ONLINE LEARNING-PROS V/S CONS

The Majestic year 2020 is marked by two major events.One is the Onset of the worst pandemic that the entire world is reeling under and the other as the title suggests is Online learning!

The Use of Online Learning or E Learning has skyrocketed in the recent times as the only mode of education in a social distancing setup.Indeed it is a necessity as education cannot be put to rest halting the progress of millions of students.As a coin has two sides,similarly online form of education has it’s own perks and drawbacks.So lets find out more!

Online schooling is a popular alternative to attending a brick-and-mortar college or university. Though online students don’t get the face-to-face experiences of a typical on-campus student, there are many benefits and advantages to online learning, also known as distance learning or e-learning.

While not every program or school imaginable has an online option, a large number of them do, and many programs are nationally or regionally accredited. Students can learn through online lectures, projects and discussions. Online degree programs are available at every level, from certificates to doctorates.

Owing to the Covid situation,organisations that used to vouch for traditional methods of education are now radically shifting towards online education because there is no other alternative.Earlier online education used to be an alternative, now it is the only choice for those who want to desperately continue their education.

When Online Education is the new reality,it is very essential to keep in mind it’s advantages and disadvantages to take maximum benefits out of it and also minimize stress levels.

Advantages

-Convenient Learning:It can be undertaken anywhere ranging from a tiny corner in the living room to a study table in the bedroom and without a particular dress code(still modest dressing is expected).

-No Infrastructure:No physical infrastructure such as building,classrooms and benches are required for online education.

-Less Travelling: In Online classes there is no need to undertake strenuous travelling routines as students can attend the classes from the comfort of their homes.

-Recordings:Unlike the Traditional Systems,Online Education system provides an option of class recording and hence students can re watch the class recordings to make concepts clear.

-Virtual Reality(VR):Teachers in the online mode can make use of Virtual Reality Techniques to make students understand complex topics in an interesting way.

disadvantages

-Motivation:The laid back nature of the online classes do not provide much motivation to the students.Students do not take online classes to be as serious as classroom and thus do not pay attention.

-Lack of Concrete Assessments:Online mode of education has so far not been promising for people with theoretical subjects as it is difficult to conduct heavy exams here.

-No practicals:People Who study medicine,chemistry and physics an understand how bad this can be!There are certain subjects which cannot be simply taught,practicals and experiments have to be performed to further the understanding.Online education does not support this.

-Stress on health:The negative impacts of online mode of education on the health of the students is indisputable!Several students have complained of migraines,back aches,eye pain and so forth.Students psychologically too have not been able to cope up with the sudden shift and are suffering.

Thus,Online mode of education is a tricky one and should be suitable for certain conditions,Since it is the only alternative now, educationists and policy makers should study the pros and cons to make amends in the present online education structure to suit the demands of students.We have to always remember that Education is fruitful only when it reaches learners effectively!

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Psychological Impact of Covid-19

As a result of the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the Chinese city of Wuhan, a situation of socio-economic crisis and profound psychological distress rapidly occurred worldwide.

So this blog will look into various forms of psychological distress bought in by this pandemic due to educate and sensitize the readers about these issues.

Many psychological problems and important consequences in terms of mental health including stress, anxiety, depression, frustration, uncertainty during COVID-19 outbreak emerged progressively.Common psychological reactions related to the mass quarantine which was imposed in order to attenuate the COVID-19 spread are generalized fear and pervasive community anxiety which are typically associated with disease outbreaks, and increased with the escalation of new cases together with inadequate, anxiety-provoking information which was provided by media.The psychological reactions to COVID-19 pandemic may vary from a panic behavior or collective hysteria to pervasive feelings of hopelessness and desperation which are associated with negative outcomes including suicidal behavior.Importantly, other health measures may be compromised by abnormally elevated anxiety.

As the general population became increasingly exposed, anxiety-provoking topics related to this emergence of the health and socio-economic crisis need to be rapidly identified to early detect dysfunctional processes and maladaptive lifestyle changes potentially leading to the onset of psychiatric conditions.

So let us discuss the most important psychological impacts of COVID which are the root cause of other mental disorders :

-uncontrolled fears related to infection

This is commonly one of the most frequent psychological reaction to pandemics. Several existing studies demonstrated that those who have been exposed to the risk of infection may develop pervasive fears about their health, worries to infect others and fear infecting family members.

-Pervasive anxiety

Social isolation related to restrictions and lockdown measures are linked to feelings of uncertainty for the future, fear of new and unknown infective agents resulting in abnormally increased anxiety.Anxiety may be directly related to sensorial deprivation and pervasive loneliness.

-Frustration and boredom

Distress, boredom, social isolation and frustration are directly related to confinement, abnormally reduced social/physical contact with others, and loss of usual habits.

-LONELINESS

The final effect of social isolation is pervasive loneliness and boredom, which have potential dramatic effects on both physical and mental individual well-being. Pervasive loneliness may be significantly associated with increased depression and suicidal behavior.Unfortunately, the isolation is progressively enhanced by anxiety, panic or collective hysteria. Cognitive functions and decision making are firstly impaired by hyperarousal and anxiety and later by disabling feelings of loneliness.

After looking at these gruesome psychological impacts,it is crystal clear so as to how psychologically damaging this pandemic has been!The protective factors against these impacts include social support and psychological support.

Implementing community-based strategies to support resilience and psychologically vulnerable individuals during the COVID-19 crisis is fundamental for any community.The psychological impact of fear and anxiety due to the horrible spread of pandemic needs to be clearly recognized as a public health priority for both authorities and policy makers who should adopt clear behavioral and interventional strategies to reduce the burden of disease and the dramatic mental health consequences of this outbreak.

Bulimia-An Eating Disorder

In today’s instagram world,People especially adolescents are getting image and body conscious.They look at the perfect bodies of celebrities and aspire to be like them.In this aspiration,they are psychologically and physically wounded.Most of such people experience eating disorders where in they undergo extreme changes in their eating and exercise habits.Ultimately they damage themselves.

So,in today’s blog lets look at one of the eating disorders called Bulimia Nervosa,it’s causes and it’s impacts.Let’s get started.

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating—consuming a lot of food quickly—followed by compensatory behavior, most commonly vomiting or “purging.” People who are bulimic often feel a lack of control over their eating. A bulimic can consume as many as 3,400 calories in little more than an hour and as many as 20,000 calories in eight hours.

People with bulimia often know they have a problem and are afraid of their inability to stop eating. Bingeing is then followed by purging — namely, self-induced vomiting or the abuse of diuretics or laxatives. Bingeing and purging are often performed in secret, with feelings of shame alternating with relief.

The bingeing and purging cycle is usually repeated several times a week. As with anorexia, people with bulimia often have coexisting psychological illnesses, such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse problems. Many physical dysfunctions result from the purging, including electrolyte imbalances, gastrointestinal troubles, and dental problems.

An estimated one to four percent of females have bulimia nervosa during their lifetime. The prevalence in males is unknown, but bulimia nervosa is far less common in males than females. Most cases begin in the late teens and early 20s, but can go undetected until the 30s or 40s.

SYMPTOMS

Bulimia signs and symptoms may include:

  • Being preoccupied with your body shape and weight
  • Living in fear of gaining weight
  • Repeated episodes of eating abnormally large amounts of food in one sitting
  • Feeling a loss of control during bingeing — like you can’t stop eating or can’t control what you eat
  • Forcing yourself to vomit or exercising too much to keep from gaining weight after bingeing
  • Using laxatives, diuretics or enemas after eating when they’re not needed
  • Fasting, restricting calories or avoiding certain foods between binges
  • Using dietary supplements or herbal products excessively for weight loss

CAUSES

Exact causes are not completely known and are believed to complex.Hence there is no single known cause of bulimia, but there are some factors that may play a part,such as:

  • Culture:As in strict body expectations:Slim and trim girls wanted for marriage in India.
  • Families:Constant pressure and criticism from parents on looks of children
  • Life changes or stressful events: can trigger bulimia.
  • Personality traits: Those with bulimia may have low self-esteem and feel hopeless.
  • Biology.:Genes, hormones, and other biological factors may contribute to development of bulimia.

Impact

Bulimia has a great impact on the individual and can lead to following complications:

  • Negative self-esteem and problems with relationships and social functioning
  • Dehydration leading to kidney failure
  • Heart problems
  • Severe tooth decay and gum disease
  • Absent or irregular periods in females
  • Digestive problems
  • Anxiety, depression, personality disorders or bipolar disorder
  • Misuse of alcohol or drugs
  • Self-injury and suicidal thoughts.

Management

If left untreated,bulimia can create major complications in life as mentioned above.Hence if you see your loved ones experiencing symptoms of bulimia,support them and console them.If the symptoms are unbearable,immediately consult a doctor and psychologist who will be able to help the patient successfully.

Please spread empathy and kindness.Acceptance and kindness can prevent bulimia in such insecure people.Every difficulty can be defeated with empathy,patience and willingness to improve and come out.

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Stay Kind!

Motivation:The background force

Why have i written this blog?why are you reading this blog?Why do you eat?Why do you love?

The answer to all of these actions is MOTIVATION!Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It is what causes you to act, whether it is reading this article, getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.So this blog will critically analyse the concept of motivation and help all of you to understand the reasons behind your actions.So lets get started!

Motivation describes the wants or needs that direct behavior toward a goal. It is an urge to behave or act in a way that will satisfy certain conditions, such as wishes, desires, or goals. Older theories of motivation stated that rational thought and reason were the guiding factors in human motivation; however, psychologists now believe that motivation may be rooted in basic impulses to optimize well-being, minimize physical pain, and maximize pleasure.

Motivation involves the biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term “motivation” is frequently used to describe why a person does something. It is the driving force behind human actions.

So lets analyse the mechanism of motivation

Drives and motives

Motivations are commonly separated into drives and motives.

Drives are primarily biological, like thirst, hunger, sleepiness, and the need to reproduce—all of which lead us to seek out and take part in certain activities. Drives are believed to originate within a person and may not require external stimuli to encourage behavior.

Motives, on the other hand, are primarily driven by social and psychological mechanisms, such as work, family, and relationships. They include factors like praise and approval.

INtrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Motivation can be intrinsic (arising from internal factors) or extrinsic (arising from external factors).

Intrinsic:arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated crossword puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a problem.

Extrinsic:arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition, or praise.

In reality, our motivations are often a mix of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and the nature of the mix can change over time.Sometimes, intrinsic motivation can diminish when extrinsic motivation is given—a process known as the overjustification effect. This can lead to extinguishing the intrinsic motivation and creating a dependence on extrinsic rewards for continued performance.

Motivation v/s emotion

While motivation and emotion can be intricately linked, they are two fundamentally different things. Motivation describes the wants or needs that direct behavior toward a goal; in contrast, an emotion is a subjective state of being that we often describe as a feeling. Emotion and motivation are linked in several ways: both influence behavior and can lead us to take action, and emotion itself can act as a motivator.

The need to understand motivation

So at the end of this article,lets see what is the use of understanding the concept of motivation.Understanding motivation can:

  • Help improve the efficiency of people as they work toward goals
  • Help people take action
  • Encourage people to engage in health-oriented behaviors
  • Help people avoid unhealthy or maladaptive behaviors such as risk-taking and addiction
  • Help people feel more in control of their lives
  • Improve overall well-being and happiness

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Music Therapy

Did you ever feel that therapy involves talk by a psychologist and nothing else could come under the domain of therapy?If your answer is yes,Then you are wrong!!Well times have changed my reader~

Therapies have come a long way to incorporate other clinically approved methods such as animal assisted therapy,food therapy,aroma therapy etc.Music Therapy is one clinically developed program by psychologists to assist speedy healing of their clients.In this blog,the readers would be introduced to the world of Music therapy.So lets get started!

WHAT IS MUSIC THERAPY?

Music Therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.It is is an established health profession in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals. After assessing the strengths and needs of each client, the qualified music therapist provides the indicated treatment including creating, singing, moving to, and/or listening to music.

Through musical involvement in the therapeutic context, clients’ abilities are strengthened and transferred to other areas of their lives.This therapy also provides avenues for communication that can be helpful to those who find it difficult to express themselves in words. Research in music therapy supports its effectiveness in many areas especially emotional rehabilitation.

history

You all will be shocked to know that both world wars were the trigger that initiated the development of this therapy.During and after both World Wars, doctors and clinicians began to realize the powerful effects that music has on the healing process and requested that professional musicians be hired by the hospitals.This therapy first got officially recognized in the Michigan state university of the United States of America.Ultimately,The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) was formed which focuses on creating more awareness about this wonderful therapy.

BENEFITS

Music therapy can benefit many individuals. The diverse nature of music means it can be applied in the treatment of concerns both physical and psychological.Since music can evoke positive emotions and improve brain health,Music therapy is said to manage and alleviate symptoms of mental health concern such as Depression, Mood issues,Anxiety,Schizophrenia,Substance abuse,Autism,Personality issues,Insomnia,Dementia etc.

In addition,Music therapy can improve the social,cognitive,emotional and motor functioning.This therapy was also effective in controlling patient’s situation in Alzheimer’s,Cancer and Hypertension.

Music therapy is frequently administered to reduce stress levels and pain perception of females in labor.This novel therapy has also been linked with improvements in self-esteem, self-concept, verbal communication, prosocial behavior, socialization skills, group cohesion, and coping skills.

Limitations

Even the most beautiful things have flaws,and so has music therapy.One of the major drawback is that this therapy cannot be used as a stand-alone therapy.The music therapy is also known as music assisted therapy implying it’s sole purpose is to assist the main therapy applied by the clinician on the client to produce fast results and relief.

Also,the music therapy like all other therapies is individualized.This is not a major drawback but should be kept in mind before going in for this option.All individuals are unique and so is their taste in music.Thus the therapist has to do additional tests to see which type of music and musical instrument works better for the client.

ALWAYS REMEMBER,WHERE WORDS FAIL,MUSIC SPEAKS…..

Thus in short we need to know that music therapy is a wonderful form of therapy which strengthens an individual and increases his/her quality of life.Choose Music for a better Life!

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Stay Knowledgeable!

Research As A Career Option

All of us have been taught since childhood about the importance of a 9am to 5pm corporate job.No one really speaks about research as a lucrative career.Research as a career is really very important.At one place we are delving deep into the realms of unknown findings and that too of our passion.On the other hand we could go on to add something new for our society.One also comes to know a whole lot of new things of their domain too.In addition,There are immense jobs for research fellows out there!

This Blog would unable the readers to understand what is research along with it’s Pros and Cons as a career choice.Lets get started!

Research is a process of self learning and exploring. It depends on to what extent one is involved or interested in any sort of research. Research can be done at various levels and can even be pursued as a career option. It has a very tremendous scope provided the research is an unique one and can definitely benefit the society.
Research is a science in itself. It is a process which makes you learn a new thing at every stage. As your research progresses, it shapes you and your mentality in a very positive way. There are many difficulties that one faces. But ultimately with constant efforts and the optimistic approach it definitely ends with good results.
As Every coin has two sides,a career option also has its pros and cons.Now lets critically analyse the field-

PROS

1.You have Freedom/Independence:One of the most cited reasons for choosing a research career is freedom and independence.Usually,Researchers at universities and institutes have more opportunities to design their own research, to choose their own hours, and to focus their work.This a convenient way of working.

2. You can focus on your interests:Because these research positions offer more freedom and independence, chances are your research concentrate on your areas of interest.Particularly if you are able to secure third-party funding (that is, funding awarded directly to the researcher as opposed to a university or department), you can organize your own working schedule and priorities, and choose the topics of research which are of most pressing interest to you.

3.Tenure offers stability And good compensation:Although it starts slow,Research Career is quite lucrative and stable.Senior academicians can make wages comparable to their counterparts in industry, and there are plenty of opportunities for advancement into administration and other areas.

4.You get to build a network of international relations:Researchers might work as a team within their department, or across several disciplines. Academic positions also offer a lot of opportunities for international cooperation – whether it’s through conferences, researcher-in-residence programs, or guest positions, you’ll find many reasons to travel and meet with others in your field as well as other fields

5.Contribution to the society:The contribution of researchers is the base of every industry and thus research as a field contributes immensely to the society.

CONS

1.Comparatively less pay in the beginning:As a senior tenured professor at a well-respected institution ,the research scholar will have both good job security and monetary compensation, but reaching that level can take a long time.Initially the pay might be definitely less than corporate people.

2.Pressure and competition:There’s a saying in the Research world: “publish or perish.” Although research fellows have a lot of freedom within their research fields, there is a lot of pressure both to produce publishable results and to bring in the grant money. Research might seem like a haven for intellectuals, but the reality is that researchers spend a lot of time working towards and publishing their results. This can also lead to a lot of competition between research fellows which isn’t always healthy or welcoming.Such a tedious life would require a lot of patience and balance.

3.Plagiarism:If the research articles is found to be plagiarized,it can completely destroy the academician’s reputations.In Addition,there can be legal and monetary repercussions too.

The above mentioned points under pros and cons are added to provide clear picture of the research field so that they equip themselves prior to entering this magical field.Every career has it’s own flaws and perks.Research is no different from that.Research as a career should be encouraged since childhood.Research is the base for each and every branch of study that exists and it’s career prospects should be promoted.

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Stay Knowledgeable!

Non Conventional Careers-Science Stream

Medical and Engineering are most sought after courses after 12th Science in India.Parents and the society are the major contributors to this mentality in our country. Thousands of students flock examination centers to write prestigious NEET/JEE irrespective of whether they are interested or not.

Does this mean these are the only options available to students choosing the Science Stream?The Answer is NO.In Today’s advanced world there are plethora of career and course options for students to pursue and achieve success.In this blog we look at some of the prominent and promising non conventional career options in science stream.Lets get started!

1)PSYCHOLOGY

Psychologists study the complex ways that people think, behave, feel, communicate, and perceive the world around them. Some psychologists focus on clinical work with patients, while others devote themselves to researching the nuances of psychological behavior; in any case, psychology is a vast discipline, with numerous career options to choose from. Students who complete graduate-level psychology degrees have great job opportunities. An MSc degree may lead to jobs as research and clinical assistants, while a doctorate is a necessity for those who wants to work with patients in a clinical setting and also to move into a research or an academic position. Many degree programs allow students to focus on a specialty area, including child development, abnormal psychology, counseling, social psychology, and cognition.The opportunities in research under this field are limitless.Psychology is a hot subject in developed nations like The United States and The United Kingdom where this course is sought after and valued.

2)FORENSIC SCIENCE

Forensic science is the application of scientific knowledge and methodology to criminal investigations and legal problems. Forensic Science is a multidisciplinary subject, it encompasses various fields of science such as chemistry, biology, physics, geology, psychology, social science, engineering, etc.Forensic science is used every around the world to protect public and society, to enforce criminal laws and regulations and to resolve civil problems.Various universities in India offer certificate, bachelor and master courses in Forensic Science. After the master degree is successfully completed , then the student can even go for a Doctoral Degree course in Forensic Sciences.Jobs are offered in government as well as private sectors.

3)Agricultural SCIENCES

Agriculture as a field is not just about the traditional aspects related to farming and irrigation. The focus is now shifted to various other dimensions like Horticulture, Poultry Farming, Pisciculture, Dairy Farming, Agricultural Biotechnology,Agronomy etc. Agriculture is also being commercialized as proper attention is being paid to the marketing, distribution, and packaging of its output. It’s possible to pursue a postgraduate degree programme in agriculture related subject which will broaden the scope such as specializing in agronomy, soil sciences, horticulture, plant breeding and genetics, entomology, plant pathology, animal sciences, plant biochemistry, agriculture economics, biotechnology etc. Masters in various above listed Agriculture programs is a 2-year course.This course can be taken up by a candidate who holds a BSc degree in agriculture/ horticulture/ forestry from a recognized university with some qualifying marks.Job opportunities are available both in Government as well as Private Sectors.

4)Aviation industry

The aviation sector is one of the most attractive and best-paid sectors in the economy. In India, The civil aviation industry is a larges domestic market in the economy.The commercial pilot is one the most glamorous and most rewarding job in the Aviation industry. Apart from the theoretical knowledge, a candidate must have practical knowledge to become a commercial pilot. A Commercial pilot must train to get a Commercial Pilot license in order to secure a job in the aviation sector. A commercial pilot or Ferry Pilot will have many chances of getting placed in both Governments and Private Airlines & chattered flights.The interested candidate must be fluent in English,medically fit and must have learnt Maths and Physics in High School.

5)Visual communication

Visual Communication is a combination of illustration and graphic design from a marketing perspective with great emphasis on screen-based workmanship.It involves digital marketing and business identity design , logos, animation, photography, web design, illustration, packaging design, art direction, and most degrees will also have a theory dissertation. It contains all the information to help one become a Graphic Designer, with a scope that allows to to specialize with more flexibility than a degree in design.In short, visual communication is an amazing field with unlimited growth potential. They get hefty pay.Further, with experience, your earnings are bound to increase.

These are just a few options listed from a sea of options.The aim of this blog is to make readers aware that the bucks do not stop at Engineering or Medicine.There are umpty number of career options to choose from and succeed.Everyone can not find happiness within the conventional options imposed by the society.Times are changing and so should our mentality.Students should be encouraged to follow their passion and pursue courses they want.Sky is the limit!

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Stay Happy~

Personality Theories

According to the American Psychological Association,Personality refers to an individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. The other is understanding how the various parts of a person come together as a whole.

So this blog will introduce the readers to some important theories used to describe personality.Let’s get started!

1) FREUD PSYCHOANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVE:

 According to Sigmund Freud Father of Psychoanalysis, an adult personality generally has three determinants: Id, Ego and Super Ego.The outcome of the combination of all the three determinants shapes an adult personality. Freud believed than an individual’s personality has three parts and thus is often called as tripartite personality.

  • Id:Irrational demands and urge.
  • Ego:Helps in fulfillment of Id after taking into consideration the reality.
  • Superego:Moral constraints of the individual.

Defense mechanisms play an important role in pushing unrealistic thoughts out of awareness. Stressful thoughts which are threatening to an individual’s survival should be pushed into unconscious mind to reduce anxiety through them.

2)ERIK ERIKSON:PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY:-

Erikson believes there are 8 stages in a person’s life and to enter into the next stage,a virtue has to be learnt from the previous stage and this leads to personality development.He focuses on different identity crisis in a person’s lifespan.As in

STAGE 1:Trust v/s Mistrust;Virtue:Hope

STAGE 2:Autonomy v/s Doubt;Virtue:Will

STAGE 3:Initiative v/s Guilt;Virtue:Sense of Purpose.

STAGE 4:Industriousness v/s Inferiorty;Virtue:Competence

STAGE 5:Identity cohesion v/s Role confusion;Virtue:Fidelity

STAGE 6:Intimacy v/s Isolation;Virtue:Love

STAGE 7:Generativity v/s Stagnation;Virtue:Care

STAGE 8:Ego Integrity v/s Despair;Virtue:Wisdom

3)CARL JUNG:INTOVERSION V/S EXTRAVERSION

Carl Jung established a theory, which saw universal types in human personality. The types categorized by Carl Jung are present in all of us. But, certain types are predominant over the normal mode of organizing our experience.Carl Jung also developed a theory of personality. His theory is one of the type theories of personality, as it involved typology of introversion and extraversion.There are 4 functions :Sensing,intuiting,thinking and feeling.

4)JULIAN ROTTER-LOCUS OF CONTROL

“Locus of Control.” For many people, their only exposure to the ideas of Julian B. Rotter is his concept of generalized expectancies for control of reinforcement, more commonly known as locus of control. Locus of control refers to people’s very general, cross-situational beliefs about what determines whether or not they get reinforced in life. People can be classified along a continuum from very internal to very external.
People with a strong internal locus of control believe that the responsibility for whether or not they get reinforced ultimately lies with themselves. Internals believe that success or failure is due to their own efforts. In contrast, externals believe that the reinforcers in life are controlled by luck, chance, or powerful others. Therefore, they see little impact of their own efforts on the amount of reinforcement they receive.

Thus we come to the end of the blog.This blog is aimed at introducing the readers to the world of personality analysis.However one must remember that human beings are complex and not one theory explains all the human behavior.The readers are requested to read more articles about the same and fill themselves with knowledge.

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