awaken in a state of distress and may be unable to return to sleep for a prolonged period of time. Therapy for recurring nightmares (often associated with post-traumatic stress disorder) can include imaging alternative scenarios that could begin at each step of the dream.

Do dreams have a deeper meaning?

A surprising number of people believe that the answer to this question is yes. According to a poll conducted, 43% of Americans believe that dreams reveal unconscious desires and wishes. While most modern theories of dreams would suggest that the answer is no, this hasn’t stopped interpreters and analysis from publishing a whole host of dream dictionaries that purport to identify what these common dream themes and symbols really mean.

THE BEAUTY OF RAIN

Rain is one of the most beautiful moments of nature. Rain is the falling of water from the clouds coming back to the earth, which is taken indirectly by the sun. Rain is a very beautiful moment that can enhance any person, and is able to make many people to admit it as a great blessing of God bestowed upon man by him in some specific time. Nature is beautiful and it has many forms, and scenes, each of which is different to one another and varies in their beauty. Rain is one of them that give a real feeling of happiness and gratitude in a sad or mournful time. There are various ways to enjoy rainy days. You can sit in your balcony and sip on tea while enjoying the whether. Moreover, you may go in the garden or terrace and bathe in it. Make paper boats and take a long drive on the road as well.

Rainy days are different from any other day. They hold great importance for everyone differently. People have different reasons to wait for the rainy season. No matter what the whether may be, a rainy day relaxes and soothes our soul. There are no age limits to enjoy rainy days people of almost every age enjoy it equally.

As stated earlier, rainy days are enjoyed by people of all ages. The kids are probably the most excited lot of all. Rainy days bring pleasant weather and uplift the moods of kids. Moreover, it gives them a chance to step out and play in the rain, jump in the puddles and make paper boats. Similarly, for students, a rainy day means a break from school. It gives them a break from their monotonous routine as the school declares a holiday. The joy of giving to school on a rainy day enjoying the weather and then realizing the school is closed is one of a kind experience. The students become relaxed and spend their day doing other activities like going out with friends and more. Most importantly, we see rainy days are of utmost importance for farmers. It is quite essential for the production of crops. It provides them with adequate water to make their crops flourish which will eventually benefit them.

Nature

A fresh, afternoon shower soothes our soul and rekindles our enthusiasm. The rain drops resting on the trees and flowers, and the chirping of a thousand unknown birds provide a surreal feeling to our minds. The sound of rain on tin roofs and the refreshing petrichor acts as a balm for our tired souls. Something is astonishing and beautiful in observing cats and dogs as they run inside sheds to shelter themselves from the torrential downpour. Rainy days are like recesses between our exhausting routines. We are all creatures of Mother Nature, and it takes very little to bring out our anarchic selves. Rainy days are those rare times when we take our eyes off our phones and gadgets and experience nature in all its glory. Few people can resist running to their balcony to take in the smell of rain. It fills our mechanical hearts with a strange warmth. The small raindrops on windowpanes and dandelions shine like pearls in the late sunlight. Rain comes with thunder and lighting. The grey clouds darken the usual azure palate and guard the sun. Every dark cloud has a silver lining, and that renews our hope and inspires us.

Rainy days are perfect for introverts. They would cuddle up with blankets and a warm cup of coffee and their favorite book. They would plug in their earphones and listen to songs.

WATER AND THE HUMAN BODY

Water is an essential nutrient that our body requires every day. Without water human life cannot be sustained. Water deprivation kills faster than lack of any other nutrient. People don’t realize the important role of water in the body function.Water facilitates the transportation system of the body. It is the medium by which all the other nutrients and other essential elements are distributed to every part of the body. Water also transports the waste from the body. The body looses water in the form of swear during exercise and vigorous physical activity. It is also lost a urine which accounts for three quarters of the body water loss. Dark yellow urine indicates dehydration and means that we should consume more water.

Water comes from a variety of sources. All beverages, juices and fluids we consume are sources of water for our body. Even solid food contains water. Vegetables such as cucumber, lettuce and celery may have up to 90% water. Protein rich food such as meat and fish could contain two-thirds to one half of their water. Even carbohydrates like grains, although do not appear to be watery could contain water as much as one third of their weight. fats such as butter or margarine contain very little water. Some water may come from within our body because of energy metabolism but the amount is insignificant. Although juices, milk and beverages increase fluid intake but plain water is the best source. Most beverages contain some sugar, natural or added, this will have an effect on our body weight. Drink water throughout the day at regular intervals. If we consume too much water just before going to bed, it may interfere with the sleep. Feeling of tiredness and migraine, even without other symptoms, may indicate dehydration. It would help to sip one or two glasses of water. If this feeling does not go off then it will be due to some other reasons and require medical assistance.

Percentage of water in human body

According to H.H Mitchell. Journal of Biological Chemistry 158, the brain and heart are composed of 73% of water, and the lungs are about 83% of water. The skin contains 64% of water, muscles and kidneys are 79% and even the bones are watery about 31%.

Each day human must consume a certain amount of water to survive. Of course, this varies according to age and gender, and also by where someone lives. Generally, an adult male needs about 3 liters per day while an adult female needs about 20.2 liters per day. In general, women have a lower body water percentage than men. This is because women have more tissue than man. The ideal percentage for adult women will fluctuate between 45 and 60%, while the ideal percentage for adult men will be between 50 and 65% of the total body. All of the water a person needs does not have to come from drinking liquids, as some of this water is contained in the food we eat.

What happens if we don’t consume water

Any deficit in normal body water-through dehydration, sickness, exercise or heat stress can make us feel rotten. First we feel thirsty and fatigue, and may develop a mild headache. This eventually gives was to grumpiness, and mental and physical decline.

Disadvantages of water

It is said that too much consumption of water can lead to fluid overload in the body and imbalance in the body. Excess water can lead to lower sodium levels in the body, which may further lead to nausea, vomiting, cramps, fatigue, etc. This condition is known as hyponatremia.

Biofuel and its Types: An Overview

Biofuel is a renewable fuel, which can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels. They are produced from biomass- plant or algae material or animal waste. These sources of biofuel are also known as feedstock. A few examples of feedstock used to produce biofuels are: Vegetable/ Edible Oils (like Canola oil, Safflower oil), Non-Edible Oils (like Almond oil, Salmon oil), Animal fat (Lard, Tallow) and other sources such as Algae, Fungi and Bacteria.

There are four categories in which Biofuels are classified. They are: First Generation, Second Generation, Third Generation and Fourth Generation.

  • First Generation Biofuels: They are made from starch, sugar or animal fats using conventional methods such as fermentation, distillation and transesterification. Hence, they are also called conventional biofuels.
  • Second Generation Biofuels: They are made from woody biomasses as well as agricultural residues and wastes like corn stalk and bagasse.
  • Third Generation Biofuels: They are made from oil extracted from algae.
  • Fourth Generation Biofuels: They are made from electro fuels and solar fuels. Electro fuels are obtained by storing electricity produced from renewable sources in the chemical bonds of liquid or gaseous fuels. Solar fuels are obtained from common materials (example: Carbon dioxide) by the action of solar energy.

There are four common types of Biofuel. They are Bioethanol, Biodiesel, Biogas and Biobutanol

Bioethanol

It is a type of biofuel used as an alternative automobile fuel source. It is produced from feedstocks like sugarcane, algae, corn or various other biomass. The feedstocks are treated with enzymes and undergo the process of fermentation. Bioethanol, along with carbon dioxide, is a by-product released during the whole process. It is majorly used as an alternative fuel to gasoline in internal combustion vehicles.

Advantages of Bioethanol:

  • Ethanol undergoes complete combustion and hence bioethanol burns more clearly in air than petroleum fuels
  • It is a renewable energy resource
  • Any fuel spills are more easily biodegradable

Disadvantages of Bioethanol:

  • Typical automobile engines may need to be modified to use biofuel
  • The production process is slightly expensive
  • Some amount of carbon dioxide gets released along with bioethanol in the production process

Biodiesel

Biodiesel is obtained from natural sources such as triglyceride containing vegetable oils and animal fats. It is produced by transesterification. It is used in vehicles, aircrafts, railways, as a heating oil and for cleaning oil spills. The structure of biodiesel is similar to that of petroleum diesel fuel. Apart from that, in engines, it operates similarly to petroleum diesel fuel. Thus, it can be used easily in engines requiring little modifications to the engines.

Advantages of Biodiesel:

  • It helps to lubricate the engine which in turn decreases engine wear
  • It does not have sulfur content hence it doesn’t contribute to acid rain

Disadvantages of Biodiesel:

  • Biodiesel can release nitrogen oxide which can lead to the formation of smog
  • Its cost varies according to feedstock used and market conditions

Biogas

Biogas is a renewable energy source; a natural fuel. It is produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. It is produced by the aerobic digestion of organic matter. Biogas comprises of primarily methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes.

Advantages of Biogas:

  • The slurry produced after the production of biogas can be used as manure
  • There is less emission of greenhouse gases
  • It is a renewable energy source as it is produced from waste which gets generated everyday in enormous quantities
  • It is a healthier alternative to the use of firewood for cooking in rural areas

Disadvantages of Biogas:

  • The production process is temperature dependent, as the bacteria need a temperature of around 37°C for digestion. As a result, in areas with a cold climate, there is an extra requirement of heat supply
  • Biogas contains methane, a highly flammable material. If proper care is not taken while handling, it may come into contact with oxygen and violently produce carbon dioxide
  • Despite purification, biogas still contains impurities which may lead to metal corrosion
  • It is unable to be used on a large scale as there is no efficient production system

Biobutanol

Biobutanol is an alcoholic biofuel gaining traction. It is produced by the fermentation of sugar in biomass through the action of microbes. Clostridium acetobutylicum is a commonly used microorganism species. The sugars then get broken down into various alcohols, including butanol. Since it is obtained from biomass it is called Biobutanol. Its major use is as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It also shows potential as an industrial solvent.

Advantages of Biobutanol:

  • Biobutanol has a low vapor pressure, which means that it has a low volatility and a lower risk of evaporation
  • It has fewer emissions than other petroleum fuels. Compared to gasoline, it reduces carbon emissions by 85%

Disadvantages of Biobutanol:

  • The yield obtained and the speed of production are partially dependent on the microorganism used
  • The separation of butanol from the fermentation broth is slightly costly

In the age of global warming, it is necessary for governments and scientists to carry out more research into different biofuels and ways to harness them efficiently. This will not only reduce global warming to an extent, but also helps conserve fossil fuel and build towards a healthy and green future for our planet.

ONLINE EDUCATION – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

Due to the devastating pandemic education has changed dramatically, whereby teaching is undertaken remotely and on digital platforms. Globally, over 1.2 billion children are affected in school closures or are out of the classroom. Even before COVID-19, there was already high growth and adoption in education technology, with global tech investments reaching US$18.88 billion in 2019 and the overall market for online education projected to reach $350 Billion by 2025. Whether it is language apps, virtual tutoring, video conferencing tools, or online learning software, there has been a significant usage since COVID_19.

ADVANTAGES of ONLINE EDUCATION

  • Online class are convenient – The biggest advantage of online class is that everything is available to you. You can get announcements, access notes, review assignments, take practice quizzes, discuss questions, chat with fellow students. Other than certain due dates, you make your own schedule for completing the requirements of the class.
  • Online class offer flexibility – Online class gives flexibility to spend time with work, family, friends or any other activity you like.
  • Online class bring education right to your home – Children may take interest in online environment. Parents may look over the shoulder of an online student while they are surfing across the web. In shorts, everyone in the household gets involved in learning. Having the support of your family and friends makes you more likely to succeed.
  • Online class offer more individual attention – Many students aren’t comfortable asking questions in class for fear of feeling stupid. Many times you think of a question after class or while you are studying. Rather than trying to remember to ask it or forgetting it, you can send an e-mail to the instructor, your opportunity to learn is enhanced.
  • Online class have financial benefits – Although you may think that buying computer and paying for internet access is pretty expensive, consider what if would cost you in gas and parking each month if you were driving to campus. Consider the costs of eating out versus eating at home. Consider the costs of pet-care or any other care that you need to provide while you are away from home. These are very tangible benefits of having access to education at home.

DISADVANTAGES OF ONLINE EDUCATION

  • Online class require more time than on-campus classes – You will spend more time studying and completing assignments in the online environment than you will in an on-campus classes. The online environment is text based. To communicate with your instructor and other students, you must type messages, post responses and otherwise communicate with your fingers. Typing is slower than speaking. Each word you type it and compare the difference if you had spoken the same.
  • Online class require good time-management skills – An internet based class demands that you develop personal time-management skills. Online class require the self-discipline to set aside chunks of time to complete your studies. It means you have to make online studies priority and not let other activities interfere.
  • Online class give you more freedom, perhaps, more than you can handle – This freedom can be dangerous if you don’t learn how to handle it.
  • Online class requires you to be responsible for your own learning – Only you are responsible for your learning. You might not take responsibility for your studies and your goals.

Mental Stress

Stress can be defined as any type of change that causes physical, emotional, or psychological strain. Stress is your body’s response to anything that requires attention or action. Everyone experiences stress to some degree. The way you respond to stress, however, makes a big difference to your overall well-being.

Sometimes, the best way to manage your stress involves changing your situation. At other times, the best strategy involves changing the way you respond to the situation.

Mental stress is a form of stress that occurs because of how events in one’s external or internal environment are perceived, resulting in the psychological experience of distress and anxiety. Mental stress is often accompanied by physiological responses. Stress is also the feeling of being overwhelmed or unable to cope with mental or emotional pressure.

Developing a clear understanding of how stress impacts your physical and mental health is important. It’s also important to recognize how your mental and physical health affects your stress level.

Signs

Stress can be short-term or long term. Both can lead to a variety of symptoms, but chronic stress can take a serious toll on the body over time and have long lasting health effects.

Some of the signs of stress include

  • Changes in mood – Mood swings refer to rapid changes in mood. The term may refer to minor daily mood changes or to significant mood changes as seen with mood disorders such as major depression or bipolar depression. Mood swings cal also occur in women who suffer from premenstrual syndrome or premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
  • Diarrhea – According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA), when a person is anxious, the body releases hormones and chemicals. These can enter the digestive tract and disrupt the gut flora, which can result in a chemical imbalance that leads to diarrhea.
  • Difficulty in sleeping – Many issues that impact your mental or physical health can disrupt sleep. You’re under a lot of stress. Stressful times and event can cause temporary insomnia. And major or long-lasting stress can lead to chronic insomnia.
  • Digestive problems – In some people, stress slows down digestions, causing bloating, pain and constipation, while in others it speeds it up, causing diarrhea and frequent trips to the loo. some people lose their appetite completely. Stress can also worsen digestive conditions like stomach ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Dizziness – Dizziness is common symptom of anxiety stress and, all if one is experiencing anxiety, dizziness can be anxiety producing. The vestibular system is responsible for sensing body position and movement in our surroundings.
  • Headaches – Headaches are more likely to occur when you’re stressed. Stress is a common trigger of tension-type headaches and migraine, and can trigger other types of headaches or make them worse.
  • Physical aches and pains – Your muscles tense up to protect themselves from injury when you’re stressed. They tend to release again once you relax, but if you’re constantly under stress, your muscles any not get the chance to relax. Tight muscles cause headaches, back and shoulder pain, and body aches.

Simple ways to relieve stress

  • Exercise – Exercise is one of the most important things you can do to combat stress. It might seem contradictory, but putting physical stress on your body through exercise can relieve mental stress. The benefits are strongest when you exercise regularly.People who exercise regularly are less likely to experience anxiety than those who don’t exercise.
  • Light a candle – Using a essential oils or burning a scented candle may help reduce your feeling of stress and anxiety. Some scents are especially soothing, mot calming scents like lavender, rose, orange or orange blossom etc.
  • Reduce your caffeine intake – Caffeine is a stimulant found in coffee, tea, chocolate and energy drinks. High dose can increase anxiety. Although many studies show that coffee can be healthy in moderation, it’s not for everyone. In general five or fewer cups per day is considered a moderate amount.
  • Spend time with friends and family – Social support from friends and family can help you get through stressful times. Being a part of a friend network gives you a sense of belonging and self-worth, which can help you in tough times.
  • Laugh – It’s hard to feel anxious when you’re laughing. It’s good for your health, and there are a few ways it may help relieve stress: Relieving your stress response, Relieving tension by relaxing your muscles. In the long term, laughter can also help improve your immune system and mood. A study among people with cancer found that people in the laughter intervention group experience more stress relief than those who were simply distracted.
  • Take a yoga class – Yoga has become a popular method of stress relief and exercise among all ages groups. Yoga primarily does this by increasing body and breath awareness. In general, the benefit of yoga for stress and anxiety seems to be related to its effect on your nervous system and stress response.

HOUSEPLANT/GARDENING

A houseplant is a plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices, namely for decorative purposes, but studies have also shown them to have positive psychological effects. They also help indoor air purification, since some species, and the soil-dwelling microbes associated with them, reduce indoor air pollution by absorbing volatile organic compounds.While generally toxic to humans, such pollutants are absorbed by the plant and its soil-dwelling microbes without harm. Common houseplants are usually tropical or semi-tropical, succulents or cacti. Houseplants need to correct moisture, light levels, soil mixture, temperature and humidity. Without these conditions most house plants need to proper fertilizer and correct-sized pots.

Most species of houseplant will tolerate low humidity environments if they’re watered regularly. Different plants require different amounts of light, for different duration. Houseplants are generally grown in specialized soils called potting compost or potting soil.

Both under-watering and over-watering can be detrimental to a houseplant. Different species of houseplants require different soil moisture levels. Brown crispy tips on a plant’s leaves are a sign that the plant is under-watered. Yellowing leaves can show that the plant is over watered. Most plants can not withstand their roots sitting in water and will often lead to root rot. Most species of houseplant will tolerate low humidity environments if they’re watered regularly. Different plants require different amounts of light, for different duration. Houseplant are generally grown in specialized soils called potting compost or potting soil. A good potting compost mixture includes soil conditioners to provide the plant with nutrients, support, adequate drainage and proper aeration.

Houseplants are generally planted in pots that have drainage holes in the bottom of the pot to reduces the likelihood of over watering and standing water. A pot that is too large will cause root disease because of the excess moisture retained in the soil, while a pot that is too small will restrict a plant’s growth.

Psychological Effects

A 2015 study showed that active interaction with houseplants can reduce physiological and psychological stress compared with mental work. It appears that benefits are contingent on features of the context in which the indoor plant are encountered and on characteristics of the people encountering them. The phenomenon of biophilia explains why houseplants have positive psychological effects. Biophilia describes humans subconscious need for a connection with nature. This is why humans are fascinated by natural spectacles such as waves or a fire. It also explains why gardening and spending time outdoors can have healing effects. Having plants in indoor living areas can have positive effects on physiological, psychological and cognitive health.

Houseplant Care

Houseplant care is the act of growing houseplants and ensuring they have the necessary conditions for survival and continuing growth. This includes providing soil with sufficient nutrients, correct lighting conditions, air circulation and adding the right amount of water. Watering houseplants on a regular basis is necessary for the plant to remain healthy. They should not, however, be watered on a scheduled basis, because different plant species need different amounts of water and sunlight so it is important to know the specifics for the particular plants that are being grown.

Houseplants sometimes also need to be cleaned of dust and greasy films that collect on the leaves when they are indoors. Dusty, grimy leaves can inhibit growth.

Types of Houseplants

  • Pothos
  • Spider Plant
  • Peace Lily
  • Aloe vera
  • Rubber plant
  • English ivy
  • Jade plant
  • Bamboo palm

5 iconic comedy movies that should never have a remake

Our Bollywood Industry is making some groundbreaking films, while on the other hand some writers and directors are remaking the movies that we have grown up watching and ruining our childhood films, like most of them. Movies like Coolie No.1, Judwaa 2 and now Bhool Bhulaiyaa are the examples of recent remakes of the cult movies especially Coolie No.1 and Judwaa 2 are the two movies which were criticised a lot even after directed by the same director David Dhawan.

Though, Bollywood is never gonna stop remaking movies and songs, there are five iconic cult movies that should never be touched from anybody else as they are sheer perfection.

  1. ANDAZ APNA APNA (1994)

This ‘90s multi-starrer is the kind of classic comedy that can be watched and re-watched a zillion times without ever getting bored. Middle-class Amar (Amir Khan) and Prem (Salman Khan) compete for the love of a millionaire’s daughter, Raveena, in the most hilarious of ways.

2. HERA PHERI SERIES

The iconic trio Raju (Akshay Kumar), Shyam (Sunil Shetty), and Baburao (Paresh Rawal) need no introduction. Their wretched plans of making easy money always get tangled up in a mess of their own stupidity, lack of coordination, and multiple groups of antagonists. Literally, every generation has grown up watching these.

3. MUNNA BHAI M.B.B.S (2003)

Munna and Circuit’s rib-tickling jodi is a comedy-drama with just the right amount of masala and romance. No wonder, it’s achieved a cult status followed by an equally hilarious sequel.

4. VICKY DONOR (2012)

Ayushmann Khuranna’s breakthrough into B-Town, Vicky Donor is an unusually funny movie with an equally unconventional plot. It’ll make your jaws ache with laughing too hard while also busting taboos around sperm banks, sexuality, and sexual health.

5. DELHI BELLY

A film worth every last penny, Delhi Belly is downright sensible as well as hilarious. The performances by Tashi (Imran Khan), Arup (Vir Das), and Nitin (Kunaal Roy Kapur) is absolutely flawless and the plot hysterical.

A special mention to a film that was first of its kind in India and there would never be a movie like that and there shouldn’t be one, :

GO GOA GONE (2013)

Bollywood’s first full-fledged zombie movie may not have been taken seriously but honestly, it wasn’t meant to be! This movie is every bit chuckle-inducing in the most millennial way and it’s adult content is very very enjoyable.

CARDIAC ARREST

Cardiac arrest happens when the heart suddenly stops beating. This can be caused by a heart attack in which the heart’s demand for oxygen is not met and heart muscle begins to die. With cardiac arrest, normal circulation of blood stops, because of a failure of the heart to contract. Cardiac arrest is a medical emergency. The most common cause of cardiac arrest is Coronary Artery Disease. Less common causes include major blood loss, lack of oxygen, very low potassium, heat failure and intense physical exercise.

Causes of cardiac arrest

  • Coronary Artery Disease – Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease, is responsible for 62 to 70 percent of all SCD ( sudden cardiac death). CAD is a much less frequent cause of SCD in people under age 40. Cases have shown that the most common finding at postmortem examination of sudden cardiac death is chronic high-grade stenosis of at least one segment of a major coronary artery, the article that supply the heart muscle with its blood supply.
  • Structural Heart Disease – Structural heart diseases are not related to CAD account for 10 percent of all SCDs. Left ventricular hypertrophy is thought to be a leading cause of structural heart disease in the adult population. This is the most commonly result of longstanding high blood pressure which has caused secondary damage to the wall of the main pumping chamber of the heart, the left ventricle. In the year 1999 United States has found that this accounted to over 30 percent of structural heart disease for those under 30 years. a study of military recruits age 18-35 found that this accounted for over 40 percent of SCDs. Congestive heart failure increases the risk of SCD.
  • Non-cardiac arrest – Sudden cardiac arrest due to non-cardiac causes accounts for the remaining 15 – 25 percent. The most common non-cardiac causes are trauma, major bleeding, overdose, drowning etc. cardiac arrest can also be caused by poisoning or lighting.

Signs and Symptoms

Cardiac arrest is not preceded by any warning symptoms in approximately 50 percent of people. For those who do experience symptoms, they will be non-specific, such as new or worsening chest pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, weakness and vomiting. When cardiac arrest occurs, the most obvious sign of its occurrence will be the lack of a palpable pulse in the victim. The main criterion for diagnosing a cardiac arrest, as opposed to respiratory arrest, which shares many of the same features, is lack of circulation, however there are a number of ways of determining this. Near-death experience are reported by 10 to 20 percent who survive cardiac arrest.

Prevention

Certain strategies to prevent cardiac arrest are with the prime causes of cardiac arrest being ischemic heart disease, efforts to promote a healthy diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are important. For people at risk of heat disease, measures such as blood pressure control, cholesterol lowering are used. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator is a battery-powered device that monitors electrical activity in the heart and when an asystole is detected is able to deliver an electrical shock to terminate the abnormal rhythm. ICDs are used to prevent sudden cardiac arrest. Numerous studies have been conducted on the use of ICDs for the secondary prevention of SCD. These studies have shown improved survival with ICDs compared to the use of anti-arrhythmic drugs. Primary prevention of SCD with ICD therapy for high-risk patient population had similarly shown improved survival rates in a number of large number of studies. Th high-risk patient populations in these studies were defined as those severe ischemic cardiomyopathy.

DOWRY-AN EVIL PRACTICE

DOWRY SYSTEM

The dowry system refers to the durable goods, cash, and real or movable property that the bride’s family gives to the groom, his parents and his relatives as a condition of the marriage.

Dowry system was introduced in England in the 12th century by the Normans. Earlier to this there was another kind of practice where husband gave some kind of morning gift to his wife. Dowry was generally given at the wedding by the husband at the church door in front of all present public. In India, it has it’s roots in the medieval times when a gift in cash or kind was given to a bride by her father to maintain her independence after her marriage. During colonial period, it became the only legal way to get married, with the British making the practice of dowry mandatory.

Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961

Dowry Prohibition Act, enacted on May 1, 1961, states to prevent the giving and receiving of a dowry. Under the Dowry Prohibition Act, dowry includes property, goods or money given by either party to the marriage, by the parents of either party or by anyone else in connection with the marriage. This act was passed to put an end to the receiving and giving of an evil practice.

Dowry cases in India

India has the highest number of dowry related deaths in the world according to India National Crime Record Bureau. In 2012, 8,233 dowry death cases were reported across India. This means a bride was burned every 90 minutes, or dowry case issues cause 1.4 deaths per year per 100,000 women in India. Number of reported dowry death cases in India 2005-2019 – In 2019,reported dowry death cases in India amounted to more than 7.1 thousand. This was a gradual decrease from the 2014, in which this was approximately 8.5 thousand. According to World Bank Blog in India the highest dowry system practice is in Kerala. Since 1970 Kerala exhibits stark and persistent dowry inflation and had the highest average dowry in recent years, similar inflationary trends are seen across Haryana, Punjab and Gujarat.

Bad Effects of Dowry

  • Dowry leads to harassing a women.
  • Women are ill-treated, disrespected, tortured and are subjected to sorts of cruelties in the name of dowry.
  • Women are killed or murdered.
  • Women are abused.
  • Dowries maintain gender inequality.
  • Dowries keep women from economic independence.
  • Dowries trap poor people in debt.
  • Dowries discriminate against the disabled.

Dowry is a social evil in the society, that has caused unimaginable tortures and crimes towards women. The evil has taken lives of many women from all types of society be it poor, middle class or the rich. However it is the poor who succumb and fall prey to it, more due to their lack of awareness and education.

Causes of dowry system in India

  • Greed – The expectation that a dowry will be given at the time of the bride and groom’s engagement is to compensate for the groom’s education, career, and wealth. The bride’s education, career and wealth are completely disregarded, as she is not given equal societal status to a man.
  • Lack of education – The bride’s family, unaware and un-knowledgeable of the laws, face outrageous financial ultimatums, which when not met, lead to mistreatment of their daughters.

Important Steps to eradicate dowry

  • Educate your daughters.
  • Encourage them to have their own career.
  • Teach them to be independent and responsible.
  • Treat them equally without any discrimination.
  • Do not encourage the practice of giving or taking dowry.

CAPTAIN LAKSHMI

Lakshmi Sahgal was one of the strongest women during the Indian Independence Movement. She was an officer in the Indian National Army, and the Minister of Women’s Affairs in the Azad Hind Government. Lakshmi Sahgal is commonly called as Captain Lakshmi.

Introduction

Lakshmi Swaminathan was born on 24 October 1914 in Madras to S. Swaminathan, a criminal lawyer and A V Ammu Swaminathan, a women social worker and an activist. During the Indian Independence movement women was not given much importance for education and was forced to marry in a very small age. But Lakshmi Swaminathan was a strong women who decided to complete her higher studies and then get married. She studied medicine and received MBBS degree from Madras Medical College in 1938. In 1939 she received her diploma in Gynaecology and Obstetrics. She worked as a doctor in Government Kasturba Gandhi Hospital in Chennai. Captain Lakshmi married Prem Kumar Sahgal in March in Lahore. They had two daughters. Lakshmi Sahgal continued her profession even after her marriage. Lakshmi was a helping hand for the refugees who was arriving in large numbers because of the Partition of India. Her daughter Subhashini was a Communist politician and activist.

Indian National Army/ Azad Hind Fauj

During the surrender of Singapore by the British, Lakshmi Sahgal aided wounded prisoners of war in Singapore. Singapore at that time had several nationalist Indians working there such as K P Kesava Menon, S C Guha and N Raghavan. Subhash Chandra Bose had arrived in Singapore on July 1943. Subhash Chandra Bose had arrived in Singapore to draft women into the organisation. Dr. Lakshmi had a meeting with Bose and set up a women’s regiment, to be called the Rani of Jhansi regiment. Most of the women were interested to join the all-women regiment and Dr. Lakshmi became the Captain of this regiment. This was a turning point in Lakshmi Swaminathan’s life and later she was called as Captain Lakshmi.

Indian National Army also known as Azad Hind Fauj did not receive any approval from occupying Japanese forces regarding their participation in the war. In 1944 the Indian National Army along with the Japanese army marched to Burma for a war against them. But many were arrested by the British army and was sent to India. Captain Lakshmi was a part of the Azad Hind Fauj was also arrested and sent to India and was sent to jail.

After the Indian Independence, in 1971 captain Lakshmi joined the Communist Party of India and was also representated the party in the Rajya Sabha. Captain Lakshmi during the Bangladesh crisis, she organised relief camps and medical aid for refugees who streamed into India from Bangladesh. Captain Lakshmi was one of the member of All India Democratic Women’s Association. Captain Lakshmi along with others members of All India Democratic Women’s Association led many activities and campaigns. She led many medical camps and also organised many medical teams in many places. One of the notable medical camp conducted by Captain Lakshmi was in Bhopal after the gas tragedy in December 1984, worked towards restoring peace in Kanpur following the anti-sikh riots and Captain Lakshmi was arrested for her participation in the campaign against the Miss World competition in Bangalore. She was seeing her patients regularly at the age of 92. In 2002 the Communist Party of India, the Communist Party of India ( Marxist), the Revolutionary Socialist Party, and the All India Forward Bloc nominated Lakshmi as a candidate in the presidential elections. She was the sole opponent of A P J Abdul Kalam, who won the election and became the President.

In 1998 Captain Lakshmi was awarded the Padma Vibhushan by Indian President K R Narayan. In 2010, she was bestowed with Honorary doctorate by University of Calicut.

Death

On 19 July 2012, Captain Lakshmi suffered a cardiac arrest and died on July 23 2012 at the age of 97 at Kanpur. Her body was donated to Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Memorial Medical College for medical research.

Spiritual person

The Mindful World

The first thing that caught my eye about The Mindful World is just how beautiful their site design is. This is one good looking mindfulness blog.

It takes more than just good looks to be included in this list of the best spiritual blogs, though. And, indeed, The Mindful World has a lot of depth behind that pretty exterior.

The Mindful World is a group of individuals who are passionate about spreading mindfulness around the world. Their articles are very in-depth and some of the most professionally written pieces on any spiritual website.

Excerpt from CONFRONTING REALITY: The lie of Evidence-Based Treatment and how it affects psychological therapy for abused children

“The scientific process is supposed to be the golden standard for the pursuit of knowledge and truth. When asked to think of a scientist, many people will imagine a somewhat “nerdish” individual who’s often more comfortable with numbers than people.

We imagine these scientists as being wholly dedicated to their research and unwavering in their pursuit of the truth. The idea that many published scientists are heavily influenced by politics, that scientific journals often compromise their standards for publications, and that many universities look the other way to secure federal funding, often comes as a shock to most people.”

Change Your Energy

Change Your Energy is a spiritual healing blog. It reads like a self improvement blog, packed full of excellent advice on articles on all manner of self development topics. Every article is full of spiritual guidance and offers inspiration for developing your spiritual life. Change Your Energy is is also one of the most professionally presented spiritual blogs.

My favourite excerpt : From the article “Sing As If Speaking, Dance As If Walking”

“Do you pick up your smartphone, look for people to chat with, or go to the TV or Internet because time alone is lonely, strange, or difficult? You can be a wonderful friend to yourself, incomparably better than any person or any machine.

Here is a suggestion for enjoying spending time with yourself: Sing and dance for 30 minutes every day. Try to sing as if speaking and to dance as if walking.

Enjoy being immersed in yourself, regardless of what other people think. The time you enjoy spending with yourself is time for changing your energy and for accumulating energy. You can encounter your soul as you sing and dance.

Mom On A Spiritual Journey:
Mom on a Spiritual Journey is the blog of Sarah Lawrence Hinson. Sarah gives spiritual coaching sessions and writes articles about both her personal life and about spiritual energy.
My favourite excerpt:
From “6 tips for driving your car as a spiritual practice”
“MAKE YOUR CAR A NO PHONE ZONE LIKE OPRAH SAYS.  I’ll be the first to admit that I am useless at using a phone and driving, in fact I’m a downright danger so don’t do it at all.  Just because you might be better than me doesn’t mean you should do it too though.  If the phone rings and I am alone, I pull over if I know I’m waiting for an important call.  If you work a lot on your phone, get hands free…it’s not the greatest idea but it could save your life.  If I have the girls in the car then they answer the phone for me.  When it’s their turn to learn to drive, texting and driving will not be acceptable because I DON’T DO IT

Spiritual Awakening Process:

Spiritual Awakening Process discusses many aspects of spirituality and offers practical advice to improve your spiritual life. The best part of Spiritual Awakening Process is the one hour sessions that can be booked and which offer help for you on your spiritual journey. Definitely a great spiritual blog.

LINK: SPIRITUAL AWAKENING

Favourite Except: From “Awakening”

“Life inside the awakening is a whole other beast. Many people focus on the singular point of awakening, that amazing “Ah-ha!” moment. However, while that is a critical piece of the awakening process, so is the transition from sleep-mode to every moment awakeness. The awakening ushers in a time of transition that is unsettled, unstable, and unique. It is a time of embracing new and amazing parts of you and then trying to crawl right back into bed. It is a time of expansion and contraction as you grow and then shrink back to the core issues that are still unresolved and holding you back.”

Spiritual Awakening Process:

Spiritual Awakening Process discusses many aspects of spirituality and offers practical advice to improve your spiritual life. The best part of Spiritual Awakening Process is the one hour sessions that can be booked and which offer help for you on your spiritual journey. Definitely a great spiritual blog.

LINK: SPIRITUAL AWAKENING

Favourite Except: From “Awakening”

“Life inside the awakening is a whole other beast. Many people focus on the singular point of awakening, that amazing “Ah-ha!” moment. However, while that is a critical piece of the awakening process, so is the transition from sleep-mode to every moment awakeness. The awakening ushers in a time of transition that is unsettled, unstable, and unique. It is a time of embracing new and amazing parts of you and then trying to crawl right back into bed. It is a time of expansion and contraction as you grow and then shrink back to the core issues that are still unresolved and holding you back.”

Tiny Buddha

Tiny Buddha is an absolutely wonderful spiritual blog that is mostly a mindfulness blog. It matches cuteness and fun with insight and wisdom. It’s also got more Facebook followers than anyone else on this list, partly because it was a pioneer of the whole spiritual blogging movement.

Excerpt from : Boost Your Happiness: 10 Mindfulness Tips for Busy People

“Do you ever feel as though you would be happy if only things were a little different?

You know that happiness is important, but you keep putting it on the backburner because there simply isn’t enough time to prioritize your own inner joy.

And at the same time, you know that meditation would help, but you can’t even imagine where you’re going to get the spare time you need to sit still and meditate.

In an ideal world, we would schedule moments every day in which to cater to our health needs, because health and well-being are paramount. Yet despite our best efforts we will inevitably face those times when we’re busy every minute of the day. I know I’ve been there.”

Top social media marketing blogs

The world of Social Media is probably responsible for more innovation in digital marketing over the past 5 to 10 years than nearly any other discipline. From ephemeral story based content to live video to all the things being done with data for more personalized marketing, staying in top of what’s real vs. the hype in marketing is increasingly difficult.

Top help marketers find great sources of marketing advice, we’ve curated the BIGLIST of marketing blogs and more recently a marketing blogs from martech companies. Adding to that curation effort and our own solid social media marketing advice is today’s list of social media marketing blogs.

This list focuses in on blogs covering all aspects of social media marketing including the usual suspects of platforms including Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and LinkedIn as well as newer platforms like TikTok. From trends to strategies to tactics to analytics, this group of blogs about social media and marketing is a great mix of big names, publications, platforms and a few names that are hopefully new to you.

1. Adweek Social Pro Daily @adweek
Platform news, industry trends and plenty of brand examples.
Our favorite post: Social Networks Finally Bypassed Print Newspapers as a Primary Source of News

2. Andrea Vahl Blog @AndreaVahl
Everything you wanted to know about Facebook advertising plus a glimpse of “Grandma Mary”.
Our favorite post: Facebook Video Ads – What’s Working Now

3. Awario Blog @AwarioApp
Social media monitoring, selling, research and influencer marketing advice.
Our favorite post: 10 of the best social media marketing tools for 2019

4. Brian Solis @briansolis
One of the true pioneering thought leaders on social media that continues to offer strategic insights – including how to temper social media use for a more creative, productive and happy life ala Lifescale.
Our favorite post: The Past, Present And Future Of Social Media – How We Fell To The Dark Side And Why The Force Is With Us

5. Brand24 Blog @brand24
Social listening, marketing and industry news plus best practices on everything from hashtags to social influencers.
Our favorite post: A Complete Guide to Social Media Analysis

6. CinchShare Blog @CinchShare
Social Media Marketing tips for small business including Instagram, Facebook, Pinterest and blogging advice.
Our favorite post: Grow your team on Facebook by doing these 3 things

7. Digimind Blog @digimindci
Social insight driven marketing advice, competitive social intelligence tips and soup to nuts social media campaign direction for agencies.
Our favorite post: Optimize Your Content Marketing Strategy in 13 Steps with Social Media Intelligence

8. DreamGrow Blog @dreamgrow
Social Media Marketing advice plus curated lists of resources.
Our favorite post: How To Integrate Social Media With eCommerce in 2019

9. Facebook Business Blog @facebook
Official blog from Facebook on advertising news, best practices and thought leadership.
Our favorite post: Turn Interested Shoppers Into Buyers with a Guided Shopping Experience in Messenger

10. Falcon Insights Hub @falconio
Social Media Marketing strategy, tactics and ROI measurement plus platform specific best practices.
Our favorite post: 5 Social Media Trends to Watch in 2019

11. Gary Vaynerchuk Blog @garyvee
The content machine that is Garyvee covers social media marketing thought leadership, trends, news and practical advice for specific social networks.
Our favorite post: 5 LinkedIn Marketing Strategies for 2019

12. Gleam Blog @gleamapp
A lot of how to social media marketing content, tips on using Gleam apps and advice on social contests, giveaways, coupons and product hunts.
Our favorite post: Stop Buying Likes: 25+ Tips to Drive Real Engagement on Facebook

13. Grow @markwschaefer
Mark Schaefer’s blog on the intersection of marketing, technology and humanity featuring provocative insights on industry trends, featured examples of social media and marketing in action and practical advice.
Our favorite post: What Is Your Social Media Marketing Purpose? (If You Don’t Know, This Will Help)

14. Hopper HQ Blog @hopper_hq
All things Instagram marketing ranging from trends to tips and a bit of advice on working with social influencers too.
Our favorite post: How to Measure B2B Social Media Marketing Success

15. Hot in Social Media @hotinsm
Social platform news and tips covering the gamut of social media marketing topics plus curated advice from industry experts.
Our favorite post: How to Use TikTok Like a PRO: Actionable Tips for Marketers

16. Iconosquare Blog @iconosquare
Focused information on marketing with Facebook and Instagram.
Our favorite post: Instagram Marketing Strategy: Your A-Z Guide

17. Instagram Business Blog @instagram
Official blog from Instagram sharing platform updates, features advertising advice.
Our favorite post: Creative Secrets of Instagram Stories

18. Jeff Bullas Blog @jeffbullas
Social Media Marketing best practices from Jeff and guest contributors.
Our favorite post: 9 Insider Tips For Increasing Your LinkedIn Leads

19. Jon Loomer Blog @jonloomer
This blog is Facebook marketing central – everything you ever wanted to know.
Our favorite post: How to Edit a Facebook Ad and Retain Social Proof

20. Karen’s PR & Social Media Blog @kfreberg
Dr. Karen Freberg’s take on social media marketing, PR and crisis communications.
Our favorite post: Super Bowl 2019: Trends & Takeaways from a Social Media Professor

21. Katie Lance Blog @katielance
Great example of a personal brand showcasing social media marketing advice with a slant towards the real estate audience.
Our favorite post: How to Attract Your Dream Client Through Social Media and Storytelling

22. Keyhole Blog @keyholeco
Recent attention to a variety of social media marketing tools as well as practical advice for Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and hashtag marketing.
Our favorite post: Hashtags: A Beginner’s Guide and How to Use them Effectively – Keyhole

23. Later Blog @latermedia
Instagram Marketing strategy, tips, tools, resources and guides.
Our favorite post: Real or Fake: 5 Instagram Algorithm Rumors Explained

24. LinkedIn Marketing Solutions Blog @linkedinmktg
Official blog from Linkedin offering marketing thought leadership, industry trends, news and practical advice on how to make the most of marketing and advertising on LinkedIn. (client)
Our favorite post: 10 Content Ideas for your LinkedIn Page

25. Louise Myers Visual Social Media Blog @Louise_Myers
Practice visual social media marketing tips for Facebook, Instagram, and Pinterest plus advice on blogging.
Our favorite post: How to Boost Your Social Media Strategy for 2019

26. Madalyn Sklar Blog @MadalynSklar
Literally everything you would ever want to know about building and engaging a community on Twitter with plenty of attention towards tools.
Our favorite post: How to Grow Your Twitter Community: 7 Essential Tips

27. Meltwater Blog: Social Media @MeltwaterSocial
Social Media thought leadership, practical advice and featured brand social media examples.
Our favorite post: Social Sidekick: Your Monthly Guide to Social Holidays, Themes, and Noteworthy Events

28. NetBase Blog @NetBase
Advice on social media listening, analytics and practical advice plus applications for social intelligence.
Our favorite post: Social Media Monitoring vs Social Listening – Yes, There’s a Difference!

29. Planoly Blog @planoly
Stay on top of Instagram and IG Marketing with practical tips and examples.
Our favorite post: How to Stay Motivated with Your Blog and Instagram

30. Problogger @problogger
Dedicated to the art and science of blogging and no one tells that story better than Darren Rowse.
Our favorite post: How to Start a Blog When You’re Not an Expert: 11 Ways to Make it Work

31. Quintly @quintly
Social Media Marketing research and analysis, best practices, trends and news about the platform.
Our favorite post: Instagram Study: We analyzed 9 million posts and here’s what we’ve learned

32. Snapchat for Business @snapchat
Official blog from Snapchat featuring the latest launches, announcements, and insights.
Our favorite post: CPG on Snapchat: Why Gen Z and millennials make all the difference

33. Socialnomics @equalman
Erik Qualman’s long running thought leadership blog on social media and marketing.
Our favorite post: 22 Social Media Tips From The Pros To Skyrocket Your 2019 ROI

34. Social Insider Blog @socialinsiderio
A cornucopia of how to articles on social media marketing plus a fun series of interviews with industry experts called Socialinsider Insta’rviews.
Our favorite post: The Most Impactful Social Media Trend That Businesses Should Integrate It In 2019

35. Social Media Examiner @SMExaminer
Probably the most popular blog about social media marketing from Mike Stelzner and team that also run the Social Media Marketing World conference.
Our favorite post: 10 Metrics to Track When Analyzing Your Social Media Marketing

36. Social Media Explorer @smxplorer
An original social media marketing blog covering the gamut of social media topics including tips, tools, news, and case studies.
Our favorite post: Up And Coming Social Media Trends Driven By Millennials And Generation Z

37. Social Media Lab @agorapulse
A special project from the folks at Agorapulse highlighting their investment of over $15k per month to help “Crack the Code” of social media and then report those results to readers.
Our favorite post: LinkedIn Post Length: Does Data Support the Idea that Longer is Better?

38. Social Media Today @socialmedia2day
A community blog offering a comprehensive view of social media marketing including updates to social platforms, trends, strategy and tactics.
Our favorite post: Social Media Calls to Action: 19 Words & Phrases to Generate More Engagement

39. Social Media Week News & Insights @socialmediaweek
Regular updates on the famous Social Media Week events in New York and Los Angeles plus coverage of social media technologies and marketing tactics.
Our favorite post: Boost Your Instagram Stories Game for 2019 With These 10 Practices

40. Social Report Blog @thesocialreport
A collection of practical posts about marketing on all of the major social networks plus trends and examples.
Our favorite post: 10 Top Social Media Scheduling Tools to Save Time in 2019

41. Social Sorted @SociallySorted
Donna Mortiz offers awesome monthly list posts of social media marketing ideas and in between shares visual and video marketing advice for social media channels.
Our favorite post: 60+ April Social Media Ideas – Videos, GIFs and more!

42. Spiderworking @Spiderworking
Amanda Webb covers social platform updates, examples and practical advice about small business social and content marketing.
Our favorite post: Relationship Marketing With Jessika Phillips, Pots Of Gold And LinkedIn Networking

43. Sue B Zimmerman @SueBZimmerman
The guru of Instagram marketing.
Our favorite post: How To Grow Instagram Followers in 2019

44. The Social Media Hat @SocialMediaHats
Mike Allton’s blog with practical advice about blogging, social media, SEO and email marketing.
Our favorite post: How to Create 26 Pieces Of Content From A Facebook Live

45. Talkwalker Blog @Talkwalker
Social Media Marketing and analytics blog with an emphasis on social monitoring and data applications.
Our favorite post: Social media trends that will impact 2019

46. Twitter Marketing Blog @Twitter
Official blog from Twitter about product news, marketing and advertising best practices and research.
Our favorite post: 10 ways marketing changed with Twitter

47. Unmetric Blog @unmetric
Social Media Marketing strategy, industry trends, and how to articles focused on brands.
Our favorite post: Brands vie for the throne in the game of social media marketing

One trend I’ve noticed is that many individuals that have really made a name for themselves as trusted voices in the social media space during the formative years of the industry simply are not blogging as much or have diversified into other areas of marketing. At the same time, a steady drumbeat of social media marketing advice can be found amongst a smaller number of highly focused industry blogs and companies serving the social media marketing industry.

Speaking of the social media marketing industry, you may have noticed some well known social media marketing technology brands are not on the above list. That’s because we’ve already included them in the martech list, but they certainly belong in this collection, so here they are:

Introvert people

Putting together a large number of contemporary tests of personality, Grimes, Cheek, Julie Norem, and Courtney Brown created the STAR test to measure four kinds of introversion. To figure out your primary introverted type, take this online test:

To find out where you stand on each of the four meanings of introversion, answer the following questions by deciding to what extent each item is characteristic of your feelings and behavior. Fill in the blank next to each item by choosing a number from the following scale:

1 = very uncharacteristic or untrue, strongly disagree

2 = uncharacteristic

3 = neutral

4 = characteristic

5 = very characteristic or true, strongly agree

Social Introversion

____ 1. I like to share special occasions with just one person or a few close friends, rather than have big celebrations.

____ 2. I think it would be satisfying if I could have very close friendships with many people.

____ 3. I try to structure my day so that I always have some time to myself.

____ 4. I like to vacation in places where there are a lot of people around and a lot of activities going on.

____ 5. After spending a few hours surrounded by a lot of people, I am usually eager to get away by myself.

____ 6. I do not have a strong need to be around other people.

____ 7. Just being around others and finding out about them is one of the most interesting things I can think of doing.

____ 8. I usually prefer to do things alone.

____ 9. Other people tend to misunderstand me—forming a mistaken impression of what kind of person I am because I don’t say much about myself.

____ 10. I feel drained after social situations, even when I enjoyed myself.

Thinking Introversion

____ 1. I enjoy analyzing my own thoughts and ideas about myself.

____ 2. I have a rich, complex inner life.

____ 3. I frequently think about what kind of person I am.

____ 4. When I am reading an interesting story or novel or when I am watching a good movie, I imagine how I would feel if the events in the story were happening to me.

____ 5. I seldom think about myself.

____ 6. I generally pay attention to my inner feelings.

____ 7. I value my personal self-evaluation, that is, the private opinion I have of myself.

____ 8. I sometimes step back (in my mind) in order to examine myself from a distance.

____ 9. I daydream and fantasize, with some regularity, about things that might happen to me.

____ 10. I am inclined to be introspective, that is, to analyze myself.

Anxious Introversion

____ 1. When I enter a room I often become self-conscious and feel that the eyes of others are upon me.

____ 2. My thoughts are often focused on episodes of my life that I wish I’d stop thinking about.

____ 3. My nervous system sometimes feels so frazzled that I just have to get off by myself.

____ 4. I am confident about my social skills.

____ 5. Defeat or disappointment usually shame or anger me, but I try not to show it.

____ 6. It does not take me long to overcome my shyness in new situations.

____ 7. I feel relaxed even in unfamiliar social situations.

____ 8. Even when I am in a group of friends, I often feel very alone and uneasy.

____ 9. My secret thoughts, feelings, and actions would horrify some of my friends.

____ 10. I feel painfully self-conscious when I am around strangers.

Restrained Introversion

____ 1. I like to be off and running as soon as I wake up in the morning.

____ 2. I’ll try anything once.

____ 3. For relaxation I like to slow down and take things easy.

____ 4. I like to wear myself out with exertion.

____ 5. I often say the first thing that comes into my head.

____ 6. I generally seek new and exciting experiences and sensations.

____ 7. I like to keep busy all the time.

____ 8. I often act on the spur of the moment.

____ 9. I sometimes do “crazy” things just to be different.

____ 10. I often feel sluggish.

How’d you do?

To find out your score for each of the four kinds of introversion,RECODE the following Reverse-Worded items: (1=5) (2=4) (4=2) (5=1):

Social Introversion items: 2, 4, & 7

Thinking Introversion item: 5

Anxious Introversion items: 4, 6, & 7

Restrained Introversion items: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, & 9

Next, add together all the numbers to come up with a total score.

Here’s a guide of how you scored compared to others in the general population:

  • Social Introversion — below 24 low, around 30 average, above 36 high​
  • Thinking Introversion — below 28 low, around 34 average, above 40 high
  • Anxious Introversion — below 23 low, around 30 average, above 37 high
  • Restrained Introversion — below 25 low, around 31 average, above 37 high

This alternative way of assessing introversion is not likely to be embraced by Big Five personality researchers [6]. But if it offers you a more satisfying, personally meaningful way to glean insight into your unique personality, feel free to throw the Big Five framework out the window.

© 2014 Scott Barry Kaufman, All Rights Reserved.

Acknowledgement: Thanks to Connor Child at Qzzr for his help with the online quiz, and Jennifer Odessa Grimes and Jonathan Cheek for their help with this post.

[1] This list is adapted from Jonathan Cheek’s book review, which can be found here.

[2] As another example, take people who conceptualize themselves as highly introverted because they are very introspective and value their rich inner mental lives, but who score high in enthusiasm and assertiveness on the Big Five test. These folks are being told by modern personality psychologists: “You are really an extrovert who is also high in intellect/imagination.” For those who have spent their entire lives equating their love of thinking and fantasy with their “introversion”, they respond: “huh?” In the Big Five, imagination, fantasy, and introspection are positively associated with Extraversion. But if we do away with the label of introversion in the Big Five, then that allows a person to be introverted in the thinking/introspective sense but also be an extravert in the Big Five sense (high in enthusiasm and assertiveness).

[3] Popular writers on introversion are also not pleased with this psychological imperialism. For instance, in Sophia Sembling’s book The Introvert’s Way, she has a chapter titled “Introverts are Not Failed Extroverts”.

[4] Keep in mind, the Big Five is a descriptive model; it merely describes patterns of covariation between people. The labels used to describe the five personality dimensions are subjective. A lot of the arguments over what counts as introversion come down to a naming game. In my view, it’s really unfortunate that Big Five researchers started to use the label “introversion” to mark the lower end of extraversion. It wasn’t always this way. In fact, the original name for “extraversion” in the Big Five was “Surgency“. If it were up to me, it would have stayed that way, leaving the label “introversion” free to continue roaming the personality landscape. As Jonathan Cheek told me, “if the Big Five folks would just go back to that phrase [“Surgency”], they would not be crossing swords with folk psychology/ordinary language introverts. Perhaps introversion should *not* be used as a label in the Big Five system.” I agree.

[5] Here is the link to the research report about the new STAR scale. You might be wondering: “What about the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test? Isn’t that good enough to measure introversion?” Well, no it isn’t. As it turns out, the MBTI extraversion-introversion scale only includes items relating to being talkative, gregarious, and sociable (vs. quiet and reserved). Since there’s not a single item on the MBTI extraversion-introversion dimension that mentions being introspective or reflective, even the MBTI doesn’t measure Jung’s original conceptualization of the term!

[6] Big Five researchers could make the case that each of these four meanings of introversion can easily be mapped onto the Big Five framework. For instance, they could argue that:

-Social introversion is really just “low enthusiasm” (part of the extraversion domain)

-Thinking introversion is not part of the extraversion-introversion domain at all, but really is “high intellect/imagination”

-Anxious introversion is really just a blend of “high neuroticism” and “low assertiveness” (part of the extraversion domain)

-Restrained introversion” is a blend of a number of lower-order extraversion-related traits, including “low sensation seeking”, “low excitement seeking”, and “low activity”.

What Kind of Introvert Are You?

Are you an introvert? It depends on which book you read. Here’s a sampling of the various conceptualizations of introversion in pop culture [1]: Preference for quiet, minimally stimulating environments: Quiet by Susan Cain Preference for concentration and solitude: The Introvert’s Way by Sophia Dembling Rechargeable battery: The Introvert Advantage by Marti Olsen Laney Thoughtful-introspective

Are you an introvert? It depends on which book you read.

Here’s a sampling of the various conceptualizations of introversion in pop culture [1]:

Historically, there has been just as much confusion in the psychological literature. Carl Jung originally defined introversion as a focus on one’s “inwardly directed psychic energy”. However, in the 30s, the psychologist J.P. Guilford showed that various attempts to measure Jung’s conceptualization of introversion resulted in multiple, distinct factors. In other words, there didn’t appear to be a single dimension of personality that captured all of introversion.

In the 60s Patricia Carrigan echoed this point, arguing that introversion was not effectively captured by a single scale. She cautioned that if the phrase introversion is to continue to be used, “care must be taken to specify its conceptual and operational referent. What appear to be minor distinctions between the various conceptions may in fact be crucial ones.” In the 70s, the heated debate continued, with a much older Guilford arguing with H.J. Eysenck over whether introversion can possibly, or even should, be captured by a single scale.

All seemed to be settled in the 90s with the emergence of the “Big Five” framework of personality. The five main factors of personality– extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and intellect/imagination– were empirically derived based on what patterns of behavior tend to go together within individuals. Under this framework, introversion is merely defined as the opposite of extraversion.

In the Big Five framework, extraversion comprises two main aspectsenthusiasm (reflecting sociability, positive emotions, and warmth) and assertiveness (reflecting the tendency to take charge, become a leader, and captivate attention). The common factor seems to be high sensitivity to rewards in the environment— which due to the highly social nature of humans throughout the course of human evolution, most prominently consists of rewards associated with social attention.

Therefore, under the dominant personality framework in modern psychology, if you score low in enthusiasm and assertiveness, you’re an introvert

Here’s the problem: the Big Five framework forces a definition of introversion onto people, many of whom do not conceptualize introversion in the same way. For instance, one study did a comparison of common-sense/everyday notions of introversion and ‘scientific’ conceptions of introversion. They found that the most prototypical characteristic of introversion, as identified by the general public, was the following item:

Clearly, many people equate introversion with introspection. In the Big Five framework, however, this item is classified as part of the intellect/imagination domain of personality, not the introversion domain. So there’s a serious mismatch between folk definitions of introversion and scientific definitions. People who view themselves as introverted because they are highly introspective are being told by scientists: “You aren’t really introverted based on patterns of covariation among the general population.” To which everyday people rightfully respond: “WTF?” [3]

As noted personality psychologist Jonathan Cheek told me, “by invalidating the ordinary language meaning of introversion by defining it solely as the opposite of Big Five Extraversion, the Big Five researchers are guilty of Psychological Imperialism [4].” Influenced by the seminal work of Jung, Guilford, and Carrigan, Cheek and his colleagues have decided to take a different approach, by focusing on the phenomenon of introversion on its own, free from having to be force-fit into one scheme or another.

As Carl Jung said, each individual is ultimately a unique crystal, but type theories can be helpful for navigating social life. Embracing this Jungian philosophy, Cheek and his colleagues argue that when people use the term “introversion”, they should never just use it by itself. Instead, they argue that researchers should put a specific modifier in front of the term. What modifiers could be used?

In her masters thesis (written under the advisement of Cheek), Jennifer Odessa Grimes defined four meanings of introversion: social, thinking, anxious, and restrained (which happens to form the positive acronym STAR). It’s possible to score high or low on either of these flavors of introversion. For instance, you could be low in social introversion by preference but not be particularly anxious in the presence of people. Or you could suffer from crippling social anxiety, but still have the desire to be highly social. Or any other combination of these four meanings of introversion.

By this point you’re probably wondering what kind of introvert you are. Well, you’re in luck. There’s a new test for that.

Best Lifestyle Blogs to Follow in 2021

Lifestyle Blog niche is one of the most competitive blogging niches around. Lifestyle bloggers are competing against digital lifestyle magazines, in a niche that is already quite saturated. So lifestyle blogs that gain a large readership are of a high standard in both design and content.

Online mags often have huge budgets, a print edition as well as digital, and content that is varied and expertly written, with professional photos. But lifestyle blogs have an edge in that they can supply new content every day if they so wish. Lifestyle blogs are free to access whereas digital magazine editions can only be accessed through paid subscriptions.

For a lifestyle blog to thrive, the authors need to provide excellent, accurate content and photos that create interest and capture the readers’ imaginations. Lifestyle bloggers have raised their standards to compete with the best of both online mags and other lifestyle blogs.

But what exactly constitutes a lifestyle blog?

Let’s find out!

Defining Lifestyle Blogs

A lifestyle blog is defined as digital content representing the author’s everyday life and interests. The word “lifestyle” according to the dictionary means “habits, attitudes, moral standards, which together constitute the way of life of a given person or group”. (source: dictionary.com)

As a result, lifestyle blogs can fall into many micro-niches. This allows bloggers to provide content for a specific target audience. Lifestyle bloggers often promote products, brands, and services to monetize their blogs. So it’s almost essential that the person behind the blog is well-versed in whatever the specific topics are.

Here’s a shortlist of typical Lifestyle Blogging niches:

  • Luxury Lifestyle Blogs
  • Foodie Lifestyle Blogs
  • Home & Garden Lifestyle Blogs
  • Fashion Blogs & Beauty Lifestyle Blogs
  • Travel Blogs & Photography Lifestyle Blogs
  • Health & Fitness Lifestyle Blogs
  • Men’s Lifestyle Blogs
  • Natural Living Lifestyle Blogs
  • Outdoor Lifestyle Blogs
  • And Lifestyle Blogs for people with children (also called mom blogs or parenting blogs.)

Sometimes even these categories get split into various combinations, depending on the blogger. So you could end up with a Fashion and Travel Blog, A Natural Living Mom Blog, or even a Foodie and Photography Lifestyle blog.

Lifestyle blog vs. personal blog

Lifestyle blogs are not personal blogs because they focus more on users (readers). The content is created here for the reader and his expectations. What’s more, lifestyle blogs focus on the author’s benefits, not just on telling stories.

In personal blogs, the most important are the author’s emotions and thoughts, who expresses his opinions, writes about his experiences, feelings, reflections. In the personal blog, the author himself is the most important, not the reader.

I can’t write about lifestyle blogs without mentioning a few from each niche. I’ve tried to give you a selection of the most captivating from each subgenre (or micro-niche). These Lifestyle blogs check all the boxes. They are fun, relevant, trendy, polished, and loaded with content that appeals to a specific target audience.

A Quick Note To Would-Be Lifestyle Bloggers

Before I launch into “Our Best Of” list, a word of caution to would-be lifestyle bloggers; even if you have many areas of interest yourself, try to whittle your content down to cover only one or two main topics. This helps when you are trying to grow a steady, loyal readership.

Male readers don’t want to read about fishing, fashion, and raising a brood of ankle snappers! A young professional will not be interested in “Ten Tips To Wean Your Child off Breast Milk”, and your Luxury Lifestyle blog will not impress our Tree Hugging friends who will recoil in horror at the decadence of luxury lifestyles! Readers who enjoy luxury will also not be impressed with Frugal Living!

On the other hand, the lifestyle blogging niche allows the most freedom for bloggers who genuinely do have a vast array of topics that pair well together. If you can create the content and maintain the variety, then you will create space for a wider readership.

Top blogs in lifestyle category

This collection of blogs showcases the variety and range of lifestyle blogs that get it right!

1. Goop.com

Goop was one of the first lifestyle blogs to hit the circuit, way back in 2008. The brainchild of actress and mother, Gwyneth Paltrow, Goop covers everything for the modern woman. She focuses on wellness and how to create a balance between parenting and work. Something all working moms know about! She has a strong team behind her and Goop is a mini-empire in its own right.

Goop covers:

  • Beauty
  • Food & Home
  • Style
  • Travel
  • Wellness

Target Audience: Women of all ages and enlightened men.

2. The Pioneer Woman (thepioneerwoman.com)

This is a lifestyle blog that stands out for me. Unlike so many lifestyle blogs, Ree Drummond blogs about a lifestyle that all Americans know and love. Pure salt of the earth, rustic ranch life. The blog packs a punch! Ree has combined recipes, style, beauty, home & life, food & cooking, news, and entertainment. And great giveaways. She started as a lone ranger but now has a team of editors assisting her in keeping the blog relevant, trendy, and homegrown.

Target Audience: People keen on ranch-style living.

*3. Brightbazaarblog.com

Bright Bazaar blog was founded in 2009 by Will Taylor. This is the place where Will blogs about his love for colorful design, travel, and fashion. This blog is recommended by esteemed publishing houses Elle Decor, Martha Stewart Living, and many others.

If you need more home inspiration, look at other famous bloggers in the article: The Best Interior Design Blogs.

Target Audience: People who love design.

4. Cup of Jo (cupofjo.com)

Joanna Goddard is a perfect example of what can be achieved through blogging. Joanna launched Cup of Jo in 2007, as a hobby. At that time her career was quite a high-powered one. She has loads of editorial experience and her resume brags the likes of Cosmo, Bene, Glamour, and New York.

Today Cup of Jo has a team of writers and is Joanna’s full-time gig. She lives in Brooklynn with her husband and two kids. The blog covers relationships, design, food, style, travel, culture, and motherhood. This is a great blog for women.

Target Audience: Women and mothers of all ages

. Say Yes (sayyes.com)

. Say Yes (sayyes.com)

Education is life

Today the World is becoming a superficial place. Our time appoints the absurd, making social networks as a real-world by a considerable part of the younger generations.

It is a virtual reality, more precise than high-definition video games, more addictive and harmful to the mind and the body.

This fake reality indeed kills the neurons converting people into zombies led by a leader of unknown appearance.

Ignorance acts as the lock, and manipulation working as the key entering every mind. Then, it hacks and promotes war even over the most absurd topic that any influencer shares in a post.

The social network profile becomes an epicentre of empty universes, universes that conflict with the real-life, where, as in the war, leads to the destruction of entire generations.

Using actualized tools, but the same indoctrination mechanisms used in the world wars. Again, the end justifies it, annulling individuals’ conscience and making them members of the social mass.

Even though each social profile is seemingly unique, there is no perspective on what life is in its essence. The network is a game that only favours some private interests.

We know the truth: countries born from interests, wars arise, passions move. Interests motivate greed. Greed sooner or later destroys life. Life, which, without a doubt, is the only thing we have.

Blood wars are no longer an option in our time across the rich countries. New wars are too expensive and risky.

Wars are now abstract. Wars involve factual powers whose shadow is unknown and whose attacks are directed to control the terrestrial and the extraterrestrial.

The end of empires has never come. In our time, empires are mainly commercial, managing everything that allowed us to be free.

Now empires dictate what to be and how to be.

Indeed, commercial or blood, all war implies the destruction of every trace that makes us human.

Every war, directly and indirectly, destroys our soul and breaks the only thing we take when we leave.

War destroys what we have lived and what we will no longer discover for ceasing to be ourselves.

There are not strong leaders to help us. Corruption and secrets are always leaked by someone who is behind the scenes.

We are the unique leaders of our time; we are the bosses of our destiny.

We must not perish. Responding to Hamlet, the worthiest thing for the soul is to fight for our fortune, live our lives, and rebel against this wild sea of misery.

The only thing that saves us from interest, the only thing that separates us from greed, the only thing that allows us to see reality is education.

However, all education is written by the victors and not by the vanquished. Our salvation involves investigating, delving into every little remorse and lack of meaning of our multiple thoughts.

The only thing that educates us is ourselves.

What do I mean when I say “Education for Life?” I can present the problem and the solution. The problem is that people in traditional forms of education usually approach it from the standpoint of just preparing a person for a job. But one’s job isn’t the definition of one’s life—it’s only that which enables you to have enough money to meet your needs. Our lives encompass a much broader arena than one’s capacity to earn money. Any educational system that teaches only job skills or offers only intellectual information is neglecting the essential needs of human beings. The solution is a form of education that trains us in that which is most relevant to us—how to find lasting happiness in life.

We deeply need proper training in “how-to-live” skills such as how to find the right mate, how to raise our children, how to be a good employee, how to get along with our neighbors, and how to concentrate our minds so that we can draw success into all our endeavors. There are many such skills that are essential to prepare a child for adulthood, and in traditional education many of them are completely ignored. Education for Life is a system that prepares the child to face the challenges of living as a human being, and helps him to achieve balance and harmony in all he does. What we’re really talking about is preparing everyone, not just children, for true maturity. This is a much bigger concept than just coming of age. As defined it in the book, Education for Life, maturity is the ability to relate appropriately to other realities than one’s own. You’ll find that even people of advanced years are often childish and immature with regard to this definition, yet this ability to relate to others’ realities is what education should accomplish.

The Case for a New Avenger

S.H.I.E.L.D. might have missed assembling team members from India, but it is never too late to correct an oversight. Imagine our larger-than-life superhero, Rajinikanth, partnering with other Avengers in a combined mission to save the planet from dangerous predators with bad intentions. Some aliens, some familiar ones! Yes, India is far from America, and the distance seems to have increased during the pandemic, but Rajinikanth could give some worthy company to Iron Man and perhaps teach him a trick or two, too, through holographic interfaces and augmented reality. Who knows, he could also kill all the mutants of Coronaviruses in this quest!

I wish to present some facts now to give you a background of my strategic human resource and leadership plan for S.H.I.E.L.D. India has one of the largest numbers of gig workers in the world. As per a March 2021 report by consulting firm Boston Consulting Group (BCG) and Michael & Susan Dell Foundation, the gig economy in India is expected to soar to 90 million in approximately a decade from now. Choose any vocation here and you will be spoilt for choices. Almost everyone is an expert on politics, economics, socio-cultural issues, fashion, sports, career, marriage, children, nature, animals, traffic, the dos, and don’ts … the list is endless. People can even advice others on how they should lead their lives. It’s affection, silly!

War for talent? Clearly, recruiters have not been able to explore the depth of this vast pool. To reiterate, India is a land bubbling with high potentials. Now let us go back to the topic of superpowers. There is plan B too. Rajinikanth could have a serious competition in a plain-looking community here. S.H.I.E.L.D. could consider appointing some members from this fraternity too.

You are rolling your eyes? Why? Hear me out. Presenting to you the case of beholders of the mighty pen (over a sword or a gun), and the upholders of fine speech. Their words hit no less than the missiles unleashed by Israel over the Gaza strip. Let me walk you through the innate gifts of a less publicized community with an immensely amoeba-like (plasma membrane) flexibility.

The teachers.

The extremely sturdy ones can stand the whole day, operate (teach) without a table and a chair, or, the basic infrastructure, and sometimes work even at low or no salaries for months. The strengths, struggles and coping mechanism of the privileged ones out of this lot are embedded in different realms. More on that, later! You will be astonished to learn how many hats teachers can don at the same time. They juggle between being a mentor, coach, counsellor, Devil’s advocate, friend, philosopher, or guide. Interestingly, even their DNA personifies versatility. Over the years, the mutations in their genetic material have helped them learn how to make milestones of the stones thrown at them by students unhappy with their marks, and parents unhappy with the teachers for giving those marks! Talk about heightened senses, their eyes can easily observe and sense the intention behind each greeting, smile and calls to the office. They are like Sharma ji ka beta/beti’, always expected to excel at everything and set an ideal example for the others to emulate.

Here, I would take a detour and ask you to recall the violinists who continued to play music for as long as they were alive, just to calm the passengers on the sinking Titanic ship. On similar lines, teachers continued to teach while the pandemic unleashed havoc around the world. The unlearning of years of classroom teaching was replaced by the immediate need to adopt new technological tools and re-learn the art of virtual teaching. The new and changed landscape was no less than the one post Thanos snapping his finger.

Aren’t convinced yet? Go to the polling booths and follow the polio immunization drives, you will know what I mean.

Now the final hook. Except for some teachers working with elite institutions, the rest won’t even charge much for their services. You can simply smile, appreciate their work, show some respect, and boy, see how they melt! Just watch how it lights up their faces. They are so motivated, especially on September 5 every year in India, that even Abraham Maslow bows to them from time to time from his grave. Had told you about their genetic sequencing earlier, remember? I do hope I have presented their (our) case well, S.H.I.E.L.D. Hopefully, you will have a relook at your current team now.

On a sidenote, can I be a contender too? Just saying. I can take it up as a gig assignment during the semester breaks. Imagine the newest Avenger on the block and that too a female from India! It will further boost the diversity and inclusion factors for you. If you can give equitable salary and perks, you could even find yourself on the pages of Harvard cases.

You might want to provide supplements of Vitamin T(eacher) to your team if Rajinikanth’s diary of appointments is full. Professor Hulk would not mind some more erudite company. In return, I vow to start quoting your example in my classes as a great employer brand with an excellent employee value proposition. Who knows, I might even write a research article. Told you, pen and words are the weapons here. Think about it. What say? Are you game?

P.S. I have recently bought a telescope to keep an eye on the stars and planets too. Taking my possible future role tad too seriously, eh?

Hope for the best, but expect less

I’m not in this world to live up to your expectations and you’re not in this world to live up to mine. -Bruce Lee

A friend’s status update on a social media site: ‘Who hurt you? My own expectations.’

Yes, we all have expectations in our lives: what we want out of life and who we want to become. I believe one of the keys to happiness lies within the management of your expectations of people and circumstances. If you do not have expectations, you can never be disappointed. Often we tend to believe that the way we treat others will be the way we are treated in return. But, unfortunately, this does not always happen.

The biggest disappointments in our lives are often the result of misplaced expectations. This is especially true when it comes to our relationships and interactions with others. You need to make sure you enter into relationship with someone who has as big of a heart as you do. If you do not, you may feel as if you are being taken advantage of. You need to find people who appreciate what you do for them and who will reciprocate those actions.

There are two ways to be happy: improve your reality or lower your expectations. Having realistic expectations will allow you to accept the flaws each person has. We need to learn how to take responsibility for our own lives and our own decisions before we can expect others to do the same.

One of the biggest challenges we face in life is learning to accept people for who they truly are. Once you realize that your expectations cannot change people, the better off you will be. Give without expectation, accept without reservation, and love with hesitation. Unrealistic expectations most often do lead to disappointment. Too many people are obsessed with finding the perfect career or the perfect spouse, and as a result become increasingly frustrated when this does not happen in reality.

Expectation is the root of all heartache. Try to remain confident while maintaining positive aspirations; just remember not to make the aspirations so high that they are impractical or unreachable.

Acceptance is an amazing trait that needs to be actively worked toward. When things do not work out the way we had planned, it is much more beneficial to realize that is how life works rather than becoming frustrated at the situation. Have hope rather than expectations and you will tend not to be as disappointed.

People rarely behave exactly the way you want them to. Hope for the best, but expect less. And remember, the magnitude of your happiness will be directly proportional to your thoughts and how you choose to think about things. Even if a situation or relationship doesn’t work out at all, it’s still worth it, if it made you feel something new, taught you something afresh.

BIOGRAPHIES OF GREAT LEADERS

INDIRA GANDHI

Indira Gandhi in full Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi, (1917-1984). She was born in Allahabad. She was the Indian politician who was the first female prime minister of India, serving for three consecutive terms (1966–77) and a fourth term from 1980 until she was assassinated in 1984. Indira Gandhi was the only child of Jawaharlal Nehru.

She was a top leader of the powerful and long-dominant Indian National Congress (Congress Party), and was the first prime minister (1947–64) of independent India .On Shastri’s sudden death in January 1966, Gandhi was named leader of the Congress Party and thus also became prime minister in a compromise between the party’s right and left wings. Her leadership, however, came under continual challenge from the right wing of the party, led by former minister of finance Morarji Desai. She won a seat in the 1967 elections to the Lok Sabha, but the Congress Party managed to win only a slim majority of seats, and Gandhi had to accept Desai as deputy prime minister.

During the early 1980s Indira Gandhi was faced with threats to the political integrity of India. Several states sought a larger measure of independence from the central government, and Sikh separatists in Punjab state used violence to assert their demands for an autonomous state. Tensions between the government and the Sikhs escalated, and in June 1984 Gandhi ordered the Indian army to attack and oust the separatists from the complex. Some buildings in the shrine were badly damaged in the fighting, and at least 450 Sikhs were killed (Sikh estimates of the death toll were considerably higher). On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi’s Sikh bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, shot her with their service weapons in the garden of the prime minister’s residence at 1 Safdarjung Road, New Delhi, allegedly in revenge for Operation Blue Star. The shooting occurred as she was walking past a wicket gate guarded by the two men. She was succeeded as prime minister by her son Rajiv, who served until 1989.

7 important tips to manage aggression in children

Manage child aggression: To develop a sound value system, tell them stories. For very small children, stories should be pleasant, free of fighting and violence, about animals and nature, sharing and caring. When they are five or six, it is okay to introduce stories with good people and ‘bad’ people.

child, who wanted to be perceived as the strongest of all, would speak loudly, look angry and hit everyone to prove his strength. When his grandfather came to visit, he behaved in the same way with him. However, his grandpa was never agitated and just smiled at his actions. The child was bewildered as he was only used to getting yelled at for what he did. The more he was yelled at, the stronger he would become, is what he thought!

Grandpa shares the Buddha story

The grandfather asked him if he would like to hear a story and the boy agreed. “Once upon a time, there was an enlightened master called Buddha. He travelled across the country teaching people how to be peaceful. Once while he was going through a forest, a tribesman called Angulimala came to him. He was a frightening man. He wore a garland of fingers of people whom he had sacrificed so he would be the strongest and feared the most. He wanted to have Buddha’s finger as the hundredth and complete his sacrificing ritual. Buddha smiled at him and said, “I am happy to be of use to you”. There was no trace of fear in him. Nobody had ever smiled at Angulimala. No one had ever spoken to him so kindly. The very presence of Buddha did something to him. Angulimala felt very weak for the first time in his life. He felt like a feather in front of a mountain. He realised that real strength is in having unshakable calmness, peace, and in compassion. He fell at Buddha’s feet. He was changed completely.” The child listened to every word from his grandpa with rapt attention.

Look out for the media children are exposed to

When you feel helpless or weak, the need to assert your strength comes out as violence. Where do children get the idea of violence? They see their parents, neighbours, friends, so many programmes on TV or videos on the mobile phone — all this exposure leaves impressions and has a strong impact on the minds of children, more than we know. They are sensitive even to suppressed violence. If you are angry inside but still act as if everything is okay, children will know it.

Handling aggression

Children get angry or show aggression for seemingly very silly reasons. But the real reason is something else, a sense of insecurity that has crept in somehow. That is why in olden days, parents would never show anger in front of a child. They would not even argue or use harsh words. Public display of anger was considered a weakness. Today, anger and aggression comes up at the drop of a hat. Any minor difference of opinion is enough to prompt the arrows to fly. We don’t know how to draw a line between expressing a difference of opinion and displaying aggression. If your child is aggressive, look into your own lifestyle. What are you doing? Are you yelling at your housekeeper or at your pet? Are you yelling at your own spouse? Or any one for that matter in front of the child? Are you sad? What is your reaction? And it does not matter that out of the 365 days, you have acted in aggression may be only a couple of times. Those few days are equally important for the child. This is why we need to meditate and practice pranayama or deep breathing techniques. Heyum Dukham Anagatam — stopping the misery before it comes — that is the benefit of yoga, because in life prevention is better than cure.

Engaging children in meaningful activities

The other important thing is to engage them in meaningful activities, and sports that allow them to channel their energy constructively. Just playing video games or watching TV with no physical activity only increases restlessness and makes them prone to aggression. You will notice that the day your child has more screen time, the more difficult he or she becomes to handle. Encourage them to go out and play, engage with real people, run and fill their lungs with some fresh air. In the olden days, movies were classified as suitable for watching only under parental guidance. Parents would control what a child can see. Today, it is a common occurrence that the elders are all engrossed in watching soaps on TV and are oblivious to the child who is also watching and taking in all the exaggerated emotions that are projected. It is very important to be sensitive about what their tender senses are exposed to. They should not be bombarded with heavy impressions.

What kind of stories are we telling our children?

To develop a sound value system, tell them stories. For very small children, perhaps around three or four, stories should be pleasant, free of fighting and violence, about animals and nature, sharing and caring. When they are five or six it is okay to introduce stories with good people and ‘bad’ people. Every culture has its stories of heroes who protected the innocent and fought villains who were up to no good. Through these stories they understand that the purpose of strength is to protect and not to hurt. They learn that the hero, the stronger one, is calm and collected.

While it is important to reprimand anger, it is equally important to recognise when they are gentle and appreciate them. When I was a child and would sometimes get angry, my grandmother would ask me to go to a certain corner of the house and leave my anger there. She would say that the angel in that corner would take the anger from me and go far, far away. I would believe her, go stand there and in a minute, come back smiling! Schools today don’t teach children how to deal with negative emotions. This is an important aspect of moulding the character of the child. Teachers should be strict about encouraging the right attitude in children. They should recognise the strength of a child who is able to walk away from a fight and not just react and hit back. They should reward and give attention to calmness in a child. Many times, an aggressive attitude in a child comes out from simply wanting attention. So, you can teach them by ignoring their sulking or shouting, and praising them and giving extra attention when they are well-mannered. And parents should give teachers the space to discipline the child if necessary. It is okay if your child has been naughty and the teacher has disciplined him or her. Parents must encourage reverence towards the teacher. If they say, “Who is he or she to tell my child what to do!” the child will not listen or respect the teacher anymore. When this happens, learning stops.

Food is important

The food that we give to our children also has a role to play. Too many sweets, fried food (like chips) and oily food increase restlessness in a child. Also, their food must be freshly cooked as far as possible and not packaged items kept in cold storage. Encourage them to enjoy fruits as much as chips; perhaps one chip-one fruit can be the deal! Where possible, it is advisable to avoid food products made from genetically modified grains and vegetables. The food has a direct impact on the mind and when consumed over a period of time, has a definite impact on the nature or attitude of the child.

Above all this, as parents, it is important to spend quality time doing ‘nothing’ with your child. Just sitting with them without looking at our mobile phones, giving complete attention to what they have to say, just being with them 100 per cent gives a great sense of security to the child. An insecure child is more likely to succumb to aggression than one who feels secure and attended to.

Teach children that the one who smiles come-what-may is stronger.

Show them when to stand up for what is right, and when to walk away from a fight.

As much as you can, protect their innocence.

As much as you can, give them pride in non-violence.

Why do people have so much aggression?

  • We all act aggressively from time to time—say while sitting in traffic or in the midst of an argument—but some are more aggressive than others.
  • There are several reasons we engage in aggressive behavior, which also help to explain why some people display aggression more often.
  • These causes include instinct, hormonal imbalance, genetics, temperament, nurture, and stress.
  • If there are excessively aggressive people in your life, like a loved one or coworker, you can learn to cope or deal with their behavior effectively.
  • First, try keeping your cool, empathizing, and expressing your concern—these actions should help you to navigate the interaction and make it more pleasant.
  • If these strategies don’t prove effective, consider distancing yourself from the overly aggressive person; your wellbeing should be your priority.

Aggression is hostile or violent behavior. It’s a woman yelling at her son for spilling his milk on the carpet. It’s a child pushing his friend down on the playground because she was playing with his favorite toy. It’s a girl snapping at her boyfriend because he didn’t invite her out with the guys.

As you can see (and probably know from personal experience), aggression can take many forms. We all act aggressively at some point or another in our lives, whether it’s yelling at the black Sudan that cut us off or getting into it with family or friends. But some are more aggressive than others—quick to react or engage in hostile behavior. Which begs an important question: why

What Causes Aggression? 6 Origins

Sure, traffic can spur aggression, as can a disagreement with a coworker. But what’s the psychology behind this behavior? There are actually a few reasons we become aggressive, which also help to explain why some people are more aggressive than others:

1. Instinct: Aggression is one of our many survival instincts. According to Sigmund Freud, aggression continuously builds up until it releases as aggressive behavior, at some point or another. Some individuals can suppress this aggression and use other survival instincts instead, but others simply react and release.

2. Hormonal imbalance: A hormonal imbalance in an individual can certainly contribute to aggressive behavior. For example, high levels of testosterone contribute to high levels of aggression. This explains why males are characteristically more aggressive than females.

3. Genetics: Aggression can also be passed down genetically. Children are at a greater risk of adapting aggressive tendencies if they have a biological background for it. Time and time again, father and son both display aggressive behavior.

4. Physiological illness and temperament: Serious illness can have a major effect on an individual’s mood and behavior, as the stress and other mental effects may bring about greater aggression. Additionally, one’s temperament can play a role in aggression. People with bad tempers typically become aggressive more quickly than calmer individuals.

5. Social learning: Aggression can be learned. Some become more aggressive due to personal experiences or observational learning. For example, children are always looking for cues on how to act, as illustrated by the Bobo doll experiment. They learn to act aggressively when they watch someone else commit violent acts like in movies or video games.

6. Psychological frustrations: It’s human nature to become frustrated when life just doesn’t seem to be going so well. This frustration may involve work or love, for example, and can lead to an all-around feeling of negativity. This negativity then represents a threat, which can lead to aggression

How to Cope with an Aggressive Individual

Dealing with someone who constantly lashes out in hostile or violent behavior is tough—especially when it’s someone you’re close to like your boyfriend or mother, or someone you can’t get away from, like a coworker. In any case, the following can help you deal with the aggressive people in your life more effectively:

  • Keep your cool. The last thing that will alleviate this situation is another aggressive individual. Maintain your composure and use your better judgment to handle the situation. Aggressive people often seek to intimidate and upset others. You have to ensure this doesn’t happen and instead of reacting with rage like they want you to, take a moment to count to ten and think of a better way to deal with the situation at hand.
  • Put yourself in their shoes. Even if the aggression seems unwarranted, take a moment to imagine yourself in their position. Maybe they grew up in an overly aggressive household. Or, maybe they have a lot on their plate and they’re reacting to the stress with aggression. This will help calm your own negative feelings down and empathize with the individual. Then, maybe you can turn the aggressive attack into a productive conversation.
  • Express your concern. Maybe there isn’t an obvious, underlying cause of the individual’s aggression. Once you’ve taken a step away and you’re both calm, express your concern for them. They may not realize the severity of their aggression or its effect on those around them. It could take someone like you bringing it to light for them to make that realization and make a change.
  • Distance yourself. Sometimes, these aggressive individuals are just not worth it and don’t deserve a place in your life. You have to prioritize your wellbeing and if that means cutting them out of your lives, then so be it. And if cutting them completely out of your life isn’t very realistic (think, an aggressive aunt or uncle that’s at every family reunion or your coworker who doesn’t look to be going anywhere anytime soon), then just distance yourself as best you can. Avoid them.

Ultimately, you have to decide if it’s worth dealing with the aggressive individual. If you decide that it’s not, kick them to the curb and distance yourself from them. But if you decide that this individual is worth it and could maybe use your help, do your best to sympathize with them and determine the underlying cause of the aggression. This will help you both moving forward

Internet Banking

The innovations of information technology and internet have opened the new horizons to the Banking service delivery to the customers. Banking services are available on the finger tips of the customer via Internet Banking. Internet Banking, Net Banking or online banking allows you to perform various financial and non-financial transactions in your account with a click of button without visiting branch or ATM. It offers you a whole lot of features that earlier available only with the branch

In today’s fast-paced life, you need on-demand banking solutions for a better lifestyle. Internet Banking service gives you complete control over fund in your accounts online. Say bid-adieu to long queues and tired teller counter clerk. Now do banking from the comfort of your home or office, vacations ANYWHERE and ANYTIME!

Internet banking allows banking user to get connected to it’s bank’s internet banking portal to perform desire banking functions. If you are a Bank customer then you can avail Internet Banking facility after having received secure access of your net banking account from your bank. After secure login you will have direct access to your account. All the banking functions, financial and non-financials, that bank has made available on the internet banking mode will be displayed in menu of your online user account. You can select to perform any transaction and further result will be as per the policy for the nature of the service.

Your internet banking works on the concept of data centralization in the core banking system and allowing restricted access through net banking channel.

You must be apprehensive about the safety and security of online banking. Nelito’s Internet Banking product has following features to make your banking safe and secure:

  • Internet Banking product is developed on SSL protocol and 128-bit encryption technology to provide a secure channel for data exchange – which keeps your online banking data secure and safe.
  • Customer login is also verified at 2 levels by userid-password combination and PAN Number or Date of Birth authentications.
  • 2 Factor Authentication (2FA) requires you to input OTP (One Time Password) sent only on to your registered mobile number for all key transactions.
  • Your login session gets expired after a certain period in case there is no activity in your logged in session. This secures any unauthorized access to your logged in session.
  • Tracking of wrong OTP and passwork attempts.

Thus your Netbanking is safe, fast and secure, enabling you to perform your banking transaction with total peace of mind .

Range of services and features on internet banking includes:

  • Account Balance of all accounts linked to your customer ID
  • View and Download account statement.
  • Fund transfer through NEFT & RTGS
  • Avail Different Deposit Schemes and Banking Services like insurance, credit cards, demand draft etc.
  • Cheque Status and Stop Payment Request
  • Pay government taxes
  • Pay online your utility bills like Electricity, Telephone, Subscription payments along with Charity and Donation.
  • Recharge your mobile/DTH connection.
  • 24 x 7 Money Transfer through IMPS
  • Set up standing instructions for transfer of fixed amount to be executed at fixed intervals.
  • Various non-financial transactions like cheque book request, profile change, KYC, inquiries