Plato and his allegory of the cave.

Credits – thoughtco

Plato was born in Athens, Greece, around 429 B.C. He was expected to become a politician by his family but he chose not to for two reasons and took the road of philosophy and mathematics. The first reason was the Peloponnesian War where he found out that some of his relatives were part of a dictatorship and were removed for corruption. The second reason was the death of Socrates who was the biggest influence in Plato’s life. Socrates was executed by the new Athenian government. Plato started writing and became a philosopher. He studied under Pythagoras in Sicily. After returning from there, he founded The Academy, a place where he and other people discussed philosophy and mathematics to come to better conclusions.

Plato’s allegory of the cave proves the power of reasoning over the senses. Personal human experiences will not amount to the truth. Proper philosophical reasoning is the only way to find the truth. To understand his allegory of the cave, you first need to understand his theory of forms. So Plato states that reality exists on two specific levels. First is the visible world which has sight and sound. Second is the intelligible world which gives the visible world its being. For example, when a person sees an ugly face he’s quickly able to identify its ugliness of it. Because in his mind he has an idea of ugly that allows him to point out ugly. He was able to spot the ugliness because he has an abstract idea of what ugliness is. The current state of that ugly face might change in the future because everything keeps changing in the visible world but the form of beauty, ugly etc is eternal and never changes. This is the theory of forms.

Credits- Amelia

Coming onto the theory of caves, The allegory of caves was a conversation between Socrates and Plato’s brother, Glaucon. Socrates asks Glaucon to imagine a world where illusion is believed to be reality. To prove his point further, he asks him to imagine a scenario where there’s a cave and 3 people are locked up inside the cave since their birth. Their necks and legs are chained and cannot escape from the cave. They can only see what is in front of them. Behind and above the prisoners is a fire, and between the fire and prisoners, there is a low wall from where people walk with objects in their heads. Now, these prisoners can only see the shadow of the object and therefore they believe the shadow to be the real form of the object. Because the prisoners have never been exposed to real objects, they start to believe that the real form of that object looks like a shadow. If a shadow of a hammer were to appear, they’d believe the shadow of the hammer to be the real hammer. They are not saying that it’s a shadow because in their reality no shadows exist. They think it’s an actual hammer. One of the prisoners will eventually be able to understand the nature of this illusionary world and would be able to guess what shadow will come next. This will lead to him being praised by the other 2 prisoners.

Suppose, one of the prisoners is set free. He escapes the cave and gets to see the world. He gets angry and frustrated after seeing the real world because he believes the cave illusion to be his reality. When his reality is disproved, he becomes angry, sad and frustrated because he is now forced to believe something else and step out of his comfort zone. Eventually, he’ll be able to make sense of what he has seen and accept that the cave illusion was not his reality. He has now accepted that his past was based on a lie and that is not the way he should perceive things going ahead because he has now found out that it was all an illusion. He goes back to the cave to tell the other prisoners about the real world. When he tells them whatever he has witnessed, they don’t believe him and threaten to kill him if he tries to free them. They are so comfortable in their fake reality that they don’t even want to make the effort of exploring a new possibility because that might lead them out of their comfort zone and face chaos. People mistake what is in front of them as reality and choose to live in ignorance. And when parts of the truth start to emerge in front of their eyes, they get frightened. Because that threatens their ignorant reality. However, a person who pays attention to these flashes of truth and is open to the idea of exploration will always have a better understanding of the world around him. Always aim for reasoning rather than simply believing what seems easy to believe.

Credits- steemit

*I was influenced to write this article after coming across the book Philosophy 101 by Paul Kleinman*




The abnormal growth of cells anywhere in the body causes cancer. These cells are called cancer cells. These cells destroy the normal tissues in the body. Normal body cells grow, divide and die in an orderly way whereas cancer cells continue to grow and divide in a disorderly fashion and these cells do not die. These cells form a tumor. But, not all cancer cells form tumors. Cancer can occur at any age but 67% of cancer deaths occur in people who are 65 years. There are two types of tumors. Malignant tumors and benign tumors. Malignant tumors spread to other parts of the body at a rapid speed. It spreads to other parts through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. Whereas benign tumors stay in one place and start to grow slowly and expand in the same tissue. Although cancer is common, 5-10% of it can be hereditary, i.e they are inherited from their parents. The inherited cells undergo mutation and cause cancer.


There are several causes of cancer. The substance that causes cancer is known as a carcinogen. This carcinogen affects the normal growth of cells.

Lifestyle factors: Smoking, drinking alcohol and drugs high fat-diet, and working with some toxic chemicals are the risk factors that may cause cancer in adults.

Inheritance: Cancer cells can also be inherited from our past generation to the present generation in some cases. It may be caused by a genetic mutation, exposure to chemicals in the living residence, or a combination of these factors. 

Genetic disorders: Some syndromes like Wiskott-Aldrich and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes are responsible for altering the immune system. The immune system helps to fight back against diseases and infections. Sometimes the stem cells in the bone marrow become damaged and when they reproduce, it results in the growth of cancer cells. The stem cells are damaged by some inherited genetic defects.

Environmental exposure: The use of pesticides and fertilizers in the growth of food plants have a direct link to childhood cancers. There is also evidence of cancer occurring in a child who lives in a polluted environment.


Cancers are classified into four types based on where it is found.

  1. Carcinomas: This type of cancer appears in the epithelial tissues of the skin or some inner tissues of the internal organs. Carcinomas may spread to other parts of the body or it may develop in the same tissues where it was provided. The risk of carcinoma increases with age, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, exposure to ultraviolet rays. Examples of carcinomas include breast cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, and prostate cancer.
  2. Sarcomas: Sarcomas appears in the tissues that support and connect the body. Sarcomas can develop in fat, joints, blood vessels, muscles, nerves, lymph vessels, bones, cartilages. Example: Bone cancer (osteosarcoma), liposarcoma in fat, and rhabdomyosarcoma in muscles. Sarcoma occurs in both children and adults.
  3. Leukemia: Cancer that occurs in the blood is known as leukemia. Leukemia involves white blood cells (WBCs). WBCs are responsible for fighting against infection and diseases. Normally they grow in an orderly fashion. But in the case of leukemia, the bone marrow produces more amount of WBCs, and those cells do not function properly. Example: Blood cancer.
  4. Lymphomas: It begins from the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system consists of vessels and glands that help in fighting against infection. The most common types of lymphomas are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.


Some of the cancers will have only one treatment. But most of the cancers have combinations of treatment such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery.

Chemotherapy: In this treatment, drugs are used to kill the cancer cells. The disadvantage is that it may also affect the normal cells and bone marrow and causes loss of hair and loss of weight and it reduces the immune responses.

Radiotherapy: In this treatment, high-energy rays are used to kill the cancer cells. These rays stop the growth and division of cancer cells. Some of the side effects are skin rashes, lowers WBCS count, and loss of appetite.

Surgery: In this treatment, the person has to undergo the surgery to remove the entire mass of cancer cells i.e, tumors in a particular area. In some cases, the only way to know if the person has cancer or what kind of cancer he has is by removing small tissue from the tumor and testing it.  


  • Always eat healthy foods. 
  • Consume more vegetables and fruits. 
  • Exercise regularly to keep your body fit and free from diseases. 
  • Don’t smoke and don’t drink alcohol. 
  • Minimize your exposure to harmful rays and chemicals. 
  • Avoid usage of tobacco. Reduce your exposure to the sun.
  • Consume nuts reduces the risk of cancer

We should follow preventive measures to avoid cancer. If already cancer has occurred, one has to undergo proper treatment.

Milestones in India’s science and technological development

The fashionable age is the age of science, technology and knowledge in which all of these are interrelated and are different aspects of the same thing. Explosion of knowledge and data , supported breathtaking advancement within the world of science and technology, has bestowed on man powers enviable even for gods. it’s helped man conquer space and time. Now one has unraveled many mysteries of nature and life and is ready to face new challenges and move forward within the realm of the unknown and thus the undiscovered. In India there has been an extended and distinct tradition of scientific research and technological advancement since the past .

Since independence, India has accelerated it’s speed and efforts in this field and have established many research laboratories, institutions of upper learning and technical education. The results would make anybody’s heart swell with pride , confidence and fulfillment. The best, however, is yet to return . The central and state governments, various public and private sector establishments are engaged in scientific research and technological development to require the state on the trail of rapid development, growth and prosperity. There are about 200 research laboratories spread everywhere in the country. The institutions of upper learning, and universities, the fashionable temples of learning, are all committed to need the country forward. they’re well equipped and staffed to secure for the people of the state all the blessings and benefits which can accrue from the acquisition and application of knowledge and technology. But there is no room for complacency, for during this field only the sky’s the limit and that we are yet a developing country.

Our technology policy is comprehensive and well thought out. It aims at developing indigenous technology to ensure efficient absorption and adoption of imported technology suitable to national priorities and availability of resources. Its main objective is attainment of technical competence and self- reliance, leading to reduction in vulnerability in strategic and important areas.

With a view to strengthening our economy and industrial development, our government has introduced many structural reforms through adoption of a replacement industrial policy which features an important pertaining to the programmes of development concerning science and technology. Consequently, technology has become our mainstay enterprise and now we’ve built a robust and reliable infrastructure for research, training and development in science and technology. Within the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains.

Today, India withstand droughts and natural calamities with much greater confidence than ever before. Now, we are at an edge to export food grains, etc. and are on the sting of white and blue revolutions. Our agricultural scientists and farmers, who are always ready to imbibe new technologies, our country has many kinds of hybrid seeds, crop- protection technologies, balanced farming practices and better water and irrigation management techniques. Similarly within the sector of economic research, we’ve achieved many milestones and India is emerging as a significant industrial power of the earth .

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), which has its network of research laboratories and institutions, has been chiefly instrumental in our major achievements in scientific and industrial research. We’ve now joined the exclusive club of six advanced nations by developing our own supercomputer at the Centre for Development of Advance Computing (C- CAD) at Pune. Our Atomic Research Commission, acknowledged in 1948, is engaged in valuable nuclear research for peaceful purposes. The chief agency for implementing atomic energy programmes is the Department of atomic energy . The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, near Mumbai is the most important single scientific establishment within the country, directing nuclear research. Now, we’ve five research reactors, including Cyrus, Dhruua, Zerina and Purnima. We’ve administered two underground nuclear tests at Pokhran in Rajasthan.

This is often an interesting achievement by our nuclear scientists, which has enabled us to become one of the chosen few countries on earth to have done it. India is additionally the first developing country, and one of the seven countries of the earth to master fast breeding technology. Research in breeder technology is currently happening at Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research at Kalpakkam, Chennai. The successful launching of the Polar Space Launching Vehicle (PSLV- D-2), in October 1994, marked India’s entry into the league of the world’s major space powers. Within the INSAT-2 series of satellites, launched first in 1992, India has shown its ability to fabricate complex systems like anything made anywhere within the earth . Our previous launches of the SLV-3 and thus the SLV were merely stepping stones to what’s going to be the workhorses of the business, the PSLV, which can launch one tone satellite into orbit of up to 1000 km, and therefore the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, which can take 2.5 tonne satellite to orbits 36,000 km away. India’s space programme rocketed to greater heights with the successful launch of the second Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-D2) in May, 2003. As has been rightly observed, the challenge before Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is to take care of the momentum of the programme by integrating it with other missions. The foremost obvious ones are related to military communication and reconnaissance.India’s first space mission to specialize in an extraterrestrial landing, Chandrayaan-2, would have commenced by the time you read this. It’s a symbol achievement for India’s technological capability, in areas ranging from propulsion , signals and communications, materials, robotics, remote guidance and even AI , to let the lunar lander navigate on its own on the far side of the moon. If successful on all targeted fronts, it’d also increase humankind’s understanding of cosmology and thus the origins of the planet , because the moon probably could also be a piece of this planet that got thrown out at a stage when it had been mostly molten matter. And, of course, it’d cause greater understanding of the moon itself, its chemistry and composition. America landed men on the moon essentially to demonstrate that it had overcome the Sputnik scare — the shock realisation that the Soviet Union was before it in space science and technology which its own education system had to repair for greater specialize in science and maths — and had beaten the Soviet Union therein lone area of human achievement during which the Communist nation had been ahead.

Achievements in space still have a component of demonstration of technological capability, apart from their intrinsic utility. So, becoming the fourth nation within the world, behind the US, the previous Soviet Union and China, to land a mobile explorer on the moon, tells the earth of India’s capability altogether the intricate technologies that are marshalled and harmonised to carry out Chandrayaan-2, its predecessor having orbited the moon with a proximity of 100km. The mission, conceived in 2008, has taken 11years to end . The mission director and thus the project director are both women, to boot. The Indian Space Research Organisation is standing testimony to the overall public sector’s capacity to deliver outstanding results, when given autonomy and resources. There’s a case for similar public sector initiatives in cyber security, telecom systems and AI . What it lacks is political vision and commitment. Our success on Antarctica speaks volumes of our scientific genius and technological wisdom within the world . So far, 13 scientific expeditions by our oceanographers,scientists and technicians are to Antarctica where we’ve two permanent stations on the icy continent. within the field of defence also our achievements are quite laudable.

The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists. we’ve also been successful in producing opt-electronic preparation and night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. The HAL at Bangalore has already produced the Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH). Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved so that its benefits reach the masses. Scientists within the country will strive hard to bring technological developments to people’s doorsteps.

Therefore, they can not rest on their laurels, but should remember the famous and galvanizing lines of the poet Robert Frost: The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I even have promises to stay, And miles to travel before I sleep……


Ever thought why do we get attract to someone? Well everyone has different answer to it. For some it can be the way one look, smiled, walk or may be their was an unusual aura around that one.

What is attraction?

Attraction, especially in a romantic way, is a complex process that take place in our brains, and has had it’s roots since it’s beginning of the humankind. It’s our minds way of telling us who has the potential to be our partner, our friend, or even our soulmate, and is based on a complex blend of our interest, values, experience, and desire. Physical and romantic attraction, which are often focused on, are only small facets of a much larger equation.

Psychologist look at the ingredients of attraction is in a form of pyramid, split into 4 different sections.

The base of the pyramid is made up of health and status:-

  • Status – 1. internal (confidence, self set, beliefs) 2. External (person’s job, possession and appearance.
  • Health – Physical attributes, smell, basic level of intelligence.

If the potential partners passes these initial requirements then we move to the center of the pyramid, which are the emotional factors:- includes

  • trust comfort someone wants,
  • their emotions intelligence, and
  • unique characteristics.

The final portion of the pyramid is “Logic”.This is the part that differentiate us from other animals, and is the part where our brains seriously

  • considers whether we are totally compatible for that person.
  • It ensure that the other person is aligned with us in term of what they want – things such as marriage, children, even the city they want to live.

According to this model, the more alignment there is, the more attraction there is, but it doesn’t always have to follow from bottom to top – like online dating.

What makes someone Attractive?

The answer to this questions make come to our mind is physical traits. Due to the influence of media, we tend to favor women who is younger, and more feminine features, in men on the other side, qualities such as broad shoulders, a deep voice, and strong jawline are highly upon.

Scientists suggest that, these also have an evolutionary origin because these traits are associated with a higher chance of producing health offspring and passing of good genes. Also, values, culture, and the environment, that we grow in also plays an important role.

Hence, attractiveness is complex, there’s a number of different perspective to consider, and at the end of the day, there’s very little we can choosing who we are attracted to. As each person looks for unique set of traits and, while physical traits are often focused there are far more factors that come into play. A person’s upbringing, behavior and even lifestyle have major influence. The most important thing to remember is to be happy and make the most of it.

Some Unheard Phobias


Eisoptrophobia is the fear of mirrors. People having this phobia cannot look at themselves in the mirrors or any other reflective surfaces.


closeup photo of sunflower

Xanthophobia is the fear of yellow colour. People having this phobia seems to get terrified seeing a yellow colour flower or a school bus and many more such yellow coloured things. They always try to avoid seeing the colour yellow at all costs.


clear glass jar with brown liquid

Arachibutyrophobia is the fear of sticking peanut butter sticking to the roof of your mouth. People having this fear avoid eating peanut butter in any form.


person holding balloons

Globophobia is the fear of balloons. People having this phobia tend to run away even at the sight of a balloon.


person holding gray corded hair dryer

Anemophobia is the fear of winds. People having this phobia gets triggered by air vents and even hair dryers.


person in green shirt washing stainless steel sink

Ablutophobia is the constant fear of cleaning, washing and bathing. It is a very uncommon phobia.


selective focus photography of butterfly on orange petaled flower

Lepidopterophobia is the fear of butterflies. People having this phobia says that they get triggered by seeing the pattern on the wings of the butterflies.


Trypophobia is the fear of holes and circles. Extensive research is taking place on Trypophobia. People having Trypophobia are trigger by the image (and many such similar images) shown below.


brush on watercolor paint

Chromophobia is the fear of colours. People having this phobia has a negative stimulus for colours and has also reported hormonal imbalances.


pizza with berries

Who does not like a double cheese margarita pizza? The truth is people who have Turophobia hates it. They often get nauseated even at the sight of cheese.

How is blue light affecting us?

Pandemic has made today’s world a 100% digital world. With digitalisation on the peak so, is our daily digital gadget usage. We are spending; 7-10 hours behind a screen doing our work, attending online classes or Netflix and chilling. While doing so, we are exposing ourselves to harmful blue light radiated from these digital gadgets. 

This blue light is causing eye strain and sleep deprivation in most of us. 

Why blue light radiation causes eye strain?

The reason is when someone is exposed to the blue light coming from laptop screens or mobile screens they tend to blink fewer times than usual. This causes eye strain resulting in discomfort in the eyes. Blue light has the shortest wavelength and the highest frequency. So when it enters the eyes it causes much more scattering than any other light. This causes glare disability and discomfort glare at low intensities. 

Blue light causes difficulty in falling asleep

Blue light exposure disturbs the circadian rhythm of the human body. In the olden days, the only source of blue light exposure was during the daylight hours and when the night falls, the body automatically signals the body to sleep by secreting melatonin. But due to the exposure to blue light, this melatonin secretion is suppressed and it thus affects the sleeping pattern. 

Some of the best ways to prevent this blue light exposure is by reducing the screen time, using a blue light filter app on your gadget, wearing spectacles with blue light filter and using the 20-20 rule where you work on the screen for 20 minutes and then take a 20 minutes no gadget break.

Why do we look different in photos?

No wonder we always experience that how hard we try to click a good photo for our profile picture, it is so hard for all of us to get a decent photo.

Also, when we look ourselves in the mirror we look just fine! Then why exactly we look good in mirror but bad in photos?

Reality is we do not really know how we look. The mirror gives us a reflection and the camera does not show us our accurate face.

The mirror we look in all day during brushing or combing or before going out, makes us believe that this is how we look. We are so accustomed to see ourselves in mirror that when we see ourselves in a picture we are unable to recognize ourselves.

Mirror shows us the enantiomorph version of our face in simpler terms when we see in a mirror the right becomes left and the left becomes right, and so unless you have a 100% symmetrical face, you will always find slight change in the mirror image of you and photo clicked image of you.

Scientist call this familiarity MERE EXPOSURE. This mere exposure makes us favorable to things which are familiar and unfavorable to things which are unfamiliar. Henceforth, we are more inclined towards our mirror image than the camera clicked image. We somehow find that the mirror image is good looking than the camera image.

Also, the camera pictures we see are not true image. Camera clicks 2D images and thus it somehow distorts our real look.

Putting in a nutshell, we do not really know how we look and honestly it does not even matter how we look as Margaret Hungerford says beauty lies in the eye of the beholder.

Is science a boon or bane?

We are within the age of science and technology. Man cannot live without the help of science. Science has engulfed our lives that nothing can happen in our day o day work without the assistance of science. Our food, transport, learning, administration, recreation, and social life are linked with science in various ways.

To answer the question, whether science has come to mankind as a boon or because of the reason for ruin. one should know what science actually means. Science is claimed to be a scientific classification of experiences. We, men, wonder at the varied thing and events happening around us. We get doubts about what are they? why are they happening? If so why these questions are the fundamental seats of science. then starts with thinking, analyzing, reasoning, synthesis, and contrast, and at last, the reality reveals. scientists say there’s a methodology for everything and there are inevitable steps to follow, they include, observation, hypothesis, experiment, theory, and proofs. all scientists having the way followed these steps.

Aim of science:

The aim of science is to go looking for truth and to grasp things, hitherto unknown. A scientist doesn’t accept ideas, just because they were accepted by others earlier. Great discoveries are a result of reasoning. lots of patience and observation are required. Civilization, because it today, is that the result of a variety of discoveries made within the field or of science. The invention of the easy wheel has resulted in our modern industrialization. Electricity, as a source of energy, has revolutionized the planet. Science has contributed to the success of our revolution and now we’ve enough food for all. we’ve enough clothing and better shelter too. All this can be possible, only because of science. Radios, television, and cinemas that entertain us are the products of science. So as a standard man must conclude that science is boon to mankind.

There is another side of the coin too, where such gave science which gave birth to destructive weapons like guns, rifles,  rockets, atom bombs, hydrogen bombs, etc. It’s the science that has electric power and nuclear energy, hydroelectric power but atomic energy isn’t used for peaceful purposes, like Hiroshima and Nagasaki which happened as a result of science, it’s the bane of humanity.

Leaving that apart, another creation of science is that the pollution of the environment. Industrialization with the help of science has polluted air, food, and every one of the atmosphere. The ozonosphere is giving threatening signals. so here is the case for a person to contemplate science as a bane.

A human could be a rational being. to safeguard themselves against all odds. that’s how he was able to conquer and control all the creatures within the world. So allow us to believe that his wisdom will prevail and he would conclude for the well-being of his kind on this planet.

When the universe reveals more secrets to humans by means of science, there’s hope that this man will become a superman and eventually science would be only a boon and not a bane of his life. Science without conscience is that the death of the soul.



Air is the critical building block for sustained life on a planet, but with a combination consisting of various gases that we commonly call it has to Air. For example, Nitrogen 78%, Oxygen 28%, Other gases like Neon, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, Xenon, Argon, Krypton, Helium, and others add up a total of 1%. This a type of combination of Air which our lungs are used to.

But what about Space, which is a giant vacuum area where all the living things do not exist. If an event occurs in the Space due to which this empty area with vacuum gets starts slowly filling with air. What will then happen after?

The changes which we may first face could be as follows:

1. We could hear the supernovae (stars) explosion sounds without specialized equipment because sound can travel through the air. Still, there’s a catch to listen to the sound we must closer to the object, almost impossible supernovas are very big with immense temperatures.

2. The other effect could destroy life from our planet, which will happen due to friction.

3. After the presence of air outside our planet and its surroundings, it may increase our planet’s atmospheric pressure. It is leading to the crush of all living beings in just a few hours.

4. Then the moon will start to come closer due to friction, leading to a slowing of the rotational speed of earth, and then eventually stop, and their orbits will change.

5. Eventually, the temperatures will rise due to increasing atmospheric pressure; after some time, the earth with the moon will submerge into the sun.

6. Other effects of this situation will turn gaseous planets like Jupiter and Saturn into bright stars due to air and pressure.

How a PURPLE DYE changed the world

In the year 1800s, purple color was used to be a sign of wealth, richness & being elite. Only people of royal families were the ones who wore purple-coloured clothes, common people were abolished and even punished if they even dared to wear purple-coloured clothes. Queen Elizabeth I passed orders saying that only close members of royal families can wear purple. Hence, there was a huge discrimination between the common families and the royal families.

This was because, at that time purple dye was extracted from sea snails and there was no other natural resource for extraction of purple dye. These sea snails have special glands called hypobranchial glands for production ink and mucous. The shell of these sea snails was broken and these special glands were taken out and oxidized to produced purple. The dye obtained after killing so many sea snails was really less comparatively and the whole process may sound easy but was really exhaustive also, there was an awful smell produced when all these procedures were conducted in real. All these things added up making purple dye an expensive commodity like gold and diamond today.

The second part of this story takes place when in the year 1860s there was a wide spread of malaria in the Britain and to treat malaria quinine was needed. Quinine at that time was only grown in South Africa and the British Government had to spend a lot of their asset to buy and transport quinine from South Africa to Britain. Hence, the British Government passed orders saying that whoever will produce synthetic quinine in Britain will get rewarded. All the scientists at that time started working in laboratories day and night to produce synthetic quinine.

One of the scientists of that time William Henry Perkin who was 19-year-old, was also working in a laboratory doing experiments to produce synthetic quinine, but he was miserably failing and was not getting a futile result.

One fine day, he again tried doing his experiments using crude and aniline and accidently something black in color was formed in the bottom of his test tube. He then tried to wash his test using water but the black substance was not cleaning out he then tried using alcohol. The result changed the history, when he added alcohol to the test tube the product in the test tube turned purple.

William, then realized he can sell his purple color as synthetic purple dye. William’s dye has now become the color of century. The color has opened many frontiers, William has now become one of the richest man of his time, the bridge between the rich and the poor was completely removed, his synthetic dye was the first ever made synthetic dye and was a pioneer for biological discoveries also we cannot ignore the fact how his single experiment saved lives of thousands of snails.

And, that is how a purple dye changed the world.



Iron Dome is an effective, truck-towed, multi-mission mobile air defence system developed by Rafael Advanced Defence Systems. The system has been developed to counter very short-range rockets and 155mm artillery shell threats with ranges of up to 70km. It can be operated in all weather conditions including fog, dust storm, low clouds and rain.

The all-weather air defence system protects the population and critical assets and can be strategically placed to reduce collateral damage. Iron Dome detects, analyses and intercepts a range of incoming threats, including C-RAM, precise guided missiles, cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles and air-breathing threats.

The system has so far intercepted more than 2,500 incoming targets with a success rate of over 90%.

Selected by the Israel Defence Ministry, Iron Dome provides defence against short-range missiles and rockets which pose a threat to the civilian population of Israel’s northern and southern border.

“In July 2010, the US House of Representatives approved $205m in funding to speed up the production and deployment of Iron Dome.”

The system was deployed by the Israeli Air Force (IAF) in March 2011.

In November 2012, Israel installed the fifth Iron Dome battery at Gush Dan in response to the rocket attacks on the Tel Aviv area. The Iron Dome air defence system is being used to intercept and shoot down hundreds of rockets from Gaza as the latest round of escalations between Israel and Palestine in May 2021 engulfed the region. The violent clashes saw Hamas launch a barrage of rockets targeting Tel Aviv in Israel in response to an alleged Israeli airstrike in Gaza. The death toll in the Gaza Strip as a result of the Israeli airstrikes stood at more than 60 people.

I-DOME is a mobile version of the system, which can be deployed on a single truck, while C-DOME is a naval version.

Iron Dome mobile air defence system background and development details

The firing of rockets by Hezbollah during 2006’s Second Lebanon War led to the development of Iron Dome. Nearly 4,000 rockets, mostly of the short-range Katyusha type, were fired on Haifa and other northern regions of Israel.

About 44 Israeli civilians were killed in the attack and approximately 250,000 citizens were evacuated and relocated to other parts of Israel.

Between 2000 and 2008, more than 4,000 mortars and 4,000 rockets (mostly Qassams) were fired from Gaza into southern Israel. As the range of the Qassam has been expanded due to the introduction of 122mm Grad launchers, nearly one million southern Israelis came within the range.

To counter the rocket threats, the Israel Defence Ministry decided in February 2007 to develop a mobile air defence system.

The missile defence system was successfully tested in March 2009. The testing was carried out without physically intercepting a missile or rocket. In July 2009, during a defence ministry test, the system successfully intercepted a number of rockets.

A new battalion was established by the IAF in August 2009 to operate the Iron Dome system. Multiple rocket bombardments mimicking Qassams and Katyushas were intercepted successfully in a test carried out in January 2010.

The final testing of the Iron Dome was undertaken in July 2010. The system successfully determined and intercepted only incoming missile threats, while other missiles which were headed toward open fields were not intercepted.

Raytheon collaborated with Rafael for the commercialisation of the Iron Dome weapon system in the US in August 2011. Raytheon secured a $149m contract from Rafael for the supply of Tamir interceptor components used in the system, in September 2014. It was formed as a new joint venture between Raytheon and Rafael in August 2020 to establish an Iron Dome production facility in the US.


The word coronavirus and the virus itself has been hovering around each one of us since 2020. Its been more than a year and the human race, which is regarded as the owner of the most intelligent brain has been unsuccessful in finding a permanent solution to the ongoing global pandemic situation. But, do you know what is this tiny, invisible organism which has proven “deadly” to the most advanced and the most evolved body system on the earth? Yes, you are right, it’s a ‘virus’! So, today let us initiate a step forward to understand the mechanism of infection of the Covid-19 virus.


As soon as the virus comes in contact with a human cell, the receptors present on the surface of the human cell attach to the virus. ( These Receptors have an affinity towards a specific kind of molecule or a virus). The coronavirus binds to these receptors following the introduction of the viral RNA into the normal human cell. The viral RNA thus undergoes reverse transcription (the process of formation of DNA from RNA) which leads to the incorporation of the viral DNA into the host genome( human cell). The infected human cell undergoes its normal processes and along with its own RNA, it also produces a new viral RNA which finally leads to the further multiplication of the virus which in turn are ready to infect other cells .

This is the complex mechanism of the multiplication of the Covid-19 virus. The virus directly attacks your lung cells and makes the respiratory system completely dysfunctional.

Therefore, it is very crucial to block the entry of the virus itself using masks and avoiding touch of infected surfaces. Remember, the number of people getting infected or the number of deaths are not just numbers, they are the families who spend each minute of their lives in tears with burning hearts. Save yourself, save your family.


Science is the systematic study of observations in order to acquire knowledge and forming empirical methods about the physical and biological world. Earlier in pre-scientific times, people were more likely to believe in magical and supernatural explanations for natural phenomena like eclipses, earthquakes, thunderstorms, etc. By contrast, scientifically minded people looked out for reasons to figure out the natural world through testing and observation. But Skeptics often question, why science can’t explain all the natural phenomena happening around the world? But, we need to keep it in mind that science is not magic, it couldn’t solve humanity’s problems but sure is the most powerful method for acquiring knowledge about the observable universe. Some of the essential elements of science are-

  • Systematic observation- Scientists observe, record, and measure the data systematically. Recording the data is necessary so that our memory biases are not able to creep in.
  • Observations lead to hypothesis- Hypothesis and theories are such to be stated that they could be tested. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary pieces of evidence.
  • Democratic- Nowadays science has gone democratic, earlier people were willing to accept the views of their kings, pharaohs, or priests. But itis not so, nowadays it doesn’t matter how reputable one is if their theories do not conform to the data, it is invalid. Earlier scientists like Copernicus, Galileo faced discrimination, because of the autocracy of the priests of the church.
  • Cumulative- Science is cumulative. Today a physics student or chemistry would know more than Newton, Rutherford could ever know, despite being eminent scientists of their time. This is so because we learn from earlier advances, so as to build on them and move farther along the path of knowledge.
  • Relevant- It is related to reality rather than floating in space. 
  • Consistent- Science is consistent. It has consequences, answers relevant questions, and pursues promising leads.

There are many people who have made substantial positive contributions to humanity in modern times. Exempli Gratia, Dr. Edward Jenner, often considered the father of immunology since he was first to conceive of and test vaccines. His pioneering work led directly to the eradication of smallpox. Fritz Haber and Norman Borlaug created The Green revolution by producing hybrid agricultural crops and synthetic fertilizers due to which we are able to meet the needs of seven billion people on people. The starvation caused is due to the political and economic factors rather our collective ability to produce food. Earlier there were fewer cars, telephones, refrigeration or electricity but now tables have just turned. 80% of the population has televisions, 84% have access to electricity all thanks to the scientific community and their inventions. Average life expectancy has substantially increased from 47 years in the 90s to 75+ years in the contemporary world. Even average IQ has also been increased due to better schooling and nutrition. All these advances are going to continue, there would be no saturation in the foreseeable future. In a civilized society democracy is prevalent in every field, be it science or any other. Therefore people should be able to take criticism and not be ignorant and contribute most to the society rather than blindly following rituals that have been there for ages.

It won’t be tangible to talk about all the feats of science in such a short space and time. Science is vast than we could imagine, therefore we should introspect into our lives and look for ways in which we can contribute to it.

After Beirut, alert out for ammonium nitrate, TN stockpile on radar

A 740-tonne consignment of ammonium nitrate lying at a Chennai port Customs warehouse since September 2015 has set alarm bells ringing after Tuesday’s catastrophic Beirut blast. An estimated 2,750-tonne stockpile of ammonium nitrate, stored reportedly for six years in a port warehouse, blew up killing over 100, injured over 5,000 and ravaged the Lebanese capital city.

Referring to this blast in a note, the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) has “urgently directed” Customs and its field formations to “immediately verify and confirm within 48 hours that any hazardous and explosive material lying in warehouses and ports across the country meets all safety and fire standards and presents no danger to life and property.” After the Beirut blast, the Chennai stockpile, sources said, was the red flag for the alert. A senior Customs official said that “ways to shift out the ammonium nitrate at the earliest” are being explored.

“There’s some difficulty in taking action keeping safety regulations in mind. We are going through details. The e-auction will be conducted as per law…like for any other confiscated or seized goods or goods which are lying for a long time,” the official told The Indian Express.

The stockpile at Chennai port relates to a case involving the seizure of an import consignment of Karur-based Sri Amman Chemicals five years ago. The company had, in September 2015, filed for Customs clearance for the chemical packed in 37 containers, with the declared assessable value of Rs 1.80 crore claiming for use as fertiliser inputs.

The company claimed it had the required licence for the import while Customs authorities alleged misclassification and resultant evasion of duty after which the Madras High Court, in November 2019, ruled in favour of Customs authorities.

Result: the ammonium nitrate consignment continues to be stocked with Customs.

In a tweet Thursday PMK leader S .Ramadoss flagged this: “There is a risk of a similar explosion due to ammonium nitrate in the Chennai warehouse. To prevent this, the ammonium nitrate explosive substance in the warehouse should be safely disposed of and used for other purposes such as composting.”

In a statement Thursday evening, Chennai Customs said that the seized cargo is at a container freight station at Manali, 20 km from the city with no residential locality within 2 km. “The seized cargo is securely stored and safety of the cargo and the public is ensured considering the hazardous nature of the cargo…the disposal of the said cargo will be done within a short period, following all safety measures,” it said.

The Central government had, in July 2011, declared ammonium nitrate as an explosive under the Explosive Act, 1884, after which the CBIC issued Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012, for its import/export.


Import of ammonium nitrate — or any combination containing more than 45 per cent of ammonium nitrate by weight — including emulsions, suspensions, melts or gels (with or without inorganic nitrates), and classified under Explosives Act, 1884, is subject to license from Chief Controller of Explosives.

In the Chennai case, Customs said the company had just a P-3 licence for possession and sale of 1000 tonnes of the chemical but not the P-5 licence it needed for its import. Customs authorities also alleged that some actual users/firms to whom Sri Amman Chemicals sold ammonium nitrate were explosive dealers.

Queries e-mailed to Sri Amman Chemicals did not elicit a response.

In its petition in the Madras High Court, the company said that it had applied to the Chief Controller of Explosives, Petroleum & Explosives Safety Organisation (PESO) for a P3 licence which it got in December 2014.

It applied to PESO for a P5 licence in August 5, 2015. The company claimed that PESO, without putting it on notice or hearing its view, passed an order on August 19, 2015 rejecting its application but by then, the 740 metric tonnes of ammonium nitrate had already arrived at Chennai.

In its order, the court referred to explosions in various parts of the country in which ammonium nitrate was a common ingredient. It noted that as per the police, over four years since 2013, nearly 16,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate went missing. The Court ruled that accumulating smaller quantities of ammonium nitrate would result in gathering larger quantities in the hands of “unknown and unidentifiable” persons and such trade would not be in interest of national security, adding that the authorities rightly rejected the claim of the company for a P5 licence.

Ammonium Nitrate is not an explosive by itself but is one of the ingredients used for manufacture of explosives. It is classified as an oxidizer as per UN classification for Dangerous Goods. Other ingredients like fuel, etc., have to be added to make it an explosive and for such explosive mixtures to explode, initiators like detonators are required.


Cyclonic storm is caused by atmospheric disturbances around a low-pressure area and is usually accompanied by violent storms and severe weather conditions. Cyclone is derived from the greek word cyclos – coiling of snake. Tropical Cyclone is a deep low pressure area from around the center the strong winds, spirals and pick up the speeds of 62 kmph or more. In Northern hemisphere these winds rotate counter clock wise and in Southern hemisphere clockwise. The tropical cyclones that are intense are known as huricanes Over the Atlantic Ocean and typhoons over the pacific ocean. They are know by different names for example dust devils, supercell thunderstorm, tomadoes, tropical cyclones, extra tropical cyclones etc. On the basis of the speed of the wind cyclones are classified into 5 different categories.

According to the category of the cyclone the wind speed varies that is from 60 km an hour to about 220 kmph and above. When the speed of the wind around the low pressure area reach upto 60 kmph it is known as tropical cyclone and the name is assigned. When wind speed settles between 89 and 118 kmph, it turns into a severe Cyclonic storm. When wind blows at a speed of about 119 to 221 kmph then it is known as very severe Cyclonic storm and when the speed of the wind exceeds 221kmph then the cyclone is known as supercyclonic storm. The word meteorological organization (WMO) has a well defined process to select the name of each cyclone.

A cyclone named fani is a massive Cyclonic formation over the south of bay of Bengal which made landfall in odisha.

Cyclone like ookhi hit parts of kerala, tamil nadu, sri lanka, and maldives at 185kmph with total fatalities of 245 in kerala that time around 80 fisherman were killed and 140 people were reported missing. In 2018 cyclone gaja also made landfall in Nagapattinam ‘s vedaranyam block and killed around 46 people. In 2019 vayu in the Arabian Sea.

The polar vortex is a large area of low pressure and cold air surrounding the Earth’s North and South poles in each Hemisphere. The term refers to the counter clockwise flow of air that helps the colder air close to the poles. Often during winter in the Northern hemisphere the polar vortex will become less stable and expand senting cold artic air southward over the East of US with the jet stream. One exist in the troposphere where we live and where the weather happens. The other exists in the second lowest, called the stratosphere, which is a shroud of thin air that gets warmer at higher altitudes. The tropospheric polar vortex is the one that affects our weather with piercing shots of cold, intense bouts of storminous and bitter wind chills reaching upto 80°Celsius.


The International Union Crystallography (IUCr) and UNESCO has jointly organized 2014 as International year of crystallography. With this they aim to promote education and public awareness through a variety of activities and to broaden the base of crystallography, in order to provide developing countries with more expertise in this field which can be made use in their scientific and industrial development.

Crystals are all around us. Most of the time, we do not even realize all the crystals we see in our day to day life. Now, let’s see they are. Crystals are solids that are formed by a regular repeated pattern of molecules connecting together. Throughout history, people have been fascinated by the beauty and mystery of crystals. Sugar grains, ice, salt, gemstones, graphite etc are crystals that we see around us. Diamond is one of the simplest and most symmetrical of crystal structures.

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY is the science that examines the arrangement of atoms and solids in a crystal. Crystallography supports the development of all new materials, from every day products like computer memory cards to flat television screens, cars, aeroplane components and liquid crystal display devices. In fact crystallography has many applications. It touches our everyday life and forms the backbone of industries including agro-food, aeronautic, automobile, beauty care, computer, electro-mechanical, pharmaceutical, and mining industries.

In the 20th century it was realized that X-rays could be used to see the structure of matter. This marks the dawn of modern crystallography. X-ray crystallography has been the main method of determining the atomic structure of minerals and metals since 1920.Everything we know about rocks, geological formations, the history of earth, knowledge of meteorites comes is based on crystallography. Drug design depends on the use of crystallography. Knowing the precise shape of the protein allows the scientists to design drug compounds that can stick in to the active sites on the protein and thereby disable the harmful activity. Crystallography is essential at the stage of drug manufacture. It is used in the quality control of the processed drug during mass production, to ensure that strict health and safety guidelines are met.

Non Conventional Careers-Science Stream

Medical and Engineering are most sought after courses after 12th Science in India.Parents and the society are the major contributors to this mentality in our country. Thousands of students flock examination centers to write prestigious NEET/JEE irrespective of whether they are interested or not.

Does this mean these are the only options available to students choosing the Science Stream?The Answer is NO.In Today’s advanced world there are plethora of career and course options for students to pursue and achieve success.In this blog we look at some of the prominent and promising non conventional career options in science stream.Lets get started!


Psychologists study the complex ways that people think, behave, feel, communicate, and perceive the world around them. Some psychologists focus on clinical work with patients, while others devote themselves to researching the nuances of psychological behavior; in any case, psychology is a vast discipline, with numerous career options to choose from. Students who complete graduate-level psychology degrees have great job opportunities. An MSc degree may lead to jobs as research and clinical assistants, while a doctorate is a necessity for those who wants to work with patients in a clinical setting and also to move into a research or an academic position. Many degree programs allow students to focus on a specialty area, including child development, abnormal psychology, counseling, social psychology, and cognition.The opportunities in research under this field are limitless.Psychology is a hot subject in developed nations like The United States and The United Kingdom where this course is sought after and valued.


Forensic science is the application of scientific knowledge and methodology to criminal investigations and legal problems. Forensic Science is a multidisciplinary subject, it encompasses various fields of science such as chemistry, biology, physics, geology, psychology, social science, engineering, etc.Forensic science is used every around the world to protect public and society, to enforce criminal laws and regulations and to resolve civil problems.Various universities in India offer certificate, bachelor and master courses in Forensic Science. After the master degree is successfully completed , then the student can even go for a Doctoral Degree course in Forensic Sciences.Jobs are offered in government as well as private sectors.

3)Agricultural SCIENCES

Agriculture as a field is not just about the traditional aspects related to farming and irrigation. The focus is now shifted to various other dimensions like Horticulture, Poultry Farming, Pisciculture, Dairy Farming, Agricultural Biotechnology,Agronomy etc. Agriculture is also being commercialized as proper attention is being paid to the marketing, distribution, and packaging of its output. It’s possible to pursue a postgraduate degree programme in agriculture related subject which will broaden the scope such as specializing in agronomy, soil sciences, horticulture, plant breeding and genetics, entomology, plant pathology, animal sciences, plant biochemistry, agriculture economics, biotechnology etc. Masters in various above listed Agriculture programs is a 2-year course.This course can be taken up by a candidate who holds a BSc degree in agriculture/ horticulture/ forestry from a recognized university with some qualifying marks.Job opportunities are available both in Government as well as Private Sectors.

4)Aviation industry

The aviation sector is one of the most attractive and best-paid sectors in the economy. In India, The civil aviation industry is a larges domestic market in the economy.The commercial pilot is one the most glamorous and most rewarding job in the Aviation industry. Apart from the theoretical knowledge, a candidate must have practical knowledge to become a commercial pilot. A Commercial pilot must train to get a Commercial Pilot license in order to secure a job in the aviation sector. A commercial pilot or Ferry Pilot will have many chances of getting placed in both Governments and Private Airlines & chattered flights.The interested candidate must be fluent in English,medically fit and must have learnt Maths and Physics in High School.

5)Visual communication

Visual Communication is a combination of illustration and graphic design from a marketing perspective with great emphasis on screen-based workmanship.It involves digital marketing and business identity design , logos, animation, photography, web design, illustration, packaging design, art direction, and most degrees will also have a theory dissertation. It contains all the information to help one become a Graphic Designer, with a scope that allows to to specialize with more flexibility than a degree in design.In short, visual communication is an amazing field with unlimited growth potential. They get hefty pay.Further, with experience, your earnings are bound to increase.

These are just a few options listed from a sea of options.The aim of this blog is to make readers aware that the bucks do not stop at Engineering or Medicine.There are umpty number of career options to choose from and succeed.Everyone can not find happiness within the conventional options imposed by the society.Times are changing and so should our mentality.Students should be encouraged to follow their passion and pursue courses they want.Sky is the limit!

Do like the blog,if you all found it to be useful!


Stay Happy~

NASA’s Perseverance Rover Launched on Ambitious Mission to Mars

NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover lifts off from Cape Canaveral on july 30,2020.Also the rocket provided by United Launch Alliance is the technology experiment Ingenuity Mars Helicopter

Perseverance is a Mars rover manufactured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for use in NASA‘s Mars 2020 mission. Nearly identical in design to the Curiosity rover, Perseverance will carry seven scientific instruments to study the Martian surface at Jezero crater, 23 cameras in total, and two microphones. The rover will also be accompanied by the helicopter Ingenuity, which will help Perseverance to scout for locations to study.

ON THURSDAY MORNING, NASA launched its new Mars rover, Perseverance, on a six-month journey to the Red Planet. The car-sized rover was boosted into space atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket that departed from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. It’s the third and final Mars mission to depart Earth this summer; earlier in July, China and the United Arab Emirates also launched their first Martian explorers.

Perseverance will enter the tenuous Martian atmosphere going more than 10,000 miles per hour, which means that as it slices through the air it will experience temperatures of nearly 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit. “The heat shield really takes the brunt of hitting the atmosphere,” says Tice of the lander’s protective structure. But if it works as it’s supposed to, inside its protective casing the rover and its sensitive equipment will never experience temperatures much warmer than a hot summer day in the desert. This is because the ablative heat shield dissipates heat as its layers are burned off.

If there was ever life on Mars, these samples may very well prove it. It would be a monumental discovery that would fundamentally change our understanding of life as we know it—and it all starts today.

Rafael aircraft coming to India from France

The Dassault Rafale is a French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Equipped with a wide range of weapons, the Rafale is intended to perform air supremacy, interdiction, aerial reconnaissance, ground support, in-depth strike, anti-ship strike, and nuclear deterrence missions. Many of the aircraft’s avionics and features, such as direct voice input, the RBE2 AA active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, were domestically developed and produced for the Rafale program. Originally scheduled to enter service in 1996, the Rafale suffered significant delays due to post-Cold War budget cuts and changes in priorities. The aircraft is available in three main variants: Rafale C single-seat land-based version, Rafale B twin-seat land-based version, and Rafale M single-seat carrier-based version.


The Rafale is being produced for both the French Air Force and for carrier-based operations in the French Navy. The Rafale has been marketed for export to several countries and was selected for purchase by the Indian Air Force, the Egyptian Air Force, and the Qatar Air Force.  Due to its great capabilities, the first batch of 5 raflaes arrives in India in two days.

On the one hand, when there are neighbors like China and on the other hand, when there are neighboring countries like Pakistan, India needs to work on both its army and the Indian Air Force. In such a situation, 5 Rafale aircraft was given to the Indian Army yesterday. These Rafale aircraft flew from France yesterday and reached the UAE airbase Al Dhafra today. Here their maintenance and refueling work will be done. After this, these fighter aircraft will fly and arrive at Ambala Air Force Base tomorrow. With this aircraft joining the Indian Air Force, the morale of the Indian Army will be greatly elevated. However, the condition of the Airforce is not good right now because there is a shortage of squadron. This thing has been told in many reports. But with Rafael joining the Indian Army, it can play a decisive role in winning a war.


“You can call them (Rafale) both beauty and the beast,” said Indian Ambassador to France Jawed Ashraf after interacting with the IAF pilots at the airbase before they set off for India. “Delivery of 10 aircraft has been completed on schedule. Five will stay back in France for a training mission. The delivery of all 36 aircraft will be completed on schedule by the end of 2021,” the Indian embassy in Paris said in a statement. India and France signed a Euro 7.87-billion ( 59,000 crores approximately) deal on September 23, 2016, for 36 Rafale jets. The IAF official said the air-to-air refueling of the aircraft will be undertaken with dedicated tanker support from the French Air Force. “Our air force pilots tell us that these are extremely swift, nimble, versatile, and very deadly aircraft,” said Ashraf while congratulating the IAF pilots on becoming the first ones to fly one of the world’s most advanced fighter aircraft. The envoy thanked Dassault Aviation, the manufacturer of the aircraft, for delivering the fleet on time, the French government and the French Air Force for extending all required support.

Lockdowns And Decreased Seismic Noise

Scientists from the Royal Observatory of Belgium in Brussels recently shared an observation that after lockdowns were imposed by governments all over the world due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a remarkable decline in human-linked vibrations within the crust of the Earth. And the scientists in Brussels, with the help of other scientists around the world, have published a new study in the journal “SCIENCE“, which shows how the ‘Seismic Noise’ has reduced, allowing them to observe and record previously concealed earthquakes better.

Courtesy- Stephen Hicks @seismo_steve

Measured using seismometers, seismic waves are the vibrations traveling within the Earth that could be set off by earthquakes or volcanoes. The waves could be subject to the disturbance caused due to human activities or naturally. In the study, it is found that the reduced human activity led to an average drop of around 50% human-caused seismic noise, which was recorded between March 2020 to May 2020. The drops in the seismic noise, especially in the urban areas, are unprecedented and are observed to be more than what is considered usual quiet periods like weekends, holidays, or during the night.

The scientists have termed this time of global anthropogenic or human-based seismic noise deduction as ‘Anthropause’. This anthropause can help the scientists get a more accurate measure of the seismic waves and to differentiate between human and natural seismic noise clearly.

Lead author of the study, Dr. Thomas Lecocq from the Royal Observatory of Belgium explains, “With increasing urbanization and growing global populations, more people will be living in geologically hazardous areas. It will, therefore, become more important than ever to differentiate between natural and human-caused noise so that we can ‘listen in’ and better monitor the ground movements beneath our feet.”

The scientists and researchers are hoping to move forward with their study of seismic lockdown and the previously hidden indications of earthquakes and volcanoes would be easier to be recognized and there will be a better understanding of the natural seismic waves.


Before the arrival of motorized transport horse drawn traffic was the main stay of all major cities. In Newyork alone there were more than 100000 horses which produced more than a million kilo of horse manure which had no system for disposal. Millions of flies bred on this manure creating yet another urban public health issue. The problem was faced by cities after cities around the world. But there was no solution.

Urban solid waste management remains a challenge around the world even now. Cities big and small, from countries developed and developing face major challenges in dealing with waste management.

Anything which is solid and is considered by its owner to be not worthy of continued use become a solid waste. The composition of the solid waste varies vastly depending upon the economic situation of a society while used automobiles and white goods are a major component of urban solid waste in developed countries. The culture of repair, reuse, and recycling in developing countries ensures that these do not end up in the waste piles.

Solid waste can be classified into seven

1.Household solid waste

2.Agricultural solid waste

3.Industrial solid waste

4.Waste from ships and Aircrafts

5.Hospital waste

6.Demolition of debris

7.Waste created by conflicts and disasters

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)hazardous waste is waste that is dangerous to our health or the environment. The following waste are often considered hazardous.

1.Industrial chemicals


3.Waste from oil Industry

4.Batteries and fluorescent lamps

5.Medical waste

6.Radioactive waste

7.Discarded pharmaceutical products

8.Discarded asbestos

9.Mixed Waste

In the last century Reduction, Reuse and Recycle (3R approach) reached significance. There are some global issues in waste management that is Trans boundary movement of waste, Technology transfer for waste management and disappearing land fills and it goes on……..

AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine

The initial trial data for the COVID-19 vaccine that has been developed in a joint collaboration between Oxford University and AstraZeneca. The data has been widely awaited as the world looks forward to some good news on the front of a vaccine that could shield people from the deadly coronavirus outbreak that has already infected over 14 million people worldwide and killed over 6 lakh.

The potential vaccine is already in large-scale Phase III human trials to assess whether it can protect against COVID-19, but its developers have yet to report Phase I results which would show whether it is safe and whether or not it induces an immune response. The developers of the vaccine said this month they were encouraged by the immune response they had seen in trials so far and were expecting to publish Phase 1 data by the end of July.


How does the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine candidate work?

When someone is infected with the Covid-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2), the reason it spreads in the body easily is because of the spikes on its surface. These spikes, known as the ‘spike protein’, allow the virus to penetrate cells and, thereafter, multiply. The vaccine developed by Oxford and AstraZeneca, which belongs to a category called non-replicating viral vector vaccines, tries to build the body’s immunity against this spike protein. The idea is to create antibodies to fight this spiked surface so that the virus does not even have the chance to penetrate the cells. The vaccine uses a different virus — in this case, a weakened version of a common cold virus (adenovirus) that infects chimpanzees — to carry just the code to make the spike protein, like a Trojan horse. The adenovirus, genetically modified so that it cannot replicate in humans, will enter the cell and release the code to make only the spike protein. The body’s immune system is expected to recognize the spike protein as a potentially harmful foreign substance and starts building antibodies against it. Once immunity is built, the antibodies will attack the real virus if it tries to infect the body.


Since the Covid-19 vaccine has been developed by a United Kingdom-funded university, UK will have intellectual property rights. Other countries such as India will need to enter into commercial deals or understanding via foundations such as Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) and Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI). AstraZeneca also entered a deal with the Pune-based Serum Institute of India to supply one billion doses for low-and-middle-Income countries, with the first 400 million nicely before the end of 2020. It is not yet clear how many doses India will be able to land at first since the rollout of the vaccine will be subject to considerations that are commercial as well as that of equity. The World Health Organization’s chief scientist has described the Oxford vaccine as the leading candidate in a global race to halt the coronavirus pandemic that has killed more than 600,000 people. More than 100 vaccines are being developed and tested around the world to try to stop the coronavirus pandemic, which has killed more than 600,000 people and ravaged the global economy.


As we know that science & technology have filled our life with too many wonders…this has made our life so easy & fast…..from bullock cart to aeroplane….from postman to message….it has changed everything….. but as we know that every coin has two sides….
Science & technology have so many disadvantages also either it is related to health,privacy & security,emotional disturbance or it is related to nature..

according to the America’s optometric association the more use of computer, laptop, phone is the cause of eye strain and dry eye.

According to national cancer institute over use of phone can be the result of brain cancer.
2.4% of deaths are caused by using phone during driving…

from the negative impact of science & technology children and teen s are affected very badly….according to the times of India a 16 year old boy get suffered by cardiac arrest while playing PUBG…from so many previous newses we get to know that don’t know how many children get affected by THE BLUE WHALE GAME …because of this don’t know how many children committed suicide and don’t know how many children got depressed….

when the tech was launch in to the market then who thought that which type of days it will going to see us …..let’s take a real life example…EK TIME THA JAB BACCHE APNA HOME WORK GURU KI MADAD SE POORA KARTE THE OR AB BACCHE GURU KI MADAD SE NAHI GOOGLE KI MADAD SE APNA HOME WORK KRTE HAIN………because of this their thinking power is going to be less and they are not using their mind fully to do any task!!!!!

There was a time when people used to say that BOOKS ARE OUR REAL FRIEND… but in today’s scenario people say that PHONE IS OUR REAL FRIEND…..
Science & technology even though has decreased the geographical distance but it has increase the distance of people’s heart’s…..and its example is SOCIAL MEDIA…..which provides us the facility to connect with every one wither we know them or not…we meet our new friends or old friends everyday on this platform…we also get connect here with our relatives….but this platform also interrupts in our personal life….according to research those persons who use social media a lot they feel more isolated in the society… here we can say that APNO SE JUDNE KI WAJAH SE APNO SE HI DOOR HOTE JA RAHE HAIN……

science & technology not only affected the beauty of relations it has also ruined the NATURE’S BEAUTY….just think who had thought hat we have to BUY OXYGEN ONE DAY…’s living example is our country’s capital DELHI…..there is a oxybar named as OXYPURE.. the high use of tech not only affect the humans it is also harmful for the animals , plants , birds and for every thing in this world …..climate change is also the result of over use of technology. Because of science & technology our privacy is also get affected….there are some apps who requires the accessibility of our location, identity, contacts, messages……with the help of this they can misuse the data also and they are doing this we can see this in today’ situation….there are some people who shared just everything on social media an this can be cause of trouble for them….as we have seen that rates cyber crime and theft of data are increasing day by day….and which can be very harmful for the future….there are some words of poet about tech…

In reality if science & tech have given the eyes to a blind person then it is the science who made the person blind by the blue strain light (which comes from phone)…..if the science & technology have given the legs to a handicapped then it is the science who made the the person handicapped who drives during calls..if science & technology have given the power of hear to a deaf…then it is the science who made a person deaf with highly use of reality science & technology is not a good or bad thong…it depends on us…it depends on it’s user’s intentions…the tech was invented to make the human life easier we invented it to make complete our tasks fast..we invented it to use it as a servant but in today’s scenario…..WE HAVE BECOME THE SERVANT OF THIS….so from now TREAT THE TECHNOLOGY AS A SERVANT OF YOURS NOT AS YOUR BOSS ……

The right use of science & technology and in the right direction can make the earn heaven and with the over and wrong use of it can make the earth hell….

over use of anything is always dangerous here are some lines of a poet



BLUIS (Bhubaneswar Land Use Intelligence System)

The Bhubaneswar Land Use Intelligence System is a geo-tagged repository that would monitor and detect all government lands in Bhubaneswar. This will be done by using high-resolution satellite imagery. For safeguarding government lands from encroachments by land grabbers- the launch of BLUIS makes Odisha the first state in the country to use satellite technology and artificial intelligence. Any attempt to change the use of government land in Bhubaneswar, BLUIS will raise alarm and guide the enforcement staff to the exact location of encroachment. ‘BLUIS’ and ‘Litigation Management System’ are among the 8 Technology-driven Solutions that were launched under the 5T initiatives by the Chief Minister.


Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik on 8 July 2020 unveiled BLUIS which would monitor changes in all government lands in Bhubaneswar by leveraging high-resolution satellite imagery. Along with that, he launched 8 technology-driven solutions under 5T initiatives for Home and GA & PG Departments through video conferencing. Along with BLUIS, the chief minister launched applications like e-Pravesh, e-Bhawan, e-Atithi, HRMS 2.0, HRMS mobile app, LMS 2.0, ORTPSA to improve public services. The 5T Initiative (Technology, Transparency, Teamwork, and Time Leading to Transformation) model of governance, launched in August 2019, requires each department of the State Government to draw up an annual work-plan for faster, better public service delivery systems leading to achieve transformational goals. Launching the services, Patnaik said that the 5T model of governance along with Mo Sarkar has brought about a perceptible improvement in the quality of governance and has eased the delivery of public services.

Encroachment of government land in the capital city of Bhubaneswar will no more be easy for land grabbers as the Bhubaneswar Land Use Intelligence System (BLUIS), a web and mobile-based solution, launched by Odisha government would raise alarm over attempts to change the land use. According to the government, BLUIS is a geo-tagged repository of all the government lands in Bhubaneswar, created through high-resolution satellite imagery to detect all changes taking place on government lands.

Odisha becomes the first state in India to use high-resolution satellite imagery utilizing space technology and artificial intelligence to monitor government lands. The lack of transparency and accountability of the enforcement in the current mechanisms and the increasing encroachment of government lands in Bhubaneswar resulted in the development of BLUIS.


“Bhubaneswar is one of the fastest-growing cities in India witnessing land-use changes on a daily basis. In the process, precious public land is prone to encroachment. The present mechanism of detection and enforcement lacks adequate transparency and accountability,” a senior officer said emphasizing real-time monitoring. A mobile application would alert the enforcement authorities of any new construction on government lands. The GPS on the application guides the enforcement staff to the exact location. Evidence of enforcement is uploaded on the application as geo-tagged images and videos,” he said. As per follow-up action, a case will be filed for removing encroachment. The Litigation Management System, an online application to record information on legal cases and enable end-to-end communication between government officials and advocates during different stages of a case, was also launched. It provides a smart technology solution to monitor court cases from initiation, online appointment scheduling, and allotment of the case to government advocate for preparation and submission of counter-affidavit.

Science and God

“Science” and “God”, the two words which are often seen as separate entities. These words seem conflicting to most of us and are often a topic of debate. Science seems to question the existence of God and believers of God often question why we are unable to explain the entire universe completely by science to date, a question on the success of science. We can often come across debates on televisions, radio, magazines, etc where people try to prove one as superior over the other. But, are they really two different things? Are they conflicting terms? Or are they same?


A deeper thought over it can clear our confusion. If we deep dig, we find that indeed both are the same. We really don’t need to choose between them. Science and God, are superior powers. The differences arise when we start associating God with some particular religion and Science with the only education. In reality, science is the process of thinking God’s thought after him. “An equation is really nothing unless it expresses a thought of God”, according to Ramanujan. They both actually merge at the spiritual level.

When we talk of science, it is the theories, the fundamental laws that very well explains the nature around us. It offers an explanation of all the natural phenomena in a very beautiful way and at a very basic level. It helped us understand how to converse in the language of nature, i.e in mathematics. It gives human power. The more we as humans understand science, the more powerful we become. Visit the days when humans started to understand science to get to know about the secrets of nature, the things they imagined then are now a reality. The gadgets they considered as their dreams are now in our hands. The technology we imagine today will also become a reality pretty soon. Science gave a power to humans to achieve the impossible.


God, on the other hand, is another superiority. There has been no proper evidence of someone seeing a God. We have not seen God, but we all believe in a “power” that is superior to all of us and many refer to this superior power as “God”. God gives humans the strength and power by making us understand the language of love and humanity. Spirituality is the heart of a human being and through God, we reach here. God helps us understand our potential and make us believe in our strengths. It changes our perception and makes the world a very beautiful and peaceful place for us. The world is incomplete without God.


We can thus conclude,  that both Science and God are a source of immense power to human beings and both are tied together. Both speak the same language. The more faith we develop in God, the more we get close to science, the more we understand science, our belief in the existence of God becomes stronger. Louis Pasteur rightly said that “a bit of science can distance us from God, but more of it nears one to him”, and that is for sure. Diving deep into them will give us immense power and peace.


It is generally said that we remember many of our misfortunes and on very few occasions only do we remember our joys. The recollection of the past normally appears to be sweet. Very often what gives one unhappiness at the moment it happens, may appear in a different light when thought of at a later date. It so happens that some feel that their past had been happy, in spite of many unfortunate or sorrowful incidents, or, disappointments. Similarly, others may feel that their past was not worth remembering so full of misfortunes it had been. In the same manner, such opinion ‘s may be held about our childhood.

A person may not like to remember his childhood days because they might have contained misfortunes or unpleasant experiences. At the beginning of life, a child is at the mercy of its parents. The child does not have any freedom of action or speech. Under the pretext that the child is prone to do mischief, others put it down and command implicit obedience from it. Sometimes, the child becomes the butt end of ridicule or punishment of even servants. When the child attains school – going age, he is under the control of teachers. In most of our schools children in the lower classes are expected to observe absolute silence. This breeds in them an inferiority or fear-complex. It is not generally understood by teachers in the lower classes that children should be given much freedom only retraining for themselves the privilege of controlling the children who might be wayward or mischievous, or when they tend to go beyond the limit of right conduct.

When such is the experiences of childhood, many persons may not like to think back upon those days. The bitterness felt in childhood is best be forgotten, they feel. It would be an unwelcome or bitter thing to bring back into the mind, the memory of unpleasant incidents or experiences and allow them to spoil the happiness of later life. In a country like India,where poverty ignorance and illiteracy dominate daily life, a child in the lower strata of life has to experience much misery. Each day of existence is one round of journey through hell. To add to these difficulties, if the surroundings and family circumstances are uncongenial, the child’s life may be absolutely intolerable and miserable. This child may in course of time be successful in life through a change of fortune or by dint of honest efforts at improvement, thus revealing a forceful character such cases, the person concerned may not like to remember childhood days. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi suffered a lot during his childhood days but now he became an inspirational character in History.

However, it cannot be said that childhood days are always bitter and to be forgotten in later life. There are children born with a silver spoon in their mouth. In a family, where discipline is given foremost importance or in a family in which children are brought up with strictness tempered with mercy and kindness, the child may have happy experiences. It may be treated with kindness and understanding and may get all advantages of good breeding and training. The memory of such a childhood would be sweet to one who rises to an eminent position or is reasonably happy later on in life. It may also so happen that one who had several advantages in early life turns out to be bad or goes astray as one grows up. This may be because such a person growing up with several advantages might not be aware of the pitfalls of life. Such people also might not like to think of their childhood.

Life however is not of one uniform quality. It is neither wholly happy nor wholly unhappy. It is a mixture of the good and the bad, virtue and vice, it has its rosy side as well as the seamy side. In the life of an individual childhood consists of both these aspects and therefore, the memory of childhood may not be entirely bitter or sweet. The natural tendency of human beings in such cases is to think more of sorrow than of the joys experienced. Sorrows and miseries and misfortunes leave an indelible mark on the humankind. When one looks at one’s life in retrospect, only these experiences come first to the mind. Joyful experiences find only a secondary place though at the time they happen, they afford pleasure and satisfaction.

A successful novelist like Charles Dickens gave greater importance to the sorrowful and more unfortunate aspects of life than to the good fortunes enjoyed by some of the characters in his novels like ‘David Copperfield’ and ‘Oliver Twist’. The life of these two characters might be said to be almost reflections of the novelist ‘s life or the mirror of the miserable life of society of the times. Very rarely do people remember the joys of the earlier period. It is such an idea that Shelley speaks of the lines, “Our sweetest songs are those that tell of the Saddest thoughts” – words full of wisdom and experience.


Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) are public research institutes of India. These are the premier institutes of India. The institutes were established by the Government of India through the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) to provide quality college education in basic sciences coupled with a taste research at the undergraduate level itself. The institutes were formally established by the Parliament of India through the National Institutes of Technology, Science Education and Research (Amendment) Act, 2010 (an amendment to the National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007). Seven IISERs have been established across the country, namely IISER Kolkata in West Bengal, IISER Pune in Maharashtra, IISER Mohali in Punjab, IISER Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh, IISER Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala, IISER Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh, and IISER Berhampur in Odisha. The basic idea behind establishment of IISERs was to promote research-oriented training and to promote basic sciences. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar has already been established to promote natural sciences but were not enough for a large country like India with enormous number of students having the potential to go ahead with research. All IISERs were declared as Institutes of National Importance by the Parliament of India in 2012, to promote them as leading institutions in the country in the field of basic sciences along with its sister institutes mentioned above.


The main degree provided by IISERs are BS-MS in any natural science stream. Since the institutes are new in India and so is the degree provided by them, many people in India, even the educated ones are not aware of what does this degree means and often mix it with BSc and Msc. The degree has already been offered in foreign countries like US, Germany, etc but was introduced in India after establishment of IISERs. BS-MS (Bachelor of Science – Master of Science) is a five year dual degree program. The program focuses to train students to pursue a career in academia, R&D institutes and science based industries. They are introduced with the idea of how to carry with the research and build up a career. The motivation is the reason why IISERs are equipped with world-class lab facilities and highly exceptional researches are carried out in these labs.


Besides the BS-MS in natural sciences, as the institute is growing and establishing new departments, some of the IISERs are offering only BS (4 years )as well, not only in natural science stream but in engineering sciences and economics as well. IISER Bhopal is the one offering BS in Engineering Sciences (Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineerning) and BS in economics. IISERs are said to be on the same level for research as IITs are for engineering. Now, recently, IITs have also started offering BS-MS degrees. IISERs provide a great opportunity for young, innovative and bright minds to excel in science and research. IISERs have collaborated with many foreign universities, research institutes and industries and is rapidly gaining recognition due to the work done by its student members and faculty members. The institute is expected to excel exponentially and become a very great opportunity to students.


India has a long history behind it, though as an independent nation it is still a rich. India is rich in almost every aspect of human activity. This richness is not of the recent past but dates back to thousands of years. We, living today, are heirs to a rich, healthy heritage which is the envy and admiration of the rest of the world. Our culture is one of the best and oldest. The nations which are highly developed and which hold an important place today in the comity of nations, were little known at a time when the glory of India was widespread. Many things have contributed to the proud heritage that has been handed over to us by our forefathers.

Evidence of our heritage and culture can be got from the excavations made in Harappa and Mohenjodaro. The Indus Valley Civilisation is one of the oldest and offers proof of a great culture that existed in the distant past. The Vedas and the Upanishads, the oldest of literatures are rich in pearls of wisdom. Spiritual and moral ‘tenets’ and guidance are got in plenty from these. They transcend boundaries of nations or creeds or religions, but apply to the whole world. Among the greatest epics of the world are the Ramayana and the Mahabaratha. The Bhagavat Gita is a Universal Document of Wisdom and Truth, holding a rich store of knowledge in various aspects of life. One who is an avid reader and follower of the Gita will get its truth instilled into one’s nature and such a one will be looked upon with love, respect and admiration by others, such is the value of the classic.undefined

Kings and Emperors in ancient days were patrons of art and literature. They have had counsellors who gave them valuable guidance and advice not only religious matters but also on the economic, social and political aspects of life. There were also men of genius who entertained the kings and the people with their poetic skill and imagination. There is no subject left untouched or unadorned by our ancients. Great men like kalidasa and kautilya will live as long as human beings inhabit this world. “Shakunthalam” and “Meghadoot” of Kalidasa and “The Arthasastra” of Kautilya are immortal. The latter is a treatise on political philosophy of the highest order.

Art, architecture, painting and sculpture, weaving, music and dance…. there is no field left undistinguished by our ancients. Artists of every description were patronised by great Emperors and Kings some of whom were themselves eminent in the arts and music.Temples are repositories of architectural beauty and monumental proof of the artistic skills of people of the past. Many examples of beautiful temples can be found. The Brihadeeswara Temple at Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu is a standing testimony to the technological protection that was the hallmark of such structures. It offers proof for the technical proficiency of the builders who did not have any of the advantages that modern technology offers to builders.

Arts and architecture of the ancients were developed later by others and even foreign rulers of India admired them and made them blend with other cultures. Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kathak and Manipuri among dances, the Kushan, Gandhara and Guptha forms among art forms, were revelations to the innumerable foreign travelers who visited India at various times in the past. Painting was not far behind these, as is evident from the Ajantha paintings. A modern marvel of art and architecture that had its roots in the past and which is a fine legacy left to us in Mamallapuram or better known as Mahabalipuram near Chennai.

Considering all these facts, it may be said that our heritage is one of the valuable treasures handed over to us by our forefathers. Western education, adoption of Western modes of dress and ways of life, faith in rationality, disbelief in religious tenets and truths tend to undermine the value of our heritage. It is the bounden duty of everyone, every Indian worth his salt, to preserve the ancient heritage handed over to us, so that we would be in a position to pass on this wealth of wisdom to posterity. We have to see to it that divisive tendencies do not destroy the cultural heritage that has come down to us through the centuries. India and culture should ever be an inseparable combination that should act as a model and a beacon light to the rest of the world.


Now we are living in a world with developed science and technology. Society has undergone a number of changes owing to the advancement of technology. A significant effect of technological developments is felt on institutions like family and religion. It is generally in the economic field that the effect is felt more.

A family is generally defined as an association of a man and woman with or without children, when their association is a legal one. Joint family system is one of the important forms of the family. When different generations of the same family live together it is known as joint family. Here all the members live together, the affairs of the family being in the hands of one member, generally the oldest. Even today there are a number of places where the joint family system exists. But with the increase in technology and science there begins a split in this system. Joint families are replaced by single unit families. The reasons for this are obvious.

A member of a joint family may have to go to a long distance to be in time for his work. To avoid the waste of time, money and energy he may prefer to live near the work spot and so may set up a separate household. This divides the family. Again, during these days women also come out to seek employment, because there is a realisation that with spiraling costs it would not be possible to run a family with only the earnings of one member. So when women also get employed and when both the husband and the wife begin to earn, there is an improvement in the family income. But the same advantage is also combined with a shortcoming. The older members of the family have to fend for themselves, since the assistance of the young members is not available, even if the parents live with the children. But if the sons or daughters live away from their parents who live alone they feel helpless in their old age.

In some families parents also live with their married sons or daughters. In such cases there may be clashes of temperaments and differences of opinion. The younger generation may feel that parents are a hindrance and obstacles in the way of their happy life. They, therefore, develop a tendency to ignore or neglect their parents. In such circumstances the old people feel the intensity of their loneliness and unhappiness. They feel that they are unwanted and suffer great humiliation thereby.

In addition to such old parents neglected by their children, there are others who, in their old age, suffer the pangs of poverty and penury because they do not have any one to look after them. They might have lost their children and may be at the mercy of other people on whom they rely for their support. The condition of these people would be miserable, without money, without people and without friends.

The life of old people is so miserable that they yearn for company and help. It is such cases they should be pitied. Today, society has come forward to assist them. The government has formulated a number of schemes to help the helpless old people. Old age pensions are given to all people who pass a certain age and who are destitute. Here also some unscrupulous people take advantage of the old people’s condition. In some families, the sons make their parents apply for these pensions and then taking away that money make the parents suffer. But such cases are not many.

Governments and some private charitable institutions also conduct homes for the old and helpless. Helpage Homes are meant to offer protection of the old and helpless. At these places, old people are not merely taken care of, but also are offered means of recreation. In some of the institutions, the inmates are induced to take up some occupation or other according to their aptitude and ability. They are encouraged to perform some work or other and in some places they are even paid small sums for the work done. This helps them spend their time happily and profitably.

The care of the aged has now become the responsibility of the Government and the Society. Yet, there are many old people who are ignorant of the existence of such places, or they do not have anyone to help them to get into such institutions. It is, therefore necessary that more people, especially wealthy people and social service Organisations should come forward to take care of the old and aged. The aged deserve such help. While young and active they would have done their best in their own way to serve the society of which they were parts. But since they are neglected in their old age, something should be acknowledged and in their helpless state they should be given the consolation and peace that would make them reasonably happy.


Cloning is a process of asexual reproduction by which genetically identical individuals may be produced. The successful cloning of a sheep (Dolly) was reported by scientists from the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, UK. But, the world’s first cloning of a dog has raised concerns that scientists are one step closer to replicating human beings, despite the breakthrough pointing to treatments per currently – incurable human diseases. A group of scientists from Seol National University has unveiled their furry creation, a black and white Afghan hound name Snuppy that is genetically identical to its three – year old father. undefined

Cloning, which is thought to be one of the latest technological developments as most of the people think, is actually an age-old scientific technique. Humans have knowledge of cloning from before at least 2000 years. Most of the plants we see today are cloned. Unlike animal cloning, plant cloning doesn’t involve any sophistication. Just grafting the cut plant does the job where as animal cloning involves mitosis.

Recombinant DNA technology is important for learning about other related technology such as gene therapy, genetic engineering of organisms, and sequencing genomes. Gene therapy can be used to treat certain genetic conditions by introducing virus vectors that carry corrected copies of faulty genes into the cells of a host organism. Genes from different organisms that improves taste and nutritional value or provide resistance to particular type of disease can be used to genetically engineer food crops.

Scientists hope that one day therapeutic cloning can be used to generate tissues and organs for transplants. To do this, DNA would be extracted from the person in need of a transplant and inserted into an enucleated egg. After the egg containing the patient ‘s DNA starts to divide, the embryonic stem cells that can be transformed into any type of tissue would be harvested. The stem cells would be used to generate an organ or tissue that is a genetic match to the recipient. In theory, the cloned organ could then be transplanted into the patient without the risk of tissue rejection.undefined

There are some risks of cloning too. Reproductive cloning is expensive and highly inefficient. More than 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring. In addition to low success rates, cloned animals tend to have more compromised immune function and higher rates of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders.

‘Should humans be cloned?’ is the new question of many scientists and physicians. Due to the inefficiency of animal cloning and the lack of understanding about reproductive cloning, many scientists and physicians strongly believe that it would be unethical to attempt to clone humans. Several cloned animals have died prematurely. The same problems would be expected in human cloning too. In addition, scientists do not know how cloning impact mental development. With so many unknown concerning reproductive cloning, the attempt to clone humans at this time is considered potentially dangerous and ethically irresponsible.

Science Vs Religion

The relationship between science and religion has been a complicated one for a very long time. Science and religion are without a doubt mutually incompatible. In the seventeenth century, the doctrine of the motion of the earth was condemned by a Catholic tribunal. A hundred years ago the extension of time demanded by geological science distressed religious people, Protestant and Catholic. And to-day the doctrine of evolution is an equal stumbling block.

While in the late nineteenth century, after the publication of Darwin’s book on evolution. In the wake of the stir over Darwin’s idea that humans were descended from apes, some people on both sides tried to paint the other side as the enemy. Although at the time there were many people who believed in both science and religion, did not see a conflict between the two worlds, the hostilities view became deeply barricaded in many people’s minds, and it has continued to influence thinking throughout the twentieth century.

Although, there are many people of faiths and levels of scientific expertise who see no difference at all between science and religion. They just acknowledge that the two establishments deal with different domains of human expertise. Science investigates the natural world, while religion deals with the spiritual and supernatural hence, the two can be interconnected. It should also be taken into account that to be a scientist one does not have to be an atheist. There was a survey conducted in 2005 at top research universities, and it was found that more than 48% of the research fellows had some religious affiliations and more than 75% believed that religion conveys important revelations.

To sum up the debate between science and religion, it would be wise enough to say that the two have always had an edgy relationship. Even though most people have no problem accepting the norms of the two sides, there are political and media developments that have driven a wedge between the two sides.

Although the most balanced view is from `Abdu’l-Bahá, son of the founder of the Baha’i faith:

Religion without science is superstition and science without religion is materialism.”

Math & Music…..

So people we all know what kind of goon mathematics was for us in our high school or was it just me who was not so vivid admirer of mathematics well I don’t know but mathematics as a subject has always been that boogey man under the beds who is always ready to haunt us for the rest of the twenty four hours in a day. So in a manner I always had a huge respect for mathematicians as I was somehow angry upon that subject so whenever I used to see a person being good at that subject I used to have knack to ask them how can they like a subject so salty and mean. So one fine day I asked one of my cousins from Harvard mathematics (sounds like serious affair right? well it was) that how do you do that and in a manner and you should know this that I’m doing my university degree with a major in physics without mathematics so there is no shame in that. So I asked her about that so she in her really deep and serious voice told me to find a rhythm and I asked,”what kind” she said, “music dumbo”. Well then I realized that it actually helps maybe not for all people but in most cases it does as such if you are an admirer of reggae or pop or acoustics it will help to catch a rhythm while you are solving a problem .

It helps because as our brain functions for solving a problem it’s always ready to acquire the probable solutions which are or can be the answer to the problem. Music as an entity has life in the melody which reverberates and flows through the lyrics of the songs so in a manner a mathematical comes to us as a puzzle with a guide that guide being the formulae and the puzzle being the problem whose solving is the calculation part which is in turn dependent on our practice and sometimes the gifts we have. So now the question is what problems and what music so it’s all from my experience which I’m gonna share with you so don’t apply it if you think it may not be so applicable for you but what’s the harm done in trying right? Now let’s start as such if there are problems of calculus,logic, accounting like compound interests, matrix and determinants it will not be so wise to use musics as that puzzle comes with a very rudimentary guide which is generally to start and then you are on your own focus and concentration but if it’s arithmetic, mensuration,trigonometry and algebra the songs and the music is quite helpful as in these cases a predefined formulae will help you get to the solution of a problem. Now let’s talk about musics I guess it’s best to avoid pop or reggae and even your favorite music or your jam because generally when that plays we are focused upon music more than we are to the problems so best choice will be acoustics and piano covers maybe any maintained electronic DJ music also helps but if pop is your thing then go ahead. If you are still wondering why music helps it’s because of the singular most important reason that our brain should always think that we can do it and it’s easy so when you are solving a problem and it’s not happening and you are sweating your eyes out getting irritated about it’s possible solution the music helps to give a sense of calmness and peace so that you can give your brain a casual hint to focus upon problems and to get through it with patience and peace of mind. So yes nobody said math is difficult it definitely isn’t but it sure is damn is tricky so the trick to trick a trickster is to try giving it the impression that you have no worries to handle it, that it being the mathematical problems(trickster) and that key of no worries is music…….hakuna matata folks…..