Myths about Covid19

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Most people infected with the virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. However, some will become seriously ill and require medical attention. Older people and those with underlying medical conditions like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer are more likely to develop serious illnesses. Anyone can get sick with COVID-19 and become seriously ill or die at any age.

Myths about Covid19

  • Can Covid-19 be transmitted through goods produced in countries where there is ongoing transmission?

Although it can last on surfaces for many hours, the environment, transportation, and varying temperatures during shipment make it difficult for the virus to remain active. If you feel the surface may be contaminated, clean it with a disinfectant and wash your hands after touching it.

  • Can Covid-19 be transmitted through mosquitoes?

There is no evidence that the novel coronavirus can be transmitted through mosquitoes. The virus can be spread through droplets from coughing, sneezing or a patient’s saliva.

  • How can we be sure that our clothes don’t spread coronavirus 2019?

Besides showering every day, you should wash your clothes using detergent or soap in 60-90 ํC water or add bleach. Dry the clothes in a high-temperature dryer or the sun.

  • Can drinking alcohol help prevent Covid-19?

Drinking alcohol, such as beer, liquor, wine doesn’t help prevent coronavirus. You should wash your hands often, wear masks, and avoid being close to those with a fever and cough.

  • Is it true that Covid-19 is transmitted in a cold climate and not in a hot and humid climate?

Coronavirus 2019 can be transmitted in any kind of climate. Wherever you are, no matter what kind of climate, you have to practice personal hygiene, i.e. wash your hands often, cover your mouth when you sneeze or cough, and wear masks.

  • Can digital thermometers be 100% effective in detecting Covid-19 patients?

It may take the virus 1-14 days to incubate and cause symptoms like fever, so it cannot be used to identify asymptomatic patients.

  • Can UV bulbs use for disinfecting be used to kill Covid-19 on our body?

Don’t use UV bulbs on your hands or any part of the body because UV light can irritate your skin.

  • Can spraying alcohol or chlorine on your body kill the virus inside?

Besides not being able to kill the virus inside your body, it could damage clothes and other tissues like eyes and lips.

  • Can eating garlic prevent covid-19?

Though garlic has some anti-microbial properties, there is no evidence that it can prevent Covid-19.

  • Can Pneumonia vaccine prevent Covid-19?

This virus is new and different from other strains. We need a vaccine that is developed specifically. The research team is working on this through the support of the WHO.

  • Can rinsing your nose regularly with saline solution prevent Covid-19?

Evidence has indicated that rinsing your nose with saline solution can help us recover faster from the common cold, but cannot prevent infectious respiratory diseases or Covid-19.

  • Is there any drug that can prevent and treat Covid-19?

At present, no drug can prevent and treat the disease. Patients should receive proper and supportive care to alleviate the symptoms. WHO is accelerating research with all the partners to actively study the treatment for the disease.

References: WHO(World Health Organisation) 

Work From Home – An Effective Method

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When you have always conducted business in an office or other type of environment, working from home may take some getting used to. Being close to home comforts can be great, but it can also be easy to become distracted. The following tips will help you stay productive and focused while working from home.

  1. Create a routine

You may only commute for seconds rather than hours now, but keep your routine the same as before. Make sure you do all your washing and breakfast tasks and that you are at your workplace on time. Identify your desired break times and make sure you follow them. It is important to take regular breaks to maintain productivity and wellbeing. It is often easier to solve problems when you step away from them for a while.

  • Find a place to call your own

Do not work from a sofa, kitchen table, or similar space that may be shared by others. Establishing a work area promotes discipline. Be sure that everyone in your household understands that these are now your workspaces and set guidelines on how and when these will be used between you. 

  • Communicate with your colleagues

Use video conferencing apps or the telephone to communicate regularly with your colleagues and clients. Take advantage of the wide array of communications tools available to us – don’t just hibernate at home. Share ideas with others and get their feedback by calling them. Collaboration and staying in touch are key.  

  • Set deadlines for yourself

Create a list of things you need to do and when you will do them. When you plan your day hour by hour, you can check off your completed tasks as you finish them. You may have deadlines set by your company or clients, so it is then a matter of planning your day to achieve these deadlines.

  • Working from home should be comfortable

You will be working here all day, so make sure you have a decent chair and that your desk and PC are set up so that you can work with a straight back posture. Put effort into making your surroundings attractive. It can be relaxing to have some house plants around to help you feel connected to nature.  

  • Exercise, stretch, and eat well

Keep your eating habits disciplined and follow a healthy diet. By eating a healthy breakfast, you will be less tempted to snack later on. While working at your desk, you can perform many exercises and stretches. When you exercise, you release endorphins that increase happiness and boost productivity.

  • Take care of yourself

You should find what works for you in a workspace and a routine. Since each of us responds to environmental pressures differently, be honest with yourself and stick to what works for you if you work from home.

  • The benefits of flexible work 

Flexibility can mean a better work-life balance as well as a healthier and fulfilling lifestyle. However, these arrangements also impact positively on productivity. The benefits of flexible working are well established, from increased employee engagement to better performance. 

Migrant Crisis In Covid 19 Pandemic

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In the context of immigration, the COVID-19 economic crisis could be long, deep, and pervasive. Across the globe, economic activities have been slowed by travel bans, lockdowns, and social strife. There are additional challenges for the host countries in many sectors such as health and agriculture that depend on the availability of migrant workers. In addition to the risk of contagion, migrants may lose their employment, wages, and health insurance coverage.

Despite all forms of transportation being suspended and interstate borders being sealed, migrant workers across India made their way back home during the Covid-19 lockdown announced in March. During the lockdown, migrant workers’ greatest suffering resulted from their inability to manage their finances. The critical role of wages is evident in the lives of migrants and their families during this period – without wages, they could not meet basic needs such as food, water, shelter, or healthcare, or send remittances to their rural households who depend on immigration income. It is important to note that wages played an important socioeconomic role during the crisis, determining the ability of workers and their households to survive. Over 139 million Indians are migrant workers, which constitutes nearly half of the nation’s 470 million workforce. Despite the extreme desperation facing the vast mobile workforce during the shutdown, the issue of migrant workers’ access to protected wages has remained unaddressed. A strict nationwide lockdown was rather viewed as an outcome of poor planning by governments, which failed to account for the large numbers of undocumented, rural-urban migrants.

Migrant workers’ plight was attributed solely to their mobility between states, without taking into account the nature of their employment in urban labor markets, including low wages and insecure jobs. India’s wage-dependent workforce is vexed by an ongoing debate about the state’s protection of living wages. Despite substantial evidence to the contrary, some have argued that raising wages will lead to the closure of businesses and the loss of jobs. Even government reports, such as the Economic Survey (2019), by the State Bank of India (2019), and by the Reserve Bank of India (2018), highlight the fact that stagnation in real wages has hurt the consumption capacity of the poor, causing the economy to slow down. However, the neo-liberal economic policy that encouraged economic growth by slashing the labor protection framework, especially that protecting workers’ wages, weakened labor regulations and grievance redress mechanisms, leaving them unable to handle the widespread wage violations experienced by workers.

Due to the economic crisis due to the Covid-19 pandemic, experts suggest that measures to create disposable income, including raising wages, are a top priority in order to create economic revival. The post-lockdown period in India, however, has been marked by the dilution of the labor protection regime through the labor reform process, in order to facilitate economic revival rather than ensuring wage security for its migrant workers. Due to their alienation from the state machinery where they work, migrant workers cannot demand wages from their employers, and due to their lack of integration into trade unions at their destinations, in addition to their fragmentation by caste and region, they lack any collective bargaining platforms. It is critical that economic revival is imagined alternatively, and executed through a strong institutional framework, in order to prevent that economic expansion post-pandemic deepens the exploitation of and inequality faced by the country’s poorest wage, dependent populations.

Under such a framework, the state plays a crucial role in keeping wages protected by setting minimum wages at the level of living wages, allowing workers and their households to eat adequately to live a dignified life.

Covid-19 Pandemic And Students

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This school year, there were Coronavirus outbreaks at several schools. however, the rate of transmission was generally the same or lower in communities that had measures in place to minimize disease spread. Today, however, many school districts are being pressed to remove practices such as masking or testing. Although cases of COVID-19 with the delta variant doubled nationwide, this is despite a surge in outbreaks. Testing in schools will become even more important with the delta variant. In an ideal world, all students would be tested daily with free tests. If someone was infected, that test would detect it instantly and with 100 percent accuracy. But there are no such tests. Plus, schools don’t have unlimited funds or the ability to create perfect protocols. Instead, districts will have to weigh the pros and cons of different Coronavirus tests. There will have to be a balance between how often they test and who they test. Below is a look at the type of tests that schools use, along with their benefits and challenges.

Pooling tests

A new test was introduced at a school in America. Each week, thousands of students (with parental consent) swabbed their noses at home. A plastic baggie was used to store the swab, which they then brought to school. A nearby lab received swabs, which were mixed into 16 groups and shipped there. In the lab, technicians combined the samples from these swabs and performed PCR tests.

A PCR reaction is a polymerase chain reaction (PUL-im-er-ace). Genetic material can be detected in samples by these tests. A coronavirus is being looked for here. These tests are the gold standard for diagnostic tests. A PCR test will almost never reveal the presence of the Coronavirus in an uninfected individual. That would be what’s known as a false positive. But PCR tests can miss real infections. Ten to twenty percent of the time, it misses them. Nevertheless, it’s the most accurate test currently available. Tests that are less accurate are less expensive than tests that use PCR. Additionally, it takes longer to run. A cost-saving measure is combining individual samples into pools. The pooled test doesn’t need to be repeated if it’s negative. This can save a lot of money.

To make pooled testing work, students must buy-in. The peak participation rate in these schools averaged about 60 percent. Whenever a student tested positive, school nurses would scramble to contact the child. The kids were told to isolate themselves and identify everyone they had recently interacted with. Those contacts would then be notified about the possible exposure by the nurses. Contact tracing is a method of identifying contacts.

It does, however, have some drawbacks. PCR-testing labs are not readily available in all schools. In addition, the results take a few days to appear. Then we have to trace the contacts, which is even more time-consuming. As a result, the virus can spread easily among infected students. In the case of the delta variant, this may prove particularly troubling. As soon as they become infected, they are much more likely to spread it.

Online Courses for Students

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Being stuck in a pandemic, students have been confined to the four walls of their home. Everyone, from preschoolers to college students pursuing degrees, has been forced to learn online. In such a time of despair, it is only wise to make the most of it.

In today’s times, we are privileged to have an access to the internet, and using it wisely can provide a wealth of information. Amongst the plethora of resources, there are a few platforms that offer great courses, curated for the youth of today, with aim to up their skills in their respective fields. These courses will help you to learn new things from the comfort of your home.

Here are a few such platforms and courses that you can do to update your skills.

  1. Swayam.Gov.In-

SWAYAM is a Sanskrit acronym that stands for “Study Webs of Active-Learning for Young Aspiring Minds” is an Indian Massive open online course platform.  It offers over 2,748 courses taught by close to 1,300 instructors from over 203 Indian universities. They are officially launched by the Ministry of Education, Government of India.  It was launched on 9th July 2017 by Honourable President of India. The aim of Swayam is to give a coordinated stage and free entry to web courses, covering all advanced education, High School and skill sector courses. All the courses offered by SWAYAM are recognized by the government of India. certificates are awarded to students only after successful completion of the course which is valid pan India even while applying for jobs.

  • Oxford Home Study-

Oxford home study is UK’s leading Home Study Centre offering highly affordable home study courses. They deliver fully accredited courses in a variety of different fields; from art & design and management, through to interior design and work health & safety. Every course is created by a team of noted academics and experienced industry experts. This maintains the highest possible quality standards and provide the ultimate online learning experience for every student. These courses aren’t free; however, a student can take a loan or apply for scholarships. The certificates offered by these courses are valid and well recognised.

  • Udemy Courses-

Courses available on Udemy help you make the most of your time, from working at home to learn trending technical skills and self-improvement from wherever you are. They provide a wide range of courses, covering a variety of subject from writing, finance, commerce, e-commerce, lifestyle, fashion, designing and many more. Some of them are paid but many of them are free as well. Additionally, they provide a certificate too, however, only on paid courses.

  • Google Digital Garage-

The Digital Garage is a non-profit nationwide programme from Google delivering free digital skills training via an online learning platform. You can learn soft skills like personality development, building confidence or even practice our interview skills. The majority of courses are free, and are approved by industry experts, top entrepreneurs and some of the world’s leading employers. This ensures the student that they are learning from authentic sources. The speciality of these courses is that they are flexible i.e., can be learnt on own’s own pace, and extremely personalised. The most popular courses on this platform are Data and Tech, Digital marketing, online business. These are paid/free certificated courses. There are numerous reputed institutes providing courses on this platform; Monash University, university of Auckland, to name a few.

The beginning of covid culture

With the rise of coronavirus (COVID19), In the last few months, individuals, families, and communities in India have been negotiating a new social order. India’s roughly 1.3 billion people went under the first phase of lockdown in March 2020.  

The government had initiated these protocols concerning WHO :

  1. Wearing a mask in public 
  • Make sure your mask covers your nose, mouth, and chin.
  • Clean your hands before you put your mask on, before and after you take it off, and after you touch it at any time.
  • When you take off your mask, store it in a clean plastic bag, and every day either wash it if it’s a fabric mask or dispose of it in a trash bin if it’s a medical mask.
  • Don’t use masks with valves. 

2. Maintaining distance in public places

  • Avoid the 3Cs: spaces that are closed, crowded, or involve close contact.
  • Keeping 6 feet distance or a minimum of 3 feet in public
  • Meet people outside. Outdoor gatherings are safer than indoor ones, particularly if indoor spaces are small and without outdoor air coming in.
  •  Open a window to increase the amount of natural ventilation when indoors.

3. Keep good hygiene 

  • Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with either an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water. This eliminates germs that may be on your hands, including viruses.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Dispose of the used tissue immediately into a closed bin and wash your hands.
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces frequently, especially those which are regularly touched, such as door handles, faucets, and phone screens.

4. Vaccination 

  • Get vaccinated as soon as it’s your turn and follow local guidance on vaccination.
  • Do not believe in any false information about vaccination.
  • The vaccines approved in India are :

          1 Zydus Cadila. ZyCoV-D. 

          2 Moderna. mRNA-1273.

          3 Sputnik V.

          4 Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) 

          5 Oxford/AstraZeneca. AZD1222.

          6 Serum Institute of India. Covishield

          7 Bharat Biotech. Covaxin. 

What to do if we get sick?

  • If you have a fever, cough, and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately. Call by telephone first and follow the directions of your local health authority.
  • Do not take any random medicines without the concern of a proper physician. 
  • Know the full range of symptoms of COVID-19. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, tiredness, and loss of taste or smell. Less common symptoms include aches and pains, headache, sore throat, red or irritated eyes, diarrhea, a skin rash, or discoloration of fingers or toes.
  • Stay home and self-isolate for 10 days from symptom onset, plus three days after symptoms cease. Call your health care provider or hotline for advice. Have someone bring you supplies. If you need to leave your house or have someone near you, wear a properly fitted mask to avoid infecting others.
  • Keep up to date on the latest information from trusted sources, such as WHO or your local and national health authorities. Local and national authorities and public health units are best placed to advise on what people in your area should be doing to protect themselves.

Written with reference to WHO and MoHFW (Ministery of health and family welfare Government of India ) 

Changes in Education

It all started on the ending days of march 2020 when lockdown began in India, everyone was at home and there were no signs of going out. At that time many problems came out among students like stress, anxiety, frustration, and boredom and we missed going to school/college and hanging out with friends. 

Soon schools and colleges started the medium of education through the internet. First, we all thought it would be easy to cope up but it didn’t work out to be like that. Various methods were used for classes like reading material, assignments, communication via email, live chats or messages, and delivering content by live sessions, presentations, recorded videos, or lectures.

Picture credits: https://thedmonline.com/how-students-are-adjusting-to-online-classes/

 Both students and teachers faced a lot of problems in this medium.

Technical issues

Many students were not well equipped with devices and a high internet connection that is required for online learning. Due to this, they face problems in going live for virtual learning and other platforms that require an internet connection. And most of the teachers were not much familiar with technology as it was their first time teaching on this medium.

Distractions

Because online learners use their computers and the Internet to participate in online learning, they may be tempted by many distractions. Students working on an assignment may find themselves surfing the Web, checking social networking sites, or catching up with video games. 

Lack of In-Person Interaction

Despite of getting reading material, communication via email, live sessions, presentations, recorded videos, or lectures for the students. As compared to traditional ones, students find it difficult to communicate in person who struggles with understanding concepts. Many times these students do not even approach teachers to clear their doubts as they are shy to speak up in front of everyone.

 Evaluation

In online mode, the task of giving assignments is easier but it is difficult to evaluate the students on basis of their performance. There would be students who would be copying everything from the internet. In a recent survey, it was found that 73% of students cheat during online examinations via internet, and 27% were cheating through books. 

Time management

In many cases, both students and teachers find difficulty in managing their time with online learning and doing household work. Online learning is completely new for them and requires intensive work. Everyone needs a well-planned schedule to manage their time in an effective manner. Online learning provides flexible time unlike traditional classrooms, whereas in traditional classes the schedule is highly maintained.

Course

The course and its content is designed earlier with respect to traditional classrooms. But with the shift to online learning, it requires redesigning of course which can take a considerable amount of time. In most cases, these courses work well in traditional classrooms but go flat in online learning. It happens when there are no content-related activities, assignments, or projects that can be done online.

Covid 19 brought a very big change in Education. Well in the end from my own perspective I can say conclusively that both traditional and online methods are in need of much evolving in fulfilling the needs of both teachers and students.

Blood type

Do you know your blood type? If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important, you might not.

We know that there are 8 main blood groups that make up most of the world’s population.

But it turns out that scientists still don’t know why we evolved different blood types. And that may remain a mystery for a long time. But from now, science can at least tell you about your own blood.

Knowing your Blood type

In develops parts of the world, it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head. Doctors will typically run tests before any major procedure and if there’s any doubt in a medical emergency, you’ll most likely receive O negative blood, because that’s the universal donor blood that’s save to give to any A, B, AB or O recipient.

Blood type experiments

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A Greek doctor Claudius Galenus from 200 CE believed that it was created food and liver, and this school of thought lived on for nearly 1500 years.

It wasn’t until in the 17th century A british doctor named William Harvey, discovered that blood actually circulated through the body. This spawned A new age of experimentation with blood.

In 1665, an English physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing it with a blood of another dog. Just two years later, doctors began experimenting with Xenotransfusions. That is transfusing humans with animal blood, such a sheep. And those human patients died.

It wasn’t until 1900 that we finally realised people and animals actually have different types of blood that determine whose blood can mix with whose. That’s where different letters came into play.

If you’re type A, your immune system will perceive type B blood as an intruder and trigger auto immune response that can cause

  • kidney failure,
  • extensive blood clotting, and
  • even shock.

The reverse is true of type B blood. The immune system will attack type A.

AB blood however, accept both A and B blood without triggering the auto immune response. These things get little bit complicated when introduced there negative and positive part of your blood type. Positive can’t accept negative, but the opposite is extremely dangerous.

Other than 8 Blood types

To further complicate things scientists have discovered dozens of more blood type, such as the Duffy blood group, which can determine your susceptibility to malaria. Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000 people in India have. But the vast majority of the humans fall into this A, B, O system.

As per why humans evolved this complicated system of blood types and compatibility, we really don’t know. The original mutations are thought to date back nearly 20 million years. But whatever the biology is behind blood typing, it’s a real practical thing that matters.

It’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type. If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural, or doesn’t have access to advance medicine, it’s good for you and your travelling companion to know your types, just in case of an accident along the way. In big emergency closer to home, blood banks often put in calls for donors of a specific type. And remember if you’re type O Negative, you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So, knowing your type can give you a peace of mind.

Your body when you Swim

Harvard medical school published a study which looked at over 40,000 men, aged 20-90 who were either runners, walkers, swimmers, and physically in active people. With an average length of 13 years of observation and in that time

  • 2% of swimmers passed away
  • 8% of runners passed away
  • 9% of walkers passed away
  • 11% of physically inactive people passed away

This study showed that swimmers are much healthier later on in life than the rest of the population and for women swimming just 30 mins a day can decrease coronary heart disease by 30 to 40 percent.

It also helps to increase HDL aka good Colestrol. Some studies have also shown that aerobic excercise can keep the cells in the lining of your arteries more flexible and healthier. Hence there is no question that swimming is an awesome form of fitness.

Body during swimming

What do you actually feel when you go into the water? Here are some main elements of the human body that gets impacted during swimming.

1. Blood

According to the America Heart Association, swimming is considered as Aerobic activity. Aerobic excercise enlarges the heart and it increases the blood flow through the entire boby. Because swimming is an excercise, the blood has to pump all the molecules into the body.

2. Heart

Since so much of blood has to be pumped into the body, that ties into how it impacts your heart because we know that after 2 mins your body goes into aerobic respiratory because your heart has to pump all the oxygenated blood through the body. So as you swim, your heart is circulating the blood which help your body to perform and achieve the required goals.

3. Skin

You must have seen that the skin color changes of swimmers. For example, some swimmers face turns red when the swim, that happens because your blood vessels are dilating and the brings the heat to the surface into the skin then some people turn red, as a result your skin is showing the effort that you’re putting in the water.

4.Muscles

There’s a reason why swimmers are considered to have best body and physiques in the world compared to any athlete, because swimming engages every single muscles in the water when it comes to your core stability, your upper body, your biceps, your hamstrings, your calves, everything is engaged when you swim.

When you’re swimming, you are micro tearing your muscles while swinging it. And the muscles requires 24-48 hrs to recover those muscles. That’s when sometimes you might feel sore.

5. Lungs

Swimming can actually help increase your lungs volume because in swimming different than other sports, you can’t actually breath whenever you want. It’s not like running when you have full access to oxygen.

In swimming you’re engaging your muscles and you’re not allowed to breathe necessarily at the time when your body might want it. So because you have to get used to this, you actually increase your Vo to max (maximum amount of oxygen body is able to use). So basically you are making your lungs more efficient at functioning.

6. Brain

The Brain loves swimming, because of all the extra blood flow moving through these endorphins that makes you more awake, alert and focus.

But this could happen in any type of sport but swimming is something really special because you’re sort of in your own world where the medium is 800 times more dense than air, which makes you feel free and relaxed.

Hence, from physical health to mental health, swimming is an incredible benefit human body and after reading this you must be thinking of trying swimming.

Being Bilingual

People have very different opinions on what bilingualism really is. For some it means speaking two languages fluently and with little to no effort rather strongly consider a person bilingual, if it has perfect pronounciation in both languages and makes very few grammatical errors while talking.

The truth is that, even with a bad accent and making some mistake, being able to speak in two or more languages rather than one has practical benefits in an increasingly globalised world.

Multilingualism

Multilingualism has been shown to have many psychological and social advantages that can go something simply as

  • watching movies with no subtitles
  • to having less problems in traveling and
  • even getting a job or business opportunities specially in tourist areas.

Types of Bilingualism

It is considered to be two types of Bilingualism

1. Compound Bilingualism

Compound Bilingualism, also called addictive Bilingualism happens for example when a child is raised by bilingual parents and both languages are used in home, the child grows when both languages are used simultaneously in the same environment.

With this type of Bilingualism, the person does not see the two languages as separate it is common to hear such people speaking different languages in the same sentence or using a word of a different language from the one they’re talking to better express themselves.

2. Coordinate Bilingualism

This is the second type of Bilingualism also know as Subtractive Bilingualism. In this type, the person perceive two languages as separate because he learns them separately and in different environments in context.

I am an example of coordinate Bilingualism, most of the time i talk Hindi when I’m in my college environment or to people who talks only that language, I use the language specifically for those context but to my family members i usually talk in Bengali which is my native language, the language related to my home environment. I see these two language as separate since I learned and used them in completely different environments.

Officially Monolingual Countries

Only a few countries in the world including the U.S, England, and Australia are officially Monolingual but even in these countries only a considerable percent of people who speaking and understand more than one language.

Advantage

Researchers suggest that bilingualism can slow the advance of age-related mental issues such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s by up to 4 years.

Also in bilingual adult, brain tissue called grey matter is denser compared with Monolingual adults.

Although speaking more than one language does not necessarily make you more intelligent person, it helps stimulates and increase brain connections. Learning a new language is like an excercise to the brain that will improve your Cognitive skills and even if you grew up in a Monolingual environment, it is never too late to start learning a different language.

History of Halloween

From communion with the dead to pumpkins and pranks, Halloween is a patchwork holiday, stitched together with cultural religions and occult tradition that spans centuries.

Before Halloween

It all began with the Celts; a people whose culture had spread across Europe more than 2,000 years ago. October 31st was the day they celebrated the end of the harvest season in a festival called Soin, that night also marked as Celtic New Year and was considered a time between years; a magical time when the ghost of the dead walked the earth as called as time when the veil between death and life was supposed to be at its thinnest.

At that time the villagers would gathered and lit huge bonfires to drive the dead back to the spirit world and keep them away from the living. But as the Catholic Church’s influence grew in Europe, it frowned on the pagan rituals like sawing.

The name Halloween

In the 7th century the Vatican began to merge it with a Church sanctioned holiday. So November 1st was designed All Saints day to honor martyrs and the deceased faithful. Both of these holidays had to do with the afterlife and about survival after death, it was a calculated move, on the part of the church, to bring more people into the fold.

All Saints day was known as then Hallowmas; hallow meaning holy or saintly, so the translation is roughly mass of the saints. The night before October 31st was All Hallows eve while gradually morphed into “Halloween“.

How the holiday spread

The holiday came to America with the wave of Irish immigrants during the Potato Famine of the 1840s. The brought several of their holiday customs with them including

  • Bobbing for apples and,
  • Playing tricks on neighbors like, removing gates from the front of the houses
Irish immigrants

Trick-o-treat

The young pranksters wore masks so they wouldn’t be recognised but over the years the traditional of harmless tricks grew into outright vandalism such as in 1930s, pranks during Halloween became really holiday, as there was such a hooliganism and vandalism.

Trick-o-treat was originally a extortion deal, give candies or get your house trashed. Storekeeper and neighbors began giving treats or bribes to stop the tricks and children were encouraged to travel door-to-door for treat as an alternative to trouble making. By the late 30s trick-o-treat became a holiday greeting.

Where did Necktie came from?

The neckties, also known as decorative noose are a narrow piece of fabric designed to be worn around the neck and tied at the throat. They can be made from many materials but commonly constructed from silk or cotton.

Varieties

Today there are many different kinds of neckties:-

  • Ascot tie
  • The zipper tie
  • Clip on tie
  • The tie dye tie

So when did wrapping a piece of fabric around your neck become a formal style necessity. The length of World War to blame can partially be placed on the French Military. While humans have been tying fabric around their neck since they could sew.

History

The neckties is been known as it didn’t start crowding collars until the 17th century. King Louis XIII of France had hired Croatian mercenaries to fight for him during the 30-year war and the king was impressed by the length of cloth the Croatian used to keep their jackets together.

Croatian

Louis liked it so much that he required his entire royal court to wear them a tradition that his son will continue in his court. The trend soon spread across the French aristocracy and it wasn’t long before all of the Europe had converted to the curve at.

Tying a Necktie

There are four main ways to tie a neckties;

  1. The Four-in-hand knot
  2. The Pratt knot aka The Shelby knot
  3. Half-windsor knot
  4. The Windsor knot

According to researchers from Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory, there are 85 ways to tie a tie. Thomas Fink and Yong Mao actually use Mathematical modeling to figure this out and publish a book on their finding.

Towards the end of tie fashion

The necktie is losing its grip around the throat of male fashion. Tech companies such as Google, Amazon, and eBay actually encourage their employees to dress casually with some going as far as banning traditional office wear entirely and other companies are following suits.

Its fast become a power move to dress drown to the office in the 21st century as a statement of fellow workers, you can wear what ever you want.

Californian companies have led the charge in disrupting many common business practices, by rejecting aspects of corporate life that once seemed to given such as

  • Traditional working hours
  • Corporate hierarchies
  • Paying employees a living wage

Now politicians and even royalty are leaving tie in their dresses so it many not be long before neckties joins the history books of pointless male neck fashion.

BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER(BDD)

Body Dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder marked by an obsessive of perceived defects or flaws in once appearance. A flaw that to others is considered minor or not observable.

People suffering from BDD

  1. Can feel emotion such as shame and disgust concerning a part or parts of their body part and fixate on this.
  2. The obsession is so intense that the person repeatedly checks and compares the perceived flaw seeks reassurance sometimes for several hours each day.
  3. The person can also adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes the perceived flaw.
  4. This pervasive thoughts about their appearance and body image interfere with their daily life via
    • Educational
    • Occupational dysfunction and
    • Isolation

No matter how many times people assure them that there is no flaw, they cannot accept that the issue doesn’t exist.

The most common features about which people obsess includes:-

  • Nose
  • Wrinkles
  • Acne
  • Complexion
  • Blemishes
  • Hair
  • Skin
  • Vein appearance
  • Muscles size
  • Tone
  • Breast size
  • Buttocks
  • Genitalia

BDD is estimated to affect up to 2.4% of the population. The condition usually starts during adolescence affecting both men and women. BDD does not go away on its own if Untreated it may get worse with time leading to

  • severe depression
  • Anxiety
  • Substance abuse
  • Suicidal thoughts and behavior

Causes

The exact cause is unknown, but like every other disorder BDD may result from a combination of causes such as:-

  1. Brain differences
  2. Environmental factors; special if they involve negative social evaluations about the body or Self-image
  3. Childhood trauma
  4. Genetics; studies suggest that BDD is likely to run in family.

Certain factors that may increase the risk of developing the condition may include:-

  1. A family history
  2. Negative body image
  3. Perfectionism
  4. Negative life experiences such as bullying or teasing
  5. Introversion
  6. Media influence.

Symptoms

Extreme preoccupation with a perceived flaw in your physical appearance that appear minor to others for at least one hour a day. Attempting to hide perceived flaw with –

  • styling, makeup or clothes – to seeking plastic or cosmetic surgery,
  • avoiding social situations,
  • constantly comparing appearance with others,
  • always seeking assurance about appearance from others,
  • low self-esteem, compulsive behaviour such as skin picking and frequent clothes changing.

Extreme preoccupation with an appearance that interferes with social life work, school, or other functionality.

Diagnosis

A medical evaluation will be carried out other medical conditions after which further evaluation is carried out by a mental health professional.

Diagnosis is based on:-

  1. A psychological evaluation; which aims at assessing risk factors and thoughts feeling as well as behavior can be associated with a negative self-image.
  2. Personal, medical, family and social health history.

Treatment

Treatment option may include therapy and medication includes:-

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy; that helps you learn how to cope and behave to improve your mental health
  2. Medications; such as SSRIs may help is control obsession and control repetitive behaviours

Psychiatric hospital may be suggested if the symptom is severe such as when you’re in immediate danger of harming yourself.

Famous personality with BDD

Here is a list of people with BDD;

  • Michael Jackson(singer, dancer)
  • Billie Elish (singer)
  • Robert Pattinson (from twilight)
  • Ileana D’Cruz (from Rustom)
  • Miguel Herrán (from money heist)

History of Indian Stamps

India got independence on 15th August of 1947 assured in a new era in the history of the country but philatelist had to wait another 98 days for the release of India’s most commemorate stamp on 21st of November 1947.

First stamp

The Postal Telegraph Department however came out with a large Kashi postmarked with the slogan “Jai hind” for the occasion and letters mailed that the major post offices of the country were cancelled with this post mark.

The India’s first commemorative stamp features the Lion capital of Ashoka which had one set on the top of a column of Sarnath near Varanasi. The lion capital has since been around at the state emblem of India the denomination of the stamp was one and a half annas and an inspiration of “Jai hind” in Hindi was also depicted in the stamps.

Other stamps

Actually three stamps were planned to release at the time of Independence. The rest two stamps were released in the 15th of December 1947 with the three and a half annas stamp with portray of the national flag in tricolor Saffron on the top, white in the middle and green in the bottom.

The twelve annas stamp depicts an aircraft a symbol of the modern age. These stamps also have inscription “Jai hind” in hindi, they are also known are Jai Hind stamps.

The stamps were printed offset lithography. As the three and a half annas stamp was printed in three colors in three steps because difference in inking at different stages, because specimens having the top of the flag in deep orange or pale orange and the lower part in pale green and deep green were coming across.

Petroleum Jelly is harmful to skin

You probably have a jar of Vaseline somewhere in your house. Millions of people swear by it as a remedy for clapped lips, congestions, diaper rash and dry skin. Unfortunately the popular product is more harmful than many realise.

What is Petroleum Jelly?

Petroleum jelly, commonly known by the brand name Vaseline, is a byproduct of the oil refining process. It was originally found coating the bottom of oil rigs in the mid 1800s. As a byproduct of the oil industry, it’s an unsustainable resource and far from eco-friendly.

How does it work?

Used in everything from lotions to baby products, petroleum jelly works by creating a protective barrier on the skin to hold in moisture. The waterproof barrier it created on the skin blocks pores and can lock in residue and bacteria.

When used on a burn or a sunburn area, it locks in heat and can block the body’s ability to heal. You need to stop using Vaseline for these four reasons:

  1. It contains harmful Hydrocarbon. The skin is unable to metabolize petroleum jelly, so it sits as a barrier on the skin untill it wears off. This blocks the body from gaining any benefit from the substance. A 2011 study found strong evidence that the mineral oil hydrocarbon Vaseline contains are “the greatest contaminant of the human body”
  2. It Promotes Collagen Breakdown. Due to the barrier that petroleum jelly creates on skin, it blocks the skin ability to breathe and absorb nutrients. This can cause the skin to pull the moisture and nutrients it needs from within, leading to collagen breakdown.
  3. It can leads to Estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance occurs when the body has high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. It has linked to infertility, menstrual problems, allergies and autoimmune problems. Petroleum jelly contains chemicals called xenoestrogens which are believed to increase estrogen problems.
  4. It can cause pneumonia. Although rare, a condition known as lipid pneumonia can occur when small amounts of petroleum jelly is inhaled and build up in the lungs. Because the body can’t metabolize or breakdown the substance, a severe inflammation in the lungs can occur.

Natural Alternatives

There are several natural alternatives to petroleum jelly that you can use without worrying about health risks. If you’re looking for a simple alternative, try one of these options:-

  • Shea butter – High is vitamin A, E and F, shea butter works to nourish the skin through the beneficial fatty acids it contains. It can also help reduce inflammation and increase collagen productions.
  • Beeswax – a great alternative to petroleum jelly is Beeswax. It can be blended into homemade beauty products to protect the skin. Add it to a homemade lip balm and body cream.
  • Coconut oil – this oil loaded with health benefits. It works to nourish the skin through the fatty acids, lauric acids and anti-inflammatory compounds.
  • Coco butter – it contains antioxidants and benefits fatty acids. It may even reduce the signs of ageing.

ROLE OF INDIA IN QUAD

BY DAKSHITA NAITHANI

The Quadrilateral Dialogue was established in 2007 when four countries—the United States, India, Japan, and Australia—joined forces. However, it did not take off at first due to a variety of factors, and it was resurrected in 2017 after almost a decade due to factors such as growing country convergence, the expanding importance of the Indo-Pacific area, and rising threat sentiments toward China, among others.

Since then it has evolved into a platform for diplomatic discussion and coordination among participating countries, who meet on a regular basis at the working- and ministerial levels to discuss shared interests like ensuring a rules-based international order.

SIGNIFICANCE FOR INDIA

The Quad, ASEAN, and the Western Indian Ocean are the three groupings in which India participates as a partner in the Indo-Pacific area.

India as a Net Security provider

In the region of Indian Ocean India must be a Net Security Provider. Its supremacy in the IOR must be maintained and sustained if it is to claim this position as a Region. QUAD offers India with a platform to strengthen regional security through collaboration while also emphasising that the Indo-Pacific concept stands for a free, open, and inclusive area.( Inclusive here refers to a geographical notion that encompasses all countries inside it as well as those having a stake outside of it)

Countering China

The Quad offers India with a forum to seek collaboration with like-minded countries on a variety of problems, including maintaining territorial integrity and sovereignty, as well as peaceful dispute settlement. It also shows a united front against China’s unceremonious and aggressive actions towards the nation which is especially important now, since ties between India and China have deteriorated as a result of border intrusions along the Tibet-India boundary in many locations. The Chinese policy of encircling India with the String of Pearls poses a direct threat to India’s maritime sovereignty, which must be addressed.

Framing post-COVID-19 international order

QUAD can assist India in not just recovering from the pandemic’s impacts through a series of integrated measures, but also in securing a part in the modern international order. Enhancing such cooperation was one of the first actions made in 2021. The vaccination initiative will serve as a good litmus test for the QUAD administrations’ ability to work together.

Convergence on other issues

On a range of topics, India shares common interests with other Quad members, including connectivity and infrastructure development, security, especially counter-terrorism; cyber and maritime security; multilateral institutions reform, and so on. Assistance from members on these problems might help India achieve its strategic and economic objectives.

Supplementing India’s defence capabilities

Assistance in the sphere of defence among Quad countries, such as joint patrols, strategic information exchange, and so on, can help India overcome its disadvantages in terms of naval capabilities, military reconnaissance, technology, and surveillance systems.

Ensuring a free Indo Pacific

The Indo-Pacific region must be accessible and vibrant, regulated by international norms and bedrock values such as freedom of navigation and peaceful resolution of conflicts, and the nations involved must have the right to make decisions, free of coercion.

Counter-terrorism Table top Exercise for QUAD nations to improve collaboration and common capabilities in dealing with potential terrorist threats, as well as examine CT response systems.

INDIA’S ROLE IN THE INDO-PACIFIC

In the Indo-Pacific, India’s geographic and geopolitical importance provides a counterbalance to China’s rising influence in the Indian Ocean. India’s security concerns, centred primarily on China’s encirclement policy through port facilities in India’s neighbourhood mainly Gwadar and Hambantota and the desire to maintain and protect open and free sea lanes of information exchange against concerns about China’s chokepoint in the South China Sea and increasing maritime presence in the ocean

India’s critical significance in the Indo-Pacific may be seen as a multiple framework. First, unlike the Asia-Pacific architecture, the Indo-Pacific architecture allows New Delhi to move above its long-held standing as a middle-power. This is bolstered by India’s admission to the League of big powers especially the United States and Japan and the development of tight strategic ties with Washington and its regional allies. This promotes India’s great-power ambitions and force projection capability inside the Indo-Pacific and beyond.

Second, India’s Act East Policy and Extended Neighbourhood Policy benefit from New Delhi’s strong participation in the Indo-Pacific. New Delhi’s stronger relations with ASEAN members have also bolstered this boost.

Third, the development of India-US strategic relations, particularly in military, works as a significant counterweight to India’s adversaries. Increased engagements between New Delhi and Washington are exemplified by the four foundational contracts signed between the two countries, which include the General Security of Military Information Agreement, Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement, Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement, and Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement—all of which promote in-depth partnership Most significantly, the improved partnership boosts India’s military capacity, particularly when it comes to striking targets with precise accuracy.

Fourth, under India-Australia ties, which were elevated to a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership in 2020, India’s strategic position is bolstered yet further. In fact, Canberra and New Delhi inked nine agreements, the most important of which are the Australia-India Mutual Logistics Support Arrangement and the Defence Science and Technology Implementing Arrangement, both of which provide a framework for the two nations’ security cooperation.

Fifth, and most significantly, during COVID-19, India demonstrated its ability to be a first responder to a regional disaster by giving medical assistance to its near neighbours, including the Maldives, Sri Lanka, and Seychelles. In addition, India sent medical quick response teams to Comoros and Kuwait to help them prepare for the epidemic. In addition, nine Maldivians were evacuated from Wuhan, China, the site of the pandemic.

In addition, India pushed for virtual summits like the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation web conference on March 2020 and the “Extraordinary Digital G20 Leaders’ Summit” to help develop a worldwide reaction to the epidemic on 26 March 2020. In addition, New Delhi established a SAARC Emergency Response Fund for Coronavirus, with India contributing an initial 10 million USD.

In addition, as countries attempt to move manufacturing away from China, India is viewed as one of the world’s new “favoured” investment destinations. The enormous scale of India’s marketplace as well as the low labour costs, make it a desirable destination. Apple, for example, created a production facility in India in partnership with Foxconn, while Samsung, of South Korea, ceased operations in China and moved manufacturing units to India.

There is little dispute about India’s rising position in the Indo-Pacific, not just as a significant participant but also as a responsible actor.  As a result, India’s manoeuvring room in the post-COVID international order is anticipated to expand, as India is seen as one of the major movers in guiding policy and protecting allied interests in the Indo-Pacific. COVID-19 has, in fact, expanded the Quad framework, allowing important parties to play a more active role in addressing critical conventional and unconventional regional issues.

Why does a student need to be industry ready & how they can be?

What do you mean by industry ready?

An industry expects their employees to have Non-technical skills and personal attributes such as team work, communication skills, integrity, reliability and self-motivation are considered more important than purely technical skills to get industry ready.

Importance

A study shows that 50% of the curriculum that are been taught in college/universities, by the time students will graduate, it will get auxiliated with new technologies in the market.

Let’s say for example, a product manager of a company who advertises the product, collects data and analysis the data to improve the marketing strategies of company. He can do it manually, but with time if an app is developed for this work, the company won’t be requiring any product manager.

Although degrees are important for future but it is also important to have a knowledge about what all techniques and skills that will be there in future and also to start developing those skills.

How can students be industry ready?

Here are some ways of getting industry ready:-

  1. Practical Knowledge of Doing Things:- If you can demonstrate how to implement the theoretical knowledge you have then your chances of getting hired will improve significantly.
  2. Sharpen Your Communication Skills:- If you are not able to communicate properly, your knowledge will be of little use to you.
  3. Inculcate the Habit of Innovation:- Form a habit to think out of the box, if you can provide a company with a method to save on expenditure or increase their profit, you have better chances of getting hired.
  4. Read Books and Newspapers Regularly:- Form a habit to read a newspaper or book at least half an hour daily, as this will improve your thinking process as well.
  5. Build Your Profile to Show Your Accomplishments:- One needs to be presentable and be able to exhibit his or her qualifications and capabilities convincingly.
  6. Pursue Online Courses to Hone Your Skills:- To make yourself industry ready, it is better to learn some new skills online.
  7. Work on Your Weak Areas:- The trick here is to present your weaknesses in a way that it looks profitable to the company for whom you want to work for.
  8. Learn to Organize and Manage Your Time:- It is about getting the maximum output in a given amount of time. Productivity matters a lot when you are working for a company.

So start investing more on prolonged and sustainable skills because knowledge and degrees are not going to be most required in future. This is the time to decide what is to be done and how should the steps be taken forward.

Will you take Chinese vaccine?

Made in China, accept it or not but for many of us this label has become synonymous with low cost and low quality. So how true is the stereotype and what has Chinese done to deserve such a bad reputation? Well the list goes long, the latest item is vaccine.

China has sold vaccines to the World which may not be working. It is currently exporting vaccine to 43 countries with:-

  • a total of 742 million doses that have been sold,
  • 22 million doses have been donated,
  • 262 million doses have been delivered.

China is exporting 3 major vaccines:-

  1. Sinovac
  2. CanSino BIO
  3. Sinopharm

But do these vaccines even work? Let’s look at some of the countries those have received Chinese vaccines.

Mongolia

In Mongolia, more than half of the population is fully vaccinated but daily infection has risen by more than 70% in the last 2 weeks, and they’re using the Chinese vaccine Sinopharm. No doubt Mongolians are questioning the effectiveness of the Chinese vaccine.

Bahrain

Bahrain an Asian country is witnessing a surge. There’s a sharp rise in the number of infections and this dispite of high levels of inoculation. How will China explain this? China’s Sinopharm vaccine, accounts for 60% of the inoculation. Bahrain is now administering a Pfizer booster shot for those who have received both doses of vaccine.

Seychelles

Seychelles of East Africa, 61% of the population have been vaccinated with just 100,000 of people. This island nation has the highest vaccination cover globally. It’s daily average cases rose up to 400 with 37% of the fresh infections reported in fully vaccinated people. This is the result of the Chinese vaccine they’re using which is Sinopharm.

UAE

The United Arab Emirates has vaccinated more than 38% of the population with more than 51% have received first dose and yet daily new cases exceeded to 1700. And they are also using the vaccine Sinopharm that was received from China and UAE is also questioning the efficacy of the Chinese vaccine and also giving a Pfizer booster shot to Sinopharm recipient.

Countries who have refused

Philippines

In the month of May, the Philippines President apologized and asked China to take away Sinopharm vaccine back. He sent back the doses because Chinese cure is unproven.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia has also refused to recognise certificates of Sinovac and Sinopharm. It is recommending Pfizer and AstraZeneca instead.

Do Chinese vaccines works in China

There’s a fresh out break of new infections that are been reported in the Guangdong province of China. Guangdong with its capital Guangzhou, accounting of 90% of the confirmed cases. Health authorities of the capital blames the delete variant which was first identified in India. A strict lockdown has been composed there overseas arrivals are being quarantined, million have forced to indoors.

Hence its proven that the rumours of China had conquered the pandemic was false. The virus is unpredictable, it keeps spreading. Vaccines are not full proof in preventing infections but if one vaccine has repeatedly proven ineffective then it’s time for some reflection.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder or NDP is a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity. You may see it in people who have an inflated ego, with little regards to others. It is important to note that NDP is a psychiatric condition, and it is more complex than simply being arrogant. It’s distressing for those who have it and for those who’re around them. Hoping to shed some light on the condition, and sign that a person should seek help. While much of T.V and movies portray narcissism as people who feel like they’re better than everyone else, it’s usually not just the case.

What is narcissism?

Narcissism is a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists. The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image. To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smart and more important than other people and that they deserve special treatment.

Psychologists recognize two form of narcissism as personality traits:

  • Grandiose
  • Vulnerable

What is NDP?

  • NPD is a personality disorder in which the person feels self-important and craves constant validation.
  • Their feelings of superiority often hint at a deeper problem.
  • As their need of validation often comes from a place of insecurity and instability rather than genuine self love which they may not be aware of.

What causes NPD?

  1. While the cause of NPD is unknown, researchers believe that it has to do with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  2. It’s believed that 6% of people have this disorder. Men have a higher chance of this disorder than women.
  3. Some believe that NPD is developed to cope with trauma and feelings of inadequacy. Others believe it may be learned in early childhood from dealing with anything, from abuse to excessive pampering.
  4. There is even a debate as to how much of the disorder is passed down from parents to children acquiring the disorder.

What are the signs and Symptoms?

The feeling of grandiosity where they feel that they’re superior to others and low empathy are often seen in those with NPD; they don’t care much for others expecting to receive constant validation.

  • People with NPD feel as though they’re entitled to whatever they want which can be dangerous as it can manifest into toxic relationships.
  • They may manipulate others to get what they want.
  • They brag and exaggerate their achievements or feel envious of anyone that outperforms them, but deep down the person with NPD may be really dealing with their own feeling of inadequacy.

How to get help?

  • People with NPD may not seek help for the disorder itself as they may not know that there’s an issue.
  • Usually, people are diagnosed because they seek treatment for other issues such as depression or addiction.

However people who feel that they may have the condition and urged to reach out for help. NPD and the underlying feelings of inadequacy can be treated. It not only benefits the individual, but also to people around them.

What treatment options are available?

People diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder will most likely work with a therapist using psychotherapy methods.

Other self-improving activities such as:-

  • Doing exercises and,
  • Hobbies may be used in conjunction with therapy.

Coming to a conclusion, we do live in a very materialistic and Consumersious society and as long as that’s the case, narcissism is going to win because it’s about putting yourself first and not caring as much about others. Not to mention people with NPD can be very generous when it’s going to get them what they need. They may buy everyone big dinners and take everyone on a big vacation so it creates this illusion that there’s lots of people all around them, because it’s all the stuff that they’re making possible for them. It’s important to know that treatment is available and that life can be made more manageable.

Story of Cellular Jail of India

You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?

Emergence

During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.

It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.

The Punishment

The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.

The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.

Britishers in their own jail

In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.

After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.

After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.

Pollution causes blindness

Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.

The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.

There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.

Effect on eye sight

The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.

The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.

History of Dentistry

From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.

Ancient ways of cleaning teeth

Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.

Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.

In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.

Tooth Decay

Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.

Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.

First Toothbrush

Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.

The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.

Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.

New trend

In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.

The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.

Judy Garland

While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.

Introducing Skateboarding in Olympics

In recent history, skateboarding has become a pop culture phenomenon. We see it in everything, from T.V advertisements to fashion shows. And for the first time ever, skateboarding will be introduced in the 2020 summer Olympics. But, skateboarding hasn’t always had the mass appeal we see today.

Brief history

Sometime in the late 1940s or early 1950s, skateboarding was born out of the boredom of surfers when the waves were no good. They would remove the wheels from the roller skates and attach them to a piece of wood to create a skateboard.

By the 1960s, skateboarding’s popularity has grown with rise of surf culture. Contest were held all over and the first sponsored skateboarders were beginning to emerge. However, the popularity of skating in the 60’s dropped just as fast as it rose.

The 1970’s brought along one with the most important changes to the skateboarding world, the advent of the Urethane wheel, which allows skaters to ride faster are over rougher types of ground than ever before.

In 1976, a horrible drought in southern California forced most homeowners with backyard swimming pools to drain them, giving way to birthplace of pool skating. This was the first major shift in how people rode there skateboards. No longer were they limited to the abysmal, flat grounds of parking lots and sidewalks.

The 1980s were a time of Renaissance in skateboarding. People were constantly inventing new tricks, pros were earning unheard of amounts if money, and skateboarder-own companies were thriving.

The vert

The favourable terrain for most of this era was vert. And even though there was a high level of progression occurring, to the untrained eye, skateboarding had gone stale and the popularity once again fell flat.

This lull in skateboarding led to the introduction of street skating which brings us into the 1990s. Skating during the era was at its most raw. Skaters took to the streets, to find new terrain, abandoning traditional skaters parks for something that felt more natural and could be done anywhere, by anyone.

Popularity

Skating things that occur almost anywhere, like sets of stairs, handrails, benches, curbs, and just about anywhere four wheels can roll. From there, skateboarding has been a nonstop, uphill climb to what it is today.

At its core, skateboarding has traditionally been for the underdogs, the outcasts, the misfits, and in result has been thought of negatively by a large major of its existence. But now, with generation of young adults who grew up with skateboarding and the exposure at an all-time high, the future of skateboarding is looking bright.

Mountain of light: Kohinoor

Kohinoor, which means mountain of light, is a colourless Diamond which was discovered in the mines of Guntur in Andhra Pradesh somewhere in the 13th century. It was the biggest Diamond ever known to mankind during that time.

Currently, this Diamond is embedded in the Queen’s Mother’s crown. Governments of India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan have all claimed the ownership of this Diamond, but the UK governments has denied it stating that it was obtained legally.

Journey

Kohinoor has rich history behind it, though it is generally believed that this Diamond was discovered in 13th century during the kakatiya dynasty rule. There are scholars who dispute saying that the Diamond was discovered in the 16th century in Golconda. Kohinoor was taken by Alauddin Khilji who’s army defeated the Kakatiya dynasty.

It was with the Mughals most of the time after it’s discovery. However, Mughal lost the battle against Nadirshah in 17th century. It was Nadirshah who took the diamond from the Mughals and named it Kohinoor. After Nadirshah’s death, the diamond was passed on to Ahmad Shah Durrani who was his General.

After that Kohinoor was later gifted to Ranjit Singh by the Durrani dynasty during early 18th century. However, British East India Company defeated Ranjit Singh’s army in mid 18th century and took possession of this Diamond. Kohinoor was later shipped to Britain and the diamond was gifted to Queen Victoria in 1850 and Kohinoor has been in possession of the Royal Family since then.

Cursed?

An ancient Hindu text describe this diamond as

He who owns the diamond will own The World, but will also know all its misfortunes. Only God and women can wear it with impunity.

Well by the consequences that we have seen so far it is quite evident that whoever has owned this diamond we’re either defeated or died.

  • Kakatiya dynasty (original owner) defeated by Alauddin Khilji
  • Alauddin Khilji died shortly after that and the diamond was passed on to Mughals.
  • Mughals lost the war to Nadirshah weakening their army.
  • Nadirshah died while Kohinoor was in his possession.
  • Ahmad Shah Durrani died while Kohinoor was in possession.
  • Ranjit Singh had Kohinoor with him when he lost the war with British.
  • British Empire started losing hold on its colonies including India when they had Kohinoor

This supposedly curse of Kohinoor in Britain. Only the Queen is allowed to wear the Kohinoor diamond. Men are prohibited in using it. With such a history of blood and violence behind it, no wonder this diamond has generated more curiosity in people over a period of time. We might not know if this diamond will come back to India, but the bigger question is will this be a blessing of disguised for India.

Why India can’t have an Official Language

Our Home Minister Amit Shah mentioned about promoting one nation, one language in one of his tweets in 2019. He also added that it should not be done at the cost of other languages. Some of us might know that 14th September is celebrated as Hindi Diwas in our country. So why can’t we have Hindi as an official language?

Critics

After Amit Shah statement, critics said that if Hindi becomes the official language, then other languages like malayalam, tamil, telugu and more, will lost their importance. South Congress leader Jairam Ramesh also said “this one nation, one language will never be a reality” because it will never be easy to have a common language in India.

Also in the New Education Policy (NEP) draft in the year 2019, Hindi was asked to make mandatory in every state. This was also criticized by the South Indian governments and they refused to dilute the state’s two language formula. This resulted in changing the draft and not to have Hindi as an official language.

Steps taken

India is a big nation, so there should be a language that will represent India on world stage. Talking about Hindi, it is spoken in India, Fiji, Suriname, Mauritius, Trinidad, Tabogo and Guyana. So India is working actively to have Hindi recognised as an official language of the UN.

Advantage of having an official language

A Chinese research concluded that

  1. When we have an official language, it can even help to eliminating poverty. As China have experience in fight poverty so we can also learn the power of having an official language.
  2. China also mentioned that an official language also helps in having communicate without any language barrier.
  3. Official language also help to built unity among the citizens
  4. Also helps when people migrate from one city to another, as they can communicate in the same language.

Disadvantage of having an official language

According to the 2001 Census, 41% of India population are native speaker of Hindi dialect. But what about 59% of the population who are non – Hindi speakers? Politician Shashi Tharur said

India should not even try to add Hindi to the list of official language of UN because what if in future our PM is from South part of India and does not speak Hindi, then how will he give speech in Hindi on behalf of India.

But apart from all these we still agree that there should be an official language for a country to function.

As per as official language is concerned,

  1. English is also been promoted in India. Promoting English can result in heavy school fees, as we’ll have to teach the whole population to speak English.
  2. Enough English teacher will also be required and if not then it won’t be successfully become the official language.
  3. This will also result in neglecting the weaker section of the society who won’t be able to speak English and their career opportunity will get affected.

Eventually we need to figure out to take a right decision about official language and keeping in mind of the consequences that could possibly be in long terms situations.

Banned cartoons and their reasons

You may have came across the word “ban” Or “censored’ used in movies, but do you know these terms are also used for some cartoons in some countries which are liked by other countries. Let’s have a look at some popular cartoons which are banned in some countries and their reasons.

1. SpongeBob SquarePants

This is the longest running Nickelodeon show ever. It got banned because of violence and foul language which are used in this show. Countries like Russia, America and 120 others have banned this show from watching.

2. The Simpsons

This is America’s most popular cartoon show till now. This show had scenes where public figures like Donald Trump, were insulted. This show also promoted disorderly behavior which were totally misleading for kids. After sometime, the show is now available to watch, but there has been argument going on this show as countries like US have censored this cartoon show.

3. Mickey Mouse

This is world’s first cartoon show which had voice, and the first word that Mickey Mouse said was “Hot Dogs”. This cartoon show got banned in 1930s in the Romanian region because Romania government stated that big Mouse in this cartoon will scare the kids rather than making them laugh.

4. Doremon

This is a Japanese cartoon show which is ban in more than 50 countries because of the character Nobita. The Nobita character is a lazy character who always depends upon the character Doremon for helping gadgets. An argument concluded that the Nobita character was promoting laziness, procrastinating, etc, which resulted in banning.

Cartoon shows should be developed keeping kids as their main audience. It should have the simplicity and cleanness that attract audience and also focusing on the impact and effect that it’ll leave mainly on audience. That’s why shows that promotes foul language can always make a big effect on kids. This makes banning a healthy and better option.

how covid effected student ‘s life

Education and student life at Semmelweis University during the coronavirus pandemic

Reactions to the novel coronavirus/COVID-19 have caused a great many changes to daily life in recent days.  One group particularly affected by these changes is high school students.  They are facing challenges this year that have never happened before on this scale.

HOW HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS ARE AFFECTED BY SCHOOL CLOSURES

School provides structure and routine to the lives of students. Following the routine of getting up at a certain time, going to classes at specific times and coming home at a certain time provides a sense of normalcy in their lives. The predictability of knowing that third period math class follows second period history class allows students’ brains to focus on academic content. Expectations for behavior and academic performance are known and familiar. When schools closed earlier this month students lost this structure and routine. Many were sent home with packets of assignments to complete but it is up to them to decide when and in what order they will do the assignments. At first, this greater amount of freedom and choice feels good – “Finally I get to decide what I want to do!” In short time though, it is easy to fall behind, to be distracted by other more desirable options (Netflix, video games, social media), or to become bored.For most students school isn’t just about academics, it is also about social interactions. Many friendships started by sitting next to each other in class. The highlight of a student’s day might be walking down a certain hallway between fifth and sixth period because that’s when she can reliably expect to see the person she has a crush on. Groups of friends eat lunch together every day. Through their interactions with teachers and other school personnel young people learn to interact with non-family authority figures. In the hallways and classrooms of their school, young people are exposed to a variety of different cultures, perspectives and ways of living that may be different than their own.Extracurricular activities were also affected by school closures. Many students enjoy participating in sports, music, school plays, robotics and a variety of other activities. Participation in these activities helps students to be more attractive applicants to colleges, universities and future employers. More importantly though, participation in these activities is an important part of students’ identities. They provide a “tribe” of others with whom a common interest and skill set is shared.

Coronavirus Impacts on Students and Online Learning

College students continue to grapple with the educational fallout of the pandemic.School closures exacerbate issues of digital access and other inequities.More and more students report feeling stressed and anxious due to COVID-19.Students on and off campus will navigate colleges’ shifting plans well into 2021.

College students continue to grapple with the educational fallout of the pandemic.

School closures exacerbate issues of digital access and other inequities.

More and more students report feeling stressed and anxious due to COVID-19.

Students on and off campus will navigate colleges’ shifting plans well into 2021.

With the pandemic, schools rushed to fill gaps in their online infrastructures. Finding the money and experts to make those upgrades presented a hurdle, though. According to Melissa Venable, an online education advisor for BestColleges, “There aren’t enough instructional designers and other learning support specialists to go around right now. These offices have not been a priority at all colleges and universities.”

If ad hoc digital solutions don’t work for students and teachers, the experience could stymie online education’s future growth. “This quick and mandatory shift may reinforce the most challenging aspects, leading some instructors to be less likely to adopt online education in the future,” Venable said.

Ramping up online education under present circumstances may not be ideal, but as Venable notes, “The focus is not about experimenting with technology, but an emergency response.” The digital systems that colleges build to support students now will outlast the coronavirus and inform the digital approach to higher education going forward. Successes could even galvanize colleges to expand online offerings.

Dozens of colleges have already announced a marked change for spring 2021: no spring break.

Ways to Relieve Stress in these Unprecedented TimesI

mprove Your Diet:

  • Eat low carb diets.
  • Consume vegetables regularly (broccoli & spinach are good options to build resilience against infections).
  • Intake fruits rich in beta carotene, ascorbic acid & other essential vitamins.
  • Consume herbs like garlic, Basel leaves and black cumin as it helps in boosting immunity.
  • Munch on nuts and seeds like flaxseed, pumpkin seeds and melon seeds as they are excellent sources of protein and vitamin E.
  • Intake probiotics like Yoghurt, Butter Milk, Yakult and other fermented food.

Exercise Regularly

  • A good diet should be followed by a good exercise of 30 to 45 minutes. The best way to make exercising fun is to pair it with music
    .

Take a Good Sleep

  • Research by the National Sleep Foundation says that teenagers need 8-10 hours of sleep a night to stay fresh and healthy.

Stay Positive

  • One can stay positive by identifying something that he/she enjoyed or found to be beautiful. Listen to stories about people being kind and helpful. Don’t spread or listen to the news that came to you through unauthentic resources.

COVID-19’s impact on education in India: It’s not all bad news

The current year presented some new challenges to each industry; it not just forced people to change business cycle, lifestyle but had a deep impact on daily activities which people do to live their life and are considered as basic necessities.Education, especially the task of going to a school is one such activity which used to be done on a regular basis in the pre-Covid era, and it is one activity which was an integral part of the daily routine of each parent who has school-going children.Now, as we are approaching the end (hopefully) of Covid-19, it is the right time to take a pause and reflect on what impact Covid left on the student’s achievements and what it may mean for educators

COVID-19 in India: Education disrupted and lessons learned

India, 320 million students have been affected by COVID-19 school closures, and though the government quickly recommended shifting to “online teaching,” this ignores India’s immense digital divide—with embedded gender and class divides. The 2017-18 National Sample Survey reported only 23.8 percent of Indian households had internet access. In rural households (66 percent of the population), only 14.9 percent had access, and in urban households only 42 percent had access. And males are the primary users: 16 percent of women had access to mobile internet, compared to 36 percent of men. Young people’s access is even less: A recent news report stated only 12.5 percent of students had access to smartphones. Furthermore, most teachers are ill-equipped for online teaching.

Using digital volunteers to teach in a limited environment

Once these basic needs were taken care of, teachers then used whatever digital means were available to teach their students. Teachers galvanized an army of digital volunteers in the communities tasked with sharing the information on their devices to students without access to technology. To reach those low-tech students, teachers used voice messages, text messages, and phone calls. For high-tech students (i.e. with smartphones), teachers sent longer videos and used WhatsApp groups for discussions. To reach girls, most of whom had no access to phones, teachers even called fathers to ask how they were doing and to enlist their support for their daughters’ education. So far, the majority of fathers have responded positively, demonstrating how this crisis might be a great opportunity to develop positive relationships with fathers that improve their daughters’ education and well-being.

Attraction

Ever thought why do we get attract to someone? Well everyone has different answer to it. For some it can be the way one look, smiled, walk or may be their was an unusual aura around that one.

What is attraction?

Attraction, especially in a romantic way, is a complex process that take place in our brains, and has had it’s roots since it’s beginning of the humankind. It’s our minds way of telling us who has the potential to be our partner, our friend, or even our soulmate, and is based on a complex blend of our interest, values, experience, and desire. Physical and romantic attraction, which are often focused on, are only small facets of a much larger equation.

Psychologist look at the ingredients of attraction is in a form of pyramid, split into 4 different sections.

The base of the pyramid is made up of health and status:-

  • Status – 1. internal (confidence, self set, beliefs) 2. External (person’s job, possession and appearance.
  • Health – Physical attributes, smell, basic level of intelligence.

If the potential partners passes these initial requirements then we move to the center of the pyramid, which are the emotional factors:- includes

  • trust comfort someone wants,
  • their emotions intelligence, and
  • unique characteristics.

The final portion of the pyramid is “Logic”.This is the part that differentiate us from other animals, and is the part where our brains seriously

  • considers whether we are totally compatible for that person.
  • It ensure that the other person is aligned with us in term of what they want – things such as marriage, children, even the city they want to live.

According to this model, the more alignment there is, the more attraction there is, but it doesn’t always have to follow from bottom to top – like online dating.

What makes someone Attractive?

The answer to this questions make come to our mind is physical traits. Due to the influence of media, we tend to favor women who is younger, and more feminine features, in men on the other side, qualities such as broad shoulders, a deep voice, and strong jawline are highly upon.

Scientists suggest that, these also have an evolutionary origin because these traits are associated with a higher chance of producing health offspring and passing of good genes. Also, values, culture, and the environment, that we grow in also plays an important role.

Hence, attractiveness is complex, there’s a number of different perspective to consider, and at the end of the day, there’s very little we can choosing who we are attracted to. As each person looks for unique set of traits and, while physical traits are often focused there are far more factors that come into play. A person’s upbringing, behavior and even lifestyle have major influence. The most important thing to remember is to be happy and make the most of it.

Forms of Economic Analysis: Micro vs. Macro

Micro and Macro-economics

The subject matter of economics has been divided into two parts Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. These terms were first coined and used by Ragnar Frisch and have now been adopted by the economists all over the world. Nowadays one can hardly come across a text book on modern economic analysis which does not divide its analysis into two parts, one dealing with microeconomics and the other with macroeconomics.

The term microeconomics is derived from the Greek word mikros meaning “small” and the term macroeconomics is derived from the Greek word makros meaning “largo.” Thus, microeconomies deals with the analysis of small individual units of the economy such as individual firms and small aggregates or groups of individual units such as various industries and markets.

On the other hand, macroeconomics concerns itself with the analysis of the economy as a whole and its large aggregates such as total national output and income, total employment, total consumption, aggregate investment. Thus, according to K E Boulding, “Microeconomics is the study of particular fums, particular households, individual prices, wages, Incomes, individual industries, particular commodities.”

About macroeconomics he remarles, “Macroeconomics deals not with individual quantities as such but with aggregates of these quantities, not with individual incomes but with the national Income; not with individual prices but with the price level; not with individual outputs but with the national output “.

  • MICROECONOMICS

As stated above, microeconomics studies the economic actions and behaviour of individual units and small groups of individual units. In microeconomic theory we discuss how the various cells of economic organism, that is, the various units of the economy such as thousands of consumers, thousands of producers or firms, thousands of workers and resource suppliers in the economy do their economic activities and reach their equilibrium states. In other words, in microeconomics we make a microscope study of the economy.

But it should be remembered that microeconomics does not study the economy in Its totality. Instead, in microeconomics we discuss equilibrium of innumerable units of the economy piecemeal and their interrelationship to each other.

” For instance, in microeconomic analysis we study the demand of an individual consumer for a good and from there go on to derive the market demand for the good (that is, demand of a group of individuals consuming a particular group).

Examples of Microeconomic variables: Demand of a commodity, Supply of a commodity, Income of a consumer, Price of the commodity etc.

Examples of Microeconomic theories/study: Law of demand, Law of supply, Determination of consumer equilibrium, Determination of producer equilibrium etc.

-> Importance of Micro Economics

I. Price Determination:

Micro economics helps in elucidation how the prices of diverse commodities are determined.  It also explicates how the prices of various aspects of production such as rent for land, wages for labour, interest for capital and profits for entrepreneur are decided in the commodity and factor market.

II. Working of a Free Market Economy:

Free market economy is the economy where the economic pronouncements regarding production of goods such as ‘What to produce, How much to produce, How to produce etc.’ are taken by private individuals. These verdicts are based on the inclination of the consumer or demand for the product. Micro economics theory helps in grasping the working of the free market economy.

III. International Trade & Public Finance:

Micro economics helps to elucidate many international trade facets like impacts of tariff, determination of exchange rates, advantages from international trade etc. It is also beneficial in public finance to analyse both, the occurrences as well as effect of a specific tax.

IV. Utilization of Resources:

Micro economics helps in elucidating how the scarce resources can be effectually and efficiently utilized by the producers in order to achieve highest output.

V. Model Building:

Micro economics helps in grasping various complex economic situations with its modest models. It has made an imperative contribution to the science of economics by the development of numerous terms, concepts, terminologies, tools of economic evaluation etc.

VI. Helps in Taking Business Decisions:

Micro economic theories are beneficial to businessmen for taking decisive business decisions. These decisions comprise the cost of production, values, maximum output, consumer’s preferences, demand and supply of the product etc.

VII. Useful to Government:

Micro economics is that subdivision of economics which is related with the study of economic behaviour of individual economic units. It is beneficial in building economic policies such as taxation policy, public expenditure policy, price policy etc.  These policies aid the government to reach its goal of efficient distribution of resources and promoting economic wellbeing of the society.

VIII. Basis of Welfare Economics:

Micro economics endorses economic and social welfare by making finest utilization of the resources, thereby evading wastage.

  • MACROECONOMICS

Macroeconomics is a Study of Aggregates. We now turn to explain the approach and content of macroeconomics. ‘As said above, word macro is derived from the Greek word ‘makros’ meaning large and therefore macroeconomics is concerned with the economic activity in the large.

Macroeconomic analyses the behaviour of the whole economic system in totality or entirety. In other words, macroeconomic studies the behaviour of the large aggregates such as total employment, the national product or income, the general price level of the economy. Therefore, macroeconomics is also known as aggregative economics. Macroeconomics analyses and establishes the functional relationship between these large aggregates. Thus Professor Boulding says, “Macroeconomics deals not with individual quantities as such but with the aggregates of these quantities; not with individual incomes but with the national income, not with individual prices but with the price level; not with individual output but with the national output.

Macroeconomics, then, is that part of the subject which deals with large aggregates and averages of the system rather than with particular items in it and attempts to define these aggregates in a useful manner and to examine their relationships. ” Professor Gardner Ackley makes the distinction between the two types more clear and specific when he writes, macroeconomics concerns itself with such variables as the aggregate volume of output in an economy, with the extent to which its resources are employed, with the size of the national income, with the general price level”. Microeconomics, on the other hand, deals with the division of total output among industries, products and firms and the allocation of resources among competing uses. It considers problems of income distribution. Its interest is in relative prices of particular goods and services.

Examples of Macroeconomic variables : Aggregate supply, Aggregate demand, National income, Total output etc.

Examples of Macroeconomic studies/theories : Determination of equilibrium level of income, Determination of foreign exchange rate, Determination of govt. budget etc.

-> Importance of macroeconomics

Macroeconomics is a vibrant concept that studies the whole nation and works for the welfare of the economy. It is beneficial for the timing of economic variations to prevent or be prepared for any financial crisis or any long – term adverse situations. The system of fiscal and monetary policies rest on entirely on the examination of the widely held macroeconomic situations in the nation. Macroeconomics mainly purposes to help the Government and the financial bodies to fix economic stability in the country. This course of economics gives a broader viewpoint of social or national issues. The ones who want to provide to the welfare of society need to study macroeconomics. It guarantees or keeps a check over the appropriate functioning of the country’s economy and real position. The analysis of macroeconomics concepts and issues helps the economists to understand the causes and possible explanations of such macro-level problems.  Dealing with numerous economic situations through the use of macro-economic data unlocks the door for development in the country.

Zero Waste During Lockdown.

The Corona virus pandemic has swept over the planet and with it has brought about concepts like quarantine and social distancing which were earlier seen only in films. The lockdown that is widely being followed all over the world has not been the easiest time for people. With no provision to step out of the house, markets aren’t functioning and economies are crashing. A common man would wonder, ‘How am I supposed to help out, when I am locked inside my own house?’

Your miniscule contributions to the society, can massively assist the authorities and the paramedical staff in this time of need. A major step you can take during this quarantine period is to ensure that the waste produced in your home is minimized. In India alone, 21 million tonnes of food is wasted every year. This wasted food is often treated with plastic waste leading to emission of methane gas in a large quantity. While a life-threatening disease is upon the earth, one must not forget another crisis that is underway, that of global warming. Dealing with the COVID-19 gives us no excuse to forget caring for nature. The small roles we play at our house can make a huge impact outside.

How has Pandemic increased Waste Production?

The Corona Virus has forced the government to take some drastic measures. The shutting up of all non-essential shops across the country was the first of many shocks. People were advised to reduce their trips to the market in order to encourage social-distancing. Lots of families misunderstood this message and hoarded up on supplies to minimize their trips to the market. This uncalculated decision made by the people has led to the wastage of food on a large scale. The pandemic has led to the limitation of a few commodities and we cannot afford to waste even the slightest of food.

1. Buying Smart

The first step in moving towards a zero-waste lifestyle is to by only the amount of food you will require. Hoarding should be thoroughly discouraged as it is the main cause of waste production. The limited number of supplies means that the food you waste could have actually filled the stomach of a person in need.

2. Proper Storage

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In these testing times, you never know, when even a single loaf of bread could be useful. Hopefully, the situation won’t get to such an extremity but storing items should still be a priority. Keep food items in cool and covered places to ensure that they are not spoiled. This could immensely reduce the amount of waste being produced at your place.

3. Use Items before they Expire

About 40% of the food produced in the country is thrown into the trash, uneaten. During the lockdown period, try and have a basic idea of the expiry dates all food items in your home. It is essential to make sure that no sort of canned or packaged food is kept win your house past its expiry date. Make sure that you have completely finished an item before going out to buy more. An interesting fact about packaged food is that some of it is safe to consume even after its ‘best before’ date. Check on the internet to find out if the can in your store room is still safe to consume. If not make sure it is disposed off correctly. Separate the food item from its packaging before throwing it away in two separate bins.

4. Utilize the Leftovers

The most important aspect of living a zero-waste life is to ensure that your leftovers are put to good use. Segregation into two different bins is an ideal way to dispose off leftover food. The only problem lying with this situation is that many garbage trucks and cleaners just pile all the garbage into one huge bag regardless of its recycling and ecological properties. The perfect way to deal with this problem would be to use the leftover food as compost.

People often avoid using compost as it is a long and slightly difficult process. The quarantine makes it a perfect time to finally do something good for the environment. Before creating compost make sure that you are doing it right. There are a lot of factors that need to be considered before generating a manure in your kitchen. Use proper tips and techniques from professionals for optimal results.

5Mini Farming

Now that you have composed manure just from your wasted food, it is time to put that compost to good use. Indoor farming is not easy and it requires care and time but it is not necessary for you to own a huge balcony or a garden. You can grow vegetables even in the small terrace of your house. There are families around India who have become completely self-sufficient. Shilpa and Nitin, a couple based in the traffic heavy Bengaluru, grow more than 50 vegetables in their small balcony. Just one small pot for each type of vegetable is enough to sustain a family of four. The food they consume is from their own balcony and the waste produced in their home is used as manure to grow more vegetables. This ecological cycle can have a huge positive impact on the environment.

6. Eat Healthy

Perhaps the most underestimated way to reduce food wastage is to eat healthy. Junk food, has a much faster rate of decay when compared to fresh vegetables and fruits. Having a balanced and planned diet can help you minimize the amount of waste you generate. If you do not have the provision to create compost and farm in your balcony, you can start by eating healthy.

The COVID-19 pandemic has not been an easy time of us. Para medical staff and nurses are working overtime to ensure that we are safe the least we can do is reduce the burden on the planet. Correct utilization of leftovers and controlled generation of waste will make sure that the country has ample supply of food for the poor and needy. Play your part in the quarantine by changing to a zero-waste lifestyle.

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Countries that haven’t reported a Single case of Covid-19.

Most of the world has been struggling to contain COVID-19. The disease which was first reported in China, has become a global pandemic that many countries are still trying to get under control. But a hand full of nation have not reported a single case of COVID-19 to the World Health Organization (WHO).

Most are in southern and central area of Pacific ocean.

  1. Federated States of Micronesia
  2. The Marshall Islands
  3. Naru
  4. The Solomon Islands
  5. Vanuatu
  6. Tuvalu
  7. Kiribati
  8. Samoa
  9. Niue
  10. Tonga
  11. The Cook Islands
  12. Palau

These small islands are all technically Covid-19 free. Health experts these 12 countries escaped the pandemic because of a combination of remoteness, small number of people as their combined population adds up to just 1.6 million and because they closed borders when the Corona virus that causes Covid-19 began to spread widely. But just because they haven’t reported any Corona virus cases, does not mean these nations have entirely dodged the effect of the pandemic.

Tourism plays a major role in the economics of most of these countries. And as in many around the world, a lack of visitors has left hotels and restaurants struggling. The owner of the hotel says since March 2020 they have lost their whole business and have zero income.

Palau is one of the island nation feeling the economic pain of Covid-19. Streets that are normally bustling with visitors from abroad have been all but empty for months. With no guests, hotel in the country have also had to make serious cuts. A hotel owner says

No one in our hotel is making their full salary. Most people are 50% or below. Everybody is feeling the pain as thers is no economic opportunity left.

The Palau government recognized early on the economic toll of shutting it’s borders to foreigners. He says

Our capacity, our reality a situation here its that you’re better of with prevention than trying to do something about it later on. So, it became a question of economics or people’s lives, and the right thing to do for anybody in this world is to consider people’s lives.

The Government provided generous subsidies of up to US $10,000 for local people and a few hundred dollars for foreign workers affected by the halt in tourism. Not all Pacific countries rely on tourism as a main driver for their economies.

Countries like Marshall Islands and Federated States of Micronesia rely on fishing and farming and financial aid from the US. But with limited health care facilities and population spread across many islands, the nation’s priority has been keeping COVID-19 from their shores and educating citizens about thorough handwashing, social distancing and other precautionary measures.

Other than Island Nations

In addition to these tiny island nations, there are other countries that haven’t reported a single case of COVID-19 to the WHO: North Korea and Turkmenistan.

North Korea closed its borders in January 2020 and it’s leader Kim Jung-un has repeatedly said the disease is a “potential” threat. He even put the town of Kaesong, which borders South Korea, under lockdown in July 2020. But many observers are are sceptical about the country’s official statistics. They say North Korea’s weak healthcare system may not be able to confirm Corona virus infections, or that the ruling party may simply not be very transparent about whether there are any cases.

Health experts are also wary of Turkmenistan’s claim to be COVID-19 free. It is among the hardest countries in the world for foreigners to enter, and it also closes its borders early on in the pandemic. The authorities government in Turkmenistan also says there are no people in the country living with HIV or Aids, a claim most scientists say is just not plausible.

Back in Paula, where people are doing their best to ride out the economic toll of the pandemic, hotel owner have a bleak prediction about the future. They’re predicting how long will they continue to lose money before suspending more operations or total operations and just wait for the whole world to settle down? Because it’s a financial question arises, we’re willing to lose money, but how much money are we willing to lose?

So while border control, good hygiene and social distancing seem to have effectively kept the disease away from these places, there is no defence against the economic devastation caused by the global pandemic.

Why schools should not be reopened?

SHOULD SCHOOLS BE REOPENED?

Some says they shouldn’t others says they should. Some states have already reopened in India this includes Punjab, Uttrakhand, Haryana, Madhya pradesh, Himachal pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Gujarat, and most of these states schools have been reopened for selective classes mostly senior classes grade 9 and above. In Himachal pradesh for example, schools have reopened for classes 10 to 12. But in most Indian states schools are still closed and they have been closed for more than 500 days now.

The Wuhan virus was declared a pandemic 17 months ago in March 2020. In March 2020 over 250 million primary school and middle school children have not stepped into their classrooms. This is a situation in India and all of these numbers are true. By these numbers they do not necessarily translate into a safety certificate for schools. They do not mean reopening schools are now safe.

Those arguing of reopening site instances of bars and shopping malls, even marriage halls, they’re all open. They’ve all opened why not schools they say. Well for one, schools are for children and children are not been vaccinated most of them are below 18 years of age. In India children are not qualified for Wuhan virus vaccination. So sending them to school unvaccinated which mean their lives exposing them to the virus. Will parents be ok with that? Won’t it be better to wait it out and make sure that their kids will be safe at school and right now they won’t be.

The pandemic has not gone away. There are cases arising in many countries and in India third wave is on the horizon.

One may say this from a privileged position as some children have access to digital learning i.e., they can afford to attend classes from home but many others can’t. Many students and teacher in India can’t afford a smartphone, a laptop or a computer. Many schools lack basic infrastructure required for conducting online classes. For example computers, the following is showing the statistical data of computer facilities present in different states of India:-

The above data shows Assam and Madhya pradesh with 13%, Bihar and West Bengal with 14 %, Tripura with 15% and Uttarpradesh with 18% of schools with computer facilities.

How are schools Managing to conduct classes in the middle of the pandemic?

Oxfam India carried out a survey in 2020 interviewing nearly 1200 parents and 500 teachers. They were all from the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar, jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and U.P.

–> 80% parents said that children have not received any education during the pandemic.

–> 4 out 5 students had not received new textbooks for the academic year.

–> Teachers fears that 30% of students might not return to schools when reopens

Therefore, there is not doubt that school closure is taking a toll on education, it is also threatening to undo the gains made in the education sector in general. The facilities deficit in government-funded schools does not help.

According to the educational Ministry,

–> At least a 113 Million students attends government schools in India.

–> 65% from 20 states are enrolled in them.

–> Only 30% of these schools have functional computers.

The Education Ministry data also says that in the run-up to the pandemic less than 12% of India’s government have internet facilities. Also only three states of India have internet facilities in majority of their school which are Kerala, Delhi, Gujarat.

It is not wrong to believe that schools should reopen that every child should be able to access learning. After all education is every child’s right and the pandemic should not be allowed to snatch away that right, so yes they should go back to school but there is a problem our children would not be safe not yet. We may convince ourselves that worth the risk but our trust with that pandemic shows us that nothing is worth risking the Wuhan virus.

The last one year has been a grand experiment, we have tried alternate day work from home, we have tried alternate seatings at restaurants, movie halls, alternate flight of escalated. We have tried all kinds of things but, we should leave children out of these grand experiment.

Understanding the Fine Line between Seasonal Influenza and COVID-19.

Starting off as a simple virus emerging from Wuhan, China, COVID-19, or the Novel Coronavirus, has brought the entire world to a halt. Be it economic, judicial or educational prospects, there is no clear picture as to what the future holds for us. With the virus currently holding an overall tally of 40,636 deaths and 8,23, 479 positive cases worldwide (as of 31st March, 2020), the pandemic has now become a life-threatening global phenomenon forcing numerous countries to impose lockdowns.

However, in this time when social distancing and hand hygiene play key roles, one more important aspect must be considered- correct information. While we are getting to know about numerous cases, another problem prevalent in most countries is the high number of people flocking to hospitals for testing even when they show flu-like symptoms, like a cold or mild fever. While it is certainly true that there is only a stark contrast between seasonal influenza (flu) and COVID-19, it manages to pose a major problem: it has not only increased traffic in the hospitals but also diverted the attention of hospital staff from cases that require immediate attention.

Thus, here are a few indicators which might be helpful in differentiating between the common flu and the Novel Coronavirus.

1. Difference in Major Symptoms

A COVID-19 patient will typically suffer from a fever; however, it is not necessary that every individual with flu will have a fever, particularly older adults or those with a weak immune system. While nausea and diarrhea are symptoms for both diseases, they are more prevalent in kids suffering from flu.

If the patient shows signs of dry coughing and shortness of breath, that’s more of an inclination towards a case of COVID-19.

2. Difference in Incubation Period

While a COVID-19 patient takes an average of four days between the initiation of the infection and the onset of symptoms, the incubation period ranges between 2 and 14 days. On the other hand, a flu patient’s incubation period ranges between 1 and 4 days, averaging at 2 days.

3. Difference in Period of Contagion

One of the major threats related to COVID-19 is that it can be contagious even if the patient doesn’t show symptoms. On the other hand, flu can be contagious a day before the symptoms appear, and for nearly 5-7 consequent days thereafter.

4. Difference in Severity and Course

The seasonal influenza or common flu usually takes nearly 3-7 days to resolve, with just 1% of the patients ending up in the hospital. The deathly COVID-19, on the other hand, lands nearly 20% of the confirmed cases in the hospital in a critical condition.

5. Effect on the Immune System

Believed to have an animal origin, the COVID-19 is caused by a newly discovered coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, a novel virus. This signifies that the population doesn’t have pre-existing immunity to it, which makes it more difficult to prevent the disease from becoming fatal.

Seasonal flu, on the other side, is a disease which can recur, with the body developing antibodies each time. This reduces the extent to which the disease can affect the human body. However, for COVID-19, there is no current evidence to prove whether an individual can get it again post-recovery.

6. Difference in Mortality Rate

Based on information collected from different locations and using various population sizes, it has been gathered that 0.25-3% of the total population testing positive for COVID-19 succumbs to it. In the case of seasonal flu, the esteemed mortality rates are a mere 0.1% in comparison.

7. Difference in Rate of Transmission

With COVID-19 cases multiplying rapidly each day, the reproductive number (R0) for the disease appears to be higher than that of the seasonal flu, with the former being 2.2 and the latter, 1.28.

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This is a clear indicator that a patient of COVID-19 is more likely to infect more people as compared to an individual suffering from flu.

8. Difference in Developed Vaccines and Medication

As a result of a novel coronavirus, COVID-19 is yet to have a valid vaccine or effective medication available for the general public. In the case of seasonal flu, however, the seasonal flu vaccine proves to be most effective. Antiviral medications also help to an enormous extent.

9. Difference in Target Population at Risk

While both flu and COVID-19 affect similar ranges of the population, especially those already suffering from asthma, chronic lung diseases, diabetes etc., the latter is found to have a more severe effect on the older population. Flu, however, is found to be more dangerous in the case of pregnant women and children under the age of 2 years.

10. Difference in Prevention Methods

Due to the nature of both diseases as well as their high rates of contagiousness, remaining in isolation is recommended, though more in the case of COVID-19. Also, COVID-19 highlights the need to maintain good hand hygiene (regular washing of hands with soap or alcohol-based sanitizer) and social distancing i.e. remaining at home if not in case of emergencies, maintaining a distance of 6 feet from another individual at all times and avoiding crowded places like malls and restaurants with heavy footfall.

In the case of flu, proper medication, rest and good nutrition are recommended to heal. Regular flu shots also play a key role in the prevention and faster cure of the disease.

Although remarkably similar in nature, both COVID-19 and Seasonal Influenza, on the deeper end, vary to a great extent. While COVID-19 has proved to be comparatively fatal and easily transmittable, flu is seen as a recurring phenomenon, largely treatable.

In these trying times, when most of the world is living under self-quarantine and isolation, we must remember that the first and foremost requirement is to bring the COVID-19 outbreak under control. Thus, upon showing any symptoms, we must consult a family doctor before crowding hospitals to get a seasonal flu treatment, which can be done from home!

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Coronavirus: Top 10 Popular Coronavirus Myths

Coronavirus has been causing a deadly disease which has taken upon the world within a very short period. This disease caused by Coronavirus has created not only a lot of panic among the public but has also resulted in several rising rumours and myths. At this stage, to curb the disease, it is very important to know everything about it. Here are ten myths which common people have mistaken as facts.

1. “Coronavirus can also be called Chinese disease.”

It’s called COVID 19 and not a Chinese virus. The name of the virus has been divided simply into, CO from corona because the shape of the virus appears to be crown-like, VI stands for the virus, D is for disease and ’19’ symbolizes that it started spreading in the year 2019. Many people are calling it a Chinese virus. Even President Donald Trump recently addressed it as ‘Chinese virus’. It’s not spreading from Chinese, not every Chinese person has it. A girl from Manipur, in India, was called ‘Corona’ by an old man, and he spat ‘paan’ on her face to show his disgrace towards her. North-eastern Indians are facing many racial remarks because of this outbreak. Many Chinese people living abroad have faced similar situations. It’s not just racist but also inhumane. People should address the virus with the correct name and should think twice before making any such insensitive remarks.

2. “Drinking alcohol can kill the virus.”

 False! Alcohol is a disinfectant was thought to be a killing substance of the virus, but it’s not as easy as it sounds. The virus, once inside the human body, cannot be killed by alcohol. Any surface might be disinfected with alcohol, but using alcohol on the skin can cause harmful reactions and consuming excessive alcohol can definitely take a toll on your liver.

3. “Only Old people can die of the virus.” 

Anyone, including a child of one day, or even inside the womb, can catch the virus. Younger people might have higher immunity and may have higher chances of surviving the virus, but it is still deadly for them. The virus is indeed more deadly for old people or people having an underlying health issue such as diabetes, heart problems or asthma, but that does not mean that the younger are safe. Everyone should take precautions.

4. “Stay away from people who are wearing a mask.” 

The virus has infected not everyone who is wearing a mask. They might just be wearing it to protect themselves. Incidents have been reported where people wearing masks in public were harassed. People can wear the mask as a precaution, but it should be noted that even though one is wearing a mask, the chances are that the virus enters through your eyes. Hence, the only solution is to suggest anyone who is coughing, should wear a mask or cough in their shoulder so that no droplets fall around and infect nearby people.

5. “Eating ginger, garlic or lemon will increase your immunity

 People started with their own home-based remedies. Eating healthy may increase immunity but will not create complete protection from the virus. Even drinking cow urine was said to be one of the ways to kill the virus. There was a lot of fake WhatsApp news which were circulated. It was also said that smoking weed could kill the virus. People also said that sitting in the sun or warm climate can kill the virus. People around the globe considered taking a hot bath can kill the virus within their body. The only way to cross-check any such news is to visit the ‘WHO’ site and check if they have published any such news or not. Any news related to the research of coronavirus, be it positive or negative, will be posted on the WHO site.

6.” Only people coming from abroad should get tested and be scared of having it.” 

 It’s highly wrong to think that only those people should be scared who have travelled recently abroad. Anyone who has symptoms of the virus should immediately get checked. Anyone who has a recent travel history should try self-quarantine. One should understand that if the person who recently travelled abroad failed to take any precautions and refused to self-quarantine, he/she might end up spreading it to others. So, you could be infected by a complete stranger in public. Staying at home and getting checked if showed any symptoms, is the only way to fight the spread of the virus.

 7.”It is a city disease.” 

 Most of the labourers are going back to their village or hometown, considering that the virus is only spreading in “cities.” However, they are not taking into account how there is a chance that they might transmit the virus with them to their respective hometown. Going back to your hometown, even with current zero cases of the virus, does not mean that one stops taking precautions to be safe. Under all circumstances, social distancing should be practised.

 8. “Chicken, dogs, and cats are spreading the virus.” 

No! The disease can be transmitted only through human contact. There has been no study which proves that animals can transmit the disease. Animals should not be treated with cruelty on any basis. One should consider the well-being of the street dogs and cats, and should at least feed them during the lockdown. In India, the rate of chicken had seen a drastic fall, especially in the state of Maharashtra, because of the rumour that the disease can be spread via eating chickens. In fact, the truth is that consumption of chicken may help in increasing your immunity and save you from the seasonal flu.

 9.” Coronavirus has a 97% Survival rate; the government is making us panic for nothing.”

To put this in a simple analogy, it’s like if you are given ten apples, and one of them is infected, you probably shouldn’t take the chance to infect yourself by eating any of them. There is a limited supply of healthcare services, and in a country like India, which is highly populated, should not risk the spread of it. If the number of cases keeps going higher, we might fall short on several doctors and nurses present to help the patients. 

10.” Stock as much food as possible.” 

The pandemic created such a panic among the public that on the announcement of the lockdown, people rushed to the stores to buy as much food as possible. In this rush, they forgot how close they were standing to strangers and how the deadly disease could be passed on unintentionally as many failed to wear a mask. Stocking of excess food will also create a shortage for others who are in need. People were found stocking up on basic medicine as well, such as fever and cold. This might have created a deficit for someone who is currently in need of it. The government is taking as many measures as possible to make ends meet. In Maharashtra, grocery shops will be open all day and night to provide essential items to the customers.

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By Megha Sharma

Posted in Internship

Rating: 1 out of 5.

“Internships : A Door To Opportunity”

Internships- really being a door to opportunity for so many of us, being the only source for the growing students to learn something new & to explore different work fields in this leisure. Internships are the proven way to gain some knowledge, interest & maintaining a healthy connection with the work fields. This lockdown has taught us the meaning of internship, and to work as an intern in a firm. Since online studies are going on, doing an internship in this leisure is a perfect & productive way to utilise your free time! Internships not only enhance our skills, but also makes us confident, independent and self reliable. Since, adults has nothing to do in this lockdown, internships are way better to do something productive and to invest our time in learning something new. Internship is basically a platform where students puts up their education into practice, and develop relevant personality development and skills as well. For the college going students, internships plays a very important role in their lives. Being indulged in internships not only helps you to know more about the work fields, but also unleashes different side of your personality that you didn’t even know that it existed.

IMPORTANCE OF INTERNSHIPS

Internships plays a very prominent role in a students life, it provides a real life experience of working for the firms & companies for the fresher students! Freshers, who are new to this world, internships provides a platform for them to learn something new apart from their studies, and to enhance relevant interest in different fields. It is an ideal approach to gain understanding of your chosen Industry and field. Providing a platform to maintain a healthy yet professional connection with the work staff, and to learn & explore that how a firm works. It gives you a significant practical experience of working with the firm and also an opportunity to showcase your knowledge of degree program in real- life situations. Internships, based on hard work & stipend gives an opportunity to the students to showcase their hard work and skills on the respective fields and earn a minimal amount based on their skills and performance. It provides students the value of earning money on the basis of their hard work, and to work as an intern for a company.

ADVANTAGES OF INTERNSHIPS

  1. Get Industry Experience

The first and foremost factor of doing an internship is that it provides a platform for the students to explore the working of an industry or a company, and gives relevant workshops to learn that how exactly a company works. Fresher students learns how to work in a company by working as an intern so that they can gain experience of various fields they have chosen to work in. It further helps them to work in different fields , and hence built a significant connection with the workspace and the staff. It provides a practical way of learning and working for a company, and to gain an experience of how a company works and gives an opportunity to the students to put up the knowledge they’ve gained till now in real life situations.

2. Boost the value of your CV

There no task harder for a fresher to build a CV when they have literally no experience. No experience mentioned in the CV is a big turn off for most of the companies, why would a company hire you when you don’t have any work experience? The importance of doing an internship not only gives you opportunity to showcase your knowledge in real life situations, but also enhances your personality development and skills that are vested in your personality. You can easily know about the importance of internships when you will list down the accomplishments on a piece of paper, and that piece of paper literally decides your future. Thus, after completing an internship, you must sit down to contemplate over all the things you got to learn and how they can help you professionally as well as personally. As an intern, you will have to chance to take up new tasks and get an edge over your competitors, thus ensuring that your CV gets more than a casual glance from your potential employer.

3. Facilitates Self Growth

Internships not only help you in developing professionalism but also enhance self-growth. You certainly develop various characteristics like integrity, commitment, and self-motivation. Pursuing an internship, you will get to work on a wide range of tasks that will boost your managerial skills, and working in a team, you can polish your interpersonal and communication skills while learning about the importance of teamwork. Furthermore, you additionally get a chance to investigate the different choices that you have without the obligation of a full-time job. You can do different internships in different enterprises and profiles before you make sense of the best field for yourself. 

4. Learn new Abilities and Aptitude

While an undergraduate program gives you the perfect foundation for your professional journey,  internships add to it by giving you a chance to learn new aptitudes. These new abilities include a mix of both complicated and easy aptitudes. With a temporary position, you get the chance to learn new things, be it a software application or any other skill you wanted to explore. Many companies provide interns with the scope to explore working in different departments and find the best one they like working in. Correspondingly, you get the opportunity to improve your abilities by learning interpersonal and communication skills and how to behave in a workspace. 

In short, Internships plays a very prominent role in a students life it polishes our interpersonal and communication skills at its best! and helps us to explore more about the working sector in a very interesting manner. Apart from this, student also got a performance based stipend, solely based on their hard work and the performance they’ve showed while working as an intern. 

-SUKHMANI PANESAR

Alone and Happy

Feeling alone at parties or having nothing to do on weekends. Having no one to hang out with on your worst days or no close friends to remember your birthdays. Having none to talk about life… we all would have faced these kinds of situations at least once in our lifetime. Some people have these feelings as a routine, but they do not cry else express their loneliness on social media. They are productive and happy. Why is that so? What do those people have which we do not? Why are they at peace even in loneliness when we are depressed about being alone?
Well, the reason is, to them being happy is a choice. Those people just realized that being alone is different from loneliness. It might not be possible at first but, it becomes a habit. This pandemic might have curbed our limitations where we can’t breathe. Still, we have been used to it and, we do try to stay happy.

Being alone is not always being lonely. It means that you have fewer people to argue with, you have more “me-time” and a lot more time for self-realization. Take time to think about the boundaries of the universe and the creations of life. Try to understand the stories behind every face and the hidden mysteries about every object. Travel into the pages of your favorite book or sink into your favorite cup of tea. On average, nine out of ten people see loneliness as a monster. This pandemic might have taken lives but, it has also given people chances to think about themselves. Partying at the weekends or being the center of attention at school, workplaces do not work anymore. We have been forced to give a hand to ourselves. Giving this a thought being in a bubble is far better than being with a bunch of people with whom you have to wear a mask all time. Somehow we all have been accustomed to this new normal. Loneliness seems less lonely if you keep your mind healthy.


To all those who still see loneliness as a monster, let me help you make up with loneliness:

  • Start your day by making your bed. When you make your bed, you take care of yourself. The self-satisfaction you gain in the first hour of your day will last till dusk.
  • Cook your favorite food or cup of coffee.
  • Grab a book. Let your mind explore the world between the pages. Romanticize every word. Smile at the little moments and memories through those words of the author.
  • Create a to-do list.
  • Go for a walk or exercise. Keeping your body healthy is as much important as keeping your mind healthy.
  • Take a nap. According to a study, nap time increases your psychological health.
  • Keep track of your journal. Writing helps one to self realize one’s actions. Write things that you feel grateful for, even if you have nothing to thank, thank yourself for surviving the day.
  • Listen to music. Music is the best companion.

These new beginnings might seem difficult at first. Eventually, you get used to them. We all grow up and develop ourselves. That is how things work in this world. You will have to find peace in your loneliness. Go find and embrace yourself!

DELHI UNIVERSITY REOPENS COLLEGES

Image Source : Wikipedia

DELHI UNIVERSITY

DU was established in 1922 and has the motto of “Nishtha Dhriti Satyam” that means “dedication, steadfastness and truth“. Since then it has been home to many students. Starting from 750 students at its foundation to above 2 Lakhs in the current enrollment of the Undergraduate and Postgraduate courses.

The university gave orders in the first quarter of the year 2019 to close its colleges due to the rise of Covid-19 pandemic. Since the closure of colleges it had been following an online procedure to conduct the lectures, assignments and exams for the students who were enrolled in every stream i.e Science, Commerce and Arts for both undergraduation and postgraduation level courses through ABE (Assignment Based Evaluation) and OBE (Open Book Examination).

But in the month of December, 2020 when Delhi saw the lowest record of cases, students started to demand the Re-opening of colleges. As the students believed that they were not able to learn well through online classes, they urged the Delhi Government to reopen colleges.

In an unexpected manner the covid cases regained the pace. And the 2nd wave came out as more dangerous and fatal to the people. And the DU students had to leave the hope of colleges reopening.

05 – August, 2021 – Office Order : Reopening of Colleges of Delhi University (http://www.du.ac.in/uploads/new-web/05082021-Office%20Order%20-%20Re-opening%20of%20the%20University%20of%20Delhi.pdf)

Source : Delhi University

On 05/08/2021 Delhi University issued an order to conduct physical mode classes and practical/ project work of Undergraduate and Postgraduate programmes of Science Stream with effect from 16th August, 2021 observing the decline in Covid cases in Delhi.

06 – August, 2021 – Office Order : Deferment of classes for UG & PG to be conducted from 16.08.2021 as per Office Order No. No. Estab.II(i)/330/COVID-19/M/2020/1654 dated 05.08.2021 (http://www.du.ac.in/uploads/new-web/06082021_Office-Order.pdf)

Source : Delhi University

On 06/08/2021 Delhi University issued another order to defer (i.e postpone) the continuation of classes in physical mode of any stream. And further stated that the other guidelines remain the same.

For further notice and updates the students are advised to be in contact with the Delhi University website. As for now, the colleges are still closed and online classes are continued.

Public Relations in the Pandemic.

The world has always been changing since its formation but at a very slow pace until last year, that is 2020 with the breakout of Covid 19. When all these years we have learnt about man being a social being and that man cannot live without company, now all we hear are words like ‘isolation’, ‘distancing’ etc. We are advised not to come into contact with people unless it is extremely necessary. With the unexpected breakout of Covid 19, the world has changed tremendously. When everything in the world is on the verge of rapid change, so is Public Relations.

What is Public Relation?

Public Relation is the practice of maintaining a healthy relationship between organization and public/ employees, investors, partners and the like. It refers to a convincing communication process where the organization adopts instruments, ideas and strategies to bring about cooperation and understanding between an organization and public.

Impact of Covid 19 on Public Relations

With the Covid 19 situation across the globe, the flow of information has taken a different turn where the strategies and communication policies of Public Relations has taken a faster pace of mobility than pre – covid times.

The two extremely popular applications like Facebook and WhatsApp has become the best friends of the public through which they could connect with the outside world despite of being confined to the four walls of their house. Although these applications are informal source of communication yet business, education related information and even news are disseminated through it. Even government officials, political parties, several brands made use of these apps to maintain relations with the public.

With the horrifying outcome of the pandemic, the PR professionals ought to make sure that the public is served with verified and authentic facts and news rather than taking advantage of the fragility of the pandemic situation and circulating ‘sold’ stories. The PR professionals are endowed with national responsibility to serve the public with relevant information.

The PR professionals need to understand and figure out the wants of the public to maintain their bond. In the recent times, India has witnessed a sudden rise in the trend of binge watching when many popular shows and daily soaps were telecasted. Also, news channels has become the evening tea partners for many. To understand what the public wants has become the need of the hour.

Conclusion

It cannot be denied that Covid 19 has lead to digital acceleration in India and everywhere across the world . Even after the pandemic gets under control, this tendency to digitalisation would stay and leave behind an important legacy.

When the country has faced the cruel waves of the pandemic, the PR agencies are expected to feed the public with what times and public demands. The PR practitioners are expected to adapt to the changing trends in order to maintain healthy bonds with the public.

Impact of corona virus on global economy

COVID19 impact on India to be more than $40.9 billion in first ...

The first ever coronavirus case was traced in the month of november in china. Nobody then knew that this virus would cause so much havoc in the world and it will force the countries with largest economy to impose lockdown . The virus has affected almost 200 countries and territories and almost 16 million people got infected with this virus among which 644k people died . The virus has not only affected the life of people directly but has also caused indirect effects on the life of people.

countries like India, Uk , China , France , Italy, New Zealand and Poland have imposed world’s largest and most strictest mass lockdown for the safety of their people. Lockdown no doubt has played a great role in saving the lives of people but it is not considered as an ideal solution as it has also indirectly affected the lives of people by worsening the economic condition of their countries.

Countries are now facing the worst economic slowdown ever which has resulted in job loss. The service sector and the business sector has been badly affected due to the lockdown as the companies are unable to perform their business activities due to which they fail to reach their target. Companies are now forced to drop employees and workers to manage their financial position. This pandemic has forced some major companies as well to downsize their work forces. Companies such marriott international, Air Canada, Scandinavian airlines, Ola , Zomato and many more are forced to layoff their staffs. This situation has boosted the unemployment rate.

Ross Community Action and Chillicothe-Ross Community Foundation ...

Tourism industry of many countries were also affected. Some countries depended upon their tourism revenues but due to the lockdown tourists are unable to visit which has declined the revenues generated from this particular sector. Also due to consumption slowdown many sectors such exports and import business are also affected. But unfortunately this a common stuff which keeps most of the countries connected and helps them in improving their economy and many people who are involved in this type of business are badly affected.

Coronavirus has hit various business sectors badly but this deadly virus has proved to be beneficial for certain industries and sectors such as pharmaceutical industries and hygiene product manufacturers. Though countries are trying hard to revive their economies but some researchers claim that it will take few years to get back the economy to the right track.

How COVID-19 has changed the world economy

The COVID-19 pandemic has reached almost every country in the world.

Enormous changes in financial exchanges, where partakes in organizations are purchased and sold, can influence the worth of benefits or individual investment accounts.

The major Asian and US stock markets have recovered following the announcement of the first vaccine in November, but the FTSE is still in negative territory.

If the economy is developing, that by and large means more abundance and all the more new positions. It’s deliberate by taking a gander at the rate change in GDP, or the worth of labor and products created, normally more than 90 days or a year. The IMF appraises that the worldwide economy contracted by 4.4% in 2020. The association portrayed the decay as the most exceedingly terrible since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

The movement business has been gravely harmed, with aircrafts cutting flights and clients dropping work excursions and occasions. New variations of the infection – found distinctly lately – have constrained numerous nations to present more tight travel limitations. Information from the flight following assistance Flight Radar 24 shows that the quantity of flights worldwide endured a gigantic shot in 2020 and it is as yet far from recuperation.

Retail footfall has seen unprecedented falls as shoppers stayed at home. New variants and surges in cases have made problems worse.

Covid 19 and Mass Media

The year 2019 was a normal year until December when this normalcy was disturbed by the outburst of Corona Virus in Wuhan city of China. The villainous corona virus or Covid 19 has shattered humankind into pieces by killing people all around the globe. Within no time, the virus took a toll on social, cultural, mental, economical and every possible spheres of life. Despite the tragedy, people all over the world has been fighting hard against this unseen enemy with solidarity.

Role of Mass Media in Covid 19 pandemic

With the outbreak of the Covid 19 pandemic, mass media has been a crucial tool for information generation. Because people were confined to their houses, mass media was the only source to get information about the ongoing situation. People began to watch the news like never before to update themselves with facts. Not just the latest news updates but with an easy access to social media, people are making use of platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram etc for personal and business updates. Even the government agencies interacted with the common people through social media to share information regarding the pandemic.

Negative effects of Media during the pandemic

At the beginning of the Covid 19 pandemic, people were searching for all sorts of Covid 19 related articles and news and unfortunately a lot of misinformation has been circulated creating panic. Such misinformation and rumours manipulated the minds of the people leading to mental breakdown which further took a toll on the immune system. There has been cases where mentally weak people lost their lives after falling prey to rumours. However, many people were arrested for circulating fake news regarding Covid 19.

Positive effects of Media during the pandemic.

Keeping aside the negative aspect, the role of Mass Media is worthy of appreciation as it has been a constant source of making people aware about the DO’s and DON’T’s. News portals, social media users be it friends, family, health workers, politicians or celebrities encouraged people to stay in their homes, safe and healthy. People were encouraged to exercise and do yoga on everyday basis to boost their immune system. The Quarantine culture started to come in trend and people started embracing lockdown. The effect of Media on culture came to be more profound during the pandemic. We have seen people reviving their long lost hobbies, spending quality time with family which infact inspired many people to look back into their lives, taking a break from their hectic schedule.

But sadly, not everybody could embrace lockdown. This pandemic has been the worst nightmare for the wage workers, the migrant labourers and even the middle class section of the society to an extent. Fortunately, media came as a rescue for these people. When their plight was shown in the media, many influential people, NGOs came forward to help them with food, money, shelter, medical facilities and the like. Covid 19 has been extremely harsh for the elderly people especially with disabilities, people with serious ailments, people who lost their livelihood but people made use of Media platforms to raise funds and distribute money and essential items to the needy. Also in this pandemic, the term ‘Webinar’ has become quite popular. Many notable health workers, scholars and teachers kept in touch with people by conducting webinars to keep a check on each others’ mental health.

It can be seen that the role and impact of Mass Media in this pandemic is never ending. Like the two sides of a coin, mass media also have two sides – positive and negative. We, the people, must always approach the positive side and fight to overcome the virus. Also let us keep in mind what Malcolm said, “When I is replaced by We, illness becomes wellness.”

COVID-19 pandemic for Pediatric Health Care: disadvantages and opportunities

The recent Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak has forced many countries to adopt specific austere “lockdown politics,” which had reduced the spreading of the infection in China, South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, and have more recently started to slow down the infection rates in many European countries, severely hit by the epidemic (e.g., Italy and Spain). Considering the lack of vaccination, it is reasonable to think that, especially for children and older people, most of these lockdown measures will be prolonged for the next months, even if it is still too soon to precisely predict for how long.

In this context, many nations are experiencing an unprecedented distortion of social habits and medical assistance for people and patients of all ages, including children. Interruption of school, sport, and other social activities is forcing children to stay home for most of their time, in close contact with (often idle) parents. Moreover, lockdown has a direct effect in the reduction of activities in non-COVID emergency rooms and hospital wards caused by the shift of personnel towards COVID-units and by a diffuse “germaphobia” (fear of germs and infections, and as a consequence of hospitals). In most of the hospitals many “COVID-units” (as well as COVID-pediatric units) have been quickly created, and, at the same time, in the other units, activities have been focused more on patients affected by severe and acute conditions, reducing the care and assistance for patients affected by chronic or rare diseases.

This “motionless revolution” is taking to Health Care personnel and patients many disadvantages, with inestimable consequences, but also some opportunities that will be unique and reproducible with difficulty when the emergency will cease.

Disadvantages

Even if COVID-19 does not seem to affect children severely, many pediatrics wards have been focused more on the emergency of COVID-19-related issues. For this reason, attention on many other acute and chronic diseases, especially those rarer, may be lacking. This scarcity of interest may cause, particularly in childhood, severe problems or even death. Politicians and physicians may be distracted by COVID-19-related issues, but also parents or even the same young patients, as these last’s attention may be focused only on news and information related to COVID-19, misunderstanding some symptoms or paying less attention to their (chronic) diseases.

Neuropsychiatric and psychological issues related to lockdown are another significant issue. The house confinement for children can be easily practiced in the first weeks, as they can be particularly fascinated by unexpected and new habits, but a prolonged lack of routine school programs and housework, as well as sport and leisure activities, could increase the occurrence of psychological consequences and distress.  More than other primates, Homo sapiens is a highly social species, and children develop in the first years of their life specific social abilities exclusively out of their houses. It is reasonable to think that we will face an underestimation of children needing school assistance for (missed) learning difficulties if schools will be closed until September 2020. Adolescents and older children are at high risk of cell phone, computer, and other internet devices overuse, which has been linked to obesity and its related issues. Moreover, spending more time in non-filtered social networks, they could be also invested by fake news and anti-scientific theories related to COVID-19, increasing their fears and phobias.

Lastly, the economic breakdown, expected in most of the countries, will probably involve the national health systems, especially pediatric departments and units not involved in emergency and infectious diseases, limiting the experience, progresses, and even the simple management of many genetic, congenital, and chronic disorders, with severe social effects, especially for children.

Opportunities

From the first reports from Eastern countries, we know that, in children, COVID-19 manifests with a milder course and a more favorable outcome, with only a minority of patients presenting with complications. Mortality under 18 years of age is exceptionally low, differently from other well-known “historical pandemics” (e.g., influenza, measles, polio, smallpox). Such favorable outcome in children is matter of debate, and many “causes” have been proposed, including the role of active immunization schedules for other viruses performed in the first years of life, the simultaneous presence of other viruses in the mucosa of lungs and airways, common in young children, which could limit the growth of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2) by direct virus-to-virus interactions and competition; important factors seem to be the under-expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor necessary for SARS-Cov2 binding and infection, and a milder inflammatory cascade, as children usually do not manifest, in respiratory infections, the final hyperinflammatory phase that leads to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, impaired cardiac function, and death. Studying pediatric patients will give the chance to investigate all these factors directly: key results could come evaluating the immune response of asymptomatic children compared to symptomatic, or comparing children and adults within the same families or ethnic groups.

Another opportunity will come—paradoxically—from the lockdown politics. In no other period of the recent history, children have been forcedly restricted to their houses, with closure of schools, and strong limitations of social and sport activities. A significant decrease of many (other than-COVID-19) infectious diseases has been observed in March in Italian children. In this setting, a reconsideration of many (common) problems of pediatric practice, from chronic cough to unexplained fever will be possible, withdrawing the bias of common infections (typically spreading in schools): many pediatricians could have the possibility to re-diagnose chronic cough as caused by gastro-esophageal reflux, in-house allergens, respiratory tract malformations, and other non-infective causes; others could have a higher chance of investigating recurrent febrile episodes as caused by genetic, autoimmune, or oncologic disorders.

Unemployment-hindrance to development

Unemployment became a never ending war problem in front of our country .But the outbreak of covid19 make this problem more dense. Now along with the problem of unemployment the problem of disguised employment is in front of us. Unemployment means the numbers of individuals in the state are finding jobs for which they are fit, and they are willing to, but not getting that. Or simply a person is willing for a paid job or searching for one. It is a curse to society and decreases the economic growth of the country. The particular age group of unemployment is adults. The main reason for unemployment is the rapidly increasing population is one of the most affecting factors of unemployment. Slow economic growth, industrial growth is also the main reason for unemployment.
Unemployment leads to an increase in poverty and sets back the economic growth of the country. The women’s unemployment rate is higher in rural areas than in urban sectors of the country. Unemployment also misguides or makes our youth helpless to do criminal activities. The migration of people from rural to urban areas for the search of the job also affects it. As the demand for jobs is high and the number of posts is less. Unemployment is also a reason for our youth is getting addicted to drugs. Due to lack of a job, they get addicted to drugs, alcohol, and may even get into criminal activities. The government, as well as the society or we, should focus on population control and make people aware of its ill effects, long-time advantages, and ways to control which help the government to provide jobs to needy ones if there are some limited members.
Agriculture is the backbone of our economy. Agriculture in India is not developed enough to accommodate all the unemployed youth. Our agriculture is still dependent on old and traditional ways of farming. And our education should also be upgraded as it mainly focuses on practical aspects of learning, should offer the vocational course and with that indirectly it will give the job to teachers.

Mob lynching-to what extent correct?

Mob Lynching is an open punishment applied by a gather that does not have the authority to do so. Most times, lynching occurs when a group believes that a person has committed a crime, even if it has not been trialed or convicted. lynching’s practice may include public hangings, tar, and feathering, or other forms of extreme punishment or execution performed in public. Lynching differs from uncommon types of punishment because the public performs it outside the legal system. This is often handled by a group of people. Lynching is a mob justice in which ordinary people come together to terrorize or punish someone they think violates a legal, moral, and social standard. Today in our society cases of mob-lynching occur in the name of homecoming, love jihad, cow protection, and self-defense camps, the longstanding issues of communalism against the community are being expressed now as violence. The crowd is making a target of people .also many cases recorder where There is an attempt to provoke communities suffering from such attacks. 

The instant “justice” of the crowd also reveals the breaking of people’s confidence in law and order. mass lynching cases are mainly caused by the spread of rumors, suspicions, or religious beliefs. If we understand the events in what order they happened then, we may consider that some were the consequences of caste-based horrors, some were because of religious beliefs, and the rest was because of false news or rumors.

No doubt we should respect religious beliefs, but what if few people kill a person based on suspicion or suspicion? But the main question is that too what extend it is justified to take law in the hands. And to do injustice with someone in the name of the justice. Now need of the time is that government itself investigate the matter and give punishment to those who are culprit.

 

Evil corruption

Corruption refers to a form of criminal activity or dishonesty. It refers to an evil act by an individual or a group. It includes activities like bribery or embezzlement. Most people in positions of authority are susceptible to Corruption. Corruption certainly reflects greedy and selfish behavior. Bribery is the most common method of Corruption which involves improper use of favors and gifts in exchange for personal gain. the favors include money, gifts, company shares, sexual favors, employment, entertainment, and political benefits. Also, the personal gain can be – giving preferential treatment and overlooking crime.

One important way of preventing Corruption is to give a better salary in a government job. Many government employees receive pretty low salaries. so they resort to bribery to meet their expenses. So, government employees should receive higher salaries. , high salaries would reduce their motivation and resolve to engage in bribery. By Increasing the number of workers we can curb Corruption. In many government offices, the workload is very high. This provides an opportunity to slow down the work of government employees. Consequently, these employees then indulge in bribery in return for faster delivery of work. Hence, this opportunity to bribe can be removed by bringing in more employees in government offices.

Strong laws are very important for stopping Corruption. strict punishments need to be meted out to guilty individuals. Furthermore, there should be an efficient and quick implementation of strict laws. Applying cameras in workplaces is an excellent way to prevent corruption. Above all, many individuals would refrain from indulging in Corruption due to fear of being caught. Furthermore, these individuals would have otherwise engaged in Corruption. Furthermore, the politician supports them due to the benefits they receive. Corruption is a great evil in society. This evil should be quickly eliminated from society. 

Agony of covid19

COVID has not only affected us by entering our bodies but the agony of Losing family members, jobs, income, a completely disrupted education system, and constant fear of what next have severely damaged the peace of people. Even doctors, nurses are under the agony of constant threat and tremendous work pressure. Oxygen plants are being constructed and vaccines are being produced, however, what the mind has been going through cannot be cured by steroids or vaccines.

These are some of the thoughts that haunt many of us who are infected or have lost people close to us due to COVID. Whenever we surf the internet through information pieces or even when we watch the news, we see they offer COVID helpline numbers, hospital details, and other valuable information on how to tackle COVID. In the same way, we can have a COVID Mental Health support helpline, wherein people can interact with therapists or more precisely connect to somebody who can listen and feel empathetically.

At this point advice like yoga, meditation, or “keep yourself engaged” does not work. There has to be sharing, there has to be handholding throughout the process of recovery. To heal completely from COVID or COVID implications the mind needs to be healed as well and we all have to pay attention to this

Mental Sickness

Covid-19 has shaken the entire world. Even though Major Pharma companies have developed vaccines intending to end the pandemic. we are still struggling to find an end to this pandemic. One of the issues that India faces is the delay in immunizing the population again Covid-19. The delay is partly due to overpopulation. And If the vaccines are not effective against the new variant, it needs to be redesigned to combat the new variant, prolonging the pandemic.

Due to covid, our country has to suffer Major economies struggle to cope with the health care burden as millions of infected people need hospitalization for several days, depending on the severity of the disease.

No one knows when lockdown will be enforced again to control the situation. Many are losing their families and not allowed to attend the final rites due to strict quarantine and lockdown measures. Along with these major problems This disease has seriously created mental health issues, and it may take years to recover from such mental health conditions. Governments have to set up a separate budget to manage increasing mental health issues. The freedom to move around has now been crippled by Covid-19, and most people in lockdown are confined in a small space, limiting them to have face-to-face interactions with their dear ones and friends. It has affected people from all walks of life and has led to mental health issues. It is hard to find a common solution to all as mental health issues differ from person to person. Students are the worst affected community as Many schools and colleges have resorted to online teaching, which isn’t as good as a regular session. 

The digital screen has now become our portal to communicate with the outside world. Many children have lost their parents in this second wave in India and have become orphans since then. There were several appeals to the Government of India requesting to support the children who have lost their parents/guardians/adopted parents. In such a drastic situation people are feeling alone. The best thing to overcome negative thoughts is by performing regular meditation and yoga, listen to music, news, recall sweet memories, watch favorite movies, plays, and read books. Only by overcoming our negative thoughts we can overcome mental sickeness.

Black Fungus: A Threat to Eyes

200,000 Amphotericin B doses used in black fungus treatment reaches India |  Latest News India - Hindustan Times

Mucormycosis, also known as black fungus, is a rare but dangerous Infection. Its caused by a group of molds called mucormycetes and often affects the sinuses, lungs, skin and brain. You can inhale the mold spores or come into contact with them in Things like soil, rotting produce or bread, or compost piles.

Symptoms of Mucormycosis

The symptoms of mucormycosis will depend on where in your body the fungus is growing.

 They may include:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swelling on one side of your face
  • Headache
  • Sinus congestion
  • Black lesions on the bridge of your nose or the inside of your mouth
  • Belly pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Diarrhea

If your skin is infected, the area can look blistered, red, or swollen. It might turn black or feel warm or painful. The infection can also spread to other parts of your body through your blood. This is called disseminated mucormycosis. When this happens, the fungus can affect organs like your spleen and heart. In severe cases, you may have changes to your mental state or go into a coma. It can even be deadly.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Mucormycosis-

If you suspect mucormycosis, your doctor will give you a physical exam and ask about your medical history. Let them know if you’ve been around spoiled foods or other places in which fungal spores are often found. If it looks like you have a lung or sinus infection, your doctor may take a sample of the fluid from your nose or throat and send it to be tested in a lab. They might also do a tissue biopsy, taking out a small piece of infected tissue for testing. Your doctor may do imaging tests like CT or MRI scans to find out whether the infection has spread to your brain or other organs. If you’re diagnosed with mucormycosis, you should start treatment as soon as possible with prescription antifungal medications. These medicines stop the growth of the fungus, destroy it, and bring the infection under control.

You might take:

  • Amphotericin B
  • Isavuconazole
  • Posaconazole

You get these medications through a vein (intravenous or IV) or as pills that you swallow. Your doctor may start with high doses through an IV until the infection is under control, which can take several weeks. Then, you’ll switch to pills. Let your doctor know if a medication has troublesome side effects like stomach pain, heartburn, or trouble breathing. They may be able to change your treatment plan. In severe cases, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove infected or dead tissue to keep the fungus from spreading. This might include removing parts of your nose or eyes. It can be disfiguring. But it’s crucial to treat this life-threatening infection.

  • Blindness
  • Blood clots or blocked vessels
  • Nerve damage

Mucormycosis can be deadly without treatment. Because the infection is so rare, the exact mortality rate isn’t clear. But researchers estimate that overall, 54% of people with mucormycosis die. The likelihood of death depends on which part of the body is affected. The outlook is better for people who have sinus infections than it is for lung or brain infections.

Mucormycosis Prevention-

There is no way to avoid breathing in spores. But you can do a few Things to lower your chances of mucormycosis. It’s especially important if you have a health condition that raises your risk.

  1. Stay away from areas with a lot of dust or soil, like construction or excavation sites. If you have to be in these areas, wear a face mask like an N95.
  2. Avoid infected water. This can include floodwater or water-damaged buildings, especially after natural disasters like hurricanes or floods
  3. If you have a weakened immune system, avoid activities that involve dust and soil, like gardening or yard work.
  4. If you can’t, protect your skin with shoes, gloves, long pants, and long sleeves. Wash cuts or scrapes with soap and water as soon as you can.
  5. If you get mucormycosis, be sure to take your medications as directed. If side effects cause problems or the infection doesn’t get better, let your doctor know right away.

STAY HOME, STAY SAFE

Why unemployment occurs?

Being 2nd in terms of the population can seem a curse to our country especially in terms of employment. The competition that youngsters face these days is because of this population. Even those who get a job didn’t get the desired salary. Most employees are not paid in proportion to the work that we put in. What’s more, this is not a new problem or one that has been created by a single government. In our country, low monthly incomes are a norm – across all states, and as a consequence, wage inequality remains high. Wage growth significantly trails economic growth in the country. The sluggish growth of our GDP has led to a rise in inequality and widened the economic divide between rural and urban India.

The sad part is that India’s unemployed are mostly the higher educated and the young. And those who have jobs are not satisfied enough. If you believe that only a few people at the top are getting huge paychecks, think again. Because data suggest that we aren’t creating too many high-paying jobs either. And even though labor productivity has risen in India, growth in remuneration has remained slow. The sad part is statistic, graphs of unemployment are still the same. The new jobs and opportunities are nothing in front of our population. This problem needs to review and can be to some extent need to be solved through bargaining power. Skilling, sometimes, multi-skilling at all levels is the most effective way to fight the wage crisis and the coming job crisis -the crucial designation before talent can be matched with demand. If the skilling exception isn’t corrected, job seekers will end up in the bad job trap. Skills produce productivity, and productivity brings with it higher pay.

The problem is that the business power of workers in India is low and getting more worse. Wage changes are also a result of changes in the way of production. Throughout the last few years, production has become more capital intensive or less dependent on labor in nearly every manufacturing industry in the organized and unorganized sectors. This is true, if to a lesser extent, for agriculture and services as well. While technical know-how and increased use of machinery is a change that needs to be welcomed since it translates to increased productivity, in labor surplus economies like India, the enhanced productivity does not automatically translate to higher wages for employees. Therefore need of the time is to cope up with the desired need of the institutes and became more high tech by learning more digital skills.

mental illness during pandemic

Mental Illness during Pandemic.
Covid19 pandemic hit the masses most severely mentally. The trauma from looking for the medicine, hospital beds to dealing with the mass of dead bodies, from being left jobless to mass migration and suffering. These all circumstances severely impacted our mental state. A tremendous number of people have lost their dear ones. And some are fighting for their life. While their loved ones and family are busy in the constant search of medicines and oxygen cylinders. Those who are safe are also suffering from mental illness by looking at their environment. Full of grief, devastation. This time is very hard. And financial crisis makes this problem. So many families especially of the lower class. Left without money and aid. Those who earn daily and labor are struggling a lot. These financial bottlenecks resulted in mental illness. Especially those students who are handling the digital divide. Faces stress and mental illness. All students couldn’t afford online education due to a lack of digital gadgets. That acts as a hindrance to the growth and education of unprivileged students. The cost of academic education and institution creates a financial burden for the students and the family. some can deal with it. But those who couldn’t eventually end up dropping out there college and institute. That leads to mental stress among the students. Recently, the cases of suicide by students increase manifold. That shows how mentally covid have impacted the students. Therefore cases of suicides are reported manifold. Students who are privilege enough. Also facing mental trauma. Online education also created an additional problem, technical glitches, electricity problems, access to devices, are major problems related to online education. That cause mental stress, headache as well as eyesight problems. This problem can be overcome through everyone’s participation. All need to contribute. By providing financial aid to the needy. And by including in the conversation as much as possible with our friends and family in this hard time. Chatting with each other acts as a medicine to cure the ailment of mental stress.

SELF RELIANT INDIA

INTRODUCTION

As the covid 19 pandemic affected the whole world including India, Narendra Modi the prime minister of India has addressed the nation with the necessity of being Self-reliant. He emphasized that self-reliance was need of the hour. Modi coined the term on 12 May, 2020 in his address to nation with regard to the covid 19 pandemic. His focus was mainly on the absence of domestic production and that there is a need to improve the quality and supply of domestic production. Thus, he started the wave of Atma Nirbhar Abhiyaan (Self Reliant India Movement). In the long term race, this decision is seen as a very beneficial one but for a short term, it can be a slight pain for the country. The difficulties arise as the nation aims to boycott economic relations with China, when India imports $75 billion worth of goods every year from there. The mission has already taken pace with banning 59 apps from Chinese developers. But it doesn’t just stop here; the centre has put 250 more applications under watch. The relations between the nations are sour since the Galwan Valley skirmish on 15 June, 2020 in which 20 brave soldiers sacrificed their lives. Many are of the view that the movement is a repackaged version of the Make in India launched by the Modi government in 2014.

The concept of being a self reliant nation does not mean that India will cut ties from rest of the world, says the Finance minister. ‘It doesn’t mean isolating away from the world but playing a bigger role on the global economy.’ says Ravi Shankar Prasad, the Law and IT minister.

WHAT DOES SELF RELIANT MEAN?

Self reliant India indicates the need to recognize the value of production at domestic level. The concept might seem similar to make in India but it has a vast horizon. It includes the slogan Vocal for Local which refers to be more attracted to local products. India is a developing country but there are many things which India lacks, like it has the second largest market for smartphones but produces a very little amount of the same. The movement aims to make India a bigger and more essential part of the economy. This is a great opportunity, especially after a brutal pandemic which left the people helpless. It will boost the economy and would help the country to reach new heights of development. The move has special importance as America a home to many companies seeks to shift business out of China, India can become home to Industries and MNCs. Many states have also eased the labour laws in order to give companies an exemption from them and attract investments. The prime minister also announced an economic package of Rs. 20 lakh crores focusing on cottage industries, MSMEs labourers, middle class and industries among others. Package of amount Rs. 20 lakh crores amounts to 10% of India’s GDP.

PM’s 5 PILLARS OF ATMA NIRBHAR BHARAT

Modi has introduced 5 pillars to Atma Nirbhar Bharat, they are; Economy, Infrastructure, System, Demography and Demand. He focused on essence of local markets and supply. In the pandemic phase, the import and export of major supplies is not possible and so it is an important time for India to utilize this opportunity for the benefit of Nation. Modi has asked the nation turn this crisis into opportunity, giving an example of domestic production of PPE kits and N-95 masks. He believes that the vision of India of turning crisis into opportunity will be equally effective for our resolution of self-reliant India. He also explained that the decision is not self centered but will improve the dynamic performance of India before the world, “The culture and tradition of India speaks of self-reliance and the soul is Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam. India does not advocate self-centric arrangements when it comes to self-reliance. India’s self-reliance is ingrained in the happiness, cooperation and peace of the world.”

Initiatives regarding Atmanirbhar Bharat:

  • India’s personal protective equipment (PPE) sector grew from zero before March, to around 1, 50,000 pieces a day by May. It is considered an inspiring example of a self-reliant India. The PPE industry of India became worth ₹7,000 crore (US$980 million) in two months, the second largest after industry in China.
  • IIT Alumni Council setup the largest fund in the country worth ₹21,000 crore (US$2.9 billion) with the aim of supporting the mission towards self-reliance.
  • Reliance Jio announced the India’s own ‘Made in India’ 5G networks in July 2020. Mukesh Ambani announced in mid-July “Jio has created a complete 5G solution from scratch that will enable us to launch a world-class 5G service in India, using 100 per cent homegrown technologies and solutions”.
  • For the first time, it was announced that Apple would manufacturer one of their premium I-Phone models in India itself in July 2020, Chinese media also debunked misinformation related to Apple entirely shifting out of China.

CONCLUSION

Even in the phase of a virus outbreak, India cannot stop building itself. A crisis led to the birth of a new opportunity to India. This will not only help the country but the citizens to grow by reducing unemployment and poverty. It will help the health sector, agriculture sector, infrastructure and many more to grow and reach the world. The road to the same will not be easy but still with full determination the country can achieve its aim to become self reliant. After a total shutdown of the economy, a revival of the same is important and can be achieved by growing even more. The government hopes for the better and have set an aim of gasification of 100 million tons of coal by 2030 with an investment of Rs 20,000 crore. This will help our country to reach a new level in the world economy. This cannot be only fulfilled by the government but requires a great role of the citizens.

MUCORMYCOSIS-A NEW ENTRANT

In the present condition where the second wave of coronavirus is alarming the whole world, something new has also barged in and is becoming a cause of worry-Mucormycosis. The Black fungus or “mucormycosis” in medical parlance is a new entrant into India, a rare and dangerous infection caused by a fungus by name “mucor” which can found on wet surfaces in general. These fungi are generally not harmful unless one has a weakened immune system. Black fungus is caused by mold found in moist places like soil or compost and are all pervasive in the environment. Black fungus attacks the respiratory tract. It is not contagious and does not spread from person to person. People get infected with mucromycosis , which are of several types, by breathing in fungal spores. Many people who were infected by COVID-19 were being infected by this deadly fungus due to low immune systems.

HOW DANGEROUS IS BLACK FUNGUS?

This disease is globally distributed , however its exact estimate couldn’t be placed due to insufficient data. Mucormycosis can become life threatening when it reaches the brain so doctors have to surgically remove eyes of patients to stop the infection from spreading too far and hence the infection needs to be detected soon and scraped off. The mortality rate considerably high in India due to delays in seeking medical attention and diagnosing the infection, and challenges and difficulties in managing the advanced stage of infection The estimates indicate that about 54% of people die of mucormycosis. Several people are also suffering from blindness as a result of this disease. The infection can also spread to other parts of your body through your blood. This is called disseminated mucormycosis. When this happens, the fungus affects organs like your spleen and heart. In severe cases, you might face several mental issues or also go into a coma. It can even be fatal at times.

WHO ARE ALL AT RISK?

  • Patients with Diabetes
  • People on immunosuppressants
  • People severely affected by COVID-19
  • People on ventilator support
  • Those with skin injury due to surgery or burns
  • Those who underwent organ transplant
  • HIV or AIDS
  • Long term steroid users
  • Premature birth or underweight birth

SYMPTOMS OF MUCORMYCOSIS

  • Fever
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Cough
  • Swelling on one side of the face
  • Headache
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Sinus congestion
  • Pain in the belly
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Blood in your stools
  • Black lesions on the bridge of the nose or inside the mouth

WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS?

  • Blindness
  • Damage to nerves
  • Blood clots

TREATMENT FOR THE INFECTION

An early identification of the symptoms and timely treatment can help in successfully treating the infection. The use of specific anti-fungal medicines when administered properly can cure the disease. The most commonly used medicines include Amphotericin B which is used for severe fungal infections. However, it is strongly advised that self-medication must be avoided.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES WE CAN TAKE FROM OUR END

  1. Wearing a mask while venturing out especially to garbage dumping, garden, dusty areas etc.
  2. Avoiding over exposure of skin.
  3. The blood glucose must be constantly monitored and controlled.
  4. Maintaining proper personal hygiene.
  5. One must follow the correct amount of steroids to be taken as advised by your physician.
  6. Ensure that clean water is filled in the humidifier for those who use oxygen cylinders.

RELEVANT LINKS: https://www.healthline.com/health/mucormycosis

https://www.indiatoday.in/coronavirus-outbreak/story/mucormycosis-amphotericin-b-drug-shortage-symptoms-treatment-1803854-2021-05-18

Tourism industry and covid-19

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a slump in the world economy. The pandemic has forced the people of the globe to switch their plans. All sports and technological events have been cancelled or have changed to be online. There is an overall economic contraction in the global economy as recession started setting in during the pandemic. However the tourism industry was worst-hit due to overwhelming travel restrictions and as well as a decline in demand from travellers and such measures were put into action to control the spread of the virus. There were four broad categories of restrictions, according to the report.

Of a total of 217 destinations,97 destinations implemented total or partial border closures;65 countries and territories suspended flights totally or partially;39 locations enforced border closures aimed at a specific group of destinations;16 countries and territories, or the remaining 7%, implemented other measures such as requiring visitors to quarantine.

For many countries, tourism is the main source of revenue and have suffered losses in millions. The United States has suffered terribly as it ranks first with a revenue loss of about $30.7 million followed by Spain. It is devastating to know but there is a total loss of about $195 billion worldwide in the first four months of 2020. The whole world came to a standstill and all countries could see their economic growth and revenue dropping but are unable to boost it due to the ongoing pandemic.

EFFECTS OF DECLINING TOURISM ON JOBS

Tourism supports one in 10 jobs and provides livelihoods to millions in developing and developed economies. The pandemic played a massive impact on the livelihood of the workers in the informal sector due to the huge unemployment. They neither received proper income nor an alternative occupation. Many small businesses which were dependent upon tourism were hit hard and were not able to meet their expenses and hence most of the youth and the workers were laid off by their employers due to their inability to pay them.  The travel agents suffered more and more losses when their customers knew that the pandemic isn’t going to end soon and ended up cancelling their plans for travel in the near future.

The pandemic also affected various modes of travel such as air, land and water transportation along with the hospitality industry. As of April 2,2020 British Airways is reportedly poised to suspend 36,000 staffers. Aviation-supported jobs potentially fall by 46 million to 41.7 million. Direct aviation jobs such as jobs at airlines, manufacturers and air traffic management fall by 4.8 million. Cruise lines had to be cancelled due to the outbreak of the pandemic. Bookings and cancellations grew as extensive media coverage of ill passengers on quarantined ships hurt the industry’s image. In May 2020, Norwegian Cruise Line announced a quarterly loss of $1.88 billion and warned it may go out of business. Most countries around the world have imposed partial or complete closure of borders along with travel bans.

Millions being unemployed, uncertainty over economic recovery, global fears of continuing COVID-19 spread, the hospitality industry was among the first industries to get affected and would be among the last industries to recover.

RELEVANT LINKS:https://www.jetir.org/view?paper=JETIRES06073 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7474895/

HOW TO MAKES YOUR HOME SAFE DURING COVID-19

The government released a new set of guidelines this week to combat COVID-19 transmission, emphasising the importance of masks, distance, hygiene, and well-ventilated spaces. It has been stressed that “ventilation can decrease the risk of transmission” from an infected individual to others.

It was recommended that outdoor air be introduced into workplaces, houses, and wider public spaces, as well as that steps be taken to increase ventilation in these spaces.

It was also recommended that fans, open windows and doors, even partially open windows, be strategically placed to introduce outdoor air and increase indoor air quality. It also said that adding cross ventilation and exhaust fans is helpful in curtailing fans running if the windows and doors are locked, it said.

To generate the optimal air flow for optimum protection from indoor infection, add an exhaust fan or convert a pedestal fan into an exhaust fan by turning it to face outdoors, according to the guidelines.

COVID-19 pandemic and prolonged stay-at-home phenomenon, according to Shalini Chandrashekar, principal designer and co-founder, Taliesyn- Design & Architecture, have revised the value of comfortable dwellings.

Optimizing the use of natural sunlight

By orienting the openings toward the northeast (N-E), an open breezeway can be created within the built volume. Orienting the kitchen in the southeast (S-E) will reward the mundane morning chores with the soothing morning sunshine, and locating the bedroom in the southwest (S-W) can pull in the warmth of the afternoon golden sun, all such conscious considerations can come in handy when designing a well-ventilated home, she advised.

Furthermore, strategically placing the openings while keeping the sun path and wind direction in mind lowers the operational costs of mechanical temperature regulation and indoor lighting, allowing the architecture to take on a more elevated spatial identity, she adds.

Incorporating skylights

In India, people prefer to keep their windows closed to keep insects out and preserve privacy. Openings with screens or jaalis can solve this problem by allowing fresh air in while maintaining protection and privacy.

Windows with buck mesh and sheer curtains inside are positioned disgonally to allow for instant cross-ventilation in the room. Because of the heat strength coming from those directions, large glass walls on the south and west are typically closed.

“It’s best to ensure that the prevailing wind direction of the site/city is taken into account and the fenestrations are placed in accordance with them to maximize the air flow,” Meena Murthy Kakkar, Design Head and Partner, Envisage, says.

Keeping the house dry

For proper ventilation and hygiene, it is important to keep the house dry. To keep the dampness out, create a dedicated wet utility area, which is a semi-covered utility room for washing and drying. Powerful exhausts in the kitchen and toilets, as well as easy-to-open windows, are a must if the position allows it. To keep the kitchen dry, place it in the sunniest part of the house.

Segregating wet and dry areas

If you have a balcony in a shady corner or a house without a balcony, invest in a dryer to prevent a dark and musty odour inside. Separate the dry and wet areas of your bathroom’s bathing enclosures with a partition. This also aids in preventing moisture from entering your quarters. Invest in high-capacity exhaust fans.

Arun K.R., senior architect at Brick&Bolt says, “We usually take care to provide sufficient and proper air circulation by having larger windows. Since morning sunlight is so beneficail, openings to the east help.”

IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON AIRLINES

India’s civil aviation sector is in severe difficulty once more, having encountered an air pocket just as it appeared to be ready to take off after a tumultuous year.

Things began to improve, and pre-pandemic levels of business appeared to be on the horizon, but just as the government announced that it would consider allowing airlines to operate at full capacity if passenger numbers exceeded 3.5 lakh per day three times in a month, the number began to decline.

As the second wave of the pandemic raced across the country, notably in key air traffic hubs such as Mumbai, Delhi, and Bengaluru, the passenger count never exceeded 3 lakh in March, and in April, the number began to decline even further, in tandem with escalating COVID-19 cases.

The number of passengers dropped from 2.75 lakh in early April to slightly over 1 lakh by the month’s conclusion. According to ICF’s data analysis, the number of active COVID-19 instances in India increased by 394 percent while traffic decreased by half. Airlines were further harmed because not all flights were cancelled at the same time. Even while traffic was dropping at a considerably quicker rate, the daily flight count fell only 35%, putting further strain on the carriers’ budget.

Who shrunk the most while who held up?

GoAir, which is preparing for an IPO, and AirAsia India, which is controlled by Tata-AirAsia Bhd, were the first to react to the shifting market. From 201 at the beginning of the month, GoAir’s departures dropped by 62% to 77 on April 30. AirAsia’s headcount has dropped from 161 to 55 in the last month.

IndiGo, India’s largest carrier in terms of fleet and domestic market share, shrank by only 28% on April 30, flying 883 flights. According to ICF data, the airlines concluded the month with 31,516 departures, which was more than the entire competition combined, or 52 percent of total domestic departures in the country in April.

Air India, the country’s national carrier, declined the least among major airlines, cutting its operations by only 11%, while Alliance Air, a subsidiary, cut a fourth of its operations by the end of April. Trujet, situated in Hyderabad, has also shrunk by 11%. Trujet and Alliance Air both have a significant presence in RCS-UDAN, and viability gap funding would help to mitigate the effects.

Between the first and last days of April, SpiceJet and Vistara both shrank by 47 percent and 46 percent, respectively.

Where was the impact felt?

While Mumbai-Delhi remained the most popular flight route in April, with 1656 departures, it was also the most impacted, with daily flights dropping from 77 on the first day of the month to only 34 by the end of the month. Flights from Delhi to Bengaluru, Srinagar, Kolkata, and Patna rounded out the top five routes.

As standards for RT-PCR=negative findings were reinstated across states, leisure routes were the hardest hurt. The destinations with the greatest reduction in leisure tourism were Port Blair, Goa, and Srinagar.

With only 50 flights on April 30, Goa saw a 68 percent decline in traffic. On April 1, there were 156 flights to Goa from all throughout the country. A few sectors vanished entirely from the airmap. Flights to Goa from Hubli, Jaipur, Lucknow, Nagpur, Kannur, Amritsar, Pune, and Ahmedabad were all cancelled, with the most significant impact coming from Delhi, where only seven flights were available instead of the usual 40.

Port Blair, which has long maintained a tight inbound visitor policy, reported a 56 percent drop in traffic. Direct flights from Mumbai and Delhi were cancelled, and the most popular route from Chennai saw over half of its flights cancelled.

Tail Note

May has been much more difficult than April. For the first time since August 2020, passenger traffic fell below 1 lakh passengers per day. The number of flights has also gone below 1,000. This represents less than 30% of departures and fewer than 15% of traffic prior to COVID-19. The government of India opened up air traffic with a capacity ceiling of 33%, and a year later, we are back to where we were a year ago!

“With domestic demand decreased to a fourth of pre-pandemic levels, it is difficult for airlines to locate routes that will allow them to satisfy the variable cost of operations,” says Piyush Bansal, Operations Lead and ISTAT Certified Appraiser at ICF. Long-term survival necessitates continued reductions in fixed and semi-fixed costs, which is difficult but not impossible.

With IndiGo’s board of directors approving QIP fundraising and GoAir filing a DRHP, the two airlines have devised a strategy to raise extra capital. While AirAsia India has reduced its service, Vistara is growing! TATA’s assistance for each of these airlines will be determined over time, but it continues to cast doubt on SpiceJet’s ability to exist and recover from the crisis.

SPUTNIK V COVID-19 VACCINE- MANUFACTURING IN KARNATAKA SOON

In the face of a vaccination shortage, Karnataka will house manufacturing plants for Covaxin and Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccines.

While Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin manufacturing facility in Malur, Kolar district, is under construction, Shilpa Medicare has signed a three-year definitive agreement with Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories (DRL) through its wholly-owned subsidiary Shilpa Biologicals Pvt. Ltd. (SBPL), for the production and supply of the Russia-made Sputnik V vaccine from its integrated biologics R&D-cum-manufacturing centre in Dharwad.

By the end of August, the Kolar vaccine manufacturing facility, according to state Health Minister Dr K Sudhakar, will be able to produce four to five crore doses each month.

Sudhakar claimed he attended a video conference with Bharat Biotech founder Dr Krishna Ella, his daughter Dr Jala Ella, and the rest of the team on May 17 in Bengaluru. Sudhakar said, “Dr Ella has assured me that their facility at Malur in Kolar will be able to produce one crore vaccines by June-end. By July-end it will be two to three crores, and their target by August-end is four crore to five crore vaccine doses.”

Dr. Krishna Ella and the directors of Bharat Biotech have also informed him that vaccination doses will be delivered to Karnataka as soon as possible, according to the minister. Sudhakar stated that he had requested a rollout timeline from them.

Meanwhile, SBPL said in a regulatory filing that it expects to produce 50 million doses of the dual vector Sputnik V in the first 12 months of commercial production.

On May 14, DRL soft-launched the imported COVID-19 vaccine Sputnik V. The vaccination is priced at Rs 948 per dosage, plus a 5% GST (retail price of Rs 995.40).

DRL, according to Shilpa Medicare, will help SBPL transfer technologies. SBPL will be in charge of manufacturing, while DRL will be in charge of distributing and promoting the vaccine doses throughout its marketing regions, according to the agreement.

In the near future, Shilpa Medicare stated, the businesses are looking into manufacturing Sputnik Light, a single-dose version of the Sputnik V vaccine.

Inoculations of the new coronavirus vaccines have been administered to nearly 1.13 crore people in Karnataka thus far. Both the first and second doses are included in this figure. However, due to a scarcity of dosages, the immunisation campaign for adults aged 18 to 44 has been halted.

India is experiencing a second wave of COVID-19 infection, and quick mass vaccination is being viewed as a viable approach to stop the pandemic from spreading further.

DR REDDY’S SPUTNIK V VACCINE; TIE-UP WITH APOLLO HOSPITALS

On May 17, Dr. Reddy’s said that 8-9 states have contacted the company about purchasing the Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine. Andhra Pradesh and Telangana are among the states that have reached out to them, according to the company.

The imported doses of Russia’s Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine were priced at Rs 948 plus 5% GST, or Rs 995.40 per dose, according to Dr Reddy’s. It stated that the price for both government and private channels will remain the same.

The company plans to partner with hospitals in the metro area that can store vaccines at 18 degrees Celsius.

Last week, Dr Reddy’s received 1.5 lakh Sputnik first dose doses, and the company said it received a second consignment of 60,000 second dose doses over the weekend.

“We have a supply commitment of 36 million doses from RDIF in the next two months,” said M V Ramana, CEO of Branded Formulations at Dr Reddy’s.

Dr. Reddy’s is attempting to obtain further doses from RDIF, according to Raman. RDIF has agreed to supply 250 million Sputnik V first and second doses to the company. Russia will have between 15-20% of the initial supplies.

The vaccine prices will come down once local manufacturers start supplying, which is expected in the next two to three months, according to Dr. Reddy’s.

“They have to absorb the technology from RDIF, have to get approvals from the regulators and then scale up manufacturing,” said Sauri Gudlavalleti- Head of Research and Development. “We are working with the regulator to bring appropriate guidance, on whether the other Indian suppliers with whom RDIF signed supply agreement will have to do clinical trials or not,: Gudlavalleti added.

DCGI has given Hetero, which has a partnership with RDIF, permission to conduct Phase-3 trials of the Sputnik V vaccine.

Gudlavalleti stated that the company plans to approach the Indian drug regulator in the coming weeks to request emergency use authorization for the Sputnik Light single-dose vaccine.

Tie-up with Apollo Hospitals

Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories and Apollo Hospitals declared a collaboration on Monday to conduct a trial launch of the Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine in India.

Dr. Reddy’s will rely on the Apollo Hospitals network around the country for vaccine storage, transportation, administration, and monitoring.

The Sputnik V vaccine would cost between Rs 1,200 and Rs 1,250 per dose, according to Apollo Hospitals.

According to Dr. Reddy’s, the initial rollout will begin on May 17 in Hyderabad and will be expanded to Visakhapatnam and other metro cities on May 18.

In addition to Apollo, Dr. Reddy’s has a partnership with IHH Healthcare’s Contitental Hospitals.

COVID-19 CHANGE THE WAY WE WOULD TRAVEL?

In the face of an unrelenting pandemic that continues to ravage the world, it doesn’t take a fortune teller to predict that urban mobility will change dramatically.

Concerns about hygiene and social distance are at an all-time high, especially in India’s densely populated metropolises. The concept of shared mobility and public transportation has been especially tarnished by the second wave. Uber and Ola, for example, are fighting back, with the former offering 9,000 free online medical consultations to drivers and their families. Uber also announced a decision to vaccinate 1,50,000 of its drivers in the next six months. Even automobile brands like Maruti Suzuki and Tata Motors have extended their warranty and service packages for newly purchased vehicles, ensuring that car ownership does not feel like a burden during lockdowns.

The need for personal transportation is obviously greater than it has ever been. However, economic uncertainty, as it was last year, is providing the same need, especially at the entry level, preventing buyers from securing funds for such a large purchase. Given that social distancing and passenger health will remain associated for the near future, the rise in fuel costs is also acting as a significant deterrent for first-time car buyers, a customer segment that should logically grow in size. So, how do both consumers and automakers break the impasse?

The ideal thing for brands, especially entry-level carmakers like Maruti Suzuki and Hyundai, is to offer customers more innovative financing options. But it isn’t just carmakers who must change their ways. Used vehicle portals, taxi aggregators, and electric two-wheeler startups, among others, all have the potential to offer novel solutions. For car companies, this begins with appealing subscription models that have the same advantages as private car ownership without the associated overall costs.

Leasing

Leasing is not a new phenomenon, even in India, where car ownership is seen as a sign of upward mobility. Since most car buyers find the idea of making a down payment too overwhelming in these financially unstable times, leasing allows them to simply rent to a car for a set period of time. Maruti Suzuki and Hyundai, two of India’s top-selling car brands, offer attractive leasing options, especially for entry-level models like the Grand i10 Nios and Santro. Maruti Suzuki has partnered with Orix Auto Infrastructure Services India for a subscription programme that is gaining traction in the Delhi NCR and Bengaluru areas. There’s no down payment, no registration, insurance, or annual maintenance fees; all you have to pay is a monthly sum that’s equal to or less than your EMI costs.

Used Cars

The used car market remains the most disorganised of the bunch, with proper certification and websites providing legitimate price estimates previously serving as roadblocks. According to Statists, the size of the used car market in India in 2020 was greater than the size of the new car market (as reported by Hindustan Times). The market, which has increased by 50% year over year, is expected to continue even after we ride out the second wave and reopen. Greater clarity and better funding options, on the other hand, may help the segment.

Shared Mobility

With cab aggregators like Uber and Ola taking strong steps to alleviate our collective fear of entering a cab, it’s only natural that they build thoroughly sanitized compartments, separating not only the driver and the rider, but also any other co-passengers who might be sharing the journey. When the medical system isn’t overburdened, the aggregator may also display the driver’s vaccine credentials, as well as the outcomes and dates of regularly administered Covid-19 studies. A simple temperature check won’t suffice.

The rise of Electric Scooter

Electric two-wheeler startups have the ideal opportunity to revolutionize urban freight mobility, with the e-commerce industry projected to expand exponentially. Electric scooters and cycles are well positioned to replace the traditional modes of mobility used to make deliveries in geofenced urban confines, where long distances are not a major concern.

According to P&S Intelligence, the new Bharat VI norms have increased the prices of petrol-powered two-wheelers by 7-15 percent, further incentivizing e-commerce brands to adopt more sustainable modes of transportation. Since low-cost scooters are also low-speed, swappable battery options would be favored over charging batteries.

The growth of the electric two-wheeler market would help more than just e-commerce. According to a PRNewswire survey, demand for e-scooters and motorcycles in Tier I, II, and III cities is growing at the fastest rate in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Ather Energy, a local brand, has already started manufacturing scooters in its new 4,000-square-foot factory in Hosur.

Though India’s public transportation infrastructure varies by city, a survey conducted by The Energy and Research Institute (TERI) India found that 35% of respondents are likely to switch modes of transportation after Covid19. Although this is good news for an ailing automotive industry that is expected to rise in the single digits in the future, it could exacerbate traffic and pollution in most Tier I and II cities. Although we don’t know how widely non-motorized modes of transportation would be adopted, it’s critical that cyclists and walkers be considered for short distances, as they could be much more preferable to public transport.

TALKING ABOUT COVID VACCINATION

As a result of the current COVID-19 pandemic, life as we know it has changed in profound ways. There have been over 140 million incidents and over 3 million deaths worldwide to date. To combat this crisis, scientists from all over the world came together in a once-in-a-lifetime effort. As a result of this global research effort, a number of vaccines have been granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)/Listing (EUL). In the United States, the introduction of three vaccines by Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Janssen promises to put an end to what has been a particularly bad year. As of April 14th, 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) has granted EUL to four vaccines: Pfizer-BioNTech, SK BIO AstraZeneca, Janssen (J&J), and Serum Institute of India, with several more awaiting investigation, including Moderna (approval decision pending end of April). At least one country has approved a total of 14 vaccines.

OUR TIMELY RESPONSE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC WAS INFLUENCED BY ANIMAL RESEARCH

Animal research is more important than ever before, both in fundamental research, such as understanding immune system control, and applied research, where that expertise is applied to the production of cures and other therapeutic strategies. The timescales from bench to bedside are often long in Animal Research, making it difficult to understand the immediate human value of such science. Consider the fact that in the United States, we were able to manufacture three vaccines with an EUA for COVID-19 in less than a year. How was it possible to pull off such a feat? Such rapid progress was possible because of Animal Research into coronaviruses over the last decade, which included Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), as well as decades of prior research into mRNA vaccines, as we wrote at the start of the pandemic.

Vaccines (like all other medications) are generally tested in animals before going through clinical (human) trials to ensure their safety and effectiveness. However, due to the urgency of the COVID-19 hazard, safety and efficacy testing for some of the 110 candidate vaccines and treatments produced (e.g., Moderna’s mRNA-1273 vaccine) was accelerated, and Phase 1 clinical trials began—where the smallest number of human subjects is usually enrolled. That isn’t to suggest that those candidates’ protection and effectiveness weren’t tested in animal models until going into clinical trials. Instead of testing safety and effectiveness prior to clinical trials, animals were tested concurrently with human trials.

COVID-19 TREATMENT AT HOME

With the increasing number of cases day by day, India witnessed a high demand of ventilators, oxygen cylinders, injections, medicines and beds. People are struggling for even a breath due to lack of oxygen supply. The corona virus pandemic has challenged the health care system of India and has seriously disturbed the mental balance of the front-line workers. People who reach out to the hospitals for better care and medical assistance are being sent back at their respective homes in home isolation in order to save those who are critically affected by the disease.

Here are some tips suggested by doctors which could improve the quality of care which you can offer to your family/friends/relatives who have tested positive for covid.

The first and the foremost thing to do under such a scenario is to isolate the patient, followed by sincere monitoring of the patient’s health for which some monitoring equipments are required such as a pulse oximeter to keep a regular check on the patient’s oxygen saturation level, thermometer for monitoring body temperature, gloves, mask , garbage disposal bag and hand sanitizers to avoid infection from the patient, and a separate washroom if possible. Proper ventilation in the isolation room is equally important. Keep the windows open and the fans on. Thermometer and pulse oximeter are the most important monitoring devices. Always wipe them before use to ensure correct readings. In every six hours, the following things should be monitored:

  1. Pulse
  2. Oxygen Saturation
  3. Body temperature

Take two readings of oxygen saturation level. (1) While sitting (2) After exercising for 1 minute (sit and stand for 1 minute). If the oxygen saturation is above 94%, continue to monitor the same, no need of hospitalization. If oxygen saturation is between 92 to 94%, continue monitoring after every four hours (in rest position only). If oxygen saturation level is below 92%, immediately contact your doctor. Fever is also to be monitored after every six hours. If the body temperature is high than normal, the patient can be given 1gm paracetamol in every 6-8 hours depending upon the body temperature.

Ensure sufficient hydration of the patient. Inhaled Steroids like BUDESONIDE can help the patient in such a situation. The prescribed dosage of BUDESONIDE is 800 MCG twice daily through the spacer. These steroids usually come in aerosol packages.

If the oxygen saturation of the patient continues to decline from 92%, the patient should immediately arrange for hospitalization. But if the beds are unavailable and hospitalization is not possible, the patient could be given any ONE of the following medicines- (1) Dexamethasone 6mg/day or equivalent steroid (2) Prednisone 40mg (3) Methylprednisolone 30mg (4) Hydrocortisone 150 mg.

It is highly recommended and scientifically proven to lie down in prone position. This position increases oxygen saturation level in the body. In severe conditions, an oxygen cylinder or nasal canula would also be required to increase declining oxygen levels.

Signs of improvement include oxygen levels higher that 92%, respiratory rate less than 24 breaths per minute and the patient experience no breathlessness.

The following are the drugs which are NOT recommended/useful by doctors:

Azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, doxycycline, favipravir, ivermectin, remdesivir (can only be used upon doctor’s prescription)

The above tips are derived directly from highly reputed doctors but it is advisable to kindly consult your doctor before following the above tips. Stay home, save lives.