GOVERNMENT ASSAULT ON FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN INDIA

By Moksha Grover

The year 2021 has shown catastrophic effects on India so far. The country has witnessed a devastating second wave of covid-19 which continues to rage on with the official death toll being over 3,50,000[1]. Hospitals in India run out of beds and medical oxygen because of the country’s paralyzed healthcare infrastructure. But the most important point to be noted here is that India increased its oxygen exports by 734 percent in January 2021, and exported around 193 million doses of vaccines[2]. Justifying the export to other countries, union health minister Harsh Vardhan claimed that the country was in a virus endgame. However, at the end of April 24, the total confirmed cases of coronavirus stood beyond 16 million with less than 2 percent of the population fully vaccinated[3].  When the people started questioning the government, the government in response reportedly directed Twitter and other social media platforms to remove over 100 posts and URLs criticizing India’s handling of its second nationwide COVID-19 wave[4].

It forced social media companies, especially Twitter, to stifle expression, and if the companies don’t obey they face the threat of punishment from the government. This is one example of the recent case of assault followed by the Indian government in relation to the freedom of speech in India.

IMPORTANCE OF FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND EXPRESSION

Freedom of speech and expression as regarded by Mahatma Gandhi

“the two lungs that are absolutely necessary for a man to breathe the oxygen of liberty”. Article 19 of the United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, states that “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.”[5]

The Indian Constitution provides for the right to freedom of speech and expression under Article 19(1)(a).[6] This right can be restricted on the basis of grounds provided in Article 19(2), which are: in the interests of sovereignty and integrity of India, security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offense [7]. The right to articulate opinions without fear of retaliation, censorship, or punishment carries significance in the life of every human being, thus making the right to expression important for all human beings. Freedom of speech is an important right because a person’s voice is sometimes all that person has. To take away a person’s thoughts and opinions is to strip their life away.

THE CRISIS OF FREE SPEECH                        

   In the last few months alone, Delhi Police has made international headlines for visiting Twitter’s India offices to “routinely” investigate its policies on tagging content as manipulated media. The Union Government has strongly instructed Twitter to remove all the tweets critical of Prime Minister Narendra covid response. Many activists have been arrested by the government for mobilizing support for the farmers’ protests. Multiple FIRs have been filed against journalists for reporting on Covid deaths and oxygen shortages. Last year, two Malayalam news channels were suspended for 48 hours by the Union Ministry of Information and Broadcasting for reporting the Delhi riots. This year, a comedian also got arrested and spent the whole of January in prison for the jokes he never cracked. The latest illustration of the assault on free speech is the government’s response to protests against the new farm laws. Instead of allowing peaceful assembly, the government in Delhi started building barriers on protest sides with nail beds or concrete walls. They blocked the protests. Many protesters were arrested. Violence erupted on many occasions and the farmers traveling to Delhi were placed under house arrest in Agra to cut at the root of the protest. Also Recently, three FIRs have been filed against union minister Narayan Rane for his remarks against Maharashtra Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray while giving a speech in Raigad district on Monday. His support in Mumbai also clashed and two of his supporters and two policemen were injured in the clash. Furthermore, in an English weekly, Organizer, was said to be publishing communal writings and was ordered by the Chief Commissioner of Delhi to submit all materials for prior censorship There are numerous other cases that depict the crisis of free speech in India.

IS THE ASSAULT FOLLOWED BY THE GOVERNMENT TENABLE?

The failure of the government to control the covid-19 cases in India and handle the pandemic has resulted in us bearing the worst covid surge in the world. However, instead of being accountable for its lapses and listening to its citizens, the government is prohibiting people from even talking about it. It is trying to suppress the voices of all the people who have been affected by the wrong decisions of the government. Such attacks on free speech end in the tipping away of balance from constitutional freedom; of late, the higher judiciary seems to be complicit in this absurd process[8]. One must realize that liberty once lost is lost forever and censorship is undoubtedly against the very foundation of a free society.

THE TWO MAJOR FREE SPEECH CHALLENGES FACED BY THE WORLD

There are mainly two major free speech challenges faced by the world, Today. In most developing countries like ours, the legal system isn’t strong enough to guarantee freedom of speech and needs to be revised. In other developed countries like the U.S free speech is increasingly being mixed up with absolute speech. In developed countries, the fight for freedom of speech has shifted to normalizing hate speech’s and to

 Silence minorities. As said, words always have consequences. One such example was a surge in anti-Muslim attacks in the UK after Prime Minister Boris Johnson called women in burqas “bank robbers”, and similar incidents happened everywhere[9]. In India, the government keeps suppressing its critics and agrees to give a free pass to all those who abide by its values. Hate speeches are allowed to be shown on national television considering, that these hate speeches are directed toward minority communities. Even by the American standard of “imminent lawless action”, chanting “Desh ke gaddaro ko, goli maaro saalo ko” at rallies would be considered wrong, and yet it seems to be acceptable here[10].

PROTECTING AND PROMOTING FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

Social Media has given a voice to almost everyone. But the digital world, like our real world, is not a level-playing field and those with power quickly learned how to use it to their advantage. In India, along with direct suppression, indirect suppression is also being followed through the way of troll armies that abuse people and flooding tactics (fake news, propaganda bots, paid commentators) that drown out real voices. Sticks and stones have always broken bones but words hurt twice as much. Social Media companies need to develop good terms and conditions to tackle all the misinformation and hate speeches. Online platforms should make it harder for people to share misinformation. Since women and children are mostly targeted online, companies should ensure to make their platforms a space to share ideas and not to harass people by employing sufficient moderators. We should keep fighting for the right to expression in India but at the same time keep in mind that our right to express opinions should not stifle the voices of other people or put them in danger.


[1] Jacob Mchangama and Raghav Mendiratta, ‘Supporting free speech, but not a criticism of government’, The Indian Express (June 25,2021) <https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/supporting-free-speech-but-not-criticism-of-government-7376023/> accessed 26th August 2021

[2] MD Tasnimul Hassan,’ Latest salvo in the crisis of free speech in India’, The Leaflet ( 27th April 2021) < https://www.theleaflet.in/latest-salvo-in-the-crisis-of-free-speech-in-india/&gt; accessed 26th August 2021.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Sourabh Yadav, ‘Right to free speech is democracy’s precious gift, but not when it stifles others’ voices’, The Print (December 2,2021) < https://theprint.in/campus-voice/right-to-free-speech-is-democracys-precious-gift-but-not-when-it-stifles-others-voices/555715/> accessed 26th August,2021

[10] Ibid.

HOW WILL ASSET MONETISATION HELP THE GOVERNMENT?

By Moksha Grover

Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced on Monday that the Indian Government intends to monetize ₹6 lakh crore worth of state-owned assets over the next four years under its asset monetization pipeline. The union government has said that they’ll allow the private sector to bid for operating the assets for 25 years, and with a lump sum payment upfront, but without giving away title to the underlying assets. The Centre aims to sell off gas pipelines, roads, railway assets, and warehousing facilities among a host of other assets with the help of the National Monetisation pipeline (NMP).  The private sector can operate these assets for 25 years but they have to calculate what they can earn from it in various ways, over the next 25 years; discount that cash flow to its ‘present value (PV), deduct from that their profit margin, and pay the balance amount as an upfront rental to the government[1].

Lets us assume the value of the said asset is Rs 100. And return to the asset in real terms is 4% per annum (net of inflation)[2]. The present value of the 4% earnings, discounted at the real rate of interest to such an operator, assuming it is 6%, (again real as opposed to nominal rate) would be Rs 51.3[3]. Let us round it off to 50. Rs 50 represents the PV of an annuity of Rs 4, over 25 years, discounted at 6% per annum[4]. In effect for every Rs 100 of assets monetized, the cash flow yield from the asset that the operator can expect is Rs 50[5]. From this, he must deduct the return that he expects from his investment, the risk premium attached to the earning, and the general uncertainty of dealing with a capricious government[6]. Assume the operator wants a minimum of 50% return on his equity[7]. He will then be willing to pay Rs 35 (rounding off the calculation) for the Rs 100 assets[8]. One doesn’t know if the Rs 6 trillion number is indeed the market value of the assets[9]. But assuming it is, then the total value of upfront rental it can expect from such monetization will be in the region of Rs 2.1 trillion or less[10]. In fact, given normal discounting rates of 50% in such cases (100% return on capital), the government should expect no more than Rs 1.5 trillion[11].

WHY IS THE GOVERNMENT DOING THIS?

The Indian government has been facing a silent budgetary crisis. This crisis resulted because of disasters like demonetization, tax cuts for corporates, and GST made by Modi. Because of these serial disasters, the GDP growth of the country has fallen drastically. As a result of GDP falling, Modi had to steeply hike the prices of inelastic commodities like petroleum products to pay for corporate tax cuts. The price hike and hike in direct taxes burden the lower and middle-class people, indirectly, and hence, they have to reduce their consumption. So their consumption falls dragging GDP growth down even further. As a result of all these events, the economy tanked by sinking GDP by 28% in one quarter[12]. The GDP for the full year fell by 7%, the highest of any major economy[13]. All the government revenues are left plummeting and deficits soaring, thus necessitating record borrowings to pay for government expenses. Presently, the government debt as a percentage of GDP now stands in the region of 90%[14]. Government tax and non-tax revenues are expected to be 22.7% of GDP, and the combined government deficit is projected at 6.3%[15]. So, the government was left with no choice introduced asset monetization to fill its coffers. As and when, asset monetization will take place it will add up to the non-tax revenues of the government. All this trickery comes in the backdrop of India’s worsening credit ratings, which are just about a notch above junk, with a negative outlook.

FEW POINTS TO KNOW ABOUT ASSET MONETISATION

  1. Asset monetization involves monetizing brownfield assets and does not include the selling of land.
  2. “Ownership of assets will remain with the government and there will be a mandatory hand-back,” as said by finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman[16].
  3. The infrastructure line ministries included the pipeline—Roads, Transport and Highways, Railways, Power, Pipeline and Natural Gas, Civil Aviation, Shipping Ports and Waterways, Telecommunications, Food, and Public Distribution, Mining, Coal and Housing, and Urban Affairs—along with Secretary (Department of Economic Affairs) and Secretary (Department of Investment and Public Asset Management)[17].
  4. The estimated value corresponds to 14 percent of the proposed outlay for the Centre under the National Infrastructure Pipeline ( ₹43 lakh crore)[18].
  5. Asset Monetisation aims at tapping private sector investment for new infrastructure creation.
  6. Asset Monetisation is important for employment opportunities and generation, which will further help in accelerating economic growth and public welfare of the country.
  7.  The top 5 sectors (by estimated value) capture ~83% of the aggregate pipeline value. These top 5 sectors include: Roads (27%) followed by Railways (25%), Power (15%), oil & gas pipelines (8%) and Telecom (6%)[19].
  8. In terms of annual phasing by value, 15% of assets with an indicative value of ₹0.88 lakh crore are envisaged to be rolled out in the current financial year (FY 2021-22)[20]. However, the aggregate, as well as year-on-year value under NMP, is only an indicative value with the actual realization for public assets depending on the timing, transaction structuring, investor interest, etc[21].
  9. A range of instruments is identified through which assets and transactions identified under the NMP are expected to be rolled out[22]. These include direct contractual instruments such as public-private partnership concessions and capital market instruments such as Infrastructure Investment Trusts (InvIT) among others[23].
  10. Union Budget 2021-22 had identified monetization of operating public infrastructure assets as a key means for sustainable infrastructure financing[24].

EFFECTS OF ASSET MONETISATION

Privatization of assets will lead to the following outcomes: –

  • Through the way of consumption or investment, privatization will lead to paring down of government instead of a further increase in government expenditure.
  • Efficacy of asset use is improved through lower real interest rates to spur private investment.
  • All the money that comes from asset monetization will go back to the government via a circuitous route.
  • Asset monetization will not result in any addition to the gross domestic in the economy, either by bringing in foreign savings or by attracting a significant synergy premium.
  • Asset monetization doesn’t add up to the share of resources available to the private sector and does not contribute to the growth of the private sector even by a penny.

In conclusion, the idea of selling existing government funds to create new ones is excellent. But in the current situation, there is no such thing, and speaking of the economy as a whole, there will be no other changes except transaction costs go up, and a severely limited government bandwidth is further stretched thin over needless paperwork.


[1] Sonali Ranade, ‘How Will Asset Monetisation Help the Government?’, The Wire (August 26,2021) < https://thewire.in/economy/how-will-asset-monetization-help-the-government> accessed 27th August 2021.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Ibid.

[12] there will be no other changes except e, th of the private secto even by a penny.  Ibid.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ibid.

IMPACT OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON CRIME RATE

By Moksha Grover

The Covid-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China was recognized as a pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO). Today, the world is in the fight towards covid wide-ranging consequences. Pandemics have always changed the way human beings interact and covid pandemic is no exception in this case. People are facing collective forms of trauma due to health concerns, negativity caused by the pandemic, loss due to unemployment, false information surfing around social media etc.  Isolation and quarantine increased depression and anxiety among the people. Because of the side effects of the pandemic faced by the people domestic violence, homicide crimes, fraud and trafficking of medicinal products have increased significantly. While, due to lockdown crimes like theft, and robbery has shown a decline.

Domestic physical violence, abuse. Scared little caucasian girl, victim sitting close to a white wall with the shadow of an angry threatening mother with alcohol addiction. Awareness of social problems.

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND HOMICIDES CRIME

While the covid pandemic has affected all types of crimes, some crimes have increased and some decreased. It has affected domestic violence and homicide crimes the most. Pandemic has added to the rise in domestic abuse and homicide crime. Due to economic reasons, the victim is forced to remain with the abuser. Some victims get quarantined with the abusers and are prone to sexual assault, partner violence, and child abuse. These people are also left without any access to services.

During the lockdown, many women were trapped in their houses and had to work all day and also become the victims of domestic violence by their husbands.  A study in New Delhi, India shows that by the second week of lockdown domestic violence cases rose from 116 in the first week to 257 in the final week in the month of March[1].  A study by researcher Priyanshi Chauhan found that “approximately 22.5% of married women, as compared to zero men and unmarried women, worked for more than 70 hours per week” during the lockdown[2]. The study also said unemployed women witnessed the highest increase of 30.5 percentage points for those who spent more than 70 hours per week on unpaid work[3].

COUNTERFEITING AND FRAUDS

Counterfeiting and fraud have increased a lot in this covid pandemic. High-demand products during the pandemic, mostly medical products are being counterfeited the most. Virus mitigating products such as face masks, virus test kits, PPT kits etc. worn by frontline workers and medical supplies used for treating COVID-19 patients were also counterfeited. In India, due to the shortage of remdisivir vaccines used for treating covid patients, criminals started selling fake remdisivir injections to people and in return took huge amounts of money from these people.

As the covid-19 pandemic led the way for online shopping, countering in online shopping also rose. Criminals began to exploit a greater use of social media as a medium for sales. The public trusts celebrities and influencers, promote a product and have faith in their recommendations. But this benefit was recognized by criminals and they recruited irresponsible influencers to engage in building interest in cheap and often dangerous fake goods. The covid pandemic is making a way for criminal counterfeiters and increasing the threat to businesses and consumers alike.

CYBERCRIMES

Owing to the shift of focus to a health crisis, cyber defence systems have been lowered. As a result, cybercriminals are attacking the computer networks and systems of individuals, businesses and even global organizations. Cybercriminals have created thousands of new websites for conducting spam campaigns or spreading malware. Various covid-19 maps and websites have been found embedded with malware, spyware and Trojans. Hospitals, medical centres and public institutions are being targeted by cybercriminals for ransomware attacks – since they are overwhelmed with the health crisis and cannot afford to be locked out of their systems, the criminals believe they are likely to pay the ransom[4].

TERRORIST ATTACKS

In comparison with the past, terrorist attacks have been reduced due to the global lockdown. In the past, when in 2013, the emergence of the Islamic state brought a new wave of attacks 2014 in cities around the world[5]. This wave of ISIS terror attacks seems to come to an end now. However, “Coronavirus denier movements” could contribute to the potential of violence since they attracted extremists from various ideological backgrounds[6]. In 2021, may a series of attacks in Afghanistan resulted in the deaths of 56 people[7]. Today, Afghanistan has been conquered by Talibans and now Talibans in association with Al-Qaeda have attacked Panjshir valley, a fight ongoing for two days[8]. Switzerland has warned of terror attacks on Covid vaccine sites[9].

THEORETICAL REASONS FOR THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON CRIME

Overall covid-19 pandemic has resulted in the reduction of crime rates. More stringent restrictions over movement in public spaces due to lockdown have resulted in large declines in crimes like theft, burglary and other types of crimes.  There are mainly 4 causes that have led to a significant decrease in crime rates due to pandemics.

First, restrictions on mobility and reduction in economic and social activities outside of the household leave the criminals with fewer opportunities. These restrictions have also reduced the number of assaults with deadly weapons, robberies, residential burglaries, shoplifting, and thefts as a consequence of a reduced interaction of people in the urban environment. Furthermore, this pandemic has also led to a reduction in the opportunities for potential victims to encounter the potential offender

Second, due to the fear of infection, many criminals have become hesitant to engage in criminal activities. This cause has shown a consequence in the reduction of group crimes. Even if the lockdown is not imposed there are many criminals who do not engage in criminal activities due to the fear of infection.  Various studies propose that the lockdowns specifically lower crimes that are committed in groups. But more severe crimes like homicides fail to decline.

Third, due to the economic problems caused by the pandemic crimes can relatively increase. Individuals losing employment, income, lack of new public policies, weaker public support systems, and a larger informal sector can result in to increase in the willingness of criminals to commit crimes.

PREVENTING CRIME AND KEEPING SAFE DURING COVID-19

Covid-19 has affected the whole world in many ways including the type and number of crimes being committed. Along with focusing on the health crisis, it is the right time now to take steps that can help in the reduction of crime rates to ensure the safety of the people. Here are a few steps that can be taken to reduce crime rates.

  1. Talking about the risk factors associated with crime, our focus should be shifted towards socially vulnerable areas where there is often a combination of risk factors such as high levels of unemployment, mental ill-health and drug and alcohol abuse.
  • Alcohol consumption should be reduced as it can lead to domestic violence and child abuse when stress increases.
  • For reducing cybercrime, people should be taught about the precautions they should take to protect themselves from cybercrimes. These include setting a strong password, updating software, managing social media settings, using a full-service Internet security suite etc.
  • Appropriate policy measures can help a lot in overcoming fraud and counterfeiting of the products.
  • Having a proactive approach and spreading awareness can also help a lot. We should treat violence as a public health concern to ensure the protection of the people.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, I would like to say that, although covid pandemic has decreased overall crime rates. However, Covid has not caused a reduction in all kinds of crime nor in all countries across the globe. There are some types of crimes that have increased due to covid pandemic and there are some countries that have seen an increase in crime rates. The focus should be given equally to crime around the world as to pandemics. People should be taught about the precautions they need to take. The world should stand together and fight against all the terrorist activities taking place in this covid pandemic


[1] Bismee Taskin, ‘Increased work, domestic abuse — how Covid lockdown was especially hard on women in India’, The Print (9th February,2021) < https://theprint.in/india/increased-work-domestic-abuse-how-covid-lockdown-was-especially-hard-on-women-in-india/601328/> accessed 3rd September, 2021

[2] Ibid.

[3] ibid.

[4] ‘COVID-19 cyberthreats’, Interpol < https://www.interpol.int/en/Crimes/Cybercrime/COVID-19-cyberthreats> accessed 3rd September,2021.

[5] ‘Timeline: the Rise, Spread, and Fall of the Islamic State’, Wilson centre (28th October,2019) < https://www.wilsoncenter.org/article/timeline-the-rise-spread-and-fall-the-islamic-state> accessed 3rd September,2021.

[6] Thomas Wahl, ‘Council Conclusions: COVID-19 Impact on Terrorism and Violent Extremism’, Eucrim (6th July,2021)< https://eucrim.eu/news/council-conclusions-covid-19-impact-on-terrorism-and-violent-extremism/ > accessed 3rd September,2021

[7] Greg Barton, ‘n COVID’s shadow, global terrorism goes quiet. But we have seen this before, and should be wary’, The Conversation (14th August,2020) < https://theconversation.com/in-covids-shadow-global-terrorism-goes-quiet-but-we-have-seen-this-before-and-should-be-wary-144286> accessed 3rd September,2021

[8] ‘Afghanistan Crisis Updates: Al-Qaeda reportedly joins Taliban in attack on Panjshir valley, fight ongoing for two days’, The Economic Times (05 September, 2021) <https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/newsblogs/latest-daily-news-and-updates-september-02/liveblog/85854590.cms > accessed 5th Septembter,2021

[9] ‘Switzerland warns of terror attacks on Covid vaccine sites’, Mint (29th August, 2021) < https://www.livemint.com/news/world/switzerland-warns-of-terror-attacks-on-covid-vaccine-sites-11630226544056.html> accessed 5th September,2021

INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES IN THE TIMES OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC

By: Moksha Grover

As the whole world is suffering against the covid-19 pandemic, pharmaceutical industries all over the world are trying their level best to fight against these unprecedented times. The covid pandemic has actually benefitted the pharmaceutical industry and helped in the growth and development of this industry. The Indian pharmaceutical industry is the world’s third largest drug producer by volume and the country’s market manufactures 60 percent of vaccines globally[1]. This constitutes 40 to 70 percent of the supply to satisfy the World Health Organization’s (WHO) demand for Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DPT) and Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccines and 90 percent of the global demand for the measles vaccine[2]. In this covid pandemic, the Indian pharmaceutical industry has played a vital role in distributing affordable and low-cost generic drugs to millions of people around the globe.

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES

The covid-19 pandemic presented several opportunities for the pharmaceutical companies and helped them to think differently. It helped them to act in a sense of urgency for all the patients who were looking for cheap and affordable medicines. In this pandemic, Indian companies have risen and developed in the field of therapeutics by re-purposing the dugs.

This pandemic also gave the pharmaceutical companies opportunities to work in collaborations with some major global companies for the purpose of developing the covid vaccine in turn enhancing the global connections. Serum Institute of India partnered with Oxford University, Zydus Cadila partnered with Gamaleya Institute of Russia, Panacea Biotec collaborated with US-based Refana Inc and there are many other companies who collaborated for the purpose of producing good and effective vaccines against the deadly virus. These collaborations and partnerships helped the companies to make effective vaccines, develop a stand in therapeutics, and also reach the global market.

Indian pharma industry took a proactive approach during the pandemic and also became successful in proving its mettle in complex and specialty generics. These companies also ensured regular manufacturing by not hindering manufacturing even for a single day. With the development in the pharma industry, eCommerce platforms and industries also developed. In the current pandemic, a great deal of motivation was given to E-pharmacy which helped in ensuring that patients received their medication despite lockdown. The domestic pharma market turnover in India has reached Rs. 1.4 lakh crores (equivalent to $ 20.03 billion) in 2019 as per the government data[3]. This is actually an increase from Rs. 1.29 lakh crores in 2018[4].

CHALLENGES FACED BY INDIAN PHARMACY INDUSTRIES DUE TO PANDEMIC

The source of APIs plays a very crucial role in the strategic plan of the Indian pharmaceutical industry to combat covid-19. A major challenge faced by this industry is the supply of APIs. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) are defined as the active ingredients contained in a medicine. This pandemic has highlighted the dependence of the Indian pharma industry on imported APIs. Today, 60 percent of India’s API requirement is imported[5]. In commonly used APIs, such as cephalosporins, azithromycin, and penicillin, the dependence is as high as 90 percent [6].  Of the total imports of APIs and intermediates into India, China accounts for 65–70 percent [7]. This is a problem faced by almost the whole west depends upon china for their API supplies. This pandemic has also highlighted low healthcare coverage in India. n terms of healthcare spending, India has one of the lowest healthcare budgets with just 1.26 percent of GDP being spent on healthcare[8]. India ranks 155th out of the 167 countries in terms of hospital bed availability (as per the Human Development Report 2020) with just five beds available for every 10,000 Indians[9].  Such a sudden rise in covid cases in India highlighted the shortage of hospital beds, medicines, and availability of laboratory tests. As pandemics have always shifted the way people react. A similar change has been seen in the consumption pattern of various consumers. There has been an increase in the case of online ordering and e-consultations, especially in the case of chronic diseases. These challenges can result in long-term impacts on this industry.

STRATEGIES FOR PROMOTING INDIAN PHARMA PRODUCTION

Initiatives like Production Linked Incentives (PLI) schemes for bulk drugs and medical devices introduced by the government for the industry’s self-reliance have given a major boost to this industry. These incentives are to the tune of INR6,940 crore and INR3,420 crore, respectively, and encompass greenfield projects for bulk drugs and intermediates, and the establishment of three bulk drug parks[10]. In addition to this, the government should take some steps in removing the financial and technical barriers prevailing within this industry. This will in turn help in reducing the dependency of the Indian pharma industry on china for APIs.

The pharmaceutical companies have now identified the importance of backward integration which is expected to bring greater reliability, improve the quality of production, reduce dependence on external sources of supply, and help in increasing the efficacy of manufacturing. Several key representatives from the pharmaceutical industry and NITI Aayog have suggested fostering the approvals of pharmaceutical infrastructure developments, clearance from the environment ministry, and providing tax exemptions and subsidies for the development and promotion of the pharmaceutical industry hubs could benefit the market[11].

Over the last few years, many tourists have been visiting India for their medical treatment. The government has also relaxed rules for the tourists by issuing rapid airport clearances and fast-track medical visas, thus helping in the promotion of this industry.

CONCLUSION

This covid pandemic has been a boon to the Indian pharmaceutical industry. Medicine spending in India is expected to grow between 9-12 percent over the next five years, leading India to become one of the top 10 countries in terms of medical spending[12]. It is now important for all pharmaceutical companies to shift their product portfolio toward chronic diseases like covid drugs, antidepressants, anti-diabetes, cancers, etc. which are on the hike nowadays. Many initiatives have been taken up by the government to reduce healthcare expenses and make it affordable for the whole population of the country. The introduction of generic drugs has also paved the way for the benefit of pharma companies. It is now important to focus on the rural healthcare system and provide the rural areas with the necessary drugs and preventive vaccines. Doing so will help a lot in the development of pharma companies in India and will also lead to the development of the country as a whole.


[1] Dr Abhishek Dadhich, ‘The COVID-19 pandemic and the Indian pharmaceutical industry’, EPR (22 April,2020) < https://www.europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com/article/117413/the-covid-19-pandemic-and-the-indian-pharmaceutical-industry/> accessed 19th September 2021.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Dr Sujith Varma K, ‘Covid-19 impact on Indian pharmaceutical industry’, PHARMABIZ.COM (10th February, 2021) < http://www.pharmabiz.com/ArticleDetails.aspx?aid=135427&sid=9#:~:text=The%20domestic%20pharma%20market%20turnover,actually%20an%20increase%20from%20Rs.> accessed 19th September,2021.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Sanjay Singh, ‘Pharmaceuticals: emerging not just stronger, but better and smarter’, KPMG https://home.kpmg/in/en/home/insights/2021/04/indian-pharma-industry-boom-mantra.html accessed 19th September,2021.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Dr Sujith Varma K (n 3)

[12] Ibid.

Europe is plagued by wildfires, and the weather is making the situation worse.

In Europe, where a heatwave has exacerbated dry conditions, wildfires are spreading. Firefighters are still battling fires in Greece, Spain, and Italy despite the fact that temperatures have dropped in France and the United Kingdom. The fires in the severely damaged south-west of France are beginning to be put out. Low water levels are also making it difficult to travel on German rivers as the heatwave pushes northeast. In Portugal, over 1,000 deaths have been connected to the extraordinarily high temperatures, compared to over 500 in Spain.

The Gironde area in southwest France had some of the worst flames, however circumstances for fighting them have improved. On Tuesday, it was 40 degrees Celsius; yesterday, it was in the mid-20s.
The French President, Emmanuel Macron, told firefighters during a visit to Gironde that the European Union will need to make structural changes as a result of the climate change that is causing more wildfires.

Firefighters in Greece were battling a fire on Mount Penteli, which is located northeast of Athens. From nearby communities, notably eastern Gerakas, which is home to around 30,000 people, hundreds of people have been evacuated.

Additionally, there have been several wildfires throughout Spain. In Galicia’s northwest, there are still two sizable wildfires burning out of control. In the extreme north of Portugal, 900 firemen were battling two major flames. Italy has been placed on its highest heatwave alert for today due to recent major fires that have also ravaged the country. Due to the temporary suspension of a crucial train link between Rome and Florence, the infrastructure of Italy has reportedly also been severely disrupted.

While Sweden saw its warmest day of the year with temperatures hitting 32 degrees Celsius in the south-west, portions of Germany recorded 38 degrees Celsius yesterday as the heatwave moved north-east.

Netflix’s third-quarter user growth will help it gain momentum as Wall Street closes on a high note thanks to excellent results.

Wall Street’s major indexes finished the day marginally higher, with the tech-heavy Nasdaq recording a rise of 1.6 percent on strong earnings news and a cautious eye on inflation and future Fed interest rate hikes.

Thus, to finish at 31,875, the Dow Jones Industrial Average rose 48 points, or 0.2 percent. To close at 3,960, the S&P 500 gained 23 points, or 0.6 percent. At 11,898, the Nasdaq Composite increased by 185 points, or 1.6 percent.

After predicting it will resume customer growth during the third quarter while reporting a smaller-than-expected 1 million-subscriber decline in the second quarter, Netflix shares soared 7.4%.

Apple, Amazon, Microsoft Corp., and Meta Platforms all had gains of between 1 and 4.2 percent among other high-growth equities.

Tesla, a manufacturer of electric vehicles, increased 2 percent in after-hours trading after announcing a boost in quarterly profit.

According to Refinitiv statistics, analysts now anticipate that the overall, year-over-year growth of the S&P 500 earnings will be 5.9 percent this reporting season, down from their initial forecast of 6.8 percent.

India’s PV during the Singapore Open Women’s Singles champion Sindhu is congratulated by the president and prime minister.

The top Indian shuttler PV Sindhu won the Women’s Single championship at the Singapore Open in badminton. In order to earn her first championship at the Singapore Open and third title overall this year after winning the Korea Open and Swiss Open, the two-time Olympic winner overcame Wang Zhi Yi of China, 21-9, 11-21, 21-15.

She finished the first game, which featured 13 straight points won, in in 12 minutes. But after he won the second game, Wang Zhi came back valiantly to tie the game. The decider got off to a suspenseful start until she took a five-point advantage into halftime. The Chinese attempted to retaliate but ultimately failed.

The President and Vice President have congratulated top shuttler PV Sindhu on her historic victory at the Singapore Open 2022. President Ram Nath Kovind stated in a tweet that P V Sindhu’s tenacity and energy are motivational. She should keep giving the nation honour and pride, Mr. Kovind hoped.

The entire country is proud of P V Sindhu’s incredible accomplishment, according to Vice President M Venkaiah Naidu. Wishing Sindhu well in her future endeavours was Mr. Naidi.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi also congratulated shuttler PV Sindhu on her historic victory at the Singapore Open. She has once more proven her remarkable sports skill and succeeded, Mr. Modi claimed in a tweet. He claimed it is a time to be proud of for the nation and will serve as motivation for up-and-coming athletes.

SBI introduces WhatsApp Banking Services to simplify banking for its clients.

State Bank of India, the largest lender in the public sector in India, has introduced WhatsApp Banking to make banking simpler for its clients. Since they no longer need to download the app or visit an ATM, SBI clients may now use WhatsApp to access a limited number of banking services, which may be useful for many. Customers of SBI may see their Account Balance and read their Mini Statement via WhatsApp.

Customers may access SBI WhatsApp Banking services by sending a “Hello” message to the number 919022690226. Under the moniker SBI Card WhatsApp link, State Bank of India will also provide its credit card customers with WhatsApp-based services through the platform. Customers of SBI credit cards may use this to check their account overview, reward points, outstanding amount, and to pay their cards.

Neeraj Chopra will compete on July 22 in the qualifying round of the World Athletics Championships after Annu Rani advances to the final.

Today in the US State of Oregon, the top javelin thrower from India, Annu Rani, qualified for the World Athletics Championships final.

In her third and last effort, she had the greatest throw of 59.60 metres. The holder of the national javelin record advanced to the World Athletics Championship javelin final twice in a row.

Parul Chaudhary placed 17th in heat number 2 but was unable to advance to the semifinals.

Tomorrow’s men’s javelin throw qualification round Group ‘A’ will include Olympic champion Neeraj Chopra.

Government initiatives to boost the number of pilots in the nation include: Jyotiraditya Scindia is the minister of aviation.

Jyotiraditya Scindia, the minister of civil aviation, stated today that the government has taken initiatives to expand the number of pilots in the nation, including both men and women. 5% of pilots worldwide are women, according to the International Society of Women Airline Pilots, Mr. Scindia stated in a written response to a question in the Lok Sabha.

With a 15% proportion, there are much more female pilots in India. According to him, the Airports Authority of India has awarded nine additional Flying Training Organization, FTO, slots at five airports in the first phase in an effort to boost the number of pilots. Belagavi, Jalgaon, Kalaburagi, Khajuraho, and Lilabari are the names of these airports. Six more FTO slots would be made available in the second phase at five airports: Bhavnagar, Hubballi, Kadapa, Kishangarh, and Salem.

The number of Commercial Pilot Licenses awarded annually and the number of flying hours at FTOs are both expected to increase, according to Mr. Scindia. In addition, the Women in Aviation International, WAI – India Chapter organises a number of awareness campaigns throughout the nation in partnership with the Civil Aviation Ministry, business leaders, and prominent women in aviation, with a special emphasis on young schoolgirls, especially those from low-income families.

Jyotiraditya Scindia in LS introduced the UDAN Scheme to promote regional aviation connectivity.

According to Civil Aviation Minister Jyotiraditya Scindia, the Regional Connectivity Scheme RCS – UDAN Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik was established by his Ministry to promote regional air connectivity and lower the cost of air travel for the general public.

Mr. Scindia stated that UDAN is a market-driven programme and that interested airlines submit their offers at the time of bidding based on their evaluation of the demand on certain routes. According to him, the resurrection of unserved and underserved airports project is used to upgrade or build airports, airstrips, helipads, heliports, and water aerodromes that are part of the UDAN routes that have been allocated.

Counting of votes for 16th Presidential election underway; Droupadi Murmu leading after first round

After the first round of voting, NDA Presidential candidate Droupadi Murmu leads Opposition nominee Yashwant Sinha.

Ms Murmu received votes from 540 MPs totaling three lakh 78 thousand, whereas Yashwant Sinha received votes from 208 MPs totaling one lakh 45 thousand.

P. C. Mody, Secretary General of Rajya Sabha, told the reporters at Parliament House that the votes of 748 MPs were deemed to be genuine, while 15 were found to be invalid. MLA votes are currently being counted.

Retail inflation in India drops to 7.01 percent in June.

Consumer pricing index (CPI)-based retail inflation dropped to 7.01 percent in June of this year from 7.04 percent the month before. According to the Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation, lower prices in the “Food & Beverages” segment were a major factor in the slight decrease in inflation.

Inflation in the food basket in June 2022 was 7.56 percent, down from 7.84 percent in May of this year. Vegetable prices increased by 18.26% in May 2022, although they only increased by 17.37% in the reporting month.

Inflation has remained over the RBI’s upper tolerance level of 6% due to rising global commodity prices brought on by the Russia-Ukraine war and high crude oil prices.

For a five-year term ending in March 2026, the government has ordered the central bank to keep retail inflation at 4% with a 2% tolerance on each side.

The men’s skeet event at the ISSF World Cup is won by Mairaj Ahmad Khan, the first shooter from India to do so.

Mairaj Ahmad Khan, a two-time Olympian in shooting, made history yesterday at the ISSF World Cup in Changwon, South Korea, when he became the first Indian shooter to win the gold medal in the men’s skeet event. In the championship match, Mairaj Ahmad Khan won the gold medal with 37 hits out of a possible 40. Minsu Kim of South Korea hit 36 times for silver, while Ben Llewellin of Great Britain hit 26 times for bronze. Over two days of the men’s skeet shooting competition, Mairaj Ahmad Khan shot 119 from 125 in the qualifying round. For a second round of 30 targets in the ranking round, Mairaj Ahmad Khan competed against Sven Korte of Germany, Minki Cho of South Korea, and Nicolas Vasilou of Cyprus.

With 27 hits, Mairaj Ahmad Khan led the round. With 25 hits, Sven Korte joined Mairaj Ahmad Khan into the medal round. India earned a bronze in the women’s 50m rifle 3 positions team competition at the ISSF World Cup Changwon 2022 in addition to Mairaj Ahmad Khan’s gold medal. Anjum Moudgil, who took home the silver medal for herself, teamed up with Sift Kaur Samra and Ashi Chouksey to take home the bronze. With two more days of competition left, India has five gold, five silver, and three bronze medals, maintaining its lead in the medal rankings.

Government claims that because virus defence is deteriorating, Covid preventative dosage is necessary.

As the level of protection against the coronavirus is deteriorating, according to Dr. N.K. Arora, leader of the Covid-19 working group of the National Technical Advisory Group on Immunization (NTAGI), preventive dosage is required. Speaking to AIR News, he stated that given the increase of instances across various nations, the prophylactic dosage has to be promoted aggressively. The epidemic is in a low phase, and people are mentally fatigued, according to Dr. Arora, but we still need to ensure that we are completely protected. Beyond six months after the second dose, he claimed, we needed to have the best possible protection.

Within 18 months of the Covid-19 vaccine campaign’s commencement in January of last year, India reached a record 200 crore vaccinations. In addition to giving its population 200 billion vaccine doses, India has sold over 23 billion doses of vaccine to more than 50 nations. The government claims that Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s aggressive strategic and policy-level leadership, which includes the Make-in-India and Make-for-the-World motto, has assisted the nation in achieving this objective.

Following a disturbance by the opposition about price increases and other problems, both Houses of Parliament adjourned till 2 p.m.

Following the opposition’s protest against price increases and GST increases, both chambers of Parliament were suspended till 2 PM. Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury, a Congress politician, attempted to bring up the topic of price increases in the Lok Sabha as the house convened for the day. Without asking for permission, Speaker Om Birla launched Question Time. Following that, members of the opposition, including the Congress, DMK, and TMC, flocked to the well and chanted anti-government chants in protest of the price increase. The Speaker struggled to lead the Question Period among the clamour, frequently pleading with agitated members to return to their seats.

According to Mr. Birla, bringing signs inside the residence is not permitted. Later, Mr. Birla decided to postpone the proceedings till 2 PM.
The Rajya Sabha saw a like sight. Chairman M. Venkaiah Naidu rejected the adjournment requests that Congress, the Aam Aadmi Party, and other opposition party members had submitted against price increases and other concerns when the Upper House convened this morning. Then the parliament was adjourned until 2 p.m. due to loud incidents caused by opposition members including Congress, AAP, and DMK.

Zikavirus: A new terror?

Similar to West Nile, yellow fever and dengue viruses is the zika virus. Zika is mostly spread by mosquito bites and is carried by contaminated Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, however, it can also be contracted to intrauterin. Zika may affect anybody, but because to the possibility of embryonic microcephaly and other brain abnormalities, pregnant women are particularly at risk. It’s possible for this virus to spread sexually. It has been documented that sexual partners of sick men and women can spread the disease. 

Presently, there is no established vaccine or cure. However, to prevent this disease it should be made sure to get rid of old tyres and make holes in the swings’ bottoms, clean out blocked gutters.
Insecticide treatment for rain barrels, weekly water changes, or emptying of birdbaths.During the first week of sickness, closely adhere to the precautions to avoid mosquito bites in order to help stop others from getting sick.

Team India will be led by Shikhar Dhawan in the ODI series against WI.

The three-match ODI series against the West Indies will be contested at the Queen’s Park Oval in Port of Spain, Trinidad, and the teams have been chosen by the all-India Senior Selection Committee.

Team India will be led by batter Shikha Dhawan. As vice captain for the three-match ODI series, Ravindra Jadeja.

Starting on July 22, the Men in Blue will face the West Indies in a three-match ODI series and a five-match T201 series. The last game of the multi-format series between Team India and England will be played on July 17.

Senior players that were given a break from the ODIs include star batsman Virat Kohli, bowler Jasprit Bumrah, and batsman Rohit Sharma.

After missing the home series against South Africa, Kohli, who was formerly famed for his brilliant batting exploits, struggled to regain his form. In the fifth Test against England at Edgbaston, he managed to score just 31 runs.

Bumrah, the captain of team India, astonished everyone at the Edgbaston with his fast bowling and aggressive batting, breaking the previous record of 35 runs in one over by Stuart Broad.

The following players will represent India in the three one-day internationals: Shikhar Dhawan (captain), Ruturaj Gaikwad, Shubman Gill, Deepak Hooda, Suryakumar Yadav, Shreyas Lyer, Ishan Kishan (wk), Sanju Samson (wk), Ravindra Jadeja (vice-captain), Shardul Thakur, Yuzvendra Chahal, Axar

Veteran Bengali filmmaker Tarun Majumdar passes away

Tarun Majumdar, a renowned filmmaker known for his captivating work in Bengali cinema, passed away at the age of 91 after a chronic illness.

Majumdar has been getting treatment for the previous several days at Kolkata’s SSKM Hospital, where he allegedly passed away on Monday.

With the 1959 Bengali film ‘Chaowa Pawa,’ he made his directorial debut alongside Sachin Mukherji and Dilip Mukherji, under the screen name yatrik.

Later, Majumdar directed popular films like Balika Badhu (1967), Kuheli (1971), Shriman Prithviraj (1973), Fulsewari (1974), Dadar Kirti (1980), Bhalobasa Bhalobasa (1985), and Apna Amar Apan (1990).

He has won five filmfare Awards, seven BFJA Awards, four National Awards, and an Anandalok Award. In 1990, the Indian government awarded with him the Padma Shri, the fourth-highest civilian honour.

Kids of Chris Hemsworth will appear in “Thor: Love and Thunder”

According to Hollywood actor Chris Hemsworth, two of his three children will appear in the next “Thor: Love & Thunder” movie.

Two of Hemsworth’s children will be featured in the most recent Marvel Cinematic Universe film, he said in a chat with a journalist, according to People magazine. With his wife Elsa Pataky, the The Extraction actor has two children: India, 10, and twin boys, Sasha and Tristan.

The actor confirmed that one of his twin boys will appear in the movie, along with his daughter India. The actor said that his daughter will portray “the character of Love” while his son would represent the younger version of Hemsworth’s character, Thor.

The actor also mentioned that Christian Bale and Natalie Portman’s children will appear in “Thor: Love & Thunder,” according to People magazine. The filmmaker Taika Waititi’s kids also make a surprise appearance. remembering the cast. Hemsworth said that it was a fun family Experience and that the kids had a “great time.”

On July 7 of this year, “Thor: Love and Thuder” is scheduled for release. In the movie, Nataile Portman will play the role of the mighty Thor alongside Hemsworth for the first time, giving fans the chance to see not one, but two Thors. Other notable actors in the movie include Chris Pratt, Tessa Thompson, and Christian Bale.

“It felt like a one-off fun family experience. I don’t want them to now go and be child stars and actors. It was just a special experience we all had, They loved it, they had a great time,”The actor revealed himself.

The wait is over! The second season of Masaba Masaba will premiere on July 29.

‘Masaba Masaba,’ one of the most loved Indian programmes on Netflix, is here! It will be exactly one month from today on July 29 before the second season of “Masaba Masaba” arrives on the OTT platform. In August 2020, the first season of “Masaba Masaba” was released.

Masaba herself posted the first preview for the programme on Instagram.

Neena Gupta and Masaba, a mother-daughter team, appear young and hopeful in the teaser as they tackle new professional routes, new and old love interests, loss, emotions, and rivalry. Season 2 follows the lives of these two women as they go over challenging terrain and difficult sections.

Season 2 will also have Neil Bhoopalam, Rytasha Rathore, Kusha Kapila, Kareema Berry, Barkha Singh, Ram Kapoor, and Armaan Khera in addition to being directed by sonam Nair and produced by Vinyard Films. Influencer Kusha Kapila is performing for the second time; her first was in Karan Johar’s Ghost Stories.

Director Sonam Nair expressed her excitement about the teaser’s release by saying, “When Masaba Masaba was first shown to me by Ashvini Yardi, it was an idea that I instantly fell in love with, and I knew it would bring a lot of positive emotions with it. I have the opportunity to explore and collaborate with excellent services like Netflix season 2 is moving into other territories but with the same level of love and I can’t wait for people to watch it “.

The Dark Side of Electric Vehicles.

Electric Vehicles (EVs) are hailed and promoted by governments and car manufacturers as the technology decarbonizes the transport sector. In India, transportation sector emits an estimated 261 tonnes of CO2, of which 94.5% is contributed by road transport. According to World Health Organization (WHO), among the 20 most polluted cities in the world, 14 are Indian cities. Moreover, the fuel prices have increased sharply since the last year and are predicted to increase further because of the Russian invasion on Ukraine.

All these reasons have made people to turn to electric vehicles as the government has provided incentives to people by introducing subsidies. Under section 80EEB, a total tax exemption of up Rs 1,50,000 can be availed when paying off the EV loan. This tax exemption is available for both 4-wheeler and 2-wheeler EV purchases. So, the future looks bright for EVs; but this future will not arrive without an environmental cost. The market for EVs, in the developed world has increased rapidly in not less than a decade.

Photo by Mike on Pexels.com

The EV manufacturers market them as ‘clean and green’ technology that hides the dark side of EVs, which consists of embodied emissions, lithium, cobalt and many sustainability and ethical issues.

While EVs produce no direct exhaust pipe emissions, the production, distribution and disposal of EVs are highly poisonous. The production of an EV involves many of the same polluting processes as an Internal Combustion (IC) engine but the only difference is that it uses lithium-ion and cobalt batteries to power the shafts. The processes involved in making EV batteries is where the ‘green’ image of EVs starts to fall apart.

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

The lithium-ion battery supply chain stretches from Europe to Latin America and Africa. Over half of the earth’s lithium resources are found in the so-called Lithium Triangle which spans across Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. Lithium mines have an environmental impact through their destructive extraction processes. Landscapes are dug up and scarred, habitats can be destroyed, and chemical runoff can cause severe water pollution. Mining for lithium also consumes a tremendous amount of water, about 2000000 litres per tonne of lithium. This has caused water shortages in Chile, leaving them no enough water for daily-public use.

Cobalt is another key ingredient for the lithium-ion battery. Cobalt resources are concentrated in the Democratic Republic of Congo where numerous cases of human rights abuses have been filed in the country’s cobalt mines: unmitigated health risks from the working environment, child labor etc. Battery sustainability issues do not end there. At their end-of-life, the batteries mostly end up in in landfills. No effective disposal technique is adopted because it is currently cheaper to extract new raw materials for batteries than it is to reuse old batteries.

Putting things into perspective, EVs are much better for the environment compared to IC engines as the decarbonize transport sector, but we should be careful about their framing as a solution. So, EVs cannot be regarded as the ‘perfect’ replacement for fossil fuel-run engines in contrast to what they are advertised of being but awareness calls for the fact that the nature is letting people choose between bad and worse at this point of time in history.

Digital currency and its Drawbacks.

What are virtual currencies?

A virtual currency is a digital representation of value that can be digitally traded and functions as (a) a medium of exchange, and/ or (b) a unit of account, and/or (c) a store of value, but, unlike fiat currency like the rupee, it is not legal tender and does not have the backing of a government. A cryptocurrency is a subset of virtual currencies, and is decentralised, and protected by cryptography.

What are Distributed Ledger Technologies and Blockchain?

Imagine a small group of school friends maintaining a list of transactions among themselves, but with a twist: Instead of holding this list in one single computer or in the notebook of one of the group members or authorising some outside authority (say, their class teacher) to maintain (and update) the list, all of them decide to maintain a separate copy of the list in their personal computers. Every time they transact, the rest of the members verify the transaction and once it is verified by all, they update their list. Further, to make sure that none of them changes records of the past transactions in their personal list, they decide to place each transaction as a block, and to stack it one after the other in a sequence. This way, no one can tweak the details of any past transactions because the overall sequence will not match with sequences held by others. Lastly, to make sure that no other child from the school gets to know the details, they devise a code (a cypher) for all their communications related to the list.

9 Profitable Skills that you can Learn Online

The pandemic has made us stay at home and we all know that staying at home is boring. We can kill this time productively by learning new skills online. 

  •  Coding

Technology is vast and there are plenty of job opportunities available if you know how to code. Programmers are high in demand all over the world. Learning and doing programming is an exercise for your brain that eventually improves your problem solving and logical ability. There are many apps and websites which teach coding for free.

  •  SEO 

SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization, which is the practice of increasing the quantity and quality of traffic to your website through organic search engine results. SEO is the best way to market and it can boost your public visibility. If you are a Freelancer or a business owner then you really can’t conduct online business without knowing about SEO.

  •  Microsoft Excel

Microsoft Excel is a software program included in the Microsoft Office suite. It is used to create spreadsheets, which are documents in which data is laid out in rows and columns like a big table. Excel training just doesn’t help you get things done quicker and more efficiently it also increases the effectiveness of the reports and analysis that you do.

  •  Languages

Learning a foreign language, even as little as a handful of phrases, will make your travel experiences better. It also boosts the confidence of an individual and improves the probability of getting employed in a company. Learning a new language helps us to discover a new culture and this is an immensely enriching experience for us. 

  •  Photography

You can capture a beautiful moment by learning photography. It also increases your creativity. Moreover, photography provides an enjoyable hobby. Earning a certificate online shows that you’ve had formal training, practical experience and critical assessments. This can open doors to a broader range of job opportunities where a degree is a minimum requirement.

  •  PhotoShop

Adobe Photoshop is one of the most famous and all-round image editing software existing in the market today. Photoshop skills are often listed in a lot of job descriptions these days. Learning Photoshop gives you an added advantage over other applicants who are not skilled in Photoshop. Using Photoshop one can transform pictures to unimaginable heights of creativity. 

  •  Public Speaking

Public speaking is not just standing on a stage and speaking into a microphone to an audience. Public speaking includes speaking at meetings, with potential clients, colleagues, and customers. Mastery of public speaking will empower numerous other skills, abilities and personal enhancements will be the result.

  •  Video Editing

Video is the best marketing and promotional tool ever in the modern market. Videos attract the people to watch. They stop for a movement and see the video.  In this technological age, people watch videos as they are easily accessible. So if you want something across, pushing out your message or promotion to the people, make videos.  

  •  Digital Marketing

Digital marketing is the promotion of products or brands using electronic devices or the internet. It also includes text messaging, instant messaging, video, apps, podcasts, electronic billboards, digital television and radio channels, etc. Digital marketing gives a huge scope and multitude of job options. Digital marketing will also help you to promote your startup at very low cost.

Interview Skills

We all are nervous while attending an interview, even with full preparations our hands start sweating. Here are some tips to ace an interview and get your dream job.

Whether you are applying for an entry-level position or a senior role, you will probably have an interview with a potential employer before receiving a job offer. Since a job interview gives you a chance to show your qualifications and make a good impression on the hiring team, you should know to perform at your best during this important meeting. It is not only your qualifications and experience which matters but also your positive attitude, your ability to work in teams and positive aspirations which matters in the selection process. 85% of the interviews are decided in the first two/three minutes. So be careful about your handshake, eye contact, body language, and right posture.There are 4P’s to have success in an interview – Prepare, Practice, Present, and Participate. 

You should prepare for the interview by learning about the significance of body language. Also you should improve your public speaking and linguistic skills. Also, learn as much as you can about the company and the position.You should practice the frequently asked questions by the interviewer (I have listed those questions in the end of the article). You should also practice some puzzles because in many interviews one or more IQ based questions are asked. And finally participate in the interview; express your views confidently and don’t be afraid to share your opinions to them. On the day of the interview carefully consider what to wear and how to present yourself professionally. Here are some do’s and don’ts during an interview:

Dos

  • Organize all the required material neatly.
  • Have a good dress sense, groom well.
  • Reach the place of interview well in advance.
  • Be cheerful and expressive.
  • Have positive body posture.
  • Be honest, sincere and simple in your talk.
  • Be assertive and confident.
  • Be polite in answering.
  • Leave a good last impression by saying “thank you.”
  • Replace the chair and other things in the original place when you leave the room.

Don’ts

  • Don’t search for anything in an interview as it creates a bad impression.
  • Don’t fold arms or close palms.
  • Don’t drag the chair and make a noise.
  • Don’t be rigid. Don’t cross your legs.
  • Don’t tell lies.
  • Don’t be very submissive or aggressive.
  • Don’t argue, confront, challenge.
  • Don’t feel frustrated if you lose the interview.

Tips for great body language

Your body language expresses your confidence. Here are some tips for a great body language.

  • 1. Smile
  • 2. Don’t cross your arms
  • 3. Make good eye contact
  • 4. Keep your body pointed vertically towards your guest
  • 5. Nod at key points
  • 6. Stand up straight

Frequently asked questions:

  • 1. Introduce yourself.
  • 2. What are your strengths and weaknesses?
  • 3. Can you tell something about our company?
  • 4. Why should we hire you?
  • 5. Are you willing to relocate/travel?
  • 6. What was the toughest decision you ever had to make?
  • 7. Would you lie for the company?
  • 8. On a 10 point scale how do you rate yourself in communication skills?
  • 9. How long would you like to work for us if we hire you?
  • 10. How much salary do you expect from us?

Interview Skills

We all are nervous while attending an interview, even with full preparations our hands start sweating. Here are some tips to ace an interview and get your dream job.

Whether you are applying for an entry-level position or a senior role, you will probably have an interview with a potential employer before receiving a job offer. Since a job interview gives you a chance to show your qualifications and make a good impression on the hiring team, you should know to perform at your best during this important meeting. It is not only your qualifications and experience which matters but also your positive attitude, your ability to work in teams and positive aspirations which matters in the selection process. 85% of the interviews are decided in the first two/three minutes. So be careful about your handshake, eye contact, body language, and right posture.There are 4P’s to have success in an interview – Prepare, Practice, Present, and Participate. 

You should prepare for the interview by learning about the significance of body language. Also you should improve your public speaking and linguistic skills. Also, learn as much as you can about the company and the position.You should practice the frequently asked questions by the interviewer (I have listed those questions in the end of the article). You should also practice some puzzles because in many interviews one or more IQ based questions are asked. And finally participate in the interview; express your views confidently and don’t be afraid to share your opinions to them. On the day of the interview carefully consider what to wear and how to present yourself professionally. Here are some do’s and don’ts during an interview:

Dos

  • Organize all the required material neatly.
  • Have a good dress sense, groom well.
  • Reach the place of interview well in advance.
  • Be cheerful and expressive.
  • Have positive body posture.
  • Be honest, sincere and simple in your talk.
  • Be assertive and confident.
  • Be polite in answering.
  • Leave a good last impression by saying “thank you.”
  • Replace the chair and other things in the original place when you leave the room.

Don’ts

  • Don’t search for anything in an interview as it creates a bad impression.
  • Don’t fold arms or close palms.
  • Don’t drag the chair and make a noise.
  • Don’t be rigid. Don’t cross your legs.
  • Don’t tell lies.
  • Don’t be very submissive or aggressive.
  • Don’t argue, confront, challenge.
  • Don’t feel frustrated if you lose the interview.

Tips for great body language

Your body language expresses your confidence. Here are some tips for a great body language.

1. Smile

2. Don’t cross your arms

3. Make good eye contact

4. Keep your body pointed vertically towards your guest

5. Nod at key points

6. Stand up straight

Frequently asked questions:

1. Introduce yourself.

2. What are your strengths and weaknesses?

3. Can you tell something about our company?

4. Why should we hire you?

5. Are you willing to relocate/travel?

6. What was the toughest decision you ever had to make?

7. Would you lie for the company?

8. On a 10 point scale how do you rate yourself in communication skills?

9. How long would you like to work for us if we hire you?

10. How much salary do you expect from us?

Let’s talk over business

                             TheBusiness is something which needs patience, time and value. Technologically a proper business needs proper level of investment and thus correct percentage of profit. Initially any business needs time before expecting return that is profit. Any kind of idea which provides with money is a business. In this pandemic or post pandemic situation finding a business idea which will promise to settle itself is really difficult and so here we are listing down below few business ideas which can be taken into account.

                                 The first in the list is —

  1. ONLINE TEACHING— If you are in teaching or like teaching passionate about it and don’t know how to start it since all the educational institutions are closed now and recruitment process might take longer than usual. So, here is a fantastic idea to explore which is online teaching. Here we are listing few ideas which will help you to explore or be a teacher in online mode of education.
  2. Upload an advertisement through facebook, whatsapp and instagram of every details.
  3. Upload your profile in byju, urbanpro, shaw academy and the like where they call you and mail based on the requirement.
  4. Ask your known ones relatives, friends, parents and others that if they can arrange for students.
  5. Teaching means any kind of teaching art, craft and any kind of skill so even if you want to turn your hobby into profession you are free to do so.
  • CONSULTANT— I you know that you can guide people for the best for finance management, job idea and change and any other than you can go forward as a consultant. In India consultants are given trainings before they actually step into the job world few of those trainings are—training as a consultant, master in education, psychologist and many other even counselling is a part of the same. But in abroad there might not be this kind of rigidity. In this time of post pandemic, people have lost their jobs, clueless about education so people needs consultant service which will guide them in the right path in every way.
  • SERVICE PROVIDER—This is the third option which one can avail as a service provider. If you are multi talented or have potential managerial skill than you can provide service based on your skills and talent. Like—if you know to cook than provide service to people as a cook, if you know to stitch well provide the same to people demanding those. Here also you have to explore your own skills and talents before you start your business as a service provider.

                                         

  1. Upload your profile in byju, urbanpro, shaw academy and the like where they call you and mail based on the requirement.
  2. Ask your known ones relatives, friends, parents and others that if they can arrange for students.
  3. Teaching means any kind of teaching art, craft and any kind of skill so even if you want to turn your hobby into profession you are free to do so.
  • CONSULTANT— I you know that you can guide people for the best for finance management, job idea and change and any other than you can go forward as a consultant. In India consultants are given trainings before they actually step into the job world few of those trainings are—training as a consultant, master in education, psychologist and many other even counselling is a part of the same. But in abroad there might not be this kind of rigidity. In this time of post pandemic, people have lost their jobs, clueless about education so people needs consultant service which will guide them in the right path in every way.
  • SERVICE PROVIDER—This is the third option which one can avail as a service provider. If you are multi talented or have potential managerial skill than you can provide service based on your skills and talent. Like—if you know to cook than provide service to people as a cook, if you know to stitch well provide the same to people demanding those. Here also you have to explore your own skills and talents before you start your business as a service provider.

                  Thus these are the most easily explorable business ideas which one can practise just by being at home just one needs time , investment and involvement.

The Evolving Education of India

Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.”   – Nelson Mandela

Photo by Fox on Pexels.com

 It is said that education is the key to freedom, a power to change the world and make world a better place to live. Education is a continuous process which enriches our mind with the light of knowledge  and provides us the ability to distinguish between right and wrong. There was a time when India had a high illiteracy rate, but slowly with the time things are changing for the better. The Education System of India has developed gradually.

Education during British Rule

The British East India Company planned to educate a small portion of Indians for their own benefit. They wanted some educated Indians who could assist them in their work and also wanted to know the customs and laws better. Various Universities were established by Britishers to follow their purpose. Calcutta Madarsa was established by Warren Hastings for study and teaching of Muslim Law. Jonathan Duncan set up the Sanskrit College for study of Hindu Law and philosophy at Varanasi. Slowly, English was being used as the medium of teaching and learning.

Changes after Independence

Pre-Independence the education was only available for the elites, this scenery was changed Post Independence. Now Education was accessible to large number of society. After Independence India was in a very poor condition, Under-Developed India was the biggest challenge that came forth. A large number of people were illiterate ,though from 18% of literacy rate in 1951 has raised up to 73 % as of 2011.Today, India has very strong and widespread education system which is successfully competing with the world.

Committees set up

  • University Education Committee (1948) : The Commission was inspired  under the leadership of Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan, this committee aimed upon  setting up Universities to provide  education for the development of overall  personality. This Commission also stressed over the purpose of “Women should get good education as men get”.
  • Secondary Education Commission (1952-1953) : It is also known as Mudaliar Commission.The main recommendations of this commission was to provide seperate schools for girls to the places it was needed. It also focused over providing special facility to study of Home Science. Target of this Commission was to the need of training Indians in a democratic way of life.
  • Kothari Committee (1964-1966) :

Kothari Commission is also known as the Indian Education Commission .Daulat Singh Kothari  was the chairman of this committee, it was set up to formulate the general principles and guidelines which was very much needed for the development of the education system. It stressed at providing free and compulsory education to all till the age 14. It focused over the development of languages  specially by  implementing ‘three-language formula’ , and keeping in check with the quality of education being provided.

Educational policies of India

 National Policy Education (1968)

This was first such kind of policy that came up in 1968.It focused over the culture based curriculum and strengtening the structure of resource support, compulsory education for all children till the age of 14. It also aimed at better training and qualification of teachers. To promote the standardisation of language Hindi was adopted as national language and elementary to higher education was made an integral part of urban and rural India.

Education in Pandemic

Covid-19 has changed the whole chalk and duster dynamic of conventional education system. Lockdown made everything to shut down including schools, colleges and coachings.  where everything came to pause and when there was no light found at the end of the tunnel, E-learning came up and reshaped the educational system of India. Distinctive hike in e-learning have taken place due to pandemic. But to standardise education the government of India should reach out to the students who are unable to afford such technologies and devices for education and learning.

Best Places to visit in New York

What would it feel like to travel to one of the world’s most famous cities?

New York City or NYC is the most populous city in the United States and also one of my favorite travel destinations. Some people come here to enjoy the Broadway shows; others come specifically to shop and dine, and; many simply come to see the sites.

The City Tour

New York is a vast and diverse city, it has something for everyone. This city has a high-energy vibe throughout the year and that’s why some people call it a city that never sleeps. A few budget-friendly places can be:-

Statue of liberty

One of the most iconic sights, the Statue of liberty is on every first-time visitor’s list of the things to do in New York. It is spectacular to see it up close.

Brooklyn Bridge 

The Brooklyn Bridge is the first roadway to connect Manhattan and Brooklyn and it offers an easy 25-minute walk into Brooklyn and the waterfront park on the other side of the bridge which can also become a 40 minutes walk if you stop for taking Instagram-worthy photos, As you make your way across you will get to see a lot of amazing views of Manhattan which makes being there totally worth it.

Top of The Rock

The top of the rock also called Rockefeller Centre is best for views whilst exploring Manhattan as it provides you a 360-degree view of Manhattan. There are many other viewing points around the city but there’s something special about New York’s Top of The Rock.

Empire State Building 

If you want a perfect shot of the New York City Skyline then the only best place for it is the Empire State Building. This building is a historic landmark which makes it one of the top places to visit in New York.

Times Square

One of the best things to do in NYC is to visit Times Square, especially during Christmas and new year’s eve. No matter what the time is it is always crowded with people. 

Outdoor Spaces

New York has so much to see and do, with numerous world-famous museums, fantastic restaurants, historic neighborhoods but there are also a massive amount of free things to do in New York and one of them is the world’s largest city park. Yes, I’m talking about Central Park. A perfect way to relax in a bustling city is to spend your day surrounded by beautiful lakes, public art, and even a zoo with loads of open space. 

Washington Square Park

Named after United States first president George Washington, Washington Square Park would be another good option. It is a good place for hangouts.

The Subway 

If you want to get a sense of the heart of the city then you must try taking the subway. It may not be very comfortable but you will be able to see a live performance at different stations. 

Tickling the Taste Buds

Let’s be honest, one thing we all love is to eat. There are so many markets, restaurants, cafes, and bars in NYC. This city is a paradise for a foodie.

Katz’s Delicatessen

It is New York’s most famous restaurant mostly known for its classic sandwiches. It has a variety of food on its menu. You will enjoy every bite of it.

Spicy Village

Those who love chicken must try this place. Spicy Village is a small restaurant located in Chinatown in Manhattan. This place stands because of its powerful flavors and style of home-cooked food.

Pizza and Bagels

Who would mind a bit of a cheesy pizza or a freshly baked bagel? There is no “best” place for pizza or bagel. A few spots where you can try yummy pizza are Joe’s Pizza in Greenwich Village and Di Fara Pizza in Brooklyn. For bagels, Absolutes bagels hit the spot.

The Friends Experience

Another reason to visit NYC could be FRIENDS. The famous American television sitcom Friends is a huge part of many people’s lives be it teenagers or adults. Even though the series was filmed in Burbank, California; it was based on six friends living in New York. A true fan of this show would die to pose on the iconic orange couch. Grabbing a cup of coffee at Central Perk is a dream come true for every friend’s fan.

“RAMADAN”

Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting(sawm), prayer, reflection and community. A commemoration of Muhammad’s first revelation,the annual observance of Ramadan is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam and lasts twenty-nine to thirty days, from one sighting of the crescent moon to the next.


Fasting from dawn to sunset is fard (obligatory) for all adult Muslims who are not acutely or chronically ill, travelling, elderly, breastfeeding, diabetic, or menstruating.The predawn meal is referred to as suhur, and the nightly feast that breaks the fast is called iftar.

Although fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca,it is common practice to follow the timetable of the closest country in which night can be distinguished from day.


The spiritual rewards (thawab) of fasting are believed to be multiplied during Ramadan. Muslims refrain not only from food and drink, but also tobacco products, sexual relations, and sinful behavior,devoting themselves instead to salat (prayer) and recitation of the Quran.

History

Muslims hold that all scripture was revealed during Ramadan, the scrolls of Abraham, Torah, Psalms, Gospel, and Quran having been handed down on the first, sixth, twelfth, thirteenth (in some sources, eighteenth) and twenty-fourth Ramadans, respectively. Muhammed is said to have received his first quranic revelation on Laylat al-Qadr, one of five odd-numbered nights that fall during the last ten days of Ramadan.

Although Muslims were first commanded to fast in the second year of Hijra (624 CE) they believe that the practice of fasting is not in fact an innovation of monotheism but rather has always been necessary for believers to attain taqwa (the fear of God).They point to the fact that the pre-Islamic pagans of Mecca fasted on the tenth day of Muharram to expiate sin and avoid drought. Philip Jenkins argues that the observance of Ramadan fasting grew out of “the strict Lenten discipline of the Syrian Churches,” a postulation corroborated by other scholars, including theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler,but disputed by some Muslim academics.

Why Using A Financial Advisor Is The Best Choice For Your Next Investment Property?

As Benjamin Franklin accurately stated, “If you fail to plan, you are planning to fail.” You may have numerous distinct financial objectives that you want to achieve, but in order to achieve them at the ideal time in life, you must have a financial plan in place at the earliest.

Let’s face it: not everybody has the time or inclination to master finance. Nonetheless, being able to handle one’s personal and household money is becoming increasingly crucial in today’s world.

Nonetheless, don’t be alarmed! Hire finance advisors Richmond for peace of mind without constantly worrying about the ever-changing laws, economic conditions, or available financial goods.

Regardless of whether you plan to use the home as a primary residence or if you are only interested in the return on your investment, we always suggest that you engage with Melbourne finance advisors throughout your financial journey.

The Benefits Of Working With A Financial Advisor When Buying Your Next Investment Property

An investment advisor can help you make better financial decisions. A financial advisor may help you by educating and encouraging you as you strive toward your property investment objectives. Consider them your own coach and cheerleading team.

A skilled financial planner serves as a guide as you travel through life. Finance advisors Richmond essentially assist you in gaining control of your revenue, spending, and assets, making it easier to manage your funds and fulfil your dreams. 

Here are six key reasons for working with a financial advisor when buying your next investment property.

Knowledge and Experience

For those who have never invested in real estate before, the process can be daunting and time-consuming. To find the property that meets your needs and provides the promised returns on your investment, you will need the expertise of an investment property mortgage broker.

Making an informed financial decision doesn’t have to break the bank, which is what investment property brokers can help you avoid doing. They assist you in avoiding the kind of decision-related mistakes that often result in disappointment. The selection of property is, in reality, the deciding factor between a successful investment and a bad one when it comes to property investments.

Market Analysis

It doesn’t matter how many years of investment experience someone has if they don’t have correct facts to back it up. Melbourne finance advisors can estimate whether or not your home will be profitable year after year by evaluating the purchase price, including yearly appreciation considerations.

Rents that are either too high, too low, or exactly in line with your financial strategy goals may be discovered with a fast look at national, state, and local statistics. When you have the guidance of a professional who can provide you with reliable and economical advice, getting the most profit out of your home is made a bit simpler.

Voice Of Reason

A skilled financial advisor will assist you to start investing if you have been putting it off, or help you do it with more clarity if you have been doing it by yourself. They may propose an appropriate portfolio to help you achieve your objectives and explain how it suits you into the long-term strategy they have developed for you. They may also assist you with managing your finances so that you do not make judgments based on your emotions. 

Many investors sell their failing investments rashly when their properties face major losses. However, as a result, you are converting paper losses into permanent damage. The competent finance advisors Richmond will help you stay focused, diligent, and steady with the measures you need to implement to increase your fortune. They can be a voice of reason that encourages you to look at your assets with a long lens since they can stay psychologically impartial.

Investment Strategy

A normal call or appointment with a financial planner should begin with a discussion of your financial goals, problems, and patterns. Investment property brokers recognise your long-term goals and can help you manage your finances to achieve them, whether you want to buy as many properties as possible, decide which to settle off first, or what to do with the profits.

Your financial advisor will use the data obtained and analyse the state of your assets and assist you in gaining a better knowledge of where your wealth is and how to manage it. Your advisor will be able to determine the return on the equity you will need to accumulate to achieve your goals within the timeframe you have set. Finance advisors Richmond, such as an investment consultant, can assist you in not just accumulating money, but also in protecting it over time.

Accounting Guidance

Accountants are a great resource for helping you understand how to take advantage of tax reductions on your earnings. These specialists, however, are unable to provide you with guidance on “how” to boost the revenue that you already make. You may be paying more in taxes because your assets are dispersed throughout numerous jurisdictions rather than concentrated in a single place.

If you want to build your net worth, you have to consider the potential tax consequences of every investment you make. Regularly reviewing your tax returns with Melbourne finance advisors might help you identify patterns of increased taxes that could save you money in the long run.

Portfolio Management

If you are an experienced investor with a growing portfolio, you’ll benefit most from working with a financial advisor to look after your investments. Your property investment portfolio can be evaluated by a financial planner who has specialised in property investing in the same manner that they evaluate your stock or retirement accounts.

You and the rest of your team will know when it is time to expand your property portfolio and ensure that it is performing as you had hoped. Some assurance may be gained by working with an expert investment adviser, who can advise you on the best time to acquire new properties, list an asset for sale, balance your property investment holdings, and so on.

Conclusion

Finance advisors Richmond will arm you with the knowledge and opportunities you need to create, expand, and maintain a successful real estate portfolio. Hire the most skilled Melbourne finance advisors now and ensure a seamless investment experience!

THE BRIEF HISTORY OF PREGNANCY AND CHILDBIRTH:

Pregnancy and birth can be a very special time in the life of a woman. The nine months of pregnancy, as well as labor and delivery, are filled with many physical and psychological changes, as well as changes in lifestyle. Each change poses a challenge that can be met successfully when the woman shares her feelings and experiences with a partner or other supportive person and with her physician, midwife, nurse, and childbirth educator. The importance of health care throughout pregnancy is emphasized, because proper health care increases the likelihood of a healthy pregnancy, a healthy baby, and satisfied parents. 

PREGNANCY:

The reproductive process through which a new baby is conceived, incubated and ultimately born into the world. Many facets of pregnancy are covered starting with the preparation and planning stages, and moving through conception, fetal development, labor and delivery, and post-partum (or post-birth) stages. The document describes normal, uncomplicated pregnancy in some detail, and also contains information concerning more difficult pregnancies, including pregnancies for women with chronic illnesses and other health complications. Pregnancy is a unique, exciting and often joyous time in a woman’s life, as it highlights the woman’s amazing creative and nurturing powers while providing a bridge to the future. Pregnancy comes with some cost, however, for a pregnant woman needs also to be a responsible woman so as to best support the health of her future child. The growing fetus (the term used to denote the baby-to-be during early developmental stages) depends entirely on its mother’s healthy body for all needs. Consequently, pregnant women must take steps to remain as healthy and well nourished as they possibly can. Pregnant women should take into account the many health care and lifestyle considerations described in this document.

Though we have tried to present relatively comprehensive coverage of pregnancy, this document should only be considered to be an overview. It will hopefully introduce you to some new ideas, and help you to learn about aspects of pregnancy that you may not have previously encountered, but it does not contain or provide all the information you will need to make informed choices as you go through your own actual pregnancy. Be sure to see your doctor when you become pregnant. Share with him or her any questions or concerns you may have about your pregnancy. Your doctor, and other specialized health care providers including nurses and midwives, will be some of your more important allies during your pregnancy. They are in the best position to guide you through the process and to make authoritative recommendations that will best benefit your baby-to-be’s development and future health and welfare.

CHILD BIRTH:

When you are ready to have your baby, you’ll go through labor. Labor is the process of giving birth. Signs that you might be going into labor include:
*Contractions that are regular then start to come closer together
*Leaking fluid or bleeding from the vagina
*Low, dull backache
*Abdominal cramps
*Call your health care provider if you have any of these signs, even if it is before your due date. Preterm labor can start before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy.

Labor happens in three stages. The first stage begins with contractions. It continues until your cervix has become thinner and dilated (stretched) to about 4 inches wide. The second stage is the active stage, in which you begin to push downward. Crowning is when your baby’s scalp comes into view. Shortly afterward, your baby is born. In the third stage, you deliver the placenta. The placenta is the organ that supplied food and oxygen to your baby during pregnancy. Mothers and babies are monitored closely during labor. Most women are able to have a baby through normal vaginal delivery. If there are complications, the baby may need to be delivered surgically by a Cesarean section.

CHILD LABOUR ESSAY :

Child labor is a kind of crime where children are violated to work at a very young age and do the duties just like grown-ups by practicing in business activities. As per the International Labour Organization (ILO), a rule has been established according to which children up to the age limit of fifteen should not be involved in any job forcibly. The use of children for financial work makes children denied of childhood, proper literacy, mental, physical, and social well-being. In some countries, this practice is completely forbidden; however, it has become an international matter in most of the states as it is ruining the future of children extensively.

As per Indian law, children who come under the age group of 1-14 years are not allowed to be employed to any job forcibly by the parents or master in factories, offices, or restaurants. It is commonly practiced in India and other developing countries in small-scale industries, for domestic service, as a restaurant waiter, for rock breaking, like a shopkeeper’s representative, in construction-site, for bookbinding, etc.

There are several reasons for child labor in our country. Some of the grounds of global child labor are similar; however, they differ from country to country. The most popular reasons are poverty, suppression of child rights, irregular education, inadequate rules, and laws, etc.

HOW TO PREVENT CHILD LABOUR ?

To reduce the social matter of child labor, it is required to follow some effective solutions on an urgent basis to guard the future of any country. Following are some solutions to prevent child labor in India Essay in English.

Creating more unions may help in preventing child labor pdf as it will promote more people to help against child labor. All the children should be given priority by their parents to take proper and regular education from their early childhood. This step needs much cooperation by the parents as well as schools to free children from education and take admission of children from all walks of life respectively. Child labor demands high-level social knowledge with the proper statistics of huge loss in the future for any developing country. Every family must earn their minimum income to survive and prevent child labor. It will decrease the level of poverty and thus minor labor. Family control will also benefit in controlling child labor by decreasing the family’s burden of childcare and schooling. There is a need for more efficient and stringent government laws against child labor to prevent children from working at a little age. Child trafficking should be eliminated by the governments of all countries. Child workers should be substituted by adult workers as about 800 million grown-ups are jobless in this world. In this way, an adult will get work and children will be free from labor. Work opportunities should be improved for adults to overcome the problem of poverty and child labor. Company owners of factories, industries, mines, etc should take the oath of not including children in any type of work or job.

CHILD LABOUR IS A CRIME:

Child labor is still followed in many nations even after being a big offense. Owners of the industries, mines, factories, etc., are using child labor at a high level to get more work at low labor costs. Poor children are more inclined to be involved in child labor as they are overpowered by parents to make some money to give financial help to their family at a very tender age (too young to understand their liabilities towards family) alternately of taking proper education and enjoying their childhood.

Published by Ayisha Shabana M

WHY HIJAB IS IMPORTANT IN ISLAM:

Hijab, or veil, takes the center stage whenever there is battle between truth and falsehood. It has always been a sensitive issue, but it recently received a great deal of attention due to legislation and proposed legislation in several European countries (e.g., France, Germany) that ban its use in government institutions as well as educational institutions. For women who wear hijab out of religious conviction, the truth is obvious and indisputable. For others with limited knowledge or understanding of Hijab, it can be confusing.

It is important to understand several points related to hijab and modesty. The first point is that modesty had been the norm in history, up until the later part of the past century. If one were to peruse historical books of various times and ages, one would find modest covering of women in almost every society. The other point is that modesty is a component in several world religions, particularly in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It may come as a surprise to many that it was not Islam that invented modesty or hijab. This existed in the laws of religions revealed before Islam, and remnants can still be found in the altered books of those faiths. With the final message given to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), the order for Hijab was confirmed and finalized. This is a reality since all of those revelations came from the same Source, Allah. Mary, mother of Jesus (may Allah exalt their mention), is rarely depicted without a traditional head-covering and one would assume her to be Muslim. (Which, of course, she was.) One can still find both Jewish and Christian women today who cover in much the same way as Muslim women. It is one of the common bonds that are shared by these three major faiths.

MORE THAN A RELIGIOUS SYMBOL:

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Why hijab is important in Islam

Why hijab is important in Islam

Updated 02 December 2012ARAB NEWSNovember 23, 2012 03:0042650https://platform.twitter.com/widgets/follow_button.4e067713e19d4fff483536ddc4df18b9.en.html#dnt=false&id=twitter-widget-1&lang=en&screen_name=arabnews&show_count=false&show_screen_name=false&size=m&time=1644416556783

Hijab, or veil, takes the center stage whenever there is battle between truth and falsehood. It has always been a sensitive issue, but it recently received a great deal of attention due to legislation and proposed legislation in several European countries (e.g., France, Germany) that ban its use in government institutions as well as educational institutions. For women who wear hijab out of religious conviction, the truth is obvious and indisputable. For others with limited knowledge or understanding of Hijab, it can be confusing.
It is important to understand several points related to hijab and modesty. The first point is that modesty had been the norm in history, up until the later part of the past century. If one were to peruse historical books of various times and ages, one would find modest covering of women in almost every society. The other point is that modesty is a component in several world religions, particularly in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It may come as a surprise to many that it was not Islam that invented modesty or hijab. This existed in the laws of religions revealed before Islam, and remnants can still be found in the altered books of those faiths. With the final message given to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), the order for Hijab was confirmed and finalized.
This is a reality since all of those revelations came from the same Source, Allah. Mary, mother of Jesus (may Allah exalt their mention), is rarely depicted without a traditional head-covering and one would assume her to be Muslim. (Which, of course, she was.) One can still find both Jewish and Christian women today who cover in much the same way as Muslim women. It is one of the common bonds that are shared by these three major faiths.

More than a religious symbol

Hijab represents a woman’s submission to her Creator and her connection with the faith. While referring to it, Allah Almighty says: “That is more suitable that they will be known…” But, while hijab is a symbol, in reality it is much more than that. The following purposes and functions of hijab will clarify this point.
Hijab is a test for the Muslim woman. It is clear from the Qur’an and the Hadiths that hijab is a religious obligation, which a woman has to undertake. There is no scholarly difference on this point and the Muslim Ummah has applied it for over 14 centuries. When a Muslim woman wears hijab she is obeying and submitting to Allah. The following verses of the holy Qur’an refer to the obligatory nature of hijab: “And tell the believing women to reduce [some] of their vision and guard their private parts and not expose their adornment except that which (necessarily) appears thereof and to wrap (a portion of) their headcovers over their chests and not expose their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, their brothers’ sons, their sisters’ sons, their women, that which their right hands possess, or those male attendants having no physical desire, or children who are not yet aware of the private aspects of women. And let them not stamp their feet to make known what they conceal of their adornment. And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers, that you might succeed.” [Qur’an, 24:31)
Also Allah says: “O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their outer garments. That is more suitable that they will be known and not be abused. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.” (Qur’an, 33:59)
A woman who wears hijab liberates herself from the vain and selfish desire to show off her beauty and to compete with other women around her.
This is an innate desire that is exacerbated by wanton display and tamed by modesty and covering. With the hijab, a woman does not have to live up to society’s expectations of what is desirable, and she no longer has to use her beauty to obtain recognition or acceptance from those around her.
In the chapter of Al-Ahzaab mentioned above, Allah Almighty Says what means “That is more suitable that they will be known and not be abused.” Thus, one of the functions of hijab is to protect women from abuse and harm. This particularly includes various forms of sexual abuse and harassment, which are prevalent in societies in which few women cover. Men often get mixed signals and believe that women want their advances by the way they reveal their bodies. The hijab, on the contrary, sends a signal to men that the wearer is a modest and chaste woman who should not be annoyed.

Published by Ayisha Shabana M….

COVID-19 Update | the Government Claims That Over 166.59 Crore Vaccine Doses Have Been Provided in India So Far.

According to the Union Health Ministry, India’s COVID-19 immunisation coverage has reached 166.59 crore people, with over 53 lakh vaccine doses distributed on Monday. The daily vaccine number is expected to rise as the last reports for the day are compiled late at night, it added.

Since the commencement of phase three of the vaccination push, 54,11,58,635 first doses have been given to those aged 18 to 44, and 40,58,44,481 have received the second dose in the same age range, according to Health Ministry data. 4,65,47,420 first doses and 3,35,552 second doses have been delivered to people aged 15 to 18. So far, 1,24,29,876 precautionary doses have been given to the indicated categories of recipients.

The vaccination programme as a measure to protect the country’s most vulnerable populations from COVID-19 is still being assessed and monitored at the highest level, according to the ministry.

You must know this, before getting VACCINATED!!

As we all are aware, coronavirus affects different people in different ways. Some people suffer from serious symptoms like shortness of breath, chest pain while some people suffer from mild symptoms like loss of taste or smell, sore throat, headache etc.

Even after COVID recovery, people are getting infected by new fungal infections like Black fungus and White fungus. As the immunity of the body takes some time to recover, COVID patients are becoming easy targets for these fungal infections.

The only way to be safe from this coronavirus and its after harms, is to get VACCINATED.

Now, coming to the point of vaccination, people are having various misconceptions. Like,

  • Which vaccine should be preferred?
  • What will be the side-effects of taking vaccine?
  • Can vaccination guarantee protection against COVID?
  • Can anyone get corona after vaccination?

And so on.

All the vaccines , COVISHIELD, COVAXIN, SPUTNIK V have passed the standard approval of WHO(WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION). All are efficient and preventive against corona. These vaccines are made available free of cost at government institutions and hospitals.

Side effects:

Any side effects after taking vaccine are an indication of the working of vaccine inside the body. People can have side-effects like headache, body pain, low grade fever and fatigue. However, these side-effects will resolve in a matter of 2-3 days.

Lastly, vaccination does help in protection against COVID, but it can be ensured only after taking both vaccine doses.(1 & 2). People who have taken only 1st dose of vaccine, should follow the same guidelines of wearing masks, maintaining social distances in public, frequently sanitizing your hands.

All about the increase in marriage age of girls in India.

The government on Tuesday 21st December 2021, introduced a bill in Lok Sabha which focuses on the amendment of the prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006 to raise the marriage age for girls from 18 to 21 years and bring it at par with men. This bill has successfully started socio-political debates over whether social attitudes can be fully legalised.

The government made it clear that the bill seeks to override all existing laws which govern the parties in relation to marriage. All the existing laws like the Indian Christian Marriage Act, the Divorce Act, the Hindu Marriage act and all others will be brought in consonance to this particular amendment. This bill will come into force two years from the date it receives the signature of the President.

According to the government on the Prime Minister it is necessary for the girls to be married at the right age this bill will empower Young women by increasing their access to education and reducing infant mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio. However there have been a lot of protests against this bill as a number of elites and people believe that this bill will only strengthen patriarchy and might prove to be problematic instead of improving the condition of women in India.

Various women organisation have show their concern regarding this bill according to them the scope of this bill is very narrow as it focuses only on increasing the marriage age rather than focusing on the circumstances that early marriage is a symptom of. Increasing the age of marriage will either harm or have no impact by itself under the root causes of the women’s disempowerment are addressed. As it is a no hidden the fact that the Indian society is deeply entrenched in patriarchy and this act might come handy for parents and allowe them to control the autonomy of young girls and to penalise them for their sexual choices.

People are also concerned that if a married girl of 18 on 19 years faces matrimonial problems and issues and approaches the code for a solution then her husband might plead that the marriage is void and she is devoid of her matrimonial rites. For solving this problem the government it need to specify the condition of women in under age marriage and the government needs to ensure that these women will not lose their matrimonial rights.

The task force had asked the government to increase the number of educational institutions for girls and provide better accessibility to such institutions. Government needs to provide skill training ,better opportunities to girls then only such acts and laws will be able to truly achieve their objectives. Government needs to focus on bringing in structural changes by providing better employment opportunities, a safe and sound environment and society. These are the more pressing issues at the moment and trying to solve them will actually impose a financial burden on the government whereas implementing an act in the parliament won’t be imposing any kind of economical or financial burden on the government. The priorities need to be sorted before making any further amendments in the constitution.

Healthy Secrets About Cabbage You Never Knew

CABBAGE – Welcome to Thenatchi Home Needs

Cabbage, the unassuming vegetable that assumes a supporting part in many dishes, is in reality loaded with rich history and spellbinding realities. First of all, it is one of the most established known vegetables. Millennia prior it was venerated by individuals of Antiquated Rome and Greece, who utilized it for its restorative properties. In the wellbeing domain, cabbage likewise has a standing similar to a delectable entire food that is loaded with a stunning measure of nutrients and supplements.

On the off chance that you thought cabbage was only a coleslaw fixing, reconsider. The following are seven intriguing realities about cabbage that you may not know. Additionally, make certain to look into The 100 Best Food sources on Earth.

1.Cabbage has been around for more than 4,000 years.

cabbage

Despite the fact that cabbage shows up in numerous tasty present day plans (cabbage “steaks”, anybody?) it really has roots going back millennia. As indicated by an article from The College of Arizona’s School of Farming and Life Sciences, green cabbage is one of the most established known vegetables and is accepted to have begun in Southern Europe, Britain, and Denmark 4,000 years prior. Supposedly, in 600 B.C. wild cabbage was brought to Europe by Celtic wanderers. Here it was adored by old Greeks and Romans who praised the cruciferous vegetable for its recuperating therapeutic properties.

2.All assortments of cabbage are high in Nutrient C.

cabbage salad

Uplifting news—it doesn’t make any difference which sort of cabbage you like to go after as they are totally loaded with nutrient C. As indicated by research, simply a half cup of cabbage has roughly 45% of the every day suggested nutrient C. Nutrient C is particularly known for its recuperating characteristics, which incorporate forestalling specific malignancies and decreasing the danger of cardiovascular infection.

3.One cup of cabbage has roughly 20 calories.

sliced cabbage

Cabbage is huge in taste and flavor, however exceptionally low in calories. For instance, a cup of cleaved cabbage has only 22 calories, making this simple to-eat vegetable an ideal counterpart for calorie-cognizant people. Due to cabbage’s low-carbohydrate content, it is an extraordinary fixing to use instead of carb-weighty items, like pastas, breads, and rice. For example, cheeseburger buns can be traded out for salted cabbage leaves and destroyed cabbage can substitute noodles in dishes, for example, spaghetti bolognese and Cushion Thai.

4.Red cabbage is more grounded than the green assortment.

coleslaw

Despite the fact that a wide range of cabbage are loaded with nutrients and supplements, the red assortment might bring home the gold in the wellbeing division. For instance, red cabbage is brimming with anthocyanins, which is a flavonoid that helps give red cabbage its pigmented shading. Anthocyanins have mitigating, hostile to viral, and against malignant growth properties that assist with forestalling illness.

5.Red cabbage might be a pH marker.

fresh cabbage

Red cabbage, the crunchy vegetable that is frequently found in plates of mixed greens and stored onto fish tacos, might have the option to add one more occupation to its resume—pH pointer. As per logical examination, red cabbage’s anthocyanins change shading dependent on how acidic something it comes into contact with is. For example, when red cabbage juice is blended in with something acidic (has a pH level lower than 7) it will become red, and when it is blended in with something soluble (has a pH level more noteworthy than 7) it will change into a somewhat blue green tone. Celebrated wellbeing specialist, Dr. Greger, additionally speaks more with regards to this in his book, “How Not to Pass on” and on his site, Nourishment Realities.

6.A renowned baseball player used to wear a cabbage leaf under his baseball hat.

cabbage

Famous baseball player, Darling Ruth, was known for his amazing games details, yet in addition for his extraordinary propensity—the Angel used to wear a chilled cabbage leaf under his baseball hat during ball games. Prior to each game, he would rip off a couple of cabbage leaves, spread them over ice, and afterward, whenever they were cooled, stick them onto his head. He tracked down that these leaves kept him cool during those warm mid year months spent taking care of business in a fleece uniform. Hello on the off chance that it worked for the Angel, perhaps it will deal with the metro in summer!

Seed Oil Is the Latest Thing We’re Being Told to Eliminate from Our Diets—Here’s Why 

Black Seed Oil Benefits: For Health

Exceptionally prepared vegetable oils produced using corn, soy, sunflower, canola, and different plants are not difficult to track down in home kitchens and supermarkets nowadays, however they’ve been around in human eating regimens for just a brief time frame, generally talking. It wasn’t until the mid 1900s that the innovation needed to deal with these oils was imagined, bringing about an item actually found on staple racks: Crisco. Presented in 1911, it was a cooking fat got from cottonseed oil that took after grease, yet was produced by Procter and Bet through a synthetic interaction. In the wake of offering Crisco for sale to the public, the Ohio-put together organization went with respect to a promoting barrage selling the thought that its oil was more sound than the soaked creature fats ordinarily utilized for cooking at that point. It worked: In merely five years, the organization was selling a huge number of pounds of Crisco. Other refined vegetable oils followed throughout the span of the twentieth century—nowadays they’re regularly alluded to as “seed oils” as a catchall term.

As of late, notwithstanding, seed oils have become something of a healthful bogeyman. While most standard nourishment specialists don’t think of them as especially undesirable, many specialists and nutritionists guarantee that the particular unsaturated fats found in handled vegetable oils lead to irritation and ongoing ailments. Last year, Joe Rogan conversed with specialist and flesh eater diet evangelist Paul Saladino about this for over three hours. On another webcast in 2020, board-guaranteed family doctor Cate Shanahan alluded to the most widely recognized seed oils available today as the “contemptuous eight,” to be stayed away from no matter what. So what gives? Would it be advisable for us to renounce all seed oil?

Basic analysis

All cooking oils are blends of unsaturated fats, however it’s the by and large more significant levels of polyunsaturated fats found in seed oils that make them bothersome according to certain dietitians and wellbeing experts.

All things considered, in any case, individuals contain however much 30% of polyunsaturated fat in their muscle versus fat. The reason, Shanahan notes, is because of seed oils. Higher-than-ordinary degrees of polyunsaturated fats can prompt decreased energy and real irritation, which thusly can add to heftiness, diabetes, and coronary illness.

Moreover, the profoundly prepared nature of seed oils—there are various advances and synthetic substances engaged with their creation—makes them super wealthy in omega-6 unsaturated fats, a vital supporter of aggravation. As indicated by Chris Kresser, co-overseer of the California Place for Useful Medication, the human body works best when its proportion of omega-6 unsaturated fats and omega-3 unsaturated fats (the ones you see on any jug of supermarket fish-oil supplement) is adjusted.

Many Americans’ weight control plans, nonetheless, have tossed this equilibrium way messed up: We by and large get immeasurably an excessive amount of omega-6 than we do omega-3 on account of our food decisions and how we’re preparing our dinners. “[S]eed oils are maybe the main supporter of the imbalanced omega-6-to-omega-3 proportion,” Kresser states, “and accordingly assume a huge part in constant fiery illnesses.”

To put it plainly, one fundamental contention against devouring seed oils is that the unsaturated fats they contain advance irritation, the follow-on impacts of which are ongoing infections that we’d all prefer to keep away from. There are concentrates out there that substantiate this end, a few of which get down on omega-6 unsaturated fats explicitly for the jobs they play in expanded danger for weight and long haul sickness. The Sydney Diet Heart Study from the 1960s additionally shows that members who supplanted soaked fats with polyunsaturated fats high in linoleic corrosive—one more unsaturated fat likewise found in many seed oils—”had a higher danger of death from coronary illness,” as Detail revealed quite a long while back.

In any case, there’s no compelling reason to get impeded in the logical weeds. The main focal point from the discussion around seed oils is to remember that they’re regularly found in many prepared food varieties, including some clearly undesirable things like treats, pieces of candy, and Twinkies—yet additionally some more subtle offenders like pre-made hummus and salad dressing. So when dealing with what you eat, make removing prepared food varieties your establishment, assemble an eating routine wealthy in an assortment of entire food varieties and different sorts of fats, and, in case you’re concerned, go after less-refined choices like olive or nut oil.

18-Year Study: Americans Are Eating More Ultra-Processed Foods

Fat Man Eating Fast Food

18-year concentrate on measures expansion in mechanically produced food sources that might be adding to stoutness and different sicknesses.

Utilization of super prepared food sources has expanded in the course of recent a very long time across practically all sections of the U.S. populace, as indicated by another review by analysts at NYU School of Worldwide General Wellbeing.

“The general creation of the normal U.S. diet has moved towards a more handled eating routine. This is disturbing, as eating more super prepared food sources is related with terrible eating routine quality and higher danger of a few persistent sicknesses,” said Filippa Juul, an associate teacher and postdoctoral individual at NYU School of General Wellbeing and the review’s lead creator. “The high and expanding utilization of super handled food varieties in the 21st century might be a critical driver of the heftiness plague.”

Super handled food sources are economically made, prepared to-eat or warm, incorporate added substances, and are generally without entire food varieties. Past investigations by analysts at NYU School of Worldwide General Wellbeing have tracked down that higher utilization of super handled food varieties is related with heftiness and coronary illness.

In the new review, distributed in the American Diary of Clinical Nourishment, Juul and her associates dissected dietary information from almost 41,000 grown-ups who participated in the CDC’s Public Wellbeing and Sustenance Assessment Study from 2001 through 2018. Members were asked what they ate in the beyond 24 hours, and the analysts arranged the food varieties detailed into four classes:

Negligibly handled food varieties (entire food sources), like vegetables, natural products, grains, meat, and dairy

Handled culinary fixings, like olive oil, spread, sugar, and salt

Handled food sources, like cheddar, canned fish, and canned beans

Super handled food varieties, like frozen pizza, pop, inexpensive food, desserts, pungent bites, canned soup, and most breakfast oats

The specialists then, at that point, determined the level of calories burned-through from every nutritional category.

Super handled food utilization developed from 53.5 percent of calories in the start of the period considered (2001-2002) to 57 percent toward the end (2017-2018). The admission of prepared to-eat or warm suppers, as frozen meals, expanded the most, while the admission of some sweet food varieties and beverages declined. Interestingly, the utilization of entire food sources diminished from 32.7 percent to 27.4 percent of calories, for the most part because of individuals eating less meat and dairy.

Individuals across essentially all segment gatherings, paying little mind to pay, expanded their utilization of super prepared food sources, except for Hispanic grown-ups, who ate altogether less super handled food varieties and all the more entire food varieties contrasted and non-Hispanic white and Dark grown-ups. School graduates likewise ate fundamentally less super handled food sources. Outstandingly, more established grown-ups (matured 60+) encountered the most keen expansion in devouring super handled food sources: this age bunch ate the most un-super prepared food sources and most entire food varieties toward the start of the period contemplated, yet ate the most super handled food sources and least entire food varieties toward the end.

Given the developing admission of super handled food varieties in the U.S. what’s more, mounting proof connecting these food sources to ongoing illnesses, the specialists prescribe executing strategies to diminish their utilization, like reconsidered dietary rules, advertising limitations, bundle marking changes, and duties on pop and other super prepared food varieties. They additionally support projects and arrangements to expand the accessibility, openness, and reasonableness of entire food varieties, particularly among impeded populaces.

“In the current modern food climate, the majority of the food sources that are advertised to us are indeed modern plans that are far taken out from entire food varieties. All things considered, nourishing science will in general zero in on the supplement content of food sources and has generally disregarded the wellbeing ramifications of modern food handling,” said Juul.

Besides, while the review zeroed in on information from before Coronavirus, there are signs that the pandemic prompted an expansion in eating less nutritious, rack stable food sources.

“In the beginning of the pandemic, individuals changed their buying practices to shop less as often as possible, and deals of super handled food varieties like boxed macaroni and cheddar, canned soups, and nibble food sources expanded generously. Individuals might have additionally eaten more bundled ‘solace food varieties’ as a method of adapting to the vulnerability of the pandemic,” added Juul. “We anticipate inspecting dietary changes during this period as information become accessible.”

Argentina Vs Peru Live Streaming: How To Watch World Cup Qualifier In India, US And UK?

Argentina vs Peru Live Streaming Online 2022 FIFA World Cup Qualifiers  CONMEBOL: Get Free Live Telecast of Football Match With Time in IST | ⚽  LatestLY

Argentina on Thursday will take on Peru in the 2022 FIFA World Cup capability apparatus on Match 12 of the South American 2022 World Cup Qualifiers. Argentina have been amazing as of late and will need to keep up with their unbeaten streak this week too. Peru who are as of now in seventh spot in the CONMEBOL capability table and have been conflicting this season. Peru experienced a shock 1-0 loss against Bolivia last week and should be at their best to overcome strong Argentina.

Second-put Argentina, driven by Lionel Messi and Rodrigo de Paul, will look to merge its ascent when it takes on Peru in the wake of overcoming Uruguay 3-0. Coming to Argentina versus Peru’s no holds barred record, the Lionel Messi-drove crew have a magnificent record against Peru and have won 34 out of 55 matches played between the two groups. Peru have overseen just seven triumphs against Argentina and should move forward this week.

Messi’s CONMEBOL record

Last month, Lionel Messi outperformed the three-time FIFA World Cup champ Pele to turn into the record-breaking driving goalscorer for a South American country. Messi accomplished this accomplishment during Argentina’s FIFA World Cup 2022 qualifier installation against Bolivia. Truth be told, when Leo got an objective in that challenge, it additionally ended up being his 78th worldwide objective for La Albiceleste. Preceding that match, the 2021 Copa America champ required only two objectives to outperform Pele for turning into the main CONMEBOL goalscorer. He equalled the previous title holder’s accomplishment when he assisted Argentina with breaking the gridlock in the fourteenth moment and afterward outperformed him after effectively tracking down the rear of the net in the 64th moment. Regardless, Lionel Messi appeared to be relentless even in the wake of having scored a support and enlisted a full go-around when he got one in the 88th moment.

Indian scientists explore galaxy cluster Abell 725

Indian Scientists Discovered Galaxy Supercluster, Saraswati - Tech Explorist

Utilizing the Monster Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), Indian stargazers have directed radio perceptions of a cosmic system bunch known as Abell 725. Aftereffects of this observational mission convey significant data with respect to the design and morphology of Abell 725, uncovering the presence of diffuse fibers in this group. The review was introduced in a paper distributed October 7 on arXiv.org.

Universe bunches contain up to large number of systems bound together by gravity. They are the biggest known gravitationally bound designs known to mankind, and could fill in as superb research facilities for concentrating on system advancement and cosmology.

At a redshift of 0.09, Abell 725 (A725) is a bunch of systems with a X-beam glow of 80 tredecillion erg/s and a speed scattering of around 534 km/s. These boundaries propose that it is a helpless system group—with extravagance class 0. The all out mass of this group inside a sweep of 2.56 million light years is assessed to be 114 trillion sun oriented masses.

Past perceptions of Abell 725 have distinguished a splendid radio source related with the most brilliant group cosmic system (BCG). Additionally, a diffuse radio emanation has been recognized at the center of the bunch that was delegated a radio relic.

To reveal more insight into the radio properties of Abell 725 a group of stargazers drove by Mahadev Pandge of the Dayanand Science School in Latur, India, utilized GMRT to perform multi-recurrence radio perceptions of this bunch. The review was supplemented by optical information from the Sloan Advanced Sky Study (SDSS), X-beam information from the ROSAT satellite, just as multi-frequency recorded information.

The scientists recognized two steep-range diffuse fibers in Abell 725, alongside a formerly announced bend like construction, and a wide-point tail (WAT) radio source related with the BCG at the outskirts of the group. It was noticed that a portion of these components could be from the past movement of the core of the BCG.

The review recommends that the WAT radio source and the bend are associated structures, while the fibers are segregated from them, however are observed to be along the path of the WAT. Accordingly, the stargazers accept that the WAT source is a radio system with following classical fibers.

The perceptions tracked down that the BCG is a good ways off of around 277,000 light a long time from the bend like design, while the filamentary structures are uprooted from this construction by approximately 300,000 and 665,000 light years. The creators of the paper recommend that these constructions result from various phases of radio action along the way of the WAT, and these distances are run of the mill esteems for such a situation.

Besides, the examination tracked down that the otherworldly times of the WAT and fibers are 37.1 and 93.1 million years, separately. The mass of the dark opening at the center of the WAT was assessed to be 1.4 billion sun based masses, what is fairly a high worth when contrasted with that of comparable known WATs.

Summarizing the outcomes, the space experts finished up radio properties of the WAT radio world look like that of ordinary Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FRI) radio systems. They added that the WAT source might be a low-excitation radio cosmic system (LERG).

Love to know about space, solar system, Earth? Check out the NASA app

NASA App for Smartphones, Tablets and Digital Media Players | NASA

The NASA application gives complete data, photographs, recordings and substantially more to fulfill your interest in space, nearby planet group, Earth and different themes.

Space has been captivating stargazers for quite a long time. And keeping in mind that the space organizations, like NASA, have made it simpler for intrigued individuals to get every one of the most recent updates and investigate space, the nearby planet group, Earth and universes past effortlessly, getting the furthest down the line data isn’t pretty much as basic as clicking a button. To work on this interaction, NASA has an application for cell phones, tablets and advanced media players.

What data does the NASA Application give?

The NASA Application comes stacked with provisions and it offers admittance to huge loads of fascinating substance. Intrigued individuals can watch the most recent NASA situation transpire continuously on NASA television, checkout the instructive substance in the highlighted area and investigate a reproduced perspective on our Nearby planet group, watch a live perspective on the earth from the Global Space Station, see the most recent NASA photographs, recordings and element stories, rate photographs and investigate the most elevated appraised ones as a whole, and pick their own #1 NASA pictures and make them simple to discover utilizing the top choices include.

They can likewise share all that they find with companions via web-based media, save pictures to their cell phone, pay attention to the most recent NASA digital recordings, get data pretty much NASA’s present missions as a whole, most recent dispatch and landing data and rundown of forthcoming ISS locating openings for their area, track the area of the Worldwide Space Station and other NASA Earth circling satellites continuously, see every one of the NASA Tweets from around the office in one spot, see the Earth as Craftsmanship picture assortment and intelligent guide, cast content to their Apple television, Chromecast and Fire television gadgets.

Individuals who are utilizing the application on their iPhones or iPads additionally get Expanded Reality (AR) 3D models of 31 NASA orbiters and missions, which unites 3D models from across the organization, and gives the most ridiculously complete all in one resource for NASA AR models; and Increased reality SkyView include that shows a perspective on the night sky so clients can recognize articles and discover/track Worldwide Space Station apparent passes.

Accessibility of the NASA Application

The NASA Application is accessible on a wide assortment of stages. Intrigued individuals can download it from the Google Play Store, the Apple Application Store, the Amazon Appstore for Fire television gadgets and on Roku

10 STRATEGIES AI START-UPS SHOULD FOLLOW TO BECOME BIG TECH COMPANIES

AI Start-ups

These systems can help in driving development at the simulated intelligence new businesses

We as a whole have found out about numerous huge tech organizations and furthermore take motivation from them commonly, correct? Be it Amazon, Facebook, Apple, Microsoft, or Google these tech organizations are consistently incredible inspirations for all the new companies. Yet, when coming to simulated intelligence new businesses, they are certainly the promoters as they are mechanically determined and their encounters and innovations can be taken to assist them with becoming greater. For all the man-made intelligence new companies searching for procedures to work on your business, here you go!

1 Put Right Destinations and Key Outcomes

All the huge tech organizations use destinations and key outcomes to lay out their objectives, gain arrangement and measure progress to key objectives. The first idea of OKRs originally came from Intel and spread across the Silicon Valley advanced locals. This is the manner by which Google likewise has encountered the development of the representatives from 40 to 60,000 almost today. Not just Google, numerous other notable organizations, for example, Spotify, Twitter, Airbnb, and LinkedIn are additionally utilizing the OKRs technique. So all the computer based intelligence new businesses can get this for progress.

2 Be Available to Change

The greater part of the top tech organizations can make changes to their conviction frameworks dependent on their disappointments, for example, Microsoft, Connected In, and Amazon does. These progressions are fit for speeding up the development taking the organization’s DNA advancing at a lot quicker speed. This is one of the astonishing techniques for computer based intelligence new companies to become quicker.

3 Customized Arrangements

Personalization is large tech organizations is seen regularly nowadays. The groups assemble encounters took into account the objectives and problem areas of every guest. All the man-made intelligence new businesses ought to notice the tech organizations and how they are executing personalization and comprehend basic changes to shaping procedures for simulated intelligence new companies becomes crucial.

4 Search for Variety

To imagine or develop variety fills in as a key. At the point when we take a gander at the huge tech organizations, they are different in nature basically in light of the fact that they know every one of the advantages that show up with an assorted group. Regardless of whether it be groundbreaking thoughts, innovativeness or experiences every one of these are added for improving the items and administrations. Along these lines, this is one of the systems for man-made intelligence new companies that can assist you with enhancing better items.

5 Plan Your Own Innovation

The main illustration is to put resources into the ability to assemble your own innovation, this is consistently valuable in numerous ways. In right now, every computer based intelligence fire up necessities to have its own product for guaranteeing believability, information concerns, and some more.

6 Put resources into Innovation

To all the computer based intelligence new companies, consistently treat innovation as an incredible venture yet not as a cost as it will offer back twice however much it takes. At the point when development gets held up by financial plan endorsements and CapEx versus OpEx discusses, it at times dials back the force and restricts the group’s fervor and the commitment that accompanies novel thoughts.

7 Making Express Cycles

A large portion of the advancements are conceived out of mayhem, however many top tech organizations have unequivocal cycles and practices that energize reliable countrywide development. This is the best top system for artificial intelligence new companies to embrace without avoiding making business measures for advancement.

8 Upsetting the Market

All the man-made intelligence new businesses ought to find out with regards to advanced interruption distinguishing where the current arrangements have developed and are going behind the clients’ requirements. At the point when we take the case of Netflix, look how it disturbed the market blockbuster was in, the sellers recognizing the chance to upset the market through another imaginative way.

9 Weight on Advertising and Correspondences

The huge tech organizations are up for spryness and development as they have solid promoting and PR groups. So this is one of the methodologies for computer based intelligence new businesses to grasp and to make more grounded PR and showcasing groups to acquire openness for their organizations.

10 Testing

Man-made intelligence new businesses should investigation and evaluate new things as large tech organizations explore different avenues regarding innovation to save the customary models. With a great deal of experimentation comes development driving achievement as well.

India backs WHO move for new expert group to probe origins of Covid-19 pandemic

WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus announced the launch of the Scientific Advisory Group for the Origins of Novel Pathogens (SAGO) at a news briefing on Wednesday. (REUTERS PHOTO.)

Reacting to WHO’s declaration, China cautioned against any “political control” of the reestablished test into the beginnings of Coronavirus however said it would uphold the examination. The Covid originally arose in the focal Chinese city of Wuhan in late 2019, setting off the most noticeably terrible pandemic in a century.

WHO boss Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus declared the dispatch of the Logical Warning Gathering for the Beginnings of Novel Microorganisms (SAGO) at a news instructions on Wednesday, and Michael Ryan, leader overseer of WHO’s wellbeing crises program, said this addressed the “last possibility” to decide the starting points of SARS-CoV-2.

India has reliably sponsored all moves by WHO to build up the starting points of the Coronavirus pandemic, and approached all partners, including China, to help out such endeavors. Outside issues service representative Arindam Bagchi repeated this position when he was gotten some information about the new master bunch at a normal news preparation on Thursday.

“Allow me just to repeat what we have expressed till now – we have our advantage in additional examinations and information on this issue of the beginning [of the Coronavirus] and the requirement for comprehension and participation by totally concerned,” he said, without naming China.

The Indian side, he said, was gathering subtleties of what the new move by WHO might involve.

Raman Gangakhedkar, the Dr CG Pandit Public Seat at the Indian Board of Clinical Exploration in India, and Yungui Yang of the Beijing Foundation of Genomics at the Chinese Institute of Sciences, are among the 26 individuals from SAGO.

Reacting to WHO’s declaration, China cautioned against any “political control” of the reestablished test into the starting points of Coronavirus however said it would uphold the examination.

The Covid originally arose in the focal Chinese city of Wuhan in late 2019, setting off the most exceedingly awful pandemic in a century.

Gotten some information about the new test, Chinese unfamiliar service representative Zhao Lijian said it ought to be led in the “soul of science” and not utilized as a political apparatus. The aftereffect of the past study on the matter ought to be regarded, he added.

“China will proceed to help and partake in worldwide Covid starting points – following, yet goes against any type of political control on the issue,” Zhao told a news preparation in Beijing.

He added, “China has consistently kept up with that following of infection beginnings is a genuine and complex logical issue and that exploration ought to be led by researchers in collaboration.”

Tedros said SAGO will encourage WHO on fostering a worldwide system to direct investigations into “beginnings of arising and reappearing microbes with pestilence and pandemic potential, including SARS-CoV-2”. He said that while SARS-CoV-2 is the furthest down the line infection to start a pandemic, “it won’t be the last”.

Ryan noticed the current pandemic “has halted our entire world” and said the master bunch “might be our last opportunity to comprehend the beginnings of this infection in a…collective and commonly capable manner”. He encouraged everybody, including nations, to make space for conversations on the issue.

Maria van Kerkhove, WHO’s specialized lead on Coronavirus, said the master bunch is relied upon to call for additional examinations in China by worldwide missions.

“I expect that the SAGO in its conversations about the pressing following stages for understanding the beginnings of the current pandemic will suggest further investigations in China and conceivably elsewhere…We especially trust that there will be further missions to China and different nations,” she said.

The 26 individuals from SAGO were chosen from in excess of 700 applications following a worldwide call. Tedros said they were picked for their a-list ability and involvement with a scope of disciplines, and geographic and sexual orientation variety. There will be a fourteen day public conference period for WHO to get input on the proposed individuals.

WHO, in a publication in Science, said nitty gritty examinations of the most punctual known and suspected cases in China preceding December 2019 are as yet required, including investigations of put away blood tests from 2019 in Wuhan and review searches of emergency clinic and mortality information for prior cases. Labs in the space where the main reports of human diseases arose in Wuhan should be a concentration, as precluding a mishap requires adequate proof, it said.

Why does the internet keep breaking?

Global communication network concept.

I question Imprint Zuckerberg peruses the remarks individuals leave on his Facebook posts.

In any case, on the off chance that he did, it would take him around 145 days, without rest, to swim through the downpour of remarks left for him after he was sorry for the emergency of administrations last week.

“Sorry for the interruption today” the Facebook originator and CEO posted, following just about six hours of Facebook, WhatsApp and Instagram being disconnected.

Facebook faulted a standard support work for the interruption – its designers had given an order that unexpectedly disengaged Facebook server farms from the more extensive web.

Around 827,000 individuals reacted to Mr Zuckerberg’s conciliatory sentiment.

The messages went from the delighted: “It was horrible, I needed to converse with my family,” remarked one Italian client, to the befuddled: “I brought my telephone into the auto shop thinking it was broken,” composed somebody from Namibia.

What is likewise clear is that this is a long way from being an oddball circumstance: specialists recommend inescapable blackouts are turning out to be more incessant and more problematic.

“Something that we’ve found over the most recent quite a long while is an expanded dependence on few organizations and organizations to convey huge bits of Web content,” says Luke Deryckx, Boss Specialized Official at Down Indicator.

“At the point when one of those, or mutiple, has an issue, it influences them, however countless different administrations,” he says. Facebook, for example, is currently used to sign-in to a scope of various administrations and gadgets, like brilliant TVs.

“Thus, you know, we have these kind of web ‘snow days’ that happen now,” Mr Deryckx says. “Something goes down [and] we as a whole kind of check out one another like ‘well, what are we going to do?'”

Mr Deryckx and his group at Down Locator screen web administrations and sites for interruption. He says that far reaching blackouts influencing significant administrations are turning out to be more regular and more genuine.

“At the point when Facebook has an issue, it makes a major effect for the web yet additionally the economy, and, you know… society. Millions, or conceivably many millions, of individuals are simply kind of lounging around hanging tight for a little group in California to fix something. It’s an intriguing wonders that has filled over the most recent few years.”

Web researcher Teacher Bill Buchanan concurs with this characterisation: “The web isn’t the huge scope appropriated network that DARPA (the Guard Progressed Exploration Tasks Organization), the first draftsmen of the web, attempted to make, which could withstand an atomic strike on any piece of it.

“The conventions it utilizes are essentially the ones that were drafted when we associated with centralized server PCs from idiotic terminals. A solitary error in its center foundation can bring the entire thing colliding with the floor.”

Educator Buchanan says upgrades can be made to make the web stronger, yet that a large number of the basics of the net are staying put regardless.

“As a rule, the frameworks work and you can’t simply turn specific conventions of the web ‘off’ for a day, to attempt to redo them,” he says.

Rather than attempting to revamp the frameworks and construction of the web, Teacher Buchanan thinks we need to further develop the manner in which we use it to store and share information, or hazard more mass blackouts later on.

He contends that the web has become excessively concentrated, for example where an excess of information comes from a solitary source. That pattern should be turned around with frameworks that have various hubs, he clarifies, so nobody disappointment can prevent an assistance from working.

There is a silver lining here. Albeit critical web blackouts influence clients lives and organizations they can likewise, eventually, help to work on the strength of the web and the web administrations connected to it.

For instance, Forbes gauges that Facebook lost $66m (£48.5m), during the six-hour blackout, from the suspension, or departure, of sponsors on the site. That kind of misfortune is probably going to concentrate the personalities of senior leaders on forestalling it happening once more.

“They lost a colossal measure of cash in that day, in their stock cost as well as in their functional incomes,” as per Mr Deryckx.

“Furthermore, in the event that you see blackouts brought about by content conveyance networks like Fastly and Cloudflare, they additionally lost countless clients to the opposition. Thus, I think these administrators are doing all that they can to keep things on the web.”

An important step towards enhancing space technology

Space technology is a significant aspect of a society’s development. It has greatly benefitted us in various fields such as education, research, communication, management of natural disasters and overall, in improving the quality of human life. With economical progress, India has been striving towards executing such space missions which not only aid the national development but establish our position in the international space exploration movement that has been rapidly expanding.

Another such progress was made recently when the Indian Space Association or ISpa was launched. It aims to privatize the space sector by allowing private firms to collaborate with the government for achieving the objective of self-reliant space technology as well as providing India with a lead role as the global space hub. Policies to achieve the same would be framed in consultation with the stakeholders.

Who are the members?

Larson & Toubro, OneWeb, Mapmyindia, Bharti Airtel, Ananth Technology Ltd and the like constitute the founding members. Other key members are Centum Electronics, Maxar India, Godrej and many more. These members will work in line with the shared vision of the government and coordinate with the shareholders.

The association’s Director-General is Lt Gen Anil Bhatt (Retd) who also served as the Director-General of Military Operations previously. Mr. Rahul Vatts who is the Director and Chief Regulatory Officer of Bharti Airtel will serve as the association’s Vice Chairman. The association’s first appointed chairman is Mr. Jayant Patil, Director of Defence and Space technologies, L&T-NxT.

What is it based on?

According to the government, four pillars comprise the shared idea of promoting this space reform.

  • Innovation freedom in the private sector– The government wishes to encourage private sector participation in the development of strategies that would shape the future of India in the space sector. Drafting legislation, engaging in research to develop efficient and high-quality devices that cater to the needs of clients across the globe so that India can become a major manufacturer of space-related equipment are some of the aspects which would be handled in a much better manner if many firms work mutually.
  • Government’s enabling role– The government would play an important role in the creation of an environment that is optimal for coordination and cooperation between the members and shareholders. Experts from the government would not only share their ideas but also promote much-needed innovation while keeping national interests at the forefront.
  • Preparing youth for the future- With extensive research and innovation emerges a brilliant opportunity to develop academia which would make the youth enthusiastic to learn more about the industry and contribute towards its expansion. Young minds would get a chance to explore more career options in this field which would enhance India’s global performance.
  • Using the space sector as a developmental source- This reform would aid India’s progress in multiple aspects such as better resource management, interplanetary explosion, more successful space missions, better weather forecasting, country’s imaging and mapping.

Overall, the launch of the Indian Space Association is a very positive step to benefit various sections of society, ranging from entrepreneurs to youth. It has the potential to transform India into a global leader of the space sector backed by expert interventions from the government and various agencies. Pushing for policies and legislations to enhance India’s growth in terms of critical technology would bring in employment and better wages.

The participation of national and international agencies would bring in more innovation and cooperation. It has the strength to make India a preferred destination for future international investments and which can transform it into a commercial hub. It would also assist in easing the workload of ISRO which has been at the center of India’s space hub developments.

Amazon Business Announces Great Deals for MSMEs This Great Indian Festival

Amazon Business Announces Great Deals for MSMEs This Great Indian Festival

Bengaluru, Karnataka, India Business Wire India Mass limits and business uncommon arrangements on a wide scope of business determination on Amazon Business. Wide scope of business items in classifications like cell phones, apparatuses, televisions, shopper hardware, PCs, laptops, home kitchen and more from top brands. Reward 5 cashback on orders above INR 50K. Set aside to 40 additional on mass buys on lakhs of items. Uncommon Corporate Giving Store to oblige all the giving necessities of organizations and their office organizations.

Wide scope of business items in classifications like cell phones, machines, televisions, shopper hardware, workstations, laptops, home and kitchen, and more from top brands.

• Reward 5% cashback on orders above INR 50K.

• Set aside to 40% more on mass buys on lakhs of items.

• Uncommon ‘Corporate Giving Store’ to oblige all the giving necessities of organizations and their office organizations. Organizations can mass buy corporate presents effortlessly and comfort.

Amazon. in’s greatest extended festival the Incomparable Indian Celebration that began on Oct third, brings a large group of never-seen bargains and offers on novel items from lakhs of venders, Little and Medium Organizations (SMBs), and well known brands. Amazon Business clients can get astounding arrangements on the most extensive choice of items from top brands across classifications including cell phones, machines, televisions, customer gadgets, workstations, computers, home and kitchen, and that’s just the beginning.

Moreover, business clients approach new dispatches and can get uncommon proposals on business-significant choice for both giving and own utilization by signing in to their Amazon Business account. With more than 15 Cr GST empowered determination, organizations can set aside to 28% more. Organizations purchasing in build can benefit of up to 40% in amount limits. They can likewise profit of an uncommon 5% cashback on an acquisition of above INR 50,000.

Alongside the arrangements during the Incomparable Indian Celebration, Amazon Business has likewise acquainted a ‘Corporate Giving Store’ with take into account business giving necessities. Through this store, clients can mass buy corporate presents effortlessly and accommodation. Organizations will likewise have the choice to redo and customize corporate gifts as per their necessities.

Earth receives first radio signals from planet outside of Solar System

The signs were gotten utilizing the world’s most impressive radio recieving wire, the Low-Recurrence Exhibit (LOFAR) arranged in the Netherlands.

The new strategy of spotting stowed away planets could allude to the chance of life in the framework, which stays the greatest inquiry in stargazing. It is safe to say that we are distant from everyone else? The signs were distinguished by Dr Benjamin Pope from the College of Queensland and his partners at the Dutch public observatory ASTRON. The stargazers have been looking for planets utilizing LOFAR.

The stargazers have distinguished signs from 19 far off red diminutive people, four of which are best clarified by the presence of planets circling them. “We’ve since quite a while ago realized that the planets of our own planetary group discharge incredible radio waves as their attractive fields collaborate with the sun powered breeze, however radio signs from planets outside our planetary group still couldn’t seem to be gotten,” the stargazers said in an assertion.

Prior, space experts were simply ready to distinguish the very closest stars in consistent radio outflow while all the other things in the radio sky was interstellar gas or dark openings. Radio cosmologists are presently ready to see regular stars when they mention their observable facts as the group focussed on red small stars, which are a lot more modest than the Sun and known to have an extreme attractive action that drives heavenly flares and radio emanation.

Vaccines for malaria and dengue may hit Indian market in 2-4 years

Malaria vaccine

Immunizations for jungle fever and dengue, tropical mosquito-borne diseases, could require two to four years to hit the Indian market, say industry insiders.

As of now, there are a few up-and-comers underway with the Serum Institute of India (SII), Bharat Biotech, and Zydus Cadila all chipping away at one or the other creating or assembling against malarial antibodies.

With respect to dengue, French firm Sanofi and Japan’s Takeda are hoping to bring their antibodies here.

SII, the world’s biggest immunization creator, and Novavax are teaming up for stage 3 clinical preliminaries of the Oxford University’s Jenner Institute’s intestinal sickness antibody on more than 4,800 youngsters in four African nations. It has shown 77% viability in preliminaries on babies, the main immunization to cross the World Health Organization’s (WHO) focus of 75% adequacy.

“Work has started over the most recent couple of months on this,” said a source near the turn of events, without revealing subtleties on India-explicit plans. Industry insiders say controllers would require neighborhood preliminary information prior to permitting it.

“Information on security and immunogenicity, regardless of whether on a little associate, would be looked for by the controller here regardless of whether they choose to put together their choice of endorsement with respect to worldwide adequacy preliminary information,” said a senior authority of an immunization firm. This could expand the timetables for accessibility here.

Adar Poonawalla, CEO of SII, couldn’t be gone after a remark on when he wished to begin the Indian arm of the preliminary.

Furthermore, the majority of the immunizations being created, truth be told, are designated at African nations. GSK’s plasmodium falciparum jungle fever antibody (RTS,S/AS01E likely marked Mosquirix), which Bharat Biotech will create will at first go to African nations. The tech move of the immunization has started. The antigen RTS,S will be made by Bharat Biotech, while GSK will supply the adjuvant.

GSK, which has fostered the immunization more than 30 years, is presently directing it in Ghana, Kenya, and Malawi under the Malaria Vaccine Implementation Program (MVIP). The WHO said last week that it has suggested far reaching utilization of the GSK immunization for kids in sub-Saharan Africa.

Sources near the improvement said Bharat Biotech is as of now dealing with setting up the assembling site. Thus, it would require a couple of years before the antibody opens up either in African countries or in India. Bharat Biotech will be the sole provider of the immunization till 2029 and will supply 15 million portions yearly to these African nations.

“Another office is being developed at Bhubaneswar for assembling the intestinal sickness antibody. The course of innovation move has effectively begun,” said a source near the turn of events. The individual added that it would require a few years before the antibody is prepared.

“Bharat Biotech should take administrative endorsements from the Indian medication controllers prior to assembling,” the source added.

Closer home, Zydus Cadila also has a possibility for jungle fever, being created by its Vaccine Technology Center in Ahmedabad. It is likewise chipping away at immunizations for Haemorrhagic Congo Fever, Ebola, and Japanese Encephalitis, among others.

Sharvil Patel, Zydus Cadila’s overseeing chief, let Business Standard know that the firm is dealing with both an antibody and a treatment. “We are chipping away at both an intestinal sickness antibody and a medication,” Patel said, without uncovering further subtleties.

Where I encountered with corruption

Corruption in India is an issue that affects the economy of central, state, and local government agencies in many ways. Corruption is blamed for stunting the economy of India. A study conducted by Transparency International in 2005 recorded that more than 62% of Indians had at some point or another paid a bribe to a public official to get a job done. In 2008, another report showed that about 50% of Indians had first-hand experience of paying bribes or using contacts to get services performed by public offices, however, in 2020 their Corruption Perceptions Index ranked the country 86th place out of 180, reflecting a steady decline in the perception of corruption among people. 

Image source : https://www.gettyimages.in/illustrations/corruption

My personal experience with corruption.
(I have changed the designation and events places since I don’t want to be in trouble)
It was back in February when I went to DTO(District Transport Office) to get the form for my driving license. I took the form and filled out the details, went to the counter to submit the form but I was told that the official would come on the next day. I came back the next day and the same thing happened to me all the time. After visiting the office for a week finally, the official had come and I submitted my form to him and all he responded was that the process would take up to 3 weeks to 2 months.
It was already a month and I had no response for my form, I went to the office to get inquired but I found out that they had not even checked the form yet. Another official came and told me to come tomorrow for the clicking of photograph and I went there the next day. My photo was taken and processing of my form had begun. Later on the same week I had got the call that I had to appear for the driving test. I went for the test, I had seen many people outside the hall talking to the instructor but they didn’t enter inside. The instructor came inside and asked me some basic road rules, I knew the answers easily so it didn’t take me much time. And I was told again to wait for a month for a response. I came back after a month and found out that I had failed the test, I reappeared again and I failed it again. It was my third attempt now and I didn’t want to lose it, I asked the instructor that even if my answers are correct, why did I failed but he didn’t answer me. Then outside I met a man who asked me the purpose to come to this office, I told him everything about me failing the test. He replied calmly that if I don’t pay the officials 4000 rupees, they will not let me pass the test and get my license.

In India in every office there is a bit of corruption till the date, the officials won’t do the what they are given salaries for, instead, they would ask for bribes for doing the work.
A study conducted between 2004 and 2005 found that India’s driver licensing procedure was a hugely distorted bureaucratic process and allows drivers to be licensed despite their low driving ability through promoting the usage of agents. Individuals with the willingness to pay make a significant payment above the official fee and most of these extra payments are made to agents, who act as an intermediary between bureaucrats and applicants
The average licensee paid Rs 1,080, approximately 2.5 times the official fee of Rs 450, to obtain a license. On average, those who hired agents had a lower driving ability, with agents helping unqualified drivers obtain licenses and bypass the legally required driving examination. Among the surveyed individuals, approximately 60% of the license holders did not even take the licensing exam and 54% of those license holders failed an independent driving test.
Agents are the channels of corruption in this bureaucratic driver licensing system, facilitating access to licenses among those who are unqualified to drive. Some of the failures of this licensing system are caused by corrupt bureaucrats who collaborate with agents by creating additional barriers within the system against those who did not hire agents.

(Written with reference to : Wikipedia and transparency international)

Nobel Prize For Literature – 2021

The Nobel prize ceremony is literature’s greatest show of the year and the jury ensures that only the best make it to the podium. Each year, the literature community is abuzz with speculations regarding the potential winner. The wait came to an end on Thursday when this year’s victor was declared.

About the Prize

The Nobel Prizes, which have been awarded since 1901, recognise achievement in literature, science and peace. As stated by Alfred Nobel in his will, the Nobel Prize in Literature is given to “the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction.” The 18-member Swedish Academy selects the Nobel Laureates in Literature. Nominations come from members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, and the presidents of writers’ organisations. However, it is against the rules to nominate oneself.

Winner of 2021

Abdulrazak Gurnah was preparing a cup of tea in the kitchen of his Canterbury home on Thursday when he received the auspicious call, telling him that he had won the most esteemed prize in the field of Literature. He admitted, that he didn’t have the slightest idea that he was being considered for the award.

A novelist and academic based in the United Kingdom, Gurnah was bestowed with the Nobel Prize for his eminent contributions to literature. In the words of the academy, the prize motivation was “for his uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents.”            

About the winner

Born in Zanzibar in 1948, Gurnah was displaced from his country and was forced to take refuge in Britain as a young teenager. His books pronouncedly detail the struggles of refugees who sought asylum in other countries. In the 1960s, the Arab Muslims fled Zanzibar to shield themselves from the oppressive regimes that persecuted their community. After reaching England, Gurnah found solace in writing which helped him cope with the loss of his home. He soon became a member of the faculty, at the University of Kent, following the completion of his studies in Canterbury. Gurnah proceeded to have an illustrious career in both academics and writing. The settings in his stories are diverse, ranging from East Africa under German colonialism to modern-day England. Many of Gurnah’s characters deal with the dilemma of leaving their old lives behind and prepare for the life to come, finding themselves in a gulf between cultures while confronting racism and prejudice. He has authored ten novels, throughout his life with three of them featuring in the Man Booker shortlists — “Memory of Departure,” “Pilgrims Way,” “Paradise”. The novels have left a profound impact all across the world, by highlighting the issues of migration, focusing mainly on uprooted people and the places they make their new homes. His work’s relevance has increased even more now, as the world witnesses the large-scale displacement of the Afghan natives.

Past Winners

Past winners have included novelists such as Ernest Hemingway, Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Toni Morrison, poets such as Pablo Neruda, Joseph Brodsky and Rabindranath Tagore, and playwrights including Harold Pinter and Eugene O’Neill.

Delhi University Cut-Offs Released

A new academic year brings with it a new batch of anxious faces, eagerly looking at the DU cut-offs, hoping they get in. Lakhs of students apply to the University of Delhi annually while only a few make it through. This year too over 4 lakh applications were recorded, the highest being from Delhi, followed by Uttar Pradesh. The lowest number of applications were received from West Bengal. All these candidates are vying for a mere 70,000 seats.

Owing to the deadly second wave of the coronavirus, the exams pan India were cancelled. The different education boards came up with fair scoring criteria for their students. Everyone witnessed remarkable inflation in their marks after the results were declared, with more than  70,000 CBSE students scoring above 95%.

This posed a massive dilemma for the college principals, some of them even suggesting a centralised entrance exam for the batch of 2021. But due to time and procedural constraints, the same wasn’t feasible to conduct. Finally, the University decided to follow the merit basis for admission to the undergraduate programs.

Speculations were rife about the cut-offs being astronomically high for this academic year which, unfortunately, turned out to be true.

After a long and tiring wait, the first cut off list was released yesterday.

In an unprecedented development,  at least 6 colleges have released 100% cut-offs in 10 courses which have left the students all over India in shock.

Ramjas college and Hindu college demanded a whopping 100% for Political Science Hons. and Computer Science Hons. The other north campus colleges have followed the same trend. SRCC set the bar at 100% too for B.Com Hons. 13 out of 20 courses in Hansraj college are only available to students who have scored above 99%. The score required for English Hons. has increased by a percent to settle at 99% in most colleges. At Vivekananda College, History Hons requires 97%, a sharp jump from the previous year’s 85%.

Experts are now questioning the evaluation of the board results. A teacher at SRCC clarified that the 100% cut off was based on the applicant data provided to them which had almost 450 students who scored a perfect 100 in the best of four aggregate. It is indeed quite baffling how so many students managed to procure such excessive marks. Fingers would be pointed at various school managements who might have graciously rewarded marks to their pupils.

The number of 100 scorers at DU has increased to almost 10,000 from 5,500 last year. Understandably, the cut-off can’t be kept low.

The cut off list has left many students distraught, a number of them are looking at their DU dreams shattering. Aspirants who are just at the 90% margin are worried about their college prospects now, with many of them looking to seek admission in other universities. The ones who scored below 90% have very bleak chances of getting in, seeing the current trend. This is a leading cause of stress as well as anxiety for both parents and students as their future is now enveloped in a shadow of uncertainty.

The education system has been heavily criticised as there is only space for exceptional scorers in universities now. The entire focus has now shifted to performance in exams instead of the holistic development of children. The sky is the only limit now when it comes to college cut-offs.

Why chocolates Are Good for Health

Chocolates contain anandamide, which as one might guess, comes from the Sanskrit word “ananda”, meaning happiness, joy and delight. Chocolates also contain the chemical compound phenylethylamine, which is said to enhance our feelings of love.

             Chocolate is made from tropical Theobroma cacao tree seeds. Its earliest use dates back to the Olmec civilization in Mesoamerica. After the European discovery of the Americas, chocolate became very popular in the wider world, and its demand exploded.

           Chocolate has since become a popular food product that millions enjoy every day, thanks to its unique, rich, and sweet taste.

 Facts on chocolate:

  • Chocolate consumption has long been associated with conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. 
  • Chocolate is believed to contain high levels of  antioxidants.
  • Some studies have suggested chocolate could lower  cholesterol levels and prevent memory decline.
  • Chocolate contains a large number of calories.
  • People who are seeking to lose or maintain weight should eat chocolate only in moderation.

Eating chocolate may have the following benefits:

  • Reduces stress:

Studies have found evidence that Polyphenols contained in cocoa used to prepare chocolates can reduce stress. Both dark chocolate and milk chocolate contain such polyphenols. Stress is said to signal an increase in oxidative damage to our systems. The antioxidants in chocolate neutralise this oxidative damage caused by free radicals and reduces stress.

  • Beneficial for the brain and improve its function:

Chocolate contains flavanols, which are antioxidant molecules that help in the optimisation of our brain’s functions and potential. Flavonols protect the neurons in the brain and increase our cognitive abilities concerning memory and learning. A study of healthy volunteers showed that eating high-flavanol cocoa for five days improved blood flow to the brain.

  • Reduces risk of heart diseases:

As per research, consumption of dark chocolate, in particular, has been linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Dark chocolate keeps our blood vessels dilated and aids in normal blood flow.Yet another study showed that eating dark chocolate more than 5 times per week lowered the risk of heart disease by 57% .

  • Protects the kidneys:

Dark chocolate was found to have protective effects on our kidneys. The flavanols in dark chocolate help maintain proper renal tissue oxygenation which is essential for the functioning of the kidneys.

·         Powerful Source of Antioxidants:

Dark chocolate is loaded with organic compounds that are biologically active and function as antioxidants. These include polyphenols, flavanols and catechins, among others. One study showed that dark chocolate had more antioxidant activity, polyphenols and flavonoids.

  • Protect the Skin from the Sun:

The bioactive compounds in dark chocolate may also be great for the skin. The flavanol’s can protect against sun damage, improve blood flow to the skin and increase skin density and hydration. Studies show that the flavanols from cocoa can improve blood flow to the skin and protect it from sun damage.

The darker the chocolate, the higher the concentration of cocoa, and so, in theory, the higher the level of antioxidants there will be in the bar.

However, nutrients vary widely in commercially available chocolate bars, depending on the brand and type you choose. It is best to check the label if you want to be sure of the nutrients.

Blood type

Do you know your blood type? If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important, you might not.

We know that there are 8 main blood groups that make up most of the world’s population.

But it turns out that scientists still don’t know why we evolved different blood types. And that may remain a mystery for a long time. But from now, science can at least tell you about your own blood.

Knowing your Blood type

In develops parts of the world, it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head. Doctors will typically run tests before any major procedure and if there’s any doubt in a medical emergency, you’ll most likely receive O negative blood, because that’s the universal donor blood that’s save to give to any A, B, AB or O recipient.

Blood type experiments

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A Greek doctor Claudius Galenus from 200 CE believed that it was created food and liver, and this school of thought lived on for nearly 1500 years.

It wasn’t until in the 17th century A british doctor named William Harvey, discovered that blood actually circulated through the body. This spawned A new age of experimentation with blood.

In 1665, an English physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing it with a blood of another dog. Just two years later, doctors began experimenting with Xenotransfusions. That is transfusing humans with animal blood, such a sheep. And those human patients died.

It wasn’t until 1900 that we finally realised people and animals actually have different types of blood that determine whose blood can mix with whose. That’s where different letters came into play.

If you’re type A, your immune system will perceive type B blood as an intruder and trigger auto immune response that can cause

  • kidney failure,
  • extensive blood clotting, and
  • even shock.

The reverse is true of type B blood. The immune system will attack type A.

AB blood however, accept both A and B blood without triggering the auto immune response. These things get little bit complicated when introduced there negative and positive part of your blood type. Positive can’t accept negative, but the opposite is extremely dangerous.

Other than 8 Blood types

To further complicate things scientists have discovered dozens of more blood type, such as the Duffy blood group, which can determine your susceptibility to malaria. Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000 people in India have. But the vast majority of the humans fall into this A, B, O system.

As per why humans evolved this complicated system of blood types and compatibility, we really don’t know. The original mutations are thought to date back nearly 20 million years. But whatever the biology is behind blood typing, it’s a real practical thing that matters.

It’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type. If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural, or doesn’t have access to advance medicine, it’s good for you and your travelling companion to know your types, just in case of an accident along the way. In big emergency closer to home, blood banks often put in calls for donors of a specific type. And remember if you’re type O Negative, you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So, knowing your type can give you a peace of mind.

Your body when you Swim

Harvard medical school published a study which looked at over 40,000 men, aged 20-90 who were either runners, walkers, swimmers, and physically in active people. With an average length of 13 years of observation and in that time

  • 2% of swimmers passed away
  • 8% of runners passed away
  • 9% of walkers passed away
  • 11% of physically inactive people passed away

This study showed that swimmers are much healthier later on in life than the rest of the population and for women swimming just 30 mins a day can decrease coronary heart disease by 30 to 40 percent.

It also helps to increase HDL aka good Colestrol. Some studies have also shown that aerobic excercise can keep the cells in the lining of your arteries more flexible and healthier. Hence there is no question that swimming is an awesome form of fitness.

Body during swimming

What do you actually feel when you go into the water? Here are some main elements of the human body that gets impacted during swimming.

1. Blood

According to the America Heart Association, swimming is considered as Aerobic activity. Aerobic excercise enlarges the heart and it increases the blood flow through the entire boby. Because swimming is an excercise, the blood has to pump all the molecules into the body.

2. Heart

Since so much of blood has to be pumped into the body, that ties into how it impacts your heart because we know that after 2 mins your body goes into aerobic respiratory because your heart has to pump all the oxygenated blood through the body. So as you swim, your heart is circulating the blood which help your body to perform and achieve the required goals.

3. Skin

You must have seen that the skin color changes of swimmers. For example, some swimmers face turns red when the swim, that happens because your blood vessels are dilating and the brings the heat to the surface into the skin then some people turn red, as a result your skin is showing the effort that you’re putting in the water.

4.Muscles

There’s a reason why swimmers are considered to have best body and physiques in the world compared to any athlete, because swimming engages every single muscles in the water when it comes to your core stability, your upper body, your biceps, your hamstrings, your calves, everything is engaged when you swim.

When you’re swimming, you are micro tearing your muscles while swinging it. And the muscles requires 24-48 hrs to recover those muscles. That’s when sometimes you might feel sore.

5. Lungs

Swimming can actually help increase your lungs volume because in swimming different than other sports, you can’t actually breath whenever you want. It’s not like running when you have full access to oxygen.

In swimming you’re engaging your muscles and you’re not allowed to breathe necessarily at the time when your body might want it. So because you have to get used to this, you actually increase your Vo to max (maximum amount of oxygen body is able to use). So basically you are making your lungs more efficient at functioning.

6. Brain

The Brain loves swimming, because of all the extra blood flow moving through these endorphins that makes you more awake, alert and focus.

But this could happen in any type of sport but swimming is something really special because you’re sort of in your own world where the medium is 800 times more dense than air, which makes you feel free and relaxed.

Hence, from physical health to mental health, swimming is an incredible benefit human body and after reading this you must be thinking of trying swimming.

Being Bilingual

People have very different opinions on what bilingualism really is. For some it means speaking two languages fluently and with little to no effort rather strongly consider a person bilingual, if it has perfect pronounciation in both languages and makes very few grammatical errors while talking.

The truth is that, even with a bad accent and making some mistake, being able to speak in two or more languages rather than one has practical benefits in an increasingly globalised world.

Multilingualism

Multilingualism has been shown to have many psychological and social advantages that can go something simply as

  • watching movies with no subtitles
  • to having less problems in traveling and
  • even getting a job or business opportunities specially in tourist areas.

Types of Bilingualism

It is considered to be two types of Bilingualism

1. Compound Bilingualism

Compound Bilingualism, also called addictive Bilingualism happens for example when a child is raised by bilingual parents and both languages are used in home, the child grows when both languages are used simultaneously in the same environment.

With this type of Bilingualism, the person does not see the two languages as separate it is common to hear such people speaking different languages in the same sentence or using a word of a different language from the one they’re talking to better express themselves.

2. Coordinate Bilingualism

This is the second type of Bilingualism also know as Subtractive Bilingualism. In this type, the person perceive two languages as separate because he learns them separately and in different environments in context.

I am an example of coordinate Bilingualism, most of the time i talk Hindi when I’m in my college environment or to people who talks only that language, I use the language specifically for those context but to my family members i usually talk in Bengali which is my native language, the language related to my home environment. I see these two language as separate since I learned and used them in completely different environments.

Officially Monolingual Countries

Only a few countries in the world including the U.S, England, and Australia are officially Monolingual but even in these countries only a considerable percent of people who speaking and understand more than one language.

Advantage

Researchers suggest that bilingualism can slow the advance of age-related mental issues such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s by up to 4 years.

Also in bilingual adult, brain tissue called grey matter is denser compared with Monolingual adults.

Although speaking more than one language does not necessarily make you more intelligent person, it helps stimulates and increase brain connections. Learning a new language is like an excercise to the brain that will improve your Cognitive skills and even if you grew up in a Monolingual environment, it is never too late to start learning a different language.

History of Halloween

From communion with the dead to pumpkins and pranks, Halloween is a patchwork holiday, stitched together with cultural religions and occult tradition that spans centuries.

Before Halloween

It all began with the Celts; a people whose culture had spread across Europe more than 2,000 years ago. October 31st was the day they celebrated the end of the harvest season in a festival called Soin, that night also marked as Celtic New Year and was considered a time between years; a magical time when the ghost of the dead walked the earth as called as time when the veil between death and life was supposed to be at its thinnest.

At that time the villagers would gathered and lit huge bonfires to drive the dead back to the spirit world and keep them away from the living. But as the Catholic Church’s influence grew in Europe, it frowned on the pagan rituals like sawing.

The name Halloween

In the 7th century the Vatican began to merge it with a Church sanctioned holiday. So November 1st was designed All Saints day to honor martyrs and the deceased faithful. Both of these holidays had to do with the afterlife and about survival after death, it was a calculated move, on the part of the church, to bring more people into the fold.

All Saints day was known as then Hallowmas; hallow meaning holy or saintly, so the translation is roughly mass of the saints. The night before October 31st was All Hallows eve while gradually morphed into “Halloween“.

How the holiday spread

The holiday came to America with the wave of Irish immigrants during the Potato Famine of the 1840s. The brought several of their holiday customs with them including

  • Bobbing for apples and,
  • Playing tricks on neighbors like, removing gates from the front of the houses
Irish immigrants

Trick-o-treat

The young pranksters wore masks so they wouldn’t be recognised but over the years the traditional of harmless tricks grew into outright vandalism such as in 1930s, pranks during Halloween became really holiday, as there was such a hooliganism and vandalism.

Trick-o-treat was originally a extortion deal, give candies or get your house trashed. Storekeeper and neighbors began giving treats or bribes to stop the tricks and children were encouraged to travel door-to-door for treat as an alternative to trouble making. By the late 30s trick-o-treat became a holiday greeting.

Women at a Higher Risk of Stroke Says a Study And Prevention Of Stroke In Women

  • Strokes are known as “brain attacks.” When blood flow stops to an area of the brain, the cells receive less oxygen, similar to what occurs during a heart attack. When brain cells can’t get enough oxygen, they die. Strokes generally fall in one of two categories,” Dr. Achieng says. “Ischemic strokes occur when a blood clot in a vessel stops blood flow to the brain. Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel bursts and bleeds into the surrounding brain tissue. Certain factors in women can lead to both types of stroke.
  • According to a study presented by European Stroke Organization (ESO) Conference, there is a rising heart attack and stroke among women than men. This is due to work stress, sleep disorders, fatigue, which are usually termed as non-traditional risk factors for heart attack and stroke.
  • While diabetes, arterial hypertension, raised cholesterol, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity are recognized modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, recently, it has been noted that non-traditional risk factors such as work pressures and sleep problems can significantly add to cardiovascular risk. Stroke is the No. 4 cause of death in women and kills more women than men. In fact, one in five women has a stroke.
  • Traditionally men have been perceived to be more affected by heart attacks and strokes than women.
  • But, the “study found men were more likely to smoke and be obese than women, but females reported a bigger increase in the non-traditional risk factors for heart attacks and strokes, such as work stress, sleep disorders, and feeling tired and fatigued”, said Dr Martin Hansel, Neurologist at the University Hospital Zurich, and her team.
  • “This increase coincides with the number of women working full time. Juggling work and domestic responsibilities or other socio-cultural aspects may be a factor, as well as specific health demands of women that may not be accounted for in our daily ‘busy’ lives,” Hansel added.
  • High blood pressure is the leading cause of stroke and is the main cause for increased risk of stroke among people with diabetes.
  • Researchers compared data from 22,000 men and women in the Swiss Health Survey from 2007, 2012, and 2017, and found an “alarming” rise in the number of women reporting the non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The trend coincided with an increase in the number of women working full-time from 38 per cent in 2007 to 44 per cent in 2017.
  • Overall, in both sexes, the number reporting stress at work rose from 59 per cent in 2012 to 66 per cent in 2017, and those reporting feeling tired and fatigued increased from 23 per cent to 29 per cent (to 33 per cent in women and 26 per cent in men).
  • Over the same period, the number reporting sleep disorders went up from 24 per cent to 29 per cent, with severe sleep disorders also rising more sharply in women (8 per cent) than in men (5 per cent).
  • However, the research also found the traditional risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease had remained stable in the same time period, with 27 per cent suffering from hypertension, 18 per cent with raised cholesterol and 5 per cent with diabetes. Obesity increased to 11 per cent and smoking decreased from approximately 10.5 to 9.5 cigarettes per day, but both were more prevalent in men.

Stroke prevention in women:

With so many factors that can raise the risk of stroke in women, are there ways to prevent them?

The same steps you take to improve your heart health will also reduce your stroke risk, Dr. Achieng says. Your doctor may recommend taking a daily dose of aspirin because it thins the blood and reduces clotting, but that will depend on the individual.

Stroke prevention tips:

  • Eat healthier
  • Exercise regularly
  • Aim to lower blood pressure and cholesterol
  • Quit smoking
  • Reach a healthy weight
  • Take rest

Snack Time: Healthy Snacks Options For Those Mid-Day Cravings

Hunger pangs are difficult to manage and snacking is hard to resist. As such, we often end up indulging in chips, soft drinks, pizzas, burgers and fried food items whenever cravings strike. However, these unhealthy  snacks can lead to weight gain and also certain digestive issues.

                 However, you can always replace them with some healthier alternatives. Ayurveda expert has recommended some healthy snacking options that are not just nutritious but also tasty. When it comes to snacks, kids and even millennials tend to choose chips, cookies, pastries, soft drinks, pizza, burgers etc. which are sometimes okay, but really affect your health if had often. Unhealthy snacking is one of the reasons behind obesity, acne, hormonal issues, hair fall, diabetes, thyroid, PCOS & other lifestyle issues.

                When snack time is near, opt for something healthy & light, that will satisfy your cravings & boost your health.

Here are delicious snack time options we know you will surely enjoy are as follows:

Here are delicious snack time options we know you will surely enjoy are as follows:

  • Gur chana (jaggery and chickpeas):

It is easily available, easy to digest, boosts immunity and sharpens memory.

  • Roasted makhana:

It is rich in nutrients, stabilizes your blood sugar and doesn’t make you gain weight.

  •  Poha:

 It makes you feel fuller and energetic. It is a good source of carbohydrates and fat.

  • Puffed rice:

 It is crispy, savory and super easy to prepare and digest.

  • Coconut jaggery ladoo:

 It is best for people who crave sweets.

  • Dry fruit laddoo:

 It is nutritious and filling.

Sattu drink:

It is an amazing source of protein and energy. It can be consumed pre or post-workout or during the afternoon.

  • Sesame laddoo:

It is best for hair, teeth and bones.

  • Nuts and dry fruits:

They have good antioxidants, fiber, nutrition and fills your stomach in an instant.

  • Fruits:

 nourishing and full of nutrients.

  • Cottage cheese & khakhra:

Homemade cottage cheese is loaded with protein. A mini-meal of fresh cottage cheese combined with whole wheat khakhras is sure to satisfy both your hunger pangs, as well as your taste buds!

  • Oats, milk & nuts:

Oats are complex carbohydrates, rich in soluble fiber & low on fat. Prepare a bowl of oats & top it up with low-skim milk & crunchy nuts to enjoy a yummy evening snack.

  • Egg whites & green veggies:

 Egg whites are low on calories & high on protein. Combine them with fresh green vegetables such as, spinach, lettuce, broccoli etc. to keep yourself fueled throughout the day!

  • Fruit Salad:

 Fruits such as apples, pears & cucumbers are loaded with vitamins, fiber & minerals. Top your fruit salad with crunchy flaxseeds or sunflower seeds for better taste & added health benefits.

  • Peanut Butter:

 Peanut butter is a good source of protein & healthy fats. Prepare a peanut butter sandwich using whole wheat bread or dip some fresh fruit pieces into this yummy mixture & munch away!

  • Boiled Sprouts:

 Sprouts are a powerhouse of protein, fiber & vitamins. A mid-day meal of boiled sprouts with tossed veggies & chat masala will surely make for a healthy & delicious evening snack.

  • Smoothies:

 Healthy, wholesome & delicious! You can prepare a smoothie using skim milk & fresh fruits or vegetables. A healthy smoothie will boost metabolism & keep you feeling full until you reach back home.