Category Archives: News

Eduindex News is a news aggregator app developed by Google. It presents a continuous flow of articles organized from thousands of publishers and magazines.

ONLINE LEARNING

  • The COVID-19 has resulted in schools shut all across the world. Globally, over 1.2 billion children are out of the classroom.
  • As a result, education has changed dramatically, with the distinctive rise of e-learning, whereby teaching is undertaken remotely and on digital platforms.
  • Research suggests that online learning has been shown to increase retention of information, and take less time, meaning the changes coronavirus have caused might be here to stay.

With this sudden shift away from the classroom in many parts of the globe, some are wondering whether the adoption of online learning will continue to persist post-pandemic, and how such a shift would impact the worldwide education market.

Even before COVID-19, there was already high growth and adoption in education technology, with global edtech platform investments reach more billion2019 and the overall market for online education projected to reach the unexpected result. Whether it may be conferencing, meeting, classes there has been a significant surge in usage since COVID-19.

Online classroom, meanwhile, has been used extensively since mid-February after the Chinese government instructed a online full-time students to resume their studies through online platforms. This resulted in the largest “online movement” in the history of education with approximately 81% of K-12 students, attending classes via K-12 Online School in Wuhan.

Other companies are bolstering capabilities to provide a one-stop shop for teachers and students. For example a Singapore-based collaboration suite initially developed by ByteDance as an internal tool to meet its own exponential growth, began offering teachers and students unlimited video conferencing time, auto-translation capabilities, real-time co-editing of project work, and smart calendar scheduling, amongst other features. To do so quickly and in a time of crisis, Lark ramped up its global server infrastructure and engineering capabilities to ensure reliable connectivity.

Some school districts are forming unique partnerships, to offer local educational broadcasts, with separate channels focused on different ages, and a range of digital options. Media organizations such as the BBC are also powering virtual learning; Bitesize Daily, launched on 20 April, is offering 14 weeks of curriculum-based learning for kids across the UK with celebrities like Manchester City footballer Sergio Aguero teaching some of the content.

There have already been successful transitions amongst many universities. For example, they managed to get more than 5,000 courses online just two weeks into the transition using “DingTalk ZJU”. The Imperial College London started offering a course on the science of coronavirus, which is now the most enrolled class launched in 2020 on Coursera.

Most popular coding language in 2021

We are leaving in the 21st century (The world of technology).Machines are there to help us in our work.Computers are the need of the time and without computers our future may be scary in development terms.Like we men on the earth speak a particular language to express our thoughts to others.Similarly computers have their own language to function.These are called computer languages.A wide number of computer languages is present today but Python is the most popular coding language of the year 2021.

Let’s have a look why Python is the most popular coding language:-

Python is one of the languages that is witnessing incredible growth and popularity year by year. It has become the fastest-growing programming language in the world.

It is also the most popular language for machine learning-https://www.upgrad.com/blog/best-programming-languages-for-machine-learning/

Simplicity:- Python language is incredibly easy to use and learn for new beginners and newcomers. The python language is one of the most accessible programming languages available because it has simplified syntax and not complicated, which gives more emphasis on natural language. Due to its ease of learning and usage, python codes can be easily written and executed much faster than other programming languages.When Guido van Rossum was creating python in the 1980s, he made sure to design it to be a general-purpose language. One of the main reasons for the popularity of python would be its simplicity in syntax so that it could be easily read and understood even by amateur developers also.One can also quickly experiment by changing the code base of python because it is an interpreted language which makes it even more popular among all kinds of developers.

Sources:- Python was created more than 30 years ago, which is a lot of time for any community of programming language to grow and mature adequately to support developers ranging from beginner to expert levels. There are plenty of documentation, guides and Video Tutorials for Python language are available that learner and developer of any skill level or ages can use and receive the support required to enhance their knowledge in python programming language.Many students get introduced to computer science only through Python language, which is the same language used for in-depth research projects.If any programming language lacks developer support or documentation, then they don’t grow much. But python has no such kind of problems because it has been here for a very long time. The python developer community is one of the most incredibly active programming language communities.This means that if somebody has an issue with python language, they can get instant support from developers of all levels ranging from beginner to expert in the community. Getting help on time plays a vital role in the development of the project, which otherwise might cause delays.

Corporate support:- Programming languages grows faster when a corporate sponsor backs it. For example, PHP is backed by Facebook, Java by Oracle and Sun, Visual Basic & C# by Microsoft. Python Programming language is heavily backed by Facebook, Amazon Web Services, and especially Google.Google adopted python language way back in 2006 and have used it for many applications and platforms since then. Lots of Institutional effort and money have been devoted to the training and success of the python language by Google. They have even created a dedicated portal only for python. The list of support tools and documentation keeps on growing for python language in the developers’ world.

Due to its corporate sponsorship and big supportive community of python, python has excellent libraries that you can use to select and save your time and effort on the initial cycle of development. There are also lots of cloud media services that offer cross-platform support through library-like tools, which can be extremely beneficial.Libraries with specific focus are also available like nltk for natural language processing or scikit-learn for machine learning applications.

First choice:- Python language is the first choice for many programmers and students due to the main reason for python being in high demand in the development market. Students and developers always look forward to learning a language that is in high demand. Python is undoubtedly the hottest cake in the market now.Many programmers and data science students are using python language for their development projects. Learning python is one of the important section in data science certification courses. In this way, the python language can provide plenty of fantastic career opportunities for students. Due to the variety of applications of python, one can pursue different career options and will not remain stuck to one.

Flexible:- Python language is so flexible that it gives the developer the chance to try something new. The person who is an expert in python language is not just limited to build similar kinds of things but can also go on to try to make something different than before.Python doesn’t restrict developers from developing any sort of application. This kind of freedom and flexibility by just learning one language is not available in other programming languages

TIPS TO HAVE A POSITIVE ATTITUDE, DURING COVID

Positive attitude. Roughly, everyone knows about what is a positive attitude.

But, let’s see. What it exactly means. A Positive attitude means being hopeful. Able to tackle any situation, no matter how difficult it may be. And most important believe in yourself. Because, the moment we gave up in believing oneself. At that right moment. We lost the battle. This is the time when the persons are tested. And if you have positive attitude, you will win the battle. And that’s what will make you different from others.

By having a positive attitude, you become able to fight and win any types of situation.

Even a 100-year-old can fight and win. And youngster sometimes fail.

And if your Decision is to Give up and call it done, nobody’s goanna blame you. But, if you do so, you will look back on that moment for the rest of your life.

COVID-19 followed by the lockdown is a challenging phase for all of us. But there are residents in the city who know how to keep themselves occupied. While some have started pursuing their hobbies, many see this an opportunity to spend quality time with their family.

Meanwhile, as for the students are confused, depressed how was I going to cover the topics. Will I be able to understand? Or should I just in the light of passing 12th prepare it. What should I do?

 Whatever it is, impact of lockdown will remain with us for my entire life. It doesn’t affect me only the way it seems, as we were locked up in our homes. Of course, we were. but more to our mind set.

And, the most difficult task is to have a positive attitude or to motivate myself, despite of having a negative atmosphere.

To become strong not only physically but also mentally. This lockdown, was not just for a period of time, it builds our entire lifestyle. We started to understand the healthy eating. Importance of yoga. Started writing diary.  Distracting ourself.

The change in mindset, change in viewing the world, the life goals, the opinions. Values for life has been increased forever.

As all are at home, sometimes you would surlily had thoughts, like why I am existing? What is my purpose of life? many many questions. But it’s just natural. And This is the best time to find the answers for these questions.

But you know what, I finally find out the purpose of life is to help others. Make a better place to live. And the happiness you get in return after helping is the best happiness one can ever wish for. Its your time. Utilize it for the things you wanted to do. The thoughts you neglect it. This what build positive attitude.

Change our daily routine, take this time to get an extra hour in bed. Learn a new language. Or cooking. Start meditation, it really helps our body and mind, for having positive attitude. Exercise. Make a time table.  Stay touch with the family and friends digitally.

Feel too been lucky enough to have a family that continues to support you during these uncertain times, helps to motivate you, play with you when I you bored. You can have discussion about many life issues, which you always had though, but never take it seriously, in between the busy schedule.

Covid situations is although very difficult times, for the entire globe, but the best way to tackle is by having a Positive attitude, and build yourself strong.

#bepositive#bestrong#win#staysafe#stayStrong.

thankyou

Project for Beginners in Computer Vision and Medical Imaging

(AI) and computer science that empowers mechanized frameworks to see, for example to deal with pictures and video in a human-like way to distinguish and recognize articles or districts of significance, anticipate a result or even adjust the picture to an ideal arrangement. Most popular use cases in the CV domain incorporate computerized discernment for autonomous drive, augmented and virtual realities (AR,VR) for reenactments, games, glasses, realty and style or excellence arranged online business. Clinical picture (MI) preparation then again includes substantially more detailed examination of clinical pictures that are regularly grayscale, for example, MRI, CT or X-beam pictures for computerized pathology discovery, an errand that requires a trained expert’s eye for identification. Most popular use cases in the MI domain incorporate mechanized pathology naming, confinement, relationship with treatment or prognostics and customized medicine.

Preceding the approach of deep learning methods, 2D signal handling arrangements, for example, picture sifting, wavelet changes, picture enlistment, trailed by grouping models were intensely applied for arrangement systems. Signal preparing arrangements actually keep on being the top decision for model baselining inferable from their low inertness and high generalizability across informational indexes. Notwithstanding, deep learning arrangements and structures have arisen as another most loved inferable from the start to finish nature that wipes out the requirement for include designing, highlight choice and yield thresholding by and large. In this instructional exercise, we will survey “Top 10” project decisions for fledglings in the fields of CV and MI and furnish models with information and starter code to help independent learning.

CV and MI arrangement structures can be broken down in three fragments: Data, Process and Outcomes. It is essential to consistently imagine the information needed for such arrangement systems to have the organization “{X,Y}”, where X addresses the picture/video information and Y addresses the information target or marks. While normally happening unlabelled pictures and video arrangements (X) can be copious, getting exact names (Y) can be a costly cycle. With the coming of a few information comment stages, for example, , pictures and recordings can be named for each utilization case.

Since profound learning models regularly depend on huge volumes of clarified data to naturally learn highlights for ensuing identification undertakings, the CV and MI spaces frequently experience the ill effects of the “small data challenge”, wherein the quantity of tests accessible for preparing an AI model is a few orders lesser than the quantity of model boundaries.

The “small data challenge” if unaddressed can prompt overfit or underfit models that may not sum up to new concealed test data sets. Accordingly, the way toward planning an answer system for CV and MI areas should consistently incorporate model intricacy requirements, wherein models with less boundaries are commonly liked to forestall model underfitting. At last, the arrangement structure results are examined both subjectively through representation arrangements and quantitatively as far as notable measurements like exactness, review, precision, and F1 or Dice coefficients.

Project : MNIST and Fashion MNIST for Image Classification (Level: Easy)

Objective: To deal with pictures (X) of size [28×28] pixels and order them into one of the 10 yield classifications (Y). For the MNIST informational index, the information pictures are written by hand digits in the reach 0 to 9 [10]. The preparation and test informational indexes contain 60,000 and 10,000 named pictures, separately. Motivated by the manually written digit acknowledgment issue, another informational collection called the Fashion MNIST informational collection was dispatched where the objective is to group pictures (of size [28×28]) into garments classes as appeared.

Techniques: When the information picture is little ([28×28] pixels) and pictures are grayscale, convolutional neural organization (CNN) models, where the quantity of convolutional layers can shift from single to a few layers are reasonable order models. An illustration of MNIST characterization model form utilizing Keras is introduced in the colab record:

MNIST colab file

Illustration of characterization on the Fashion MNIST information:

In the two occurrences, the critical boundaries to tune incorporate a number of layers, dropout, enhancer (Adaptive analyzers liked), learning rate and portion size as found in the code underneath. Since this is a multi-class issue, the ‘softmax’ enactment work is utilized in the last layer to guarantee just 1 yield neuron gets weighted more than the others.

Results: As the quantity of convolutional layers increments from 1–10, the arrangement precision is found to increment too. The MNIST informational index is all concentrated in writing with test correctness in the scope of 96–99%. For the Fashion MNIST informational index, test correctness are commonly in the reach 90–96%.

top 3 programming languages to learn during pandemic

We have all experienced an unprecedented time in the years 2020 and 2021 seems to be pretty similar to the previous year. Covid -19 has hit all of us and all of us are getting used to it. I just hope all the readers are safe and sound and are paying adherence to Covid-19 norms. As a human, this pandemic has offered us an opportunity to learn new skills. And especially people who are looking for recruitment as software engineers have gotten a chance to learn new programming languages.

There are few languages the company is demanding in the current scenario. The top three programming language one should put interest are:

#1 JavaScript

JavaScript is one of the most commonly used out of all programming languages. Almost every frontend application is built by using JavaScript. It is a beginner-friendly language and developers seem to love it. The global market has a high demand for JavaScript developers. Companies such as Google Facebook, Uber, and many more are hiring JavaScript developers. JavaScript is a dominating language it’s unavoidable. If you want to get a good package get your hands-on JavaScript.

#2 Python

Python is liked by developers and beginners due to its simplicity. It is by far the simplest language to learn and write. Python is used in research in the field of Artificial intelligence and Machine learning. Python is widely preferred by Data scientists. Python is used by top companies such as Instagram, Shopify, etc to build their back end. Python is widely used in almost every field. Learning Python can help you be hired by big companies.

#3 Java

Java stands as one of the most widely used languages still in 2021. Every second technology has Java involved in it. Companies like Uber, Twitter, etc used Java as their tech stack. So knowing Java programming can secure you jobs in big companies.

LET’S ALL WALK ALONE YET TOGETHER!

In the valley noted for its echoes, silence talks. Our northern kin has been living in the shadows of the military and a political power struggle that will end in bloodshed regardless of who wins. Kashmiris have become inmates in their own homes, with the majestic peaks serving as a jail. Who are they pleading with? How can they get their message across?

While the mainland watches the programme, they protest, fight, and plead for their rights and freedom. They were alone, as were the Jews, the Blacks, and that one child in the diner with his parents on their phones, despite a population of 1.25 crore.

Like the Black Death in Europe, stories of social alienation abound in our history textbooks. Even so, we can feel its claws tightening around our necks now more than ever. We have a lot of connections. We have the whole planet at our fingertips. Calls and texts have relieved the sweet doves of their duties, allowing us to converse with strangers as well as friends.

In our pockets, we bear a piece of our loved ones. We are surrounded by more than 7 billion people and 8.7 million other animals. And yet, as we sit on our sofa, pizza in one hand and phone in the other, the knowledge slowly sinks in that we are both very lonely, like a slow poison.

In the United States alone, over 60 million people reported feeling lonely (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2018). Globally, youth are becoming increasingly withdrawn and absent-minded, preferring to curl up in a comfortable corner rather than face the harsh realities of life. The Loneliness Epidemic is one of many aspects that have characterised this period. People are becoming more agitated, despondent, inactive, and withdrawn. We rest isolated, unaffected, and unmoved in the midst of the whirlwind of likes and followers.

If the Loneliness Epidemic is not handled, we will be hollowed out. It drives people insane and turns them into savages. It encourages them to engage in drug abuse. As they sit trying to fit bits of garbage into the gaping hole inside, one loses all sense of reason. Loneliness is a wolf in sheep’s clothing, or a black pit, swallowing all life and leaving nothing but death and decay behind. It’s a shame the internet doesn’t bind people’s souls.

Wuhan was put on lockdown when the Coronavirus struck, with all residents being rounded up and placed in isolation or quarantine. China constructed a wall around itself when the Mongols threatened, and an alienation zone when the Chernobyl disaster occurred. Our reaction to the possibility of a global war was to create memes. We conveniently chuckled and japed instead of recognising the ramifications of such a brutal global phenomenon, refusing to be scared into a frenzy. When wars arrive at our doorstep, we slam the door in their faces. But what about the conflict that exists inside you? It is futile to demand caution from those who have never known peace.

Ironically, Mahatma Gandhi, Anne Frank, Martin Luther King Jr, Nelson Mandela, William Shakespeare, Vincent Van Gogh, and Albert Einstein all came from this species. Guess what, visionaries, poets, freedom fighters, scientists, painters, and one teen girl who turned the world upside down? They began on their own. They began in seclusion. They were triumphant in the internal war that was raging. The world was awestruck, inspired, and speechless as a result of their valiant struggle. They were given meaning by a little trust in themselves and a greater love for others. We are, in reality, lonely. We’ve always been that way. And we’ve been battling it for a long time. Sure, it’s a sorry state of affairs for our species. But we’re fighting back, and we’re stronger than ever. We’re in this together. Despite stumbling and fumbling, we persist.

Whistling Wind

Oh Whisting wind
You are the friend of the blue sky
Don’t you hear the song of the night
Oh wind you have touched the rainbow
Won’t you see the magical spring
Oh whistling wind
Let go off your worries
For you could fly aimlessly
Let’s go to see the moonlight, sunshine and snow twilight
And the hill side covered of flowers
Look how moments glide by
See how time flows by
Like water slipping through our fingers
Flowers sway in the wind and fade away
Like the smile on time’s face
Let go off all the worries
Let go off them
Let’s fly fluttering our small wings
Let’s love our lives

Media propaganda

“A rumour is a social cancer: it is difficult to contain and it rots the brains of the masses. However, the real danger is that so many people find rumours enjoyable. That part causes the infection. And in such cases when a rumour is only partially made of truth, it is difficult to pinpoint exactly where the information may have gone wrong. It is passed on and on until some brave soul questions its validity; that brave soul refuses to bite the apple and let the apple eat him. Forced to start from scratch for the sake of purity and truth, that brave soul, figuratively speaking, fully amputates the information in order to protect his personal judgment. In other words, his ignorance is to be valued more than the lie believed to be true.”
― Criss Jami, Killosophy

Propaganda is a common thing occurring in today’s media. Propaganda is used in order to promote or publicize a point so that in can reach millions and millions of people through media. The main objective of propaganda is to provide false information and thereby manipulate the audience into believing something different from the reality. Propaganda in media commonly occurs in several different flavours.

One of the most popular forms of propaganda is known as bandwagon. It is the power of persuading the customer by showing them what others are doing. This type of propaganda sort of sets an attribution to performing a particular activity to be enjoyable or common to others, making others inadvertently do the same. This kind of manipulation is often done in advertisements for example when people are shown to enjoy a particular kind of chocolate, the viewers of that advertisement tend to buy the same the following day at the supermarket.
“The President in particular is very much a figurehead — he wields no real power whatsoever. He is apparently chosen by the government, but the qualities he is required to display are not those of leadership but those of finely judged outrage. For this reason the President is always a controversial choice, always an infuriating but fascinating character. His job is not to wield power but to draw attention away from it. On those criteria Zaphod Beeblebrox is one of the most successful Presidents the Galaxy has ever had — he has already spent two of his ten presidential years in prison for fraud.”
― Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy
There exist several benefits to propaganda in any subject. One of the core benefits as well as objectives of spreading propaganda is the ability to control the response of people in a particular situation. It is also thought of to be a kind of sublte brainwashing done to people in order to make them believe that they are acting upon their own free will, while they dictate what they should do from behind. Such propaganda in media can manipulate the views of millions of the viewing audience and thus can impact the lives of several negatively. In modern times, the Government has limited the use of propaganda in certain advertisements in order to protect the views of the public. They have imposed a limit upon the amount of propaganda allowed to be used in different kinds of advertisement, marking how much may prove to have a bad impact on people’s views. Such has not occurred in media, and thus, even today, much of the information which we receive from media continue to offer to us biased views. People should work to bring about a change and also be wary of such kinds of practises.

INDIA’S CRIPPLING TROPICAL FORESTS EPITOMIZE CARBON SINKS

By the year 2050, the world’s tropical forest supply may be severely depleted. Scientists expect that by 2050, sea levels will have risen to the point where most major cities will be flooded. In the last two decades, neglecting our biodiversity has resulted in four disease outbreaks. Can the human race afford another global epidemic that makes it impossible to breathe?

Carbon sinks are natural processes that absorb and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere; the oceans and forests are the two largest carbon sinks on the planet. Oceans are the world’s main carbon sinks. Plants and soil are the two carbon sinks found in forests. Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere for photosynthesis, and some carbon dioxide is released by the soil as plants die and decompose. In the event of a forest fire, forests will change from carbon sink to carbon source. If forests remain intact, with no leakages such as erosion and deforestation, this trade-off between sink and source can be balanced. Forests’ ability to function as a carbon sink or source is dependent on the balance of photosynthesis and respiration. If you believe it or not, forest soil has sequestered a significant amount of carbon.

When a tree dies and the microbes finish the decomposition process, some of the accumulated carbon is released back into the atmosphere. This method does not result in the complete loss of carbon. A sizable portion of it has remained in the soil. A large area of forest is an excellent example of a carbon sink. “Basically half of the carbon dioxide emissions are consumed by the Earth’s land and ocean,” says Paul Fraser of the Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization.

The titan Amazon basin, which predominantly serves as the largest carbon sink of all of the forests, and benefits us by generating over 20% of the total oxygen production for the earth, is an example of the world’s largest tropical forest, holding up to 40 thousand plant species, 2.5 million insect species, and a myriad variety of wildlife. The Amazon is used to demonstrate how tropical forests can function as a carbon sink. “We have already lost 20% of the Amazon in 2019, and scientists worry that if we lose yet another 5%, the Amazon will hit its tipping point,” says Mike Barrett, WWF Director of Science and Conservation.

India is ranked 9th among the world’s megadiverse countries, with nearly 40,000 plant species and 90,000 animal species living through diverse geographical environments in all four directions. The Northeast (NE), once one of India’s greenest areas, has been slowly losing forest cover for the past 20 years.

According to data mapped by the Global Forest Watch, a repository for global forest data, the rate has doubled. According to a report published by the Deccan Herald in 2018, over 70 percent of the forest cover in the Northeastern states was lost due to deforestation between 2001 and 2018. Infrastructure is essential for the economy, but not at the expense of our aid recipients. The Northeast has been facing a significant threat to its forests for the past two decades as a result of deforestation for coal mining, cement manufacturing, and illegal logging. Deforestation has already wreaked havoc on the Garo Hills of Meghalaya and the Karbi Anglong Hills of Assam. As a result of the Etalin Hydroelectricity Project, the Dibang valley in Arunachal Pradesh is on the verge of losing 2.7 lakh trees. The Northeast is already feeling the heat of forest depletion, with some states experiencing the highest temperature increase in the last two decades. In Karnataka, a similar incident occurred when the long-delayed Hubballi-Ankola railway line was finally approved. This 164-kilometer railway line would cut through the Kali Tiger Reserve and the Bedti Conservation Reserve, destroying more than 80% of the forest cover in the Western Ghats, one of India’s most ecologically sensitive areas. There are fears that the Bannerghatta National Park, which is located in the ESZ (eco-sensitive zone), Bangalore’s only remaining lung space, would lose about 100 square kilometres. The loss of trees would increase carbon emissions, and these forests are home to more than 250 species of plants, birds, animals, and insects that are listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and protected by the Wildlife Protection Act of 197.

Mining and various agricultural and commercial growth projects in India generate at least 1,000 million tonnes of carbon. With the pace at which trees are being cut down, India will experience many stages of ecological cancer. India’s average reported temperature has already increased. Even Antarctica experienced the hottest temperature increase in 141 years, not to mention the July 2019 Heat Wave. According to the World Bank, nearly 1.3 million sq/km of land cover was destroyed between 1990 and 2016, an area greater than South Africa. What are the warning signs if these aren’t them? Tropical woods, unlike the Notre Dame Cathedral, cannot be rebuilt.

As a result, I implore everyone to take responsibility for raising consciousness about these issues and not allowing them to go unnoticed. Begin to shoulder some of the world’s responsibilities. It has been far too long since we have felt a sense of awe for the natural world. In this sense, President John F. Kennedy said, “If not us, who?” When, if not now, would it be?”

MACHINE LEARNING

Machine learning is doing analysis using machine. Data is the most important part of all Data Analytics, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence. Without data, we can’t train any model and all modern research and automation will go vain. Big Enterprises are spending lots of money just to gather as much certain data as possible.  Machine learning algorithms have been around for a long time, the ability to automatically apply complex mathematical calculations to big data – over and over, faster and faster – is a recent development.

DATA : It can be any unprocessed fact, value, text, sound or picture that is not being interpreted and analyzed. Data is the most important part of all Data Analytics, Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence. Without data, we can’t train any model and all modern research and automation will go vain. Big Enterprises are spending lots of money just to gather as much certain data as possible.

INFORMATION : Data that has been interpreted and manipulated and has now some meaningful inference for the users.


KNOWLEDGE : Combination of inferred information, experiences, learning and insights. Results in awareness or concept building for an individual or organization.

How we split data in Machine Learning?

  • Training Data: The part of data we use to train our model. This is the data which your model actually sees and learn from.
  • Validation Data: The part of data which is used to do a frequent evaluation of model, fit on training dataset along with improving involved hyper parameters (initially set parameters before the model begins learning). This data plays it’s part when the model is actually training.
  • Testing Data: Once our model is completely trained, testing data provides the unbiased evaluation. When we feed in the inputs of testing data, our model will predict some values (without seeing actual output). After prediction, we evaluate our model by comparing it with actual output present in the testing data. This is how we evaluate and see how much our model has learned from the experiences feed in as training data, set at the time of training.

Properties of Data –

  1. Volume : Scale of Data. With growing world population and technology at exposure, huge data is being generated each and every millisecond.
  2. Variety : Different forms of data – healthcare, images, videos, audio clippings.
  3. Velocity : Rate of data streaming and generation.
  4. Value : Meaningfulness of data in terms of information which researchers can infer from it.
  5. Veracity : Certainty and correctness in data we are working on.