Swachh Jal Se Suraksha Campaign Report Under Jal Jeevan Mission

The Union Minister For Jal Shakti, Shri Gajendra Singh Shekhawat today released the report on progress under the Jal Jeevan Mission: Swachh Jal se Suraksha (SJSS) Campaign which was organised from 2nd October, 2022 to 31st March, 2023 to impress upon the States/ UTs to make concerted efforts towards taking up water quality monitoring and surveillance activities as ‘Supply of Safe Water’ has been one of the key considerations under JJM. Under the campaign, several activities had been taken up including Testing of PWS sources in all villages for chemical parameters and bacteriological parameters (post monsoon); Water quality testing at household level in villages; Water quality testing in Schools and Anganwadi Centres; Remedial action taken for contaminated samples; and Training of women for water quality testing using FTK/ H2S vials at village level.

As a result of concerted efforts made by States/ UTs for water quality monitoring and surveillance during campaign period and progress reported on WQMIS portal, the activity-wise overall progress is as under:

Water quality testing has been reported in 5.39 lakh (89.69 %) villages for chemical and in 4.47 lakh (74.46 %) villages for bacteriological contamination (post monsoon).

Drinking water samples were tested in 6.58 lakh (67.63 %) schools and 7.16 lakh (67.43 %) anganwadi centres.

21.80 lakh women have been trained from 4.59 lakh (76.41 %) villages for water quality testing using Field Testing Kits (FTKs).

Remedial action has been taken for 90.34% of contaminated sample reported.

Performance of states/UTs was also measured during the Campaign. The states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh emerged as the best performing states during the Campaign.

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) was announced by Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi on 15 August, 2019 to make provision of potable tap water supply in adequate quantity, of prescribed quality on regular & long-term basis to every rural household. Access to assured and safe drinking water is a basic life need. The Objective of the campaign was to ensure drinking water quality and create awareness among representatives of the Panchayati Raj institutions and rural communities about quality of drinking water in their respective villages, water quality issues, water borne diseases & health impacts and avoiding use of water from quality-affected sources.

The desired outcome of the campaign was wide participation at Village, district and State level for water quality testing, building confidence and create awareness among people about quality of water being supplied through piped water supply. States/ UTs PHE/ RWS Department, being ‘Nodal Department’ implemented Swachh Jal se Suraksha campaign in respective States/ UTs by actively involving all the stakeholders viz. Gram Panchayat and/ or its sub-committees/ local community to take up water quality monitoring and surveillance and awareness activities.



Saplings presented to the Guests on Golden Jubilee Wedding Anniversary: An Innovative Idea in a Gated Community in Hyderabad, India

The recent World Bank Group Report (Making Cities Green, Resilient, and Inclusive in a Changing Climate, 2023) reveals that climate change is exposing cities to increasingly frequent extreme weather events. From the 1970s to the period 2010–20, the frequency of extreme heat and dry events increased across cities globally, and the frequency of extreme wet events has increased since the 1990s. Global sea-level rise of about 0.125 millimeters per year is also increasing the risk of flooding for coastal cities. Also, it is evident from the Report that cities in high- and upper-middle-income countries are major contributors to climate change, whereas the contribution of cities in lower-income countries is modest. Globally, about 70 percent of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the bulk of which are fossil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, emanate from cities. Cities in lower-income countries, however, accounted for only about 14 percent of all global urban CO2 emissions in 2015, and cities in low-income cities contributed less than 0.20 percent. The mitigation challenge for cities in lower-income countries is to develop without following the historic CO2 emissions trajectories of cities in higher-income countries. Anyway, to control CO2 emissions one of the alternatives is the plantation of saplings in the house or its vicinity if vacant land is available. And one innovative idea as observed by the author was the distribution of saplings to the guests as a gift on the occasion of a senior citizen’s Golden Jubilee Wedding anniversary and at the same time his grandson’s birthday who completed 12 years of age. The case is from Libdom Villa (Raj Reddy Valley), Bandlaguda Jagir, Hyderabad, a gated community which is spread over to an area of 17 acres of land having all facilities – indoor and outdoor games, gym, park, swimming pool, function hall, etc. Altogether 190 families ( a few might be unoccupied) live in this gated community consisting of different religions, castes, and languages (people of different States), representing a mini India in the true sense and residents celebrate all festivals amicably.
A resident of the villa (75 Years old), who stays with his wife, son (41 years, software engineer and owner of the villa) daughter-in-law also a software engineer) and grandson (12 years), had initiated a good idea that others can emulate in other gated communities or houses if they have little land.
K. Veerabrahmam (75 years old), a retired administrative officer from Government Arts and PG College, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh is a permanent resident of the villa staying along with other family members, as mentioned already. In the last part of May 2023, he celebrated his 50 years of wedding anniversary, golden jubilee. Also, his grandson who completed 12 years of age almost the same period organized a dinner party in the campus itself on 24 May 2023. Many dishes – both vegetarian and non-vegetarian – were served. As a part of the event, each guest was presented with a sapling. Around 55 saplings were brought from the local nursery and given to all guests in beautiful cotton bags. Such an innovative idea to regenerate nature can be emulated by others who live in gated communities etc. Instead of giving different types of gifts, giving saplings in the present context is the best gift.
Prof Shankar Chatterjee, Hyderabad

What is IPL in Cricket? – Introduction to the Indian Premier League Tournament

It’s the biggest domestic cricket tournament in the world, but what is IPL exactly and how much do we know about it?

What does IPL Stand for?

In cricket, IPL stands for Indian Premier League, a T20 cricket tournament which was originally established in 2008. It is traditionally played from April through to June each year and, from 2022, the competition will be expanded to include a total of ten teams.

Indian Premier League – The Tournament

1. Tournament Structure

The Indian Premier League starts with a round robin tournament where each franchise will play each other twice – home and away. Sides will earn two points for a win while the teams will earn one point each if there is an abandoned game.

At the end of this sequence, the top four sides in the table will progress to the playoffs while the remaining franchises will be eliminated.

The playoffs start with the first qualifier where the top two sides in the table play each other and the winner goes straight through to the final.

Next up is the eliminator where the third and fourth placed sides face off. The winner goes through to the second qualifier while the loser is eliminated.

In the second qualifier, the winner of the eliminator takes on the loser of the first playoff match. The winner of that game progresses to the final.

It sounds a little complicated on paper but it’s actually easy to follow and it’s a fairer system than having straight semi finals.

IPL cricket tournament

2. When Does IPL Start?

The exact starting dates of the IPL will vary from year to year but it will generally begin in the first week of April. The 2022 IPL starts on March 26th. The group stages kick off the competition and these progress through the month and into May.

The knockouts take over and the final will generally be scheduled for late May or early June. These dates are subject to change but this is the framework within which the tournament has worked for many years.

3. IPL Franchise Teams

From 2022 onwards, the IPL will consist of ten franchise teams. Those sides who played in 2021 will continue to be involved and they are:

  • Chennai Super Kings
  • Royal Challengers Bangalore
  • Delhi Capitals
  • Punjab Kings
  • Sunrisers Hyderabad
  • Mumbai Indians
  • Rajasthan Royals
  • Kolkata Knight Riders

In addition, two new franchises will be joining to make ten teams overall. They will be based in Lucknow and Ahmedabad but the names of the sides have yet to be confirmed as of November 2021.


4. Player Auction

The build up to every tournament involves a player auction. Those cricketers who want to be involved in the IPL will make themselves available for selection via the auction and the franchises will bid for their services.

The players involved will set a base price which is effectively a reserve figure. Any team wanting to sign the player must make that base price their minimum bid. 

At the end of the auction, squads are assembled ahead of the new season. Of course, there are options to bring in replacements for players who become injured or are forced to withdraw for any other reason.

Before that auction begins, the franchises submit a retained list. These are the existing players in the squad who will remain with the team for the new season. Other players will be released if they are no longer needed and they then have the option to go into the auction.

Find out more about how the IPL Auction works in 2023.

5. IPL Match Rules

The format of the IPL follows the rules of T20 cricket. Both teams are allocated a maximum of 20 overs each and the simple aim is to score more runs than the opposition. 

T20 is identical to ODI cricket in the sense that the side batting first sets a target. The fielding side then take their turn to bat and they must overtake that total within their allocated set of overs.

If the side batting second fail to overtake the target, the side batting first wins.

Bowling teams can use as many bowlers as they want but each bowler can deliver a maximum of four overs.

If the scores are tied at the end of the game, there will be a Super Over to decide the winner. One six-ball over will be sent down to each team and the batting sides have two wickets available. If the scores remain level, the Super Over process will be repeated until we have a winner.

A Glimpse about two prestigious schools in Guwahati, Assam, India: Past and Present Scenario

Guwahati earlier spelled as Gauhati is one of the popular cities of India located in the beautiful part of North-East India. The mighty perennial river the Brahmaputra has passed from the iconic City. In addition, the Nilachal Hill, the Basishtha Ashram, Umananda, etc. portray the pristine beauty of the place. The famous Maa Kamakhya temple located on the top of Nilachal Hill is not only a spiritual place but a scenic place to visit. Further, in the city and its vicinity many temples, churches, mosques, gurudwaras, and Jain temples are located which bear testimony to the historical importance of the city.
The prestigious Cotton College (established in 1901) presently Cotton University is one of the most famous educational institutions in the country. Also, two renowned schools along with some others have brought glory to the city. The two schools are – Bengali Boys’ Higher Secondary School and Bengali Girls’ High School. In the month of May 2022, both have been merged into one and rechristened as Bengali Higher Secondary School (BHSS, Co-education). Also, there were two separate primary schools on the campus Boys’ school and Girls’ school separately established many years ago. Anyway, Bengali Boys’ Higher Secondary School was established on April 28, 1936, and on the other hand, Bengali Girls’ High School was set up on March 2, 1954. Both are located in the prime location of Guwahati viz. Paltan Bazar.
It is pertinent to mention that both schools before the merger produced many great personalities and stalwarts in various fields – education. literacy, games, sports, music, and other curricular activities. Dr. Amalendu Guha, an eminent historian, and literature in India was a student at Bengali Boys’ Higher Secondary School. He was admitted in 1936 (first batch). In those days, many of his classmates, later on, were famous in their own fields. A few names may be mentioned here – Hena Ganguly, Gobinda Lal Roy, Kiranmay Lahiri, Nirmal Mukherjee, Gopal Sen, Dhurba Gupta, Pradeep Chandra Pal, Santi Ganguly, Sachindra Mohan Dey Sarkar, and others. In those, the school was under Calcutta University, and in 1948 when the school came under the umbrella of Gauhati University, the student who stood first in the entire Assam was Indrajeet Chatterjee. After that many brilliant students passed out from the school. Some of the names are – Gurudas Chatterjee, Sridhan Roy, Sujit Basu, Ashish Bose, and many others. Also, it is pertinent to mention that in those days the name of the school was Silver Jubilee. Anglo-Bengali High School, because King George V completed his tenure of 25 years reign in England and coincided with the same Silver Jubilee, was prefixed. And after independence, the name of the school was changed to Bengali Boys High School, and later on to Higher Secondary. Anyway, when the Anglo-Bengali school was established two great educationists namely Nalini Bhusan Das Gupta ( a great writer) and Pulin Bihari Ghosh were selected as headmaster and assistant headmaster respectively. Also, the teachers were highly qualified and erudite scholars. In March 1937, Kabindra Nath Das was selected as a headmaster who brilliantly served the school up to 1948. During his tenure Ashwin Chakraborty, Ramesh Chanda Dutta, Santosh Sen Gupta, and Shiba Prasad Ghosh were recruited as teachers who were brilliant teachers and cordial with the students as I had the opportunity to learn from many of them while I was a student of the school from primary to 1973. Kabindra Nath Das in addition to discharging his duty as the headmaster took the initiative to set up a cooperative society under the banner of “Silver Jubilee Anglo Bengali High School Thrift and Credit Society”. Also, he introduced the “Running Cup” in badminton (doubles), and as a cultural activity, drama, and recitation were introduced by him.
It is heartening to mention that many people contributed to the construction of the school buildings. It was estimated that Rs. 17,000.00 would be collected from different sources (1935) but the amount was much higher than the estimate. In this regard, the names of some people may be mentioned as received from different sources who contributed for the development of the school. They are Rai Bahadur Kalicharan Sen, Rai Bahadur Mahendra Mohan Lahiri, Rai Bahadur P.G. Mukherjee, Jogesh Chandra Sen, Upendra Nath Sen, Khan Sahib Eda Khan, and many others. During that period, some professors of Cotton College donated in 12 installments their one month’s salary, Also Jogesh Chandra Sen nephew of Rai Bahadur Kalicharan Sen till his death associated with the school and physically and monetarily helped the development of the school.
Regarding the construction issue of the school (1935-36), a few lines may be mentioned here. The construction of Silver Jubilee Anglo-Bengali High School was given to the contractor Khan Sahib Eda Khan who completed the school within a stipulated time as a sequel school building that could be inaugurated in 1936. It is pertinent to mention that the foundation stone was laid by then Governor Sir Michel Keen in 1935 and later on Mr. Small, Director of Public Instruction (DPI) inaugurated the school. In the first-year total students were 404 – 363 Bengali speaking, 26 Hindi speaking, seven Manipuri, three Nepali, four Punjabi, and one Tamil. Of the total 404 students, 20 were Muslim students also. Anyway, it is evident that not only Bengali-speaking students were admitted but students of other languages got admission to the school in those days.
Also, various sources reveal the fact that from the start of school, many students got first division and the percentage of passed was hovering around 75, which was a great achievement in those days as some other schools in the area could not excel like Anglo Bengali / Bengali High School. And from time-to-time students of Bengali Higher Secondary School did excellent results in the Board examination in different years. But after establishing English medium schools in Guwahati in recent times many guardians prefer to send their children to English medium for different reasons inter alia of which is job prospects so students’ strength came down. For instance, in the year 2016 in the High School Leaving Certificate (HSLC exam), the total number of students who appeared was 18, and of them, the first division got three, six were placed in the second division, and eight secured third division.
About the past history of Boys’ School, it may be mentioned that during the 1960s from class VIII (eighth), students were allotted science and arts streams which continued up to 1973, and a pass certificate was given under the umbrella of Higher Secondary School Leaving Certificate and after that High School (10th Standard) and +2 i.e., Higher Secondary, two years started which till date is continuing (10 +2 system). On the other hand, Bengali Girls’ High School from its inception continued as a high school (up to 10th standard).
Results of Girls’ High School and Boys’ Higher Secondary School:
For the benefit of the readers, a few statistics about the Girls’ school are presented here. In 2019, only 10 girls’ students appeared in the High School Leaving Certificate (HSLC) examination. No one got the first division but nine passed out in the second division and one was placed in the third division with a 100 percent pass. In 2020, like 2019, 10 students appeared – two first division, four-second division, and two third division with 80 percent pass. In 2021, because of COVID-19 based on the test results of the school, all the students passed as per the direction of the State Government. In 2022, only nine students appeared of which five got first division, three – second division, and one third division indicating 100 percent pass. It is pertinent to mention that some students got letter marks and star marks. But the other side of the coin is that 10 -10 students appeared and then nine students appeared mean low in absolute numbers and a matter of concern.
In the case of Boys’ school results are in two parts- one is High School Leaving Certificate Examination (HSLC) and the other one Higher Secondary School Leaving Certificate Examination (HSSLC). The High School results of Boys’ School for three years reveal that in 2020, 2021, and 2022, 100 percent of students passed (around 20 students each year appeared). The results of the Higher Secondary School Leaving Certificate examinations for the year 2020 reveal the fact 37 percent passed in the arts stream – two in the first division, three in the second division, and 18 in the third division. And in the science stream out of a total of nine students, three got first division, and six secured second division. In the year 2021, in the arts stream, 94 percent of students passed – first division three, second division 13, and third division 26. And in the science stream, only two students were there and both got first division. In the year 2022, in the arts stream percentage of pass was 63, first division one, second division seven, and third division nine. Against this backdrop, no students appeared in the science stream. It is evident from the data that number of students was scaling down year by year in both schools.
Present Situation:
It has already been mentioned that both Boys’ and Girls’ schools have been merged in May 2022 and the alumni of both schools have been trying to develop the infrastructure of the school by renovating dilapidated classrooms and already introduced a school bus to bring more students from far-flung areas by hiring a school bus on rent basis at the cost of Rs 55,000.00 per month. On April 10, 2023, the school bus service has been introduced. And also, 16 computers have been purchased for the students for skill development looking at the job market. And an attractive SMART kitchen has been constructed in the school for Mid-day Meal Scheme. Presently (as of May 12, 2023, around 100 alumni both males and females contributed towards the development of the school mainly for infrastructure, etc. Also, a few well-wishers of the school donated to the development of the school.
As of April 2023, there were 48 teachers in the school (presently one school as mentioned already) for 180 students from class 1 to class 12, which is not a good number because in 1936 when the school was established total number of students were 404 but instead of going up strength has come down in spite of merging two schools. Hope after the merger of both boys’ and girls’ schools in May 2022 the situation will greatly improve.

(During the course of writing this article many helped me by providing the necessary information and data. So, I offer my grateful thanks to all of them. Anyway, two names I wish to mention here – Dr. Saibal Sen Gupta (former Principal of Arya Vidyapeeth College, Guwahati, and an alumnus of the Boys’ School) and Mrs. Nazrana Rahman Hazarika (Principal of the present Bengali Higher Secondary School).

Prof Shankar Chatterjee, Hyderabad

Top Colleges to go for MBBS in Georgia

Georgia is increasingly becoming a popular educational destination for students from around the world. It offers a unique blend of high-quality education, affordable tuition fees, multiculturalism, and a welcoming environment. Here are some key points that describe Georgia as an educational destination:

Quality Education: Georgia has a well-developed educational system with a focus on providing quality education. The country has numerous universities and colleges that offer a wide range of programs in various fields, including medicine, engineering, business, humanities, and more. Many institutions follow international standards and have partnerships with universities from other countries.

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Affordable Tuition Fees: One of the major advantages of studying in Georgia is its affordability. Tuition fees in Georgian universities are significantly lower compared to many other countries, making it an attractive option for international students. This makes education accessible to a larger number of students seeking quality education at a reasonable cost. eWings Abroad Education Consultancy provide timely updates on the admission and other matters.

English-Taught Programs: Many universities in Georgia offer English-taught programs, especially in popular fields like medicine, engineering, and business. This allows international students to study in their preferred language without the need for extensive language proficiency in the local Georgian language.

Multicultural Environment: Georgia is known for its cultural diversity and warm hospitality. As an educational destination, it attracts students from different parts of the world, creating a multicultural environment that fosters intercultural exchange and understanding. This provides students with an opportunity to interact with peers from diverse backgrounds, learn about different cultures, and broaden their perspectives.

Safe and Welcoming Environment: Georgia is considered a safe country with a low crime rate. The local population is known for their friendliness and welcoming nature towards international students. The government and educational institutions also prioritize the safety and well-being of students, providing a secure environment for learning and personal growth.

Beautiful Natural Landscape: Georgia is blessed with stunning natural landscapes, including mountains, beaches, and historical sites. Students have the opportunity to explore the country’s rich cultural heritage, indulge in outdoor activities, and experience a vibrant social life outside of their academic commitments.

European Standard of Education: Georgia’s educational system follows the European standard of education, which ensures high academic quality and compliance with international standards. This enables students to pursue further studies or seek employment opportunities globally.

Overall, Georgia offers a favorable environment for international students seeking quality education, affordability, multiculturalism, and a safe learning experience. It is a country that combines academic excellence with cultural richness, making it an attractive destination for students worldwide.

MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) is an undergraduate degree in the medical field. Georgia is a popular destination for international students seeking to pursue MBBS due to its affordable tuition fees, quality education, and globally recognized degrees. Here are some options for MBBS in Georgia and some of the best colleges in the country:

  1. Tbilisi State Medical University (TSMU): TSMU is one of the oldest and most prestigious medical universities in Georgia. It offers an English-taught MBBS program, which is highly regarded among international students.
  2. Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (TSU): TSU is another renowned institution that offers an English-language medical program. It has a long history and provides a comprehensive medical education.
  3. David Tvildiani Medical University (DTMU): DTMU is a private medical university in Tbilisi, Georgia. It offers an English-taught MBBS program and is known for its modern facilities and high-quality education.
  4. European University: The European University in Tbilisi also offers an English-language MBBS program. It has a well-established reputation and provides a conducive learning environment for medical students.
  5. Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University: Located in the coastal city of Batumi, this university offers an English-taught medical program. It is a popular choice among international students for its affordable fees and good infrastructure.
  6. Akaki Tsereteli State University: Situated in the city of Kutaisi, this university offers an English-language medical program. It is recognized for its experienced faculty and modern teaching methods.

These are just a few examples of the many universities in Georgia that offer MBBS programs. It’s important to conduct thorough research, compare the curriculum, tuition fees, admission requirements, and other factors before making a decision. Additionally, check if the university is recognized by the Medical Council of India (MCI) or the World Directory of Medical Schools (WDOMS) to ensure the degree is recognized globally.

Time Management for Business

Time management is one of the most important skills that a business professional must possess. In today’s fast-paced and highly competitive business world, time is a precious commodity that must be used wisely. Effective time management is the key to success, both professionally and personally. Business professionals who are able to manage their time efficiently are more productive, less stressed, and ultimately more successful than those who struggle to manage their time effectively.

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The first step in effective time management is to set goals. Business professionals must have a clear understanding of their priorities and objectives in order to use their time efficiently. This requires a deep understanding of the business and what is required to achieve success. Once goals are set, it is important to break them down into smaller, manageable tasks. This allows business professionals to focus their time and energy on the most important tasks and avoid wasting time on less important ones.

Another important aspect of time management is to establish a routine. By setting a regular schedule, business professionals can ensure that they are using their time wisely and are able to accomplish their goals. This includes scheduling time for important tasks, such as meetings, project work, and other work-related activities. It also includes scheduling time for personal activities, such as exercise, family time, and relaxation. Explore the world of LeXman

One of the biggest challenges of time management is dealing with distractions. In today’s world, there are many distractions that can pull business professionals away from their work, such as social media, email, and phone calls. It is important to establish boundaries and limit the amount of time spent on these distractions. This can include turning off notifications during work hours, setting specific times for checking email and social media, and prioritizing important phone calls.

In addition to setting boundaries, it is important to delegate tasks when possible. Business professionals who try to do everything themselves will quickly become overwhelmed and may end up wasting time on tasks that could be completed by others. Delegating tasks allows business professionals to focus on their core responsibilities and ensures that all tasks are completed efficiently and effectively.

Finally, business professionals must be willing to adapt and adjust their time management strategies as needed. The business world is constantly changing, and what works today may not work tomorrow. By remaining flexible and open to new ideas, business professionals can continue to improve their time management skills and stay ahead of the competition.

In conclusion, effective time management is essential for success in the business world. Business professionals who are able to manage their time efficiently are more productive, less stressed, and ultimately more successful than those who struggle with time management. By setting goals, establishing routines, managing distractions, delegating tasks, and remaining flexible, business professionals can maximize their productivity and achieve their goals.

What are 10 Benefits of Executive Coaching

Coaching is a process of supporting individuals or teams in achieving their personal or professional goals. It involves a skilled coach who helps the client identify their strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for growth and development, and then provides guidance and feedback to help them improve.

Executing coaching is important for several reasons. First, coaching can help individuals or teams overcome challenges and obstacles that may be hindering their progress. By providing feedback and guidance, a coach can help clients identify areas where they need to improve and develop strategies to overcome obstacles and achieve their goals.

Second, coaching can help individuals or teams develop new skills and competencies that are necessary for success. A coach can help clients identify their strengths and weaknesses and develop a plan to build on their strengths while addressing areas of weakness.

Third, coaching can help individuals or teams stay focused and motivated. A coach can help clients set clear goals and develop a plan to achieve them, and then provide ongoing support and encouragement to help them stay on track. Enable-HR International is one of good institute to provide professional executive coaching.

Finally, coaching can help individuals or teams build self-awareness and confidence. By providing feedback and guidance, a coach can help clients see their strengths and potential, and develop the confidence to take on new challenges and pursue their goals.

In summary, executing coaching is important because it helps individuals and teams overcome obstacles, develop new skills, stay focused and motivated, and build self-awareness and confidence. By working with a skilled coach, clients can achieve their goals and reach their full potential.

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Executive coaching is a process of providing personalized and one-on-one support to executives and leaders to help them develop their skills, overcome challenges, and achieve their professional goals. The benefits of executive coaching are numerous, and here are 10 of them:

  1. Improved leadership skills: Executive coaching helps leaders improve their leadership skills, including communication, delegation, and decision-making, leading to better performance and results.
  2. Increased self-awareness: Through coaching, executives gain a deeper understanding of their strengths, weaknesses, and blind spots, which enables them to develop strategies to improve their performance.
  3. Better decision-making: Coaching helps executives develop better decision-making skills by identifying biases, improving problem-solving abilities, and increasing strategic thinking.
  4. Improved communication: Coaching helps executives improve their communication skills, including listening, empathy, and assertiveness, leading to better collaboration and relationships.
  5. Enhanced emotional intelligence: Coaching helps executives develop emotional intelligence, including self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills, leading to better relationships and leadership.
  6. Increased resilience: Coaching helps executives develop resilience, including the ability to cope with stress, adapt to change, and bounce back from setbacks, leading to better mental and emotional well-being.
  7. Improved work-life balance: Coaching helps executives develop a better work-life balance by identifying priorities, managing time, and setting boundaries, leading to better overall health and well-being.
  8. Increased creativity and innovation: Coaching helps executives develop creativity and innovation skills by encouraging them to think outside the box, explore new ideas, and take calculated risks.
  9. Increased accountability: Coaching helps executives become more accountable for their actions and outcomes, leading to better results and greater trust among their colleagues and stakeholders.
  10. Improved career satisfaction: Coaching helps executives align their career goals with their personal values, leading to greater job satisfaction and fulfillment.

Hamari Pahchan – Eradicate Malnutrition Mission

We know that a peaceful world cannot long exist, one-third rich and two-thirds hungry.”

– Jimmy

Malnutrition in India is one of the main concerns. More than one third of the world’s malnourished children live in India. The major cause of malnutrition being the inequality in social status and the lack of the necessities that are required in order to raise children. The administrative bodies of our country have attempted with various schemes and grants to eradicate malnutrition within the booming population of India but this cause still requires more support in order to decrease the percentage of malnutrition, especially among children of the underprivileged class.

As a result of this rising issue, Hamari Pahchan took the initiative to work towards the eradication of malnutrition as nutrition is an important factor for the well-being and proper development of a child. Malnutrition not only causes health issues for children but it can affect an individual in the long run during adulthood such as stunted growth, eye problems, diabetes, anemia as well as heart diseases, etc as a result of vitamins and micronutrient deficiency in the human body.

The initiative of Hamari Pahchan helps and provide food to the malnourished children so that they are able to receive the necessary nutrition. The cause is important as children are the future of our country and it is important to ensure their overall well-being. It is crucial to provide them with proper nutrition and assistance.The goals of this initiative are: eradication of malnutrition, eradication of hunger and food security on a national level. By supporting the cause, Hamari Pahchan provides the children nutriotious meal which would make a great difference in their lives. Poor people are also provided with the monthly ration, cooked food, as well as sanitary products.

Hamari Pahchan runs regular ration distribution drives, nutriotious food distribution drives, and frequent surveys with dieticians. Till now, with the contribution of many donors, Hamari Pahchan could successfully conduct 5000+ food distribution drives. The NGO is continuing to work towards it’s goal aiming to reach more and more unprivileged people.

As responsible citizens, it’s important that everyone who is capable enough should come forward and provide support to such NGOs, or contribute one’s part at individual level as well. Supporting the needful always makes one feel good and fills one’s day with positivity.

“There is nothing more beautiful than someone who goes out of their way to make life beautiful for others.”

-Mandy Hale

No one is great by Caste but by Deeds: Activities of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (Babasaheb) — Track2Training

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Dr. B.R. Ambedkar) popularly known as Babasaheb was a great personality, an erudite scholar, and a great asset of undivided India. He through his activities has proved that caste cannot be an indicator of greatness but through deeds, one can be great. Some years ago, when I visited his birthplace in a […]

No one is great by Caste but by Deeds: Activities of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (Babasaheb) — Track2Training

No one is great by Caste but by Deeds: Activities of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (Babasaheb)

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Dr. B.R. Ambedkar) popularly known as Babasaheb was a great personality, an erudite scholar, and a great asset of undivided India. He through his activities has proved that caste cannot be an indicator of greatness but through deeds, one can be great. Some years ago, when I visited his birthplace in a seminar (as a resource person) at Mhow, Madhya Pradesh, I was joyous and felt lucky to visit such a holy place. Born on April 14, 1891, Dr. Ambedkar has shown the path of Dalits on how to lead a decent life. Interestingly, his date of birth has coincided (sometimes one-day variation) with the new year celebration in Assam, West Bengal including Bangladesh, Punjab, Kerala, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and many other places.
Hailing from a socially backward class, he has shown everyone, particularly to the lower echelons of society mainly Dalits how to survive with dignity. It may be mentioned that Dalit communities are found not only in India but also in Bangladesh, even among the Muslims of Bangladesh.
Anyway, in his childhood, he never felt the brunt of caste politics or ‘untouchability syndrome’ as he was born in Mhow, Indore present Madhya Pradesh in an army cantonment. In his words “……my father was employed in the Army. He held the rank of Subedar at that time. Since we lived in the cantonment, we had little to do with the world outside the military area. I had no experience of untouchability”. But after his father’s retirement situation totally changed. His father shifted to Satara and he felt the brunt of untouchability as even no barber was prepared to cut his hair as a sequel Dr. Ambedkar’s elder sister used to cut his hair. He had to face many social issues in those days because of caste as he belonged to the Mahar caste.
Being an eminent economist and endowed with foresight, Dr. Ambedkar contributed substantially to the formulation of the post-war economic development plan in general and water resources and electric-power development in particular. A significant contribution of Babasaheb was the establishment of two technical organizations known as the Central Water Commission (CWC) and the Central Electricity Authority (CEA). He was instrumental in establishing the Bhakra-Nangal dam.
He was also a visionary and understood the importance of agriculture and farming for the sustainable development of the farmers. He advocated for collective farming as well as an uninterrupted supply of water and electricity to the farmers. Further, Balasaheb is known as the ‘Chief Architect of the Constitution of India’ and called as ‘Father of the Indian Constitution’. Because of his initiative, the Constitution of India has directed, “no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory, mine or engaged in any hazardous employment”.
With the end of December month, a year as per the English calendar is complete and New Year starts but with the death of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar on December 6, 1956, a new era of our Constitution started. And we the Indians are lucky to have a sound constitution and that is why Indians did not face the brunt of army rule albeit Pakistanis have many times experienced the same although both got independence almost at the same time.
Dr. Ambedkar was in a favour of birth control and was of the opinion that with a huge population, India would face severe problems on many fronts. By quoting him, it may be mentioned that “the educated class has, by this time, fully realized the necessity of birth control”. I offer my Pronam to this great soul on the occasion of his birthday on April 14, 2023.

Anxiety and Stress – Two sides of the same coin

There’s a fine line between stress and anxiety. Both are emotional responses, but stress is typically caused by an external trigger. The trigger can be short-term, such as a work deadline or a fight with a loved one or long-term, such as being unable to work, discrimination, or chronic illness. People under stress experience mental and physical symptoms, such as irritability, anger, fatigue, muscle pain, digestive troubles, and difficulty sleeping.

Anxiety, on the other hand, is defined by persistent, excessive worries that don’t go away even in the absence of a stressor. Anxiety leads to a nearly identical set of symptoms as stress: insomnia, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, muscle tension, and irritability.

Both mild stress and mild anxiety respond well to similar coping mechanisms. Physical activity, a nutritious and varied diet, and good sleep hygiene are a good starting point.

If your stress or anxiety does not respond to these management techniques, or if you feel that either stress or anxiety are affecting your day-to-day functioning or mood, consider talking to a mental health professional who can help you understand what you are experiencing and provide you additional coping tools. For example, a psychologist can help determine whether you may have an anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders differ from short-term feelings of anxiety in their severity and in how long they last: The anxiety typically persists for months and negatively affects mood and functioning. Some anxiety disorders, such as agoraphobia (the fear of public or open spaces), may cause the person to avoid enjoyable activities or make it difficult to keep a job.

According to the latest data from the National Institute of Mental Health, 31% of Americans will experience an anxiety disorder during their lifetimes.

One of the most common anxiety disorders is generalized anxiety disorder. To identify if someone has generalized anxiety disorder, a clinician will look for symptoms such as excessive, hard-to-control worry occurring most days over six months. The worry may jump from topic to topic. Generalized anxiety disorder is also accompanied by the physical symptoms of anxiety.

Another type of anxiety disorder is panic disorder, which is marked by sudden attacks of anxiety that may leave a person sweating, dizzy, and gasping for air. Anxiety may also manifest in the form of specific phobias (such as fear of flying) or as social anxiety, which is marked by a pervasive fear of social situations.

Anxiety disorders can be treated with psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of the two. One of the most widely used therapeutic approaches is cognitive behavioral therapy, which focuses on changing maladaptive thought patterns related to the anxiety. Another potential treatment is exposure therapy, which involves confronting anxiety triggers in a safe, controlled way in order to break the cycle of fear around the trigger.


Coal is burned to create steam, which is then used to generate electricity at coal-fired power stations. At extreme pressure, the steam generated enters a turbine, which turns a generator to provide power. In order to restart the process, the steam is then cooled, condensed back into water, and fed back into the boiler.

Why do we need coal to generate Electricity:

In the US, coal is largely utilized as a fuel to produce electricity. Bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, or lignite are all burnt in coal-fired power plants. Heat from the coal’s burning is utilized to turn water into high-pressure steam, which powers a turbine and generates electricity.

How a coal plant works for generation of Electricity:

Fundamentally, the process by which coal produces electricity today is the same as it was in Edison’s time and is comparable to that of other thermal power plants that use gas: the coal is burned, heating water to make steam, which spins a turbine to generate electricity. This was the primary method through which Britain generated most of its power in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Before the “rush for petrol” signalled its decline, coal generation reached its peak in the early 1990s, accounting for more than 60% of the mix.

How is the production of coal used for generating electricity:

In a combustion chamber, coal is burned to create heat, which then causes water to boil. Steam begins to emerge from the water, spinning the propellers. To generate energy, a generator is connected to the turbines.

Alone time – A boon for mental health!

People tend to be social creatures, and research has shown that social connections are vital for both emotional and physical well-being. However, alone time, which is sometimes called private time or solitary time and simply means spending time by yourself, is also good for you as it plays a positive role in mental health.

Being around other people comes with rewards, but it also creates stress. You might worry about what people think or alter your behavior to avoid rejection and to fit in with the rest of the group. While this may be the cost of being part of a social world, some of these challenges demonstrate why alone time can be so important.

Benefits of Alone Time
Having time for yourself gives you the chance to break free from social pressures and tap into your own thoughts, feelings, and experiences. Finding time to be alone can also have a number of key benefits. Some of these include:

-Improved personal exploration
-Increased creativity
-More social energy

Improved Personal Exploration
Becoming comfortable in your own company can give you the time and freedom to truly explore your own passions without interference. It can be a way to try new things, research topics that fascinate you, acquire knowledge, and even practice new methods of self-expression.

Giving yourself alone time means you can explore these things without the pressures and judgments that others may impose. Having time to yourself is critical for growth and personal development. Instead of worrying about the needs, interests, and opinions that others may have, alone time lets you focus on yourself.

Increased Creativity
Alone time is an opportunity to let your mind wander and strengthen your creativity. Without the need to care for or interact with other people, you can ignore outside influences and focus inward.

Research actually suggests that being alone can lead to changes in the brain that help fuel the creative process. One study found that people who tend to purposely withdraw in order to spend time alone also tend to be highly creative people.

In a 2020 study published in the journal Nature Communications, researchers found that perceived social isolation (a.k.a. loneliness) led to increased activity in the neural circuits related to imagination. When left with a lack of social stimulation, the brain ramps up its creative networks to help fill the void.

More Social Energy
Living alone tends to be seen in a negative light. However, researchers have found that people who live alone may actually have richer social lives and more social energy than people who cohabitate with others.

In his book “Going Solo,” sociologist Eric Klineberg notes that one in seven U.S. adults lives alone. Klineberg found that not only were these adults not lonely, many actually had richer social lives.

Some of these reasons people might struggle with being alone include:

*Lack of experience being alone: Some people just might not be used to being by themselves because they are so accustomed to being around other people. The sudden absence of social stimulation can leave them feeling detached or disconnected.
*Distressing thoughts and feelings: In other cases, being alone and focusing inward can be difficult or even painful. People might find this introspection distressing or find themselves engaging in rumination and worry.
*Social stigma: Stigma about being alone can also play a role in shaping how people feel about solitude. For those who have been exposed to negative attitudes towards being alone or who see it as a form of antisocial behavior or social rejection, solitude can seem like a painful form of punishment.

Marketing professor and researcher Rebecca Ratner of the University of Maryland found that people often avoid doing things they enjoy if they have to do them alone. This is particularly true if it is an activity that can be observed by others, such as going to dinner or a movie solo.

Such findings suggest that a stigma about being alone influences whether people think they enjoy such activities. “When people do things alone, they enjoy themselves more than they expected,” Ratner explains. “People overestimate the benefits of being with someone else.”

While being alone sometimes gets mistaken for being lonely, it is clear that having time to yourself now and then is important for mental health and well-being. If the thought of spending time on your own makes you feel bored or uncomfortable, try starting with a small chunk of alone time that allows you to focus on a specific task.

As you get better at enjoying your own company, you may find that this alone time helps you feel renewed and inspired for when you do return to your social circle.

Family time – The most important of all

Do you ever wonder why family time is important?

Yes, time is so important – in fact, time is money, as we’re often reminded when we set out to seek our livelihood as parents.

But family time? Is this meaningful or serve any purpose? Isn’t it just a waste of time because you could probably earn a few grand more putting that time to work!

I know you do not actually think like that and I’ve exaggerated it a bit.

May be you do plan to spend time with your family but things do not always go as per the plans. But you do it all for the family – to earn and provide for the family.

You give money and things to your family. But what does your family need the most?

Your time.

For your kids, your time spent with them is life precious jewels that embed in their memories forever.

The concept of “family” has changed a great deal in recent times, and there are now various forms of families and different styles of parenting. However, one thing remains certain; whatever the term “family” may mean to you, it is of utmost importance in your child’s life.

The family where your child grows up has a big influence on how he or she deals with relationships, copes with situations, and learns about living life. It’s only possible if you proactively be a part of the family.

And for that to happen, you need to block out family time in your schedule.

Family time is also important because if children don’t get the required attention, they might do something that could get them in trouble.

Some stay-at-home parents or moms may think that they are somehow “better” than other parents or moms, who stay away from home for most of the time. This is a misconception.

We often think that it’s all about quantity when it comes to the time we spend with our kids, whereas it is the quality time that we need to give our family and children. Your kids care less about the hours you spend with them, than how you spend your time with them.

As your children get older and become teenagers, it becomes tougher to spend family time with them. It’s mainly because life keeps you busy and your children reach a stage where their friends are the main priority.

As a parent, you have to be willing to go down to their level and enter their world. Sometimes you have to be creative or let them decide what they want to do as a family. But never give up on spending family time with your teens, and they may appreciate it more than what they express.

According to studies, healthy families make family time for talking and listening, accepting differences, showing affection and encouragement, sharing chores and decision making, keeping in touch, and making time for each other.

Why family time is important??

1. To build a stronger bond with your family!

The main reason why family time is important is because you need to develop ties and bond with your family. Often kids decide to join gangs or groups because they welcome them in, to become a part of their family.

Your kids need a sense of belonging and security, as they need to feel they have someone they can turn and look up to, for anything. Spending family time together ensures that a deep, strong, family bond develops.

2. To make time to talk and listen!

Another good reason of spending time with family directly relates to the need to share, talk, and listen to each other as a family.

Parents often think that it would be tough to talk to their children, who think differently from grown-ups. However, parents tend to forget their own time, as how it was for them when they were young! The people you liked were mostly those who listened to what you had to say, similarly, you need to listen to what your children have to say. Listening doesn’t mean only hearing the words your child is saying, but also feeling what your child is trying to convey.

You need to listen without jumping in with answers, criticizing, or giving your own view points. You need to show that you are involved in the conversation, by stopping all other work you are doing, and just listen to them. Talk directly to your kids, especially teenagers, about alcohol and drugs, and set a good example yourself.

3. To teach your children important lessons of life!

If you do not teach children at home, they will learn it elsewhere. As a parent, would you want your children to learn life’s important lessons by undergoing pain, or going the wrong way?

Although children have to learn a few things on their own, it’s important to have family time for discussions, where you can put forth problems or situations in front of them, and then talk about them with your children, seek their opinion, and discuss on the matter. This would help them understand the situations of life in a better way.

4. To show affection, appreciation, and encouragement!

Family time is important so that everyone in the family has a way of showing affection to each other, maybe by giving hugs, holding hands, being thoughtful and kind. According to studies, teenagers who remember being praised, hugged, or kissed are likely to do better at school than those who don’t have this experience.

You need to take out that quality family time to ask what each family member has done in the day, and show interest in each other’s lives. People find it very easy to criticize than praise. So make an effort to think about the positive in each person and tell your child what goodness you have noticed, besides teaching them these values.

5. To instill family values in your children!

Instilling family values in children is of great significance nowadays, so that they are not misled by the number of divorces on the rise.

Children mostly imitate the behavior you show towards them. If you are an absent parent, they will be the same to their children in the future. Instead, they often portray worse behaviors than they see.

Thus, spending family time together will build a sense of worth and instill positive family values in your children.

6. To inculcate family rituals and traditions!

Daily rituals or the little things that you do daily and on special occasions, helps to build a sense of belonging, contentedness, and inner security within the family. Daily rituals like the way you greet each other, or say goodbye, what you do at mealtimes or bedtimes, can all be something to share within your family time.

Families benefit from coming together to celebrate occasions like birthdays, anniversaries, or festivals like Christmas, etc., where they learn the traditions about what happens at these times.

7. To accept the differences in each person!

Family time is essential to appreciate, encourage, and value the differences in each family member, knowing that everyone is special in their own way. Allow each family member to be excited about their personal interests, and show respect and tolerance towards them.

Don’t pressurize your family members to be like you, or hide their feelings and differences. Instead, let them feel proud to be themselves.

8. To keep in touch with friends and relatives!

As we live in a society, we do need to spend time among our family as well as interact with friends and relatives. Knowing that there are people outside the family to turn to in a crisis can make a difference to your child’s happiness. It also increases the chances of them making good friends later in life.

9. To share the chores!

Family time is important to teach younger children, by giving them chance to do things for themselves, under your supervision. Use adult power wisely, and keep control through humor and encouragement, not with punishments or threats.

By spending time with family together, a very special relationship of trust and intimacy develops that helps build a healthy family. Especially when children have a real say in what happens and where everyone feels their views are heard.

10. To help and connect better with your children!

One of the most overlooked aspects of education today is parental involvement. Many parents don’t realize the importance of family time and how important it is to involve themselves in their children’s learning.

All parents and family members need to find time and make the effort. Research shows that when parents involve themselves in the family, their children:

-Get superior grades and test scores.
-Graduate from high school at higher rates.
-Are most likely to go on to higher education.
-Have more positive attitudes and behave better.

Show loyalty to your family, stick up for each other so that each person feels confident in the family’s support and pull together to form a united front to find solutions.
Children grow up and are gone before you realize it, so don’t waste the time you have now, and spend it with your family. Remember, that strong families are able to withstand setbacks and crisis with a positive attitude, shared values, and beliefs that help them cope with challenges.

A step towards healthy eyes!

As students we are very much dependent on technology. So our lives generally revolved around phone, laptop and screen due to which our eyes experience a lot of radiation exposure.

Don’t take your eyes for granted. Take these easy steps to keep your peepers healthy.

1.Eat Well
Good eye health starts with the food on your plate. Nutrients like omega-3 fatty acids, lutein, zinc, and vitamins C and E might help ward off age-related vision problems like macular degeneration and cataracts. To get them, fill your plate with:

Green leafy vegetables like spinach, kale, and collards
Salmon, tuna, and other oily fish
Eggs, nuts, beans, and other nonmeat protein sources.

2. Quit Smoking
It makes you more likely to get cataracts, damage to your optic nerve, and macular degeneration, among many other medical problems. If you’ve tried to kick the habit before only to start again, keep at it. The more times you try to quit, the more likely you are to succeed. Ask your doctor for help.

3. Wear Sunglasses
The right pair of shades will help protect your eyes from the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays. Too much UV exposure boosts your chances of cataracts and macular degeneration.

Choose a pair that blocks 99% to 100% of UVA and UVB rays. Wraparound lenses help protect your eyes from the side. Polarized lenses reduce glare while you drive, but don’t necessarily offer added protection.

4. Use Safety Eyewear
If you use hazardous or airborne materials on the job or at home, wear safety glasses or protective goggles.

Sports like ice hockey, racquetball, and lacrosse can also lead to eye injury. Wear eye protection. Helmets with protective face masks or sports goggles with polycarbonate lenses will shield your eyes.

5. Look Away From the Computer Screen
Staring at a computer or phone screen for too long can cause:

Blurry vision
Trouble focusing at a distance
Dry eyes
Neck, back, and shoulder pain

To protect your eyes:

Make sure your glasses or contacts prescription is up to date and good for looking at a computer screen.
If your eye strain won’t go away, talk to your doctor about computer glasses.
Move the screen so your eyes are level with the top of the monitor. That lets you look slightly down at the screen.
Try to avoid glare from windows and lights. Use an anti-glare screen if needed.
Choose a comfortable, supportive chair. Position it so that your feet are flat on the floor.
If your eyes are dry, blink more or try using artificial tears.
Rest your eyes every 20 minutes. Look 20 feet away for 20 seconds. Get up at least every 2 hours and take a 15-minute break.

Walking – The best and underrated form of exercise

You drag yourself from your desk to the gym, where you pop in some upbeat music and jack the treadmill up to 6 mph.

Admit it, while you’re pounding out those three miles, you’re silently judging (even if subconsciously) the person walking next to you.

But experts say we’re unfairly placing the form of exercise in the “pointless” category. It turns out, you may be missing out on an extremely effective physical activity, not to mention a mental boost, by writing off walking entirely.

“Walking can be as good as a workout, if not better, than running,” says Dr. Matt Tanneberg, CSCS, a sports Chiropractor and Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist in Phoenix, Arizona who works with elite athletes. “You hear of people ‘plateauing’ when they continue to do the same workout routine and stop seeing results. I see patients all the time that plateau from running, they will run the same distance, speed and time, day in and day out. You need to constantly be switching up your exercise routine in order to get the maximum benefit for your health.”

Yes, running is more physically demanding, which leads people to label it a “better” workout.

“While I would love to say that walking can be just as effective of a workout as running, I’m not going to lie to you. In fairness, the two really shouldn’t be compared against each other,” says John Ford, certified exercise physiologist, who runs JKF Fitness & Health in New York City. “Running, due to larger muscle recruitment, greater forces exerted and faster motion capability, will always have the proverbial leg up on walking.”

But while walking may not be a better workout, it may be a better exercise choice for some people.

“With that being said, walking is a really good form of exercise and can help you reach your fitness and weight-loss goals. As a lifelong track athlete, who has marveled at race walkers (check out the Olympic walkers on YouTube!), I don’t scoff at walking,” says Ford. “In fact, walking is the suggested workout over running for many people. For example, those with knee, ankle and back problems and also for people who are overweight to obese. Walking is a lower impact exercise and can be done for longer periods of time.”

And there is no shortage of scientific research to back up the effectiveness of adding walking to your fitness routine.

“There are many reasons to walk for exercise,” says Ann Green, M.S., past heptathlon world athlete, yoga teacher and fitness studio owner. “Walking improves fitness, cardiac health, alleviates depression and fatigue, improves mood, creates less stress on joints and reduces pain, can prevent weight gain, reduce risk for cancer and chronic disease, improve endurance, circulation, and posture, and the list goes on…”

When comparing the results of the most recent National Runners’ Health Study with the National Walkers’ Health Study, researchers found that the energy used for moderate-intensity walking and vigorous-intensity running resulted in similar reductions in risk for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and heart disease over the study’s six year period.

Which means when it comes to some pretty prominent markers of our health, walking at a moderate intensity can get the job done just as well as running, as long as you’re expending the same amount of energy. Great news for those of us that dread going on a jog.

While the physical benefits are notable, the mental boost that can be gleaned from adding a walk to your daily routine may be more immediate.

One Stanford University study found that walking increased creative output by an average of 60 percent. Researchers labelled this type of creativity “divergent thinking,” which they define as a thought process used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. According to the study, “walking opens up the free flow of ideas, and it is a simple and robust solution to the goals of increasing creativity and increasing physical activity.”

Which makes sense, since science shows that engaging in activities that allow our minds to wander promotes a mental state conducive to innovative ideas and “ah-ha!” moments.

But it’s not only your creativity that will benefit from the mental lift. The act of walking is also a proven mood booster. One study found that just 12 minutes of walking resulted in an increase in joviality, vigor, attentiveness and self-confidence versus the same time spent sitting. Walking in nature, specifically, was found to reduce ruminating over negative experiences, which increases activity in the brain associated with negative emotions and raises risk of depression.

Stress- A threat to Students

Most students experience significant amounts of stress. This can significantly affect their health, happiness, relationships, and grades. Learning stress management techniques can help these students avoid negative effects in these areas.

Why Stress Management Is Important for Students?
A study by the American Psychological Association (APA) found that teens report stress levels similar to adults. This means teens are experiencing significant levels of chronic stress and feel their stress levels generally exceed their ability to cope effectively.

Stress can also affect health-related behaviors. Stressed students are more likely to have problems with disrupted sleep, poor diet, and lack of exercise. This is understandable given that nearly half of APA survey respondents reported completing three hours of homework per night in addition to their full day of school work and extracurriculars.

Common Causes of Student Stress:
Another study found that much of high school students’ stress originates from school and activities, and that this chronic stress can persist into college years and lead to academic disengagement and mental health problems.

High school students face the intense competitiveness of taking challenging courses, amassing impressive extracurriculars, studying and acing college placement tests, and deciding on important and life-changing plans for their future. At the same time, they have to navigate the social challenges inherent to the high school experience.

This stress continues if students decide to attend college. Stress is an unavoidable part of life, but research has found that increased daily stressors put college-aged young adults at a higher risk for stress than other age groups.3

Making new friends, handling a more challenging workload, feeling pressured to succeed, being without parental support, and navigating the stresses of more independent living are all added challenges that make this transition more difficult.4 Romantic relationships always add an extra layer of potential stress.

Students often recognize that they need to relieve stress. However, all the activities and responsibilities that fill a student’s schedule sometimes make it difficult to find the time to try new stress relievers to help dissipate that stress.

10 techniques to manage stress:

1) Get enough sleep

2) Use guided imagery

3) Exercise regularly

4) Take calming breathe

5) Practice Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR)

6) Listen to music

7) Build your support network

8) Eat a healthy diet

9) Find ways to minimise stress

10) Try mindfulness

5 skin care tips that everyone should be aware of!

Don’t have time for intensive skin care? You can still pamper yourself by acing the basics. Good skin care and healthy lifestyle choices can help delay natural aging and prevent various skin problems. Get started with these five no-nonsense tips.

1. Protect yourself from the sun

One of the most important ways to take care of your skin is to protect it from the sun. A lifetime of sun exposure can cause wrinkles, age spots and other skin problems — as well as increase the risk of skin cancer.

For the most complete sun protection:

Use sunscreen. Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 15. Apply sunscreen generously, and reapply every two hours — or more often if you’re swimming or perspiring.
Seek shade. Avoid the sun between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when the sun’s rays are strongest.
Wear protective clothing. Cover your skin with tightly woven long-sleeved shirts, long pants and wide-brimmed hats. Also consider laundry additives, which give clothing an additional layer of ultraviolet protection for a certain number of washings, or special sun-protective clothing — which is specifically designed to block ultraviolet rays.

2. Don’t smoke

Smoking makes your skin look older and contributes to wrinkles. Smoking narrows the tiny blood vessels in the outermost layers of skin, which decreases blood flow and makes skin paler. This also depletes the skin of oxygen and nutrients that are important to skin health.

Smoking also damages collagen and elastin — the fibers that give your skin strength and elasticity. In addition, the repetitive facial expressions you make when smoking — such as pursing your lips when inhaling and squinting your eyes to keep out smoke — can contribute to wrinkles.

In addition, smoking increases your risk of squamous cell skin cancer. If you smoke, the best way to protect your skin is to quit. Ask your doctor for tips or treatments to help you stop smoking.

3. Treat your skin gently

Daily cleansing and shaving can take a toll on your skin. To keep it gentle:

Limit bath time. Hot water and long showers or baths remove oils from your skin. Limit your bath or shower time, and use warm — rather than hot — water.
Avoid strong soaps. Strong soaps and detergents can strip oil from your skin. Instead, choose mild cleansers.
Shave carefully. To protect and lubricate your skin, apply shaving cream, lotion or gel before shaving. For the closest shave, use a clean, sharp razor. Shave in the direction the hair grows, not against it.
Pat dry. After washing or bathing, gently pat or blot your skin dry with a towel so that some moisture remains on your skin.
Moisturize dry skin. If your skin is dry, use a moisturizer that fits your skin type. For daily use, consider a moisturizer that contains SPF.

4. Eat a healthy diet

A healthy diet can help you look and feel your best. Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins. The association between diet and acne isn’t clear — but some research suggests that a diet rich in fish oil or fish oil supplements and low in unhealthy fats and processed or refined carbohydrates might promote younger looking skin. Drinking plenty of water helps keep your skin hydrated.

5. Manage stress

Uncontrolled stress can make your skin more sensitive and trigger acne breakouts and other skin problems. To encourage healthy skin — and a healthy state of mind — take steps to manage your stress. Get enough sleep, set reasonable limits, scale back your to-do list and make time to do the things you enjoy. The results might be more dramatic than you expect.

Insomnia- A sleeping disorder we need to know about

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder that can make it hard to fall asleep, hard to stay asleep, or cause you to wake up too early and not be able to get back to sleep. You may still feel tired when you wake up. Insomnia can sap not only your energy level and mood but also your health, work performance and quality of life.

How much sleep is enough varies from person to person, but most adults need seven to eight hours a night.

At some point, many adults experience short-term (acute) insomnia, which lasts for days or weeks. It’s usually the result of stress or a traumatic event. But some people have long-term (chronic) insomnia that lasts for a month or more. Insomnia may be the primary problem, or it may be associated with other medical conditions or medications.

You don’t have to put up with sleepless nights. Simple changes in your daily habits can often help.

Insomnia symptoms may include:

Difficulty falling asleep at night
Waking up during the night
Waking up too early
Not feeling well-rested after a night’s sleep
Daytime tiredness or sleepiness
Irritability, depression or anxiety
Difficulty paying attention, focusing on tasks or remembering
Increased errors or accidents
Ongoing worries about sleep

If insomnia makes it hard for you to function during the day, see your doctor to identify the cause of your sleep problem and how it can be treated. If your doctor thinks you could have a sleep disorder, you might be referred to a sleep center for special testing.

Insomnia may be the primary problem, or it may be associated with other conditions.

Chronic insomnia is usually a result of stress, life events or habits that disrupt sleep. Treating the underlying cause can resolve the insomnia, but sometimes it can last for years.

Common causes of chronic insomnia include:

1. Stress. Concerns about work, school, health, finances or family can keep your mind active at night, making it difficult to sleep. Stressful life events or trauma — such as the death or illness of a loved one, divorce, or a job loss — also may lead to insomnia.
2. Travel or work schedule. Your circadian rhythms act as an internal clock, guiding such things as your sleep-wake cycle, metabolism and body temperature. Disrupting your body’s circadian rhythms can lead to insomnia. Causes include jet lag from traveling across multiple time zones, working a late or early shift, or frequently changing shifts.
3. Poor sleep habits. Poor sleep habits include an irregular bedtime schedule, naps, stimulating activities before bed, an uncomfortable sleep environment, and using your bed for work, eating or watching TV. Computers, TVs, video games, smartphones or other screens just before bed can interfere with your sleep cycle.
4. Eating too much late in the evening. Having a light snack before bedtime is OK, but eating too much may cause you to feel physically uncomfortable while lying down. Many people also experience heartburn, a backflow of acid and food from the stomach into the esophagus after eating, which may keep you awake.

Chronic insomnia may also be associated with medical conditions or the use of certain drugs. Treating the medical condition may help improve sleep, but the insomnia may persist after the medical condition improves.

Why your weight is not losing?

If you’re eating healthfully and working out but not losing weight, there may be a reason. When you try to lose weight, your body fights back, so tweaking your strategy could help.

If you’re trying to lose weight, you may be able to lose quite a lot of weight at first without much effort. However, weight loss may slow down or stop altogether after a while.

This article lists 20 common reasons why you’re not losing weight. It also contains actionable tips on how to break through the plateau and get things moving again.

1. Maybe you are losing without realizing it

2. You’re not keeping track of what you’re eating

3. You’re not eating enough protein

4. You’re eating too many calories

5. You’re not eating whole foods

6. You’re not lifting weights

7. You’re binge eating

8. You’re not doing cardio

9. You’re still drinking sugar

10. You’re not sleeping well

11. You’re not cutting back on carbohydrates

12. You’re eating too often

13. You’re not drinking water

14. You’re drinking too much alcohol

15. You’re not eating mindfully

16. You have a medical condition that is making things harder

17. You have a junk food addiction

18. You’ve been dieting for too long

19. Your expectations are unrealistic

20. You’re too focused on dieting

Weight loss is not always easy and numerous factors can bring it to a standstill.

At the most basic level, not reaching your weight loss goal can occur when calorie intake is equal to or higher than calorie use.

Try strategies such as mindful eating, keeping a food diary, eating more protein, and doing strength exercises.

In the end, changing your weight and your lifestyle requires patience, dedication, perseverance, and resilience.

What Is The Best Reel For Bass Jigging?

Whether you are an experienced professional or just starting out with bass jigging, having the right reel is essential. With so many options available, it can be difficult to know which one will best suit your needs. In this blog post, we will examine the different types of bass reels, the features to consider when selecting one, and the best reels for bass jigging. So, if you are searching for the best reel for bass jigging, make sure to read this blog post!

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Types Of Bass Reels

There are many types of bass reels on the market, and it can be hard to know which one is right for you. Each reel has its own unique benefits and drawbacks, so it’s important to choose the right one for your specific needs. Here are four of the most common types of bass reels and their respective features: spinning reel, baitcasting reel, trolling reel, and spincast reel.

Spinning Reel

A spinning reel is a great choice for anglers who want to catch large fish quickly. These reels use a system of gears to spin the drum quickly, which gives the angler more speed when casting. They also have larger line capacities than other types of reels, making them ideal for catching big fish on long lines.

Baitcasting Reel

 A baitcasting reel is perfect for anglers who want to catch small fish with light gear. These reels use a set of weights at the bottom of the rod to keep the bait off the ground while casting. They also have a wide range in line capacity – from very small lines that can handle only tiny baits up to heavy lines that can handle big baits.

Trolling Reel

A trolling reel is best suited for fisherman who want to catch largemouth or spotted bass in calm water near shoreline or in riverside areas where there are lots of obstructions between them and the water surface. Trolling reels use large amounts of line capacity – up to 500 yards – which allows fishermen to cover a lot of territory with their lure before having to replace their line.

Fly Fishing Reel

Fly fishing reels are designed specifically for fly fishing purposes and are not typically used with other types of lures or hooks. Instead, they employ a system called “cast control” where you hold down a button on top of the reel while casting (similar to how you would hold down your camera shutter button when taking pictures). This system allows you adjust your cast distances easily without having to stop and reset your gear every time you make a change in direction.

Casting And Spinning Reels For Jigging Bass

When it comes to jigging for bass, there are a few things to keep in mind. For one, you’ll want to decide whether you want to use a spinning or casting reel. Spinning reels tend to offer a bit more accuracy and smoother retrieves, while casting reels offer a bit more power and are better suited for fishing in saltwater. Additionally, you’ll need to consider the gear ratio – this is the number of gears that the reel has compared to the number of lines it can handle. The higher the gear ratio, the faster the reel will spin and hence give you more control when jigging.

When selecting a reel for jigging Bass, make sure to consider material and handle comfort as well as line capacity. Many spinning reels come with multiple bearing systems that make them very durable when used outdoors in saltwater conditions. However, be aware that casting reels can also be very durable if cared for properly – just make sure not to over-wrench or damage it when adjusting or tightening components.

Finally, pay attention to design features that provide smooth retrieves and accurate casts – these factors are crucial for getting consistent results when fishing with Jigs. It’s also important to balance your rod and reel together so that both components are working in harmony for optimal performance. Different types of jigs will affect your action differently when using either type of reel – so be sure to test out different jigs on each type of reel before making your purchase. With these tips in mind, you’re ready start landing some big Bass!

Reel Features To Consider

When you’re looking to buy a new jigging reel, there are a few features that you should be aware of. The first is the casting reel or spinning reel. This will determine how well the reel casts and retrieves your line. You’ll want a quality drag system so that your line doesn’t get caught on the reel’s teeth and damaged. You’ll also want to make sure that the gear ratio matches the jigging technique that you’re using so that your line isn’t pulled too tightly or too loosely.

Next, consider the type of braking system that you need. Some reels come with magnetic braking systems, while others use anti-reverse technology. Finally, think about how many line capacity options you need and what size line you’d like to use. There are also right/left hand retrieve options available on some reels, as well as ease of retrieval features for those who prefer this style over traditional hand retrieval.

Best Reels For Bass Jigging-Check Here!

If you’re looking to get into bass fishing, then you need to know about bass jigs. Bass jigs are a type of lure that is used to catch big fish in salt and freshwater environments. There are a variety of different types of reels available for bass jigging, each with its own unique features and capabilities. In this section, we will outline the different types of reels and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages. We’ll also provide tips on how spool speed affects your bass jigging performance, as well as advice on factors to consider when selecting the right reel for your needs. Finally, we’ll give you some maintenance tips for your reel so that it will last long and perform at its best. So don’t wait any longer – check out our list of the best reels for bass jigging today!

In Short

In conclusion, selecting the right reel for your bass jigging needs is essential to get the most out of your fishing experience. Different types of reels have their own unique features, so it is important to consider factors such as line capacity, gear ratio, and drag system when making your decision. Additionally, make sure to select a reel that is comfortable and easy to use. With these tips in mind and our list of the best reels for bass jigging, you are ready to start catching some big fish! Check here our selection at Jigs Unlimited today!

Miscarriage – Causes and Symptoms

A miscarriage (also called a spontaneous abortion) is the unexpected ending of a pregnancy in the first 20 weeks of gestation. Just because it’s called a “miscarriage” doesn’t mean you did something wrong in carrying the pregnancy. Most miscarriages are beyond your control and occur because the fetus stops growing.

Types of miscarriage

Your pregnancy care provider may diagnose you with the following types of miscarriage:

1. Missed miscarriage: You’ve lost the pregnancy but are unaware it’s happened. There are no symptoms of miscarriage, but an ultrasound confirms the fetus has no heartbeat.

2. Complete miscarriage: You’ve lost the pregnancy and your uterus is empty. You’ve experienced bleeding and passed fetal tissue. Your provider can confirm a complete miscarriage with an ultrasound.

3.Recurrent miscarriage: Three consecutive miscarriages. It affects about 1% of couples.

4. Threatened miscarriage: Your cervix stays closed, but you’re bleeding and experiencing pelvic cramping. The pregnancy typically continues with no further issues. Your pregnancy care provider may monitor you more closely for the rest of your pregnancy.

5. Inevitable miscarriage: You’re bleeding, cramping and your cervix has started to open (dilate). You may leak amniotic fluid. A complete miscarriage is likely.

How do I know if I’m having a miscarriage?

You may not be aware you’re having a miscarriage. In people who have symptoms of a miscarriage, the most common signs are:

1. Bleeding that progresses from light to heavy. You may also pass grayish tissue or blood clots.
2. Cramps and abdominal pain (usually worse than menstrual cramps).
3. Low back ache that may range from mild to severe.
4. A decrease in pregnancy symptoms.

What causes miscarriage?

Chromosomal abnormalities cause about 50% of all miscarriages in the first trimester (up to 13 weeks) of pregnancy. Chromosomes are tiny structures inside the cells of your body that carry your genes. Genes determine all of a person’s physical attributes, such as assigned sex, hair and eye color and blood type.

During fertilization, when the egg and sperm join, two sets of chromosomes come together. If an egg or sperm has more or fewer chromosomes than normal, the fetus will have an abnormal number. As a fertilized egg grows into a fetus, its cells divide and multiply several times. Abnormalities during this process also leads to miscarriage.

Most chromosomal problems occur by chance. It’s not completely known why this happens.

Several factors may cause miscarriage:

Exposure to TORCH diseases.
Hormonal imbalances.
Improper implantation of fertilized egg in your uterine lining.
How old you are.
Uterine abnormalities.
Incompetent cervix (your cervix begins to open too early in pregnancy).
Lifestyle factors such as smoking, drinking alcohol or using recreational drugs.
Disorders of the immune system like lupus.
Severe kidney disease.
Congenital heart disease.
Diabetes that isn’t managed.
Thyroid disease.
Certain medicines, such as the acne drug isotretinoin.
Severe malnutrition.

There is no scientific proof that stress, exercise, sexual activity or prolonged use of birth control pills cause miscarriage. Whatever your situation is, it’s important to not blame yourself for having a miscarriage. Most miscarriages have nothing to do with something you did or didn’t do.

Importance of Yoga in a Student’s Life

The present-day lifestyle among students’ calls for the need for yoga and meditation, and these two should indeed be placed on an upper pedestal, in order to achieve the overall development of a student. As these two play an important role, they should be inculcated in the student curriculum. Meditation and yoga can contribute directly to improve mental focus and concentration among students. It involves long, deep, slow breathing, as well as the coordination of mental concentration. Yoga combines strength and flexibility exercises with relaxation and meditation. Studies have revealed that yoga has helped cure a wide range of mental and physical health problems, mainly among teens and children. If the present trend of lifestyle as mentioned above is again taken into consideration, it can be said that, in contrary to the olden times, Children these days, rarely involve themselves in sports and other similar aspects and are rather busy with smartphones, videogames and other static entertainment. Hence, Yoga and Meditation becomes a matter of Paramount importance in student life.

What is Yoga? Yoga in simple terms can be defined as a spiritual science of self-realization. The origin of Yoga dates back to over five thousand years in the Indian subcontinent. The Indian Sage ‘Patanjali’ defined Yoga as the process of Spiritual Development. In addition to this, he even came up with the different Postures, known as asanas and various Breathing Exercises, which are known as pranayama. He also defined the four limbs of meditative stages, as follows

Control of Sense – Pratyahara
Concentration – Dharana
Meditation – Dhyana
Enlightenment – Samadhi
If the present day situation is taken into account, it can be said that the concept of yoga has gained popularity in the western world due to the increasing awarness among peopel around the world and a need for balanced lifestyle. Another vital phenomenon to be taken into consideration is hatha yoga; hatha yoga has become quite popular among the westerns, it seeks to promote health and well-being through physical exercise. The regular practice of asanas and breathing exercises (pranayama) makes the body strong, supple and healthy.

Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state, it basically means transforming the mind. Even the origin of meditation has a thing with India, as the sages here were profoundly known for their meditating skills. Various Hindu religions like Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism give significance to yoga and follow it as a part of their religious practice. It encourages developing concentration, clarity, emotional positivity, and a calm seeing of the true nature of things. By engaging with a particular meditation practice you learn the patterns and habits of your mind, and the practice offers a means to cultivate new, more positive ways of being.

Yoga and meditation if practised regularly may yield very good results among the student community, which can be fighting depression, anxiety etc. which would prove to be beneficial to the students in a long run. Yoga improves physical as well as mental health of an individual while meditation provides peace of mind and control over the body.

1. Improved concentration– It leads to better grades, balanced blood pressure, decreased absenteeism and tardiness, improved interpersonal relations, and enhanced confidence level, sleep, relief from a headache, improved calmness and a sharper mind.
2. Weight management– There are lots of problems like obesity and uneasiness in breathing that are related to weight and very common among students. Such children are usually the targets of bullying. Practising yoga daily can help in weight management.
3. Flexibility– Yet another advantage of practising yoga regularly is the flexibility of the body. Stretching the muscles through yoga poses releases the lactic acid that builds up within your body preventing stiffness, pain, fatigue and tension that can really be painful at times. Stretching increases joint lubrication and stretches the soft tissues of your body. For students playing sports, yoga can decrease the risk of injury through increased range of motion and less fatigue.
4. Strength– Strength and endurance are very important, especially for young people who have to toggle between various activities all through the week. It increases muscle strength and endurance if practised regularly. It also tends to give a great deal of strength and calmness of mind.
5. Concentration and sharpness– Meditation and yoga have proved to be of great importance in increasing concentration and sharpness of the brain. Balanced blood pressure, arthritis and asthma can also be controlled through yoga.

The concept of sound of silence was originally put forth by Buddha, by the way of introduction of the concept of ‘divine eye theory’. It was stated by Buddha that it is always easier to hear the sound during the night time when the surrounding is calm. Once, the person identifies the sound, he is required to give his complete attention to the sound and should continuously listen to it by giving all his concentration to the sound and keep his awareness there and he should further keep going into the sound.

Beginner friendly Yoga for everyone!

It’s time to roll out your yoga mat and discover the combination of physical and mental exercises that for thousands of years have hooked yoga practitioners around the globe. The beauty of yoga is that you don’t have to be a yogi or yogini to reap the benefits. Whether you are young or old, overweight or fit, yoga has the power to calm the mind and strengthen the body. Don’t be intimidated by yoga terminology, fancy yoga studios and complicated poses. Yoga is for everyone.

The building blocks of yoga are poses. These are good ones to learn as you build a regular yoga practice.

These poses are a complete yoga workout. Move slowly through each pose, remembering to breathe as you move. Pause after any pose you find challenging, especially if you are short of breath, and start again when your breathing returns to normal. The idea is to hold each pose for a few, slow breaths before moving on to the next one.

1. Child’s Pose

This calming pose is a good default pause position. You can use child’s pose to rest and refocus before continuing to your next pose. It gently stretches your lower back, hips, thighs, knees and ankles and relaxes your spine, shoulders and neck.
Do it: When you want to get a nice gentle stretch through your neck spine and hips.
Skip it: If you have knee injuries or ankle problems. Avoid also if you have high blood pressure or are pregnant.
Modify: You can rest your head on a cushion or block. You can place a rolled towel under your ankles if they are uncomfortable.
Be mindful: Focus on relaxing the muscles of the spine and lower back as you breathe.

2. Downward Facing Dog

Downward-facing dog strengthens the arms, shoulders and back while stretching the hamstrings, calves and arches of your feet. It can also help relieve back pain.

Do it: To help relieve back pain.
Skip it: This pose is not recommended if you have carpal tunnel syndrome or other wrist problems, have high blood pressure or are in the late stages of pregnancy.
Modify: You can do the pose with your elbows on the ground, which takes the weight off your wrists. You can also use blocks under your hands, which may feel more comfortable.
Be mindful: Focus on distributing the weight evenly through your palms and lifting your hips up and back, away from your shoulders.

3. Plank Pose

A commonly seen exercise, plank helps build strength in the core, shoulders, arms and legs.

Do it: Plank pose is good if you are looking to tone your abs and build strength in your upper body.
Skip it: Avoid plank pose if you suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome. It can be hard on your wrists. You might also skip it or modify if you have low back pain.
Modify: You can modify it by placing your knees on the floor.
Be mindful: As you do a plank, imagine the back of your neck and spine lengthening.

4. Four- limbed Staff Pose

This push-up variation follows plank pose in a common yoga sequence known as the sun salutation. It is a good pose to learn if you want to eventually work on more advanced poses, such as arm balances or inversions.

Do it: Like plank, this pose strengthens arms and wrists and tones the abdomen.
Skip it: If you have carpal tunnel syndrome, lower back pain, a shoulder injury or are pregnant.
Modify: It’s a good idea for beginners to modify the pose by keeping your knees on the floor.
Be mindful: Press your palms evenly into the floor and lift your shoulders away from the floor as you hold this pose.

5. Cobra Pose

This back-bending pose can help strengthen the back muscles, increase spinal flexibility and stretches the chest, shoulders and abdomen.

Do it: This post is great for strengthening the back.
Skip it: If you have arthritis in your spine or neck, a low-back injury or carpal tunnel syndrome.
Modify: Just lift up a few inches, and don’t try to straighten your arms.
Be mindful: Try to keep your navel drawing up away from the floor as you hold this pose.

6. Tree Pose

Beyond helping improve your balance, it can also strengthen your core, ankles, calves, thighs and spine.

Do it: Great for working on your balance and posture.
Skip it: You many want to skip this pose if you have low blood pressure or any medical conditions that affect your balance.
Modify: Place one of your hands on a wall for support.
Be mindful: Focus on your breath in and out as you hold this pose.

7. Triangle Pose

Triangle, which is a part of many yoga sequences helps build strength in the legs and stretches the hips, spine, chest, shoulders, groins, hamstrings and calves. It can also help increase mobility in the hips and neck.

Do it: This pose is great for building strength and endurance.
Skip it: Avoid this pose if you have a headache or low blood pressure.
Modify: If you have high blood pressure, turn your head to gaze downward in the final pose. If you have neck problems, don’t turn your head to look upward; look straight ahead and keep both sides of the neck long.
Be mindful: Keep lifting your raised arm toward the ceiling. It helps keep the pose buoyant.

8. Corpse Pose

Like life, yoga classes typically end with this pose. It allows for a moment of relaxation, but some people find it difficult to stay still in this pose. However, the more you try this pose, the easier it is to sink into a relaxing, meditative state.

Do it: Always!
Skip it: If you don’t want to have a moment’s peace.
Modify: Place a blanket under your head, if that feels more comfortable. You can also roll up a blanket and place that under your knees, if your lower back is sensitive or bothering you.
Be mindful: Feel the weight of your body sinking into your mat one part at a time.

Learn Advanced Excel for business

Advanced Excel Topics

Below, we will address some of the top 10 Excel skills needed to break into the data analytics industry — as well as effective ways to learn these skills. You can be a great way to hone your Excel skills; the data analytics boot camp covers intermediate Excel topics, which form the foundation for the following advanced Excel skills.

Excel Skill 1: Statistical Modeling

Excel provides a specialized toolkit enabling you to perform statistical modeling inside the popular spreadsheet program. These kinds of diverse applications are exactly why Excel skills remain important in the job market. The advanced Excel formulas involved in producing statistical models and performing advanced data analytics enable you to perform meaningful statistical analysis and produce useful models. 

Excel’s statistical modeling functions include tools to create histograms, generate random numbers, find correlations between data sets, measure for rank and percentile, perform regression, and assess sampling. Using Excel to perform statistical modeling can reduce human errors sometimes involved in statistical analysis. Cursos de Excel is a good training provider.

If you have only used Excel for basic budgeting or project management, you may be unaware of the statistical tools that can power up your Excel skills. While some of the advanced Excel tools for statistical modeling are built into the program’s basic functions, others are part of the add-on package for data analysis. Through Excel’s Data tab, you can add in the Analysis ToolPak to gain access to these important functions.

Excel Skill 2: Forecasting and Prediction

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If you have historical and time-based data, you can use advanced Excel functions to create forecasts and predictions of future performance. You can create this data at higher and lower confidence levels for different degrees of probability — this can be important for businesses aiming to predict stock trajectories, forecast the growth of their sales efforts, or understand changes in the economy.

Excel’s Data tab has a substantial amount of advanced tools available for users, and Columbia Engineering Data Analytics Boot Camp can help you understand and make use of these more advanced functions. For example, if you’re working with two corresponding data series, you can insert a Forecast Sheet under the Data tab to create line or column charts with the relevant forecast. You can set your own end date for the forecast and choose from a number of options to fine-tune your results, including filling in missing points and assessing for seasonality.

Excel Skill 3: Pivot Tables

Pivot tables are perhaps one of the best-known and more powerful advanced Excel skills, as they can automatically give you quick summaries of the data in a massive Excel spreadsheet by grouping matching data. For example, pivot tables can quickly graph sales data by product, financial performance by investment type, or weight of various items in inventory. These tables, launched from the Tables section of the Insert tab, can be used to count, sort, total, or average data taken from one large spreadsheet.

With pivot tables, you may eliminate the need for individual formulas in producing meaningful data analysis — one of the most important Excel skills for employers because of its versatility and efficiency. After you have mastered these advanced Excel functions, you can create a pivot table in less than a minute, whether you have only a few rows of data or thousands of rows of information. You can create the specific fields to be addressed in the table, remove duplicates, count entries and provide a range of assessments of your data. Excel even includes recommended Pivot Tables keyed to the types of data presented in your spreadsheet.

Excel Skill 4: VBA and Macros

Visual Basic for Applications in Office (VBA) is a powerful, simple programming language created by Microsoft to extend and automate the capabilities of Excel and other Office software. VBA can be used to automate any function that you can perform in Excel and enables you to save the resulting code as a macro to be used repeatedly, which can dramatically ramp up efficiency and output when you have repetitive tasks or need to clean data across a range of spreadsheets.

Creating and applying macros can result in cutting a task down from days to hours, allowing you and your employer to save time. VBA programming allows you to have total control over the macros you produce — not only to automate advanced Excel functions but to create unique dialog boxes and other options for your particular business case.

Excel Skill 5: Model Historic Stock Trends

Excel offers a stock data type created specifically to pull in present and historical stock performance data. By modeling variations of a stock and the instruments based on it, like derivatives, you can receive a representation of the stock’s valuation at present and over time. By using the stock data type, you can bring in existing prices as well as the company name, number of employees, and other key data that can be used to perform stock modeling.

The advanced Excel function STOCKHISTORY provides access to historical data that can be formatted dynamically. By using the stocks data type and pulling in the start and end date (as well as specified properties), Excel users can pull in data over time on a specific exchange, in a certain currency, and with other specifications. This information may produce graphical representations of a particular stock’s history — as well as forecasting and prediction models to assess potential future outcomes.

Advanced Excel Skills for Your Resume

  • Statistical Modeling
  • Forecasting and Prediction
  • Pivot Tables
  • VBA and Macros
  • Model Historic Stock Trends

Advanced Excel Formulas

There are a myriad of advanced Excel formulas — many of which enable you to quickly and effectively perform key tasks on the job. These advanced formulas often provide advanced automation or searching capabilities, which can save time and produce quick, efficient results. 

The following are a few such formulas that may be useful to you

Sum If

The SUMIF formula is used to add cells together when they share certain properties. For example, SUMIF can be used when those data cells have a certain number or word attached to them, indicating, for instance, a certain class or type of product. It can also be used to add information that is above or below a certain value — or that equates to a particular amount — highlighting outliers or grouping together certain kinds of information.

SUMIF is a useful formula to gather summary information about sales, enrollment, or other total figures for large data sets that encompass different types of information. The SUMIF formula takes in data including the range of cells to examine, the criteria to determine which cells should be added together, and the sum range to add together.

Conditional Formatting

In many industries, formatted Excel tables and spreadsheets are important to provide a visual representation of your data. After you’ve crunched the numbers, you need to present your information to others at your employer. In many cases, making the key data and takeaways stand out is critical to effective business communication and ensuring that your presentation is understood by listeners and readers.

Conditional formatting changes the color and appearance of a cell and its contents based on certain conditions about the type of information it contains. For example, in a financial or budgeting spreadsheet, you may want negative numbers to be highlighted in red. You may want to highlight any divergent information in yellow if they contain a certain word or error code.

By determining the type of information you want to highlight, Excel skills in conditional formatting can enable you to deliver your information visually as well as verbally. You can highlight top performers or areas that need improvement with just a few clicks and color changes.

If Error

Sometimes, you may encounter errors when performing advanced Excel functions. This may be for a number of reasons, including the absence of a certain type of data in particular rows, or it may indicate a problem that needs to be fixed. IFERROR is used to remove error codes and produce either a blank cell or a text you specify that indicates that the cell or area needs further review or attention.

However, Excel by default produces certain types of error codes that can stop calculations from running across a range of values while also presenting a disruptive, attention-grabbing appearance on the sheet for easy identification and correction.

Count If

The COUNTIF function in Excel is used to count cells that have certain properties. If you want to find out how many times a certain word or entry appears in a large spreadsheet, COUNTIF examines all of your data and produces a count of the criteria that you specify. This can be very important whenever you want to know the number of things that are labeled in a particular way. Whether you want to understand the distribution of your inventory, identify where your customers are located, or determine the number of employees in a particular department, COUNTIF enables you to get this information quickly by taking in the range of cells you wish to examine as well as the criteria you are using to search.

Index Match

The combination of the INDEX and MATCH functions in Excel provides a more advanced way to look up and assess information inside an Excel sheet or workbook. While functions like VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP allow you to search for information, they have limitations on where and how they search that can prevent you from easily obtaining the information you need. The MATCH function is nested inside the INDEX function and can be used to find a certain type of data, while INDEX is used to connect that information to the other data available in its row.

In other words, MATCH allows you to find the position of a value in a range, and then INDEX is used to return a specific value in relation to the original value. It is important for two-way lookups and case-sensitive lookups, and you can even use it to find the closest match from the data you have.

Wildfire and Its Effects on the Ecosystem

Geophysical phenomena refer to the processes that occur in the Earth’s lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. These processes play a critical role in shaping the planet’s features and support the diverse range of flora and fauna. However, human activities have significantly impacted the natural balance of these processes, leading to several changes in critical geographical features such as waterbodies and icecaps, and flora and fauna.

Wildfires are one of the most devastating geophysical phenomena that have a significant impact on the earth’s environment. Wildfires are uncontrolled fires that occur in wildland areas such as forests, grasslands, and shrublands. They are caused by a combination of factors such as heat, drought, wind, and lightning, and human activities such as arson and negligence. These fires can cause significant changes in geographical features, including waterbodies and icecaps, flora and fauna, and the overall ecosystem. In this essay, we will discuss the important geophysical phenomena of wildfires, their geographical features and location, changes in critical geographical features, and the effects of such changes.

Geographical Features and Location of Wildfires

Wildfires occur all over the world, but some regions are more prone to wildfires due to their geographical features. These regions are mostly dry and have abundant vegetation, making them susceptible to wildfires. Some of the regions that are prone to wildfires include the Mediterranean region, California, Australia, and South Africa. These regions are characterized by high temperatures, low humidity, and strong winds, which are perfect conditions for wildfires to spread rapidly. One of the most critical features affected by wildfires is the vegetation cover. Wildfires can lead to the complete destruction of forests and grasslands, which can take decades to recover fully. In addition to the direct loss of vegetation cover, wildfires can also lead to changes in the vegetation structure and composition. For example, after a wildfire, the type of plants that grow back may be different from the ones that were present before the fire. This change in the vegetation can have significant impacts on the wildlife that depends on these plants for food and shelter.

Water-Bodies and Ice-Caps

Wildfires can have significant impacts on waterbodies and icecaps. In areas where wildfires are prevalent, waterbodies such as rivers and lakes can become contaminated with ash and debris, which can lead to a decrease in water quality. The increase in sedimentation can cause damage to aquatic habitats and result in the death of aquatic organisms.

Wildfires can also cause changes in icecaps. As the temperature rises due to wildfires, the icecaps can melt, leading to rising sea levels. This can cause flooding in coastal areas, leading to the loss of human lives and property. The melting of icecaps can also have long-term effects on the climate, such as altering ocean currents and changing weather patterns.

Flora and Fauna

Wildfires can have devastating effects on flora and fauna. The destruction of forests and other vegetation can lead to the loss of habitats for wildlife, which can result in the extinction of certain species. The smoke and heat from wildfires can also cause respiratory problems for animals, leading to their death.

Changes in Ecosystem

Wildfires can cause significant changes in the ecosystem. The loss of vegetation can lead to soil erosion and the loss of nutrients, making it difficult for new vegetation to grow. This can lead to a decline in the overall productivity of the ecosystem. The loss of vegetation can also increase the risk of landslides and floods.

Effects of Changes in Geographical Features

Changes in geographical features can have significant impacts on human populations. The loss of waterbodies can lead to a decrease in water availability, which can affect human health and agriculture. The loss of icecaps can lead to rising sea levels, which can cause flooding and displacement of populations. The loss of flora and fauna can lead to a decrease in biodiversity, which can affect the overall health of the ecosystem.

Wildfires are a significant geophysical event that can have a big effect on the environment of the earth. Wildfires can alter the flora and fauna, the ecosystem as a whole, and physical features like waterbodies and icecaps. Such changes can have disastrous impacts on human populations, having an impact on their livelihoods, agriculture, and health. As a result, it’s critical to take action to both prevent wildfires and successfully control them when they do occur.

Women Development and Poverty Issues in India

India, the second-most populous nation in the world, has long struggled with poverty and developmental challenges, particularly among women. The nation continues to suffer with gender inequality, lack of access to healthcare and education, and a lack of job prospects despite recent strong economic progress.

Women poverty in India

Women in India face multiple challenges that contribute to their poverty. One of the biggest challenges is the gender pay gap, which means women are paid less than men for the same job. This pay gap is prevalent across all sectors, including agriculture and informal labor, where women work predominantly. Women’s employment opportunities are also limited, as they are often restricted to low-paying, informal jobs that offer no benefits or job security. Furthermore, women are more likely to work in the informal sector, which is not regulated by labor laws, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation and abuse.

In addition to economic challenges, women in India also face social challenges that contribute to their poverty. These challenges include limited access to education, healthcare, and social services. Women’s education is often de-prioritized in Indian society, and many girls drop out of school due to poverty, early marriage, or cultural expectations. Lack of education limits women’s opportunities for higher-paying jobs and perpetuates their poverty. Another factor contributing to women’s poverty in India is limited access to healthcare. Women in India face a range of health issues, including maternal mortality, malnutrition, and limited access to reproductive health services. These health issues have significant economic and social consequences, including reduced productivity and increased poverty. Addressing women’s health needs is essential for their overall well-being and for the economic development of the country.

Developmental issues faced by women in India

Developmental issues in India refer to the economic, social, and political changes necessary for the country’s growth and progress. Women in India face unique developmental issues that stem from their social and economic marginalization. One such issue is gender-based violence, including domestic violence, sexual assault, and harassment. These forms of violence limit women’s ability to participate in the workforce, access education and healthcare, and contribute to their poverty.

Another developmental issue faced by women in India is limited access to credit and financial resources. Women’s economic empowerment is essential for their development, and access to credit is critical for starting businesses and improving livelihoods. However, women in India face significant barriers to accessing credit due to cultural and institutional biases that favor men.

Finally, women in India face political marginalization, with limited representation in government and decision-making positions. Political representation is crucial for women’s development, as it enables them to advocate for policies that promote gender equality, address women’s issues, and improve their livelihoods.

Efforts to address women poverty and developmental issues in India

Several efforts have been made in recent years to address women poverty and developmental issues in India. The government has launched several initiatives, such as the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (Save Daughter, Educate Daughter) scheme, which aims to promote gender equality by addressing female foeticide and improving access to education for girls. The government has also launched the Mahila E-Haat platform, an online marketplace that provides women entrepreneurs with a platform to sell their products and services.

NGOs and civil society organizations have also played a significant role in addressing women poverty and developmental issues in India. For example, organizations such as Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) have been working to improve women’s economic empowerment by providing them with training and support to start their businesses. Other organizations, such as the Centre for Social Research, have been working to address gender-based violence by conducting research, advocacy, and providing support services to survivors.


In conclusion, social, economic, and political marginalisation continue to cause substantial poverty and developmental problems for women in India. Women’s possibilities for economic and social development are constrained by the difficulties associated with limited access to healthcare, finance, and education, as well as with gender-based violence.


Social media :

Social media refers to methods of communication where individuals produce, share, and/or exchange knowledge and concepts in online groups and networks. The primary accounts on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, and YouTube are managed by the Office of Communications and Marketing.

Social media marketing:

Social media apps are used as a marketing tool in social media marketing (SMM), a type of online advertising. These social media platforms give businesses the chance to interact with their customers in order to develop a strong brand, boost sales, and enhance website traffic.

Types of Social media marketing:


2.Influencer marketing

3.Social media management

4.Paid media


Social media advertising is a form of digital marketing that involves sending sponsored advertisements to your target audience through social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Ads on social media are a quick and efficient approach to reach your target audience and expand your marketing initiatives.

2.Influencer Marketing:

One who has the power to influence others is an influencer. Influencer marketing is a type of social media promotion where brands pay individuals to spread the word about their goods or services to their followers. Influencer marketing first appeared in the form of celebrity endorsements.

3.Social media Management:

While social media marketing focuses more on developing and implementing a strategy to generate leads for your business through your presence on social platforms, social media management focuses more on using social media accounts.

4.Paid media:

External marketing initiatives involving a sponsored placement are referred to as paid media. Branded content, display ads, and PPC advertising are examples of paid media. For internet firms, paid media is a crucial part of revenue growth and brand visibility.

Importance of Social media marketing:

Brands have the chance to develop trust with potential customers, partners, and talent/employees by engaging on social media. This is especially true if other people are spreading the word about your company’s name, products, or services.

Benefits of Social media marketing:

1.Promote customer services

2.Impacting conversion and sales rates.

3.Draw the audience in.

4.Develop your leadership skills.

5.Investigate the opposition.

6.Boost SERP visibility.

Issues Faced by Women in India

India is the second-most populous country in the world, with a population of approximately 1.3 billion people. Women constitute nearly half of this population, and yet they face various challenges and issues in their everyday lives. Gender inequality is prevalent in India, and it affects women in various ways. One of the most significant issues that women face is gender-based violence. According to the National Crime Records Bureau, there were over 3 lakh cases of crimes against women in India in 2019. This includes rape, sexual assault, domestic violence, and harassment. Women who report such crimes often face stigma and discrimination, making it difficult for them to access justice.

Access to healthcare is another critical issue for women in India. Although the government has made significant efforts to improve healthcare services, many women still lack access to basic healthcare facilities, especially in rural areas. Women also face significant challenges in accessing reproductive and maternal healthcare services, which can result in poor health outcomes. Maternal mortality rates are high, with India accounting for almost one-quarter of all maternal deaths worldwide. This is due to inadequate access to healthcare, poor nutrition, and lack of education on maternal health. They also face high rates of malnutrition and anemia, which have long-term health consequences for both them and their children.

Another issue that women in India face is limited access to education and employment opportunities. According to the World Bank, only 66% of women in India are literate, compared to 82% of men. Women also face significant barriers to employment, with only 24% of women in India participating in the labor force, compared to 82% of men. This is due to various factors, including societal expectations, lack of education and skills, and discrimination in the workplace.

Political representation is another area where women in India are underrepresented. While women make up nearly half of the population, they hold only 14.4% of seats in the Indian parliament. This limits their ability to influence policy decisions and advocate for their rights. Although women have the right to vote and stand for election, they are underrepresented in political decision-making positions. Women’s political participation is essential to ensure that their interests and concerns are adequately represented.

Despite these challenges, there have been efforts to address these issues and improve the lives of women in India. The Indian government has implemented various policies and programmes aimed at empowering women and promoting gender equality. For example, the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (Save the Girl Child, Educate the Girl Child) programme aims to address gender-based violence and improve access to education for girls. The Mahila E-Haat programme aims to promote women’s entrepreneurship and enable them to access markets and sell their products online.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society groups have also played a significant role in promoting women’s rights in India. For example, the Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) has been working for the empowerment of women in the informal sector for over 40 years. SEWA provides women with education and training, access to credit and markets, and support for their rights as workers.

Finally, economic empowerment is crucial for women’s well-being in India. Women in India often face barriers to employment, including discrimination and lack of access to education and training. Women who do work are often employed in low-paying jobs with poor working conditions. Promoting women’s economic empowerment can help to reduce poverty and improve the overall economic development of the country.

In conclusion, women in India experience a variety of difficulties and problems, such as gender-based violence, restricted access to chances for education and work, and underrepresentation in politics. Yet, there have been initiatives in India to deal with these problems and advance gender equality. In order to empower women and advance their rights, the government and non-governmental organizations have created a number of policies and programmes. To ensure that women in India can live healthy, successful lives, more work still has to be done, and ongoing initiatives are required.

Women in Indian Society

The role of women and women’s organizations in India has been evolving over time, from the early days of the women’s suffrage movement to the present day. Women have played a crucial role in shaping Indian society, and their contributions have been instrumental in bringing about social and political change. Historically, women in India have been relegated to the domestic sphere, with limited access to education, employment, and political power. However, in recent decades, women’s organizations and activists have been working to challenge gender-based discrimination and promote women’s rights. The role of women in India has undergone significant changes in recent years, with the growth of women’s organizations and the emergence of women leaders in various fields. Women have played a crucial role in shaping the country’s history, culture, and society. They have been at the forefront of various social and political movements, fighting for their rights and challenging patriarchal norms.

Women’s organizations in India have played a pivotal role in promoting gender equality and advocating for women’s rights. These organizations have been instrumental in raising awareness about issues affecting women and girls, providing support and services to victims of gender-based violence, and advocating for policy and legislative changes to improve women’s lives.

One of the most significant women’s organizations in India is the National Federation of Indian Women (NFIW). Founded in 1954, NFIW has been at the forefront of various social and political movements, fighting for women’s rights and gender equality. The organization has been actively involved in the struggle for women’s right to education, employment, and political representation. It has also been instrumental in raising awareness about violence against women and promoting women’s health and reproductive rights.

Another important women’s organization in India is the All-India Women’s Conference (AIWC). Established in 1927, AIWC has been a pioneer in the women’s movement in India. The organization has been active in promoting women’s education, health, and economic empowerment. It has also been involved in the struggle for women’s political representation and advocating for legislative changes to protect women’s rights.

In addition to these national-level organizations, there are several grassroots-level women’s organizations in India that have been working tirelessly to improve the lives of women in their communities. These organizations have been instrumental in providing support and services to women and girls who are victims of gender-based violence, promoting women’s education and economic empowerment, and advocating for policy changes to improve women’s lives.

Women leaders in India have also played a crucial role in shaping the country’s political landscape. Several women have held top positions in government, including Indira Gandhi, who served as the country’s Prime Minister from 1966 to 1977 and again from 1980 to 1984. In recent years, several women have been elected to key positions in government, including Sushma Swaraj, who served as the country’s Minister of External Affairs from 2014 to 2019, and Nirmala Sitharaman, who became the first woman to serve as the country’s Minister of Finance in 2019.

Women have also made significant contributions to the country’s cultural and artistic landscape. Indian cinema has produced several women actors, directors, and producers who have made a name for themselves both in India and abroad. Women writers, artists, and musicians have also made significant contributions to the country’s cultural heritage.

However, despite these positive developments, women in India continue to face significant challenges. Gender-based violence, including domestic violence, sexual harassment, and rape, remains a pervasive problem in the country. Women’s access to education, health care, and economic opportunities is often limited by societal norms and gender stereotypes. Women’s political representation also remains low, with women holding only around 22% of seats in the national parliament.

In conclusion, women and women’s organizations have played a crucial role in shaping the history, culture, and society of India. Women’s organizations have been instrumental in promoting gender equality and advocating for women’s rights, while women leaders have made significant contributions to the country’s political, cultural, and artistic landscape. However, despite these positive developments, women in India continue to face significant challenges, and there is still a long way to go to achieve true gender equality.


Natural occurrences in the crust, oceans, and atmosphere, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, and storms, are referred to as geophysical phenomena. Waterbodies, icecaps, flora, and wildlife, as well as other geographical characteristics, can all undergo significant changes as a result of these events.

One of the most common geophysical phenomena that affect geographical features is flooding. Floods occur when an area receives more rainfall than it can handle, causing rivers and other waterbodies to overflow their banks. Floods can cause significant damage to the surrounding environment, including eroding riverbanks, damaging infrastructure such as roads and bridges, and destroying homes and crops.

One of the most notable examples of the effects of flooding on geographical features is the 1993 Mississippi River floods in the United States. The floods caused over $15 billion in damages, affected 12 states, and displaced over 50,000 people. The floods also caused significant changes to the river’s course, including the creation of new channels and the destruction of levees.

Another geophysical phenomenon that affects geographical features is changes in waterbodies, such as lakes and oceans. These changes can occur due to natural causes, such as shifts in tectonic plates, or human activities, such as damming rivers or extracting groundwater. Changes in waterbodies can have significant impacts on the surrounding environment, including changes in flora and fauna.

One example of the effects of changes in waterbodies on geographical features is the Aral Sea in Central Asia. The Aral Sea was once the world’s fourth-largest lake, but due to human activities, such as diverting water from the rivers that feed the lake for irrigation, it has shrunk by over 90%. The shrinking of the Aral Sea has had significant impacts on the surrounding environment, including the disappearance of fish species, changes in the local climate, and the emergence of new desert landscapes.

Another geophysical phenomenon that affects geographical features is changes in icecaps, such as those found in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Changes in icecaps can occur due to natural causes, such as changes in temperature or precipitation, or human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels that contribute to climate change. Changes in icecaps can have significant impacts on the surrounding environment, including changes in sea level, changes in ocean currents, and changes in flora and fauna.

One example of the effects of changes in icecaps on geographical features is the melting of the Greenland ice sheet. The Greenland ice sheet is the second-largest ice sheet in the world, covering over 1.7 million square kilometers. However, due to rising temperatures caused by climate change, the ice sheet is melting at an accelerating rate. This melting is causing sea levels to rise, which could have significant impacts on coastal areas worldwide, including flooding and the loss of habitat for flora and fauna.

Geophysical phenomena can also have significant impacts on flora and fauna. Changes in the environment, such as flooding, changes in waterbodies, and changes in icecaps, can cause significant disruptions to ecosystems, including changes in species distributions, changes in food webs, and changes in migration patterns.

One example of the effects of geophysical phenomena on flora and fauna is the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The tsunami caused significant damage to coastal ecosystems, including coral reefs, mangrove forests, and sea-grass beds. These ecosystems are critical habitats for a wide range of species, including fish, turtles, and other marine life. The loss of these habitats could have significant impacts on the survival of these species.

The Earth’s geographical characteristics, such as water bodies and ice caps, as well as the flora and fauna that depend on them, can all be significantly impacted by geophysical occurrences. While some changes can be brought on by nature, others might be accelerated by human activity like deforestation and fossil fuel burning. To better prepare for and lessen their consequences on the world and its inhabitants, it is crucial to comprehend these occurrences and their effects.

Cyclone, A Geophysical Phenomena

Natural occurrences on Earth called geophysical phenomena are linked to the planet’s physical processes and characteristics. Cyclones, changes in geographical characteristics, and changes in flora and fauna are some of the most significant geophysical events.

Strong, spinning storm systems known as cyclones are characterized by low-pressure centers, strong winds, and copious amounts of rain. They frequently occur in the tropics and subtropics and form over warm ocean waters. These storms have the potential to seriously harm infrastructure and endanger both human and animal lives in the affected areas. Typhoons in the western Pacific and hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean are two different names for the same cyclone, which is categorized based on its wind speed.

Geographical features are the physical aspects of the Earth’s surface, such as mountains, valleys, rivers, and coastlines. Changes in geographical features can occur naturally or as a result of human activities. Natural changes can be caused by geological processes such as erosion, volcanic activity, and tectonic movements, while human activities can cause changes such as deforestation, mining, and urbanization.

Waterbodies, such as oceans, rivers, and lakes, are an essential part of the Earth’s geography. Changes in waterbodies can occur due to natural processes such as climate change, melting of ice caps, and erosion, or as a result of human activities such as damming, pollution, and overfishing. Changes in waterbodies can have significant impacts on the environment, including changes in water quality, loss of biodiversity, and impacts on human populations that rely on water resources for their livelihoods.

Icecaps, including glaciers and polar ice caps, are also important geographical features that are vulnerable to climate change. Rising temperatures are causing significant melting of icecaps, leading to rising sea levels, changes in ocean currents, and impacts on marine ecosystems. The loss of icecaps also has significant implications for human populations, particularly those in low-lying coastal areas that are at risk of flooding and other climate-related impacts.

Flora and fauna are the plant and animal life that inhabit different ecosystems around the world. Changes in the environment can have significant impacts on flora and fauna, including changes in habitat availability, food sources, and temperature regimes. Climate change is one of the most significant drivers of changes in flora and fauna, with rising temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns leading to shifts in species ranges and impacts on biodiversity. Human activities such as deforestation, pollution, and hunting also have significant impacts on flora and fauna. Strong winds can uproot trees and damage other vegetation, while heavy rainfall can cause flooding and landslides, altering soil conditions and destroying habitats. Wildlife populations may be displaced or killed by the storm, and food sources may be disrupted. In some cases, cyclones can also cause pollution by releasing hazardous materials from damaged infrastructure or flooding.

The effects of these changes can be widespread and long-lasting. For example, changes in the Arctic icecap have led to the loss of habitat for polar bears and other species, as well as changes in the migration patterns of marine mammals and fish. The melting of glaciers and ice caps in the Himalayas has led to increased flooding and landslides, threatening the lives and livelihoods of people in the region.

In order to mitigate the impacts of geophysical phenomena and changes in critical geographical features, it is important to develop strategies that address both the immediate and long-term effects. This can include measures such as building infrastructure that can withstand cyclones and flooding, creating protected areas for wildlife, and promoting sustainable water management practices. Additionally, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and taking steps to mitigate climate change can help to slow the rate of change in critical geographical features and reduce the impacts on ecosystems and human societies. Changes in geographical features can also have significant impacts on human populations and ecosystems. For example, changes in waterbodies can lead to changes in water availability, which can impact agricultural production, energy production, and human health. Changes in icecaps can lead to rising sea levels, which can impact coastal communities, infrastructure, and ecosystems. Changes in flora and fauna can lead to loss of biodiversity, impacts on ecosystem services, and impacts on human populations that rely on these resources for their livelihoods.

The Earth’s ecology and human populations are significantly impacted by geophysical events like cyclones, changes in topographical characteristics, and changes in flora and fauna. Understanding these occurrences and their effects is essential for creating efficient mitigation and adaptation plans, especially in light of the ongoing effects of climate change and other global concerns.


Natural occurrences in the Earth’s physical systems, such as its atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere, are referred to as geophysical phenomena. These events, along with changes in geographical features, flora and fauna, and human societies, can have a profound impact on the environment. Volcanic activity, changes in waterbodies and icecaps, and changes in geographical features are some of the most significant geophysical phenomena.

Volcanic Activity

Volcanic activity is one of the most critical geophysical phenomena that can have a significant impact on the environment. Volcanoes are openings in the Earth’s surface that allow magma, ash, and gas to escape from the Earth’s interior. When this magma reaches the surface, it can form a volcanic eruption, which can have a range of effects on the environment.

Volcanic eruptions can release massive amounts of ash and gases into the atmosphere. These gases, such as sulfur dioxide, can react with water vapor to form acid rain, which can have significant impacts on flora, fauna, and human societies. Ash and other volcanic particles can also block out sunlight and cause temporary cooling of the Earth’s surface. Additionally, volcanic eruptions can cause landslides and mudflows, which can be devastating to human settlements and infrastructure.

Geographical Features and Their Location

Geographical features refer to the physical characteristics of the Earth’s surface, such as mountains, valleys, rivers, and lakes. Changes in geographical features can occur due to a range of geophysical phenomena, including tectonic plate movements, volcanic activity, erosion, and climate change.

Tectonic plate movements can cause significant changes in the Earth’s surface, including the formation of mountains, valleys, and ocean basins. Volcanic activity can also create new landforms, such as volcanic islands and lava flows. Erosion, caused by wind and water, can slowly wear away landforms over time, creating new features such as canyons and waterfalls. Climate change can also impact geographical features, such as melting ice caps and rising sea levels.

Changes in Waterbodies and Icecaps

Waterbodies, including oceans, lakes, and rivers, can be impacted by a range of geophysical phenomena, including tectonic plate movements, volcanic activity, and climate change. These changes can have significant impacts on the environment, including changes in temperature, salinity, and nutrient levels.

Melting icecaps can also have significant impacts on the environment, including rising sea levels and changes in ocean currents. As ice melts, it can release freshwater into the ocean, which can change the salinity levels and impact the circulation of ocean currents. Additionally, melting ice can expose new land, which can impact flora and fauna in the area.

Effects on Flora and Fauna:

Geophysical phenomena can have significant impacts on flora and fauna. For example, volcanic eruptions can release ash and gases into the atmosphere, which can impact the growth and health of plants. Additionally, volcanic activity can cause landslides and mudflows, which can destroy habitats and kill animals.

Changes in waterbodies and icecaps can also have significant impacts on flora and fauna. Rising sea levels, for example, can cause coastal erosion and flooding, which can destroy habitats and force animals to relocate. Changes in ocean currents can also impact the distribution of nutrients and plankton, which can impact the entire food chain.

The most significant natural processes that take place on Earth include geophysical phenomena like volcanic activity, changes in geographical features, and changes in flora and fauna. While these occurrences have the potential to significantly impact the physical and biological systems of the planet, they can also shed important light on the intricate relationships that define our environment. Therefore, it is crucial to carefully track and research these events in order to comprehend their impacts and create plans to lessen their negative effects on both the environment and human life.

Foods that enhances the process of weight loss

Eating nutrient-rich foods, such as lean protein and legumes, can support your overall health and help you maintain a moderate body weight.

Eating nutrient-rich foods, such as lean protein and legumes, can support your overall health and help you maintain a moderate body weight.

Healthy bodies come in all shapes and sizes. While weight loss is not a magic bullet for health, and not everyone needs to pursue weight loss, it might be something you want to work toward to feel your healthiest.

Coupled with regular movement, your diet can affect your health outcomes.

1. Whole eggs

Eggs are incredibly nutrient-dense. Interestingly, almost all its nutrients are found in the yolks — like choline and vitamin D — though egg whites deliver 4–6 grams of protein each. Because they’re high in protein and fat, they help you feel full. That’s key, because responding to your body’s internal fullness and hunger cues can help you reach or maintain a healthy weight. In other words, getting in the habit of eating when you’re hungry and stopping when you’re full can help your weight loss goals.

2. Leafy greens

Leafy greens include kale, spinach, collard greens, Swiss chard, and a few others. They have several properties that make them perfect for reaching or maintaining a healthy weight. For example, they pack fiber and nutrients that keep you satiated and hydrated.

3. Salmon

Fatty fish like salmon are incredibly nutritious and very satisfying.
Salmon is loaded with high quality protein, healthy fats, and various important nutrients. That combination keeps you satiated and can help you reach a healthier weight.

4. Cruciferous vegetables

Cruciferous vegetables include broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts.
Like other vegetables, they’re high in fiber and tend to be incredibly filling.
What’s more, these types of veggies contain decent amounts of protein. They’re not nearly as high in protein as animal foods or legumes, but still high for vegetables.

5. Chicken breast and some lean meats

Meat remains a controversial food group for many people.

Beyond issues of sustainability and ethics, we’re still not sure whether and how red meat raises the risk of heart disease or diabetes.

Research on meat consumption and health outcomes has yielded low evidence of causation.

6. Potatoes and other root vegetables

White potatoes seem to have fallen out of favor possibly, at least in part, due to the rise of lower carb diets.

For what it’s worth, potatoes and other root vegetables have several properties that make them wonderful foods for weight loss and optimal health. They contain an incredibly diverse range of nutrients a little bit of almost everything you need.

7. Beans and legumes

Beans and other legumes can be beneficial for weight loss. These include lentils, black beans, kidney beans, and some others.

Those foods tend to be high in protein and fiber, which are two nutrients that promote satiety. They also tend to contain some resistant starch

Yoga for proper hair growth

Yoga has a plethora of holistic health benefits. This ancient fitness form, which is also a way of life, has been known to not just safeguard inner and mental health but also give cures to skin and hair issues. If you’re someone who is tired of the short bob and desires for your tresses to be longer, there are several yoga asanas that can actually help out with hair growth. In fact, yoga for hair growth and better health has been getting some popularity around the world due to the wonderful results it seems to achieve. Here are some yoga asanas that not just promote hair growth, but will also help in reducing hair fall and improving their health.


Kapalhbhati is derived from two Sanskrit words: Kapala, which means “skull,” and Bhati, which means “light.” It’s a mind-body activity that rejuvenates, cleanses and invigorates. This breathing exercise helps cleanse the toxins from the kapal, meaning the entire head or face region, thus promoting better oxygen supply and reducing free radicals, enabling hair growth. Moreover, it helps reduce stress and anxiety, which are also contributing factors to hair fall.

2. Adho Mukha Svanasana

Adho Mukha Svanasana, better known as the downward facing pose, is among the 12 poses we practice during the Surya Namaskar. It is a transitional resting pose, which increases the blood flow. Due to this, there is a boost in the oxygen reaching the scalp and promotes hair growth. This asana has a range of other physical benefits as well. For example, it helps calm the mind, rejuvenate and energise the body.


Sarvangasana or the shoulder stand is a full body exercise, which works on different muscle groups. It helps improve your balance as well as posture. But besides that, this asana enhances the blood circulation in your head. Daily practice of the pose has a long-lasting effect on your head and is especially beneficial for dry and thin hair.

4. Balasana

Before you get any ideas, Balasana literally means child’s pose and does not refer to the hair. However, it combats the two biggest factors that cause hair fall: stress and digestive issues. Balasana is commonly recommended to provide relief from any stomach-related issues and it is known to help with anxiety as well. Daily practice of this pose can have a positive impact on both your digestive and mental health, thus cutting down the risk of hair loss considerably.

5. Sirsasana

Also known as the headstand, Sirsasana improves blood circulation in the scalp which helps in reducing hair loss, thinning of hair and balding. This asana helps in new hair growth and prevents greying of hair. It helps the dormant hair follicles to reach their maximum growth capacity and thus improve hair growth.

6. Vajrasana

Vajrasana or the thunderbolt pose is simple yet quite powerful. It deals directly with stomach-related issues, which you may or may believe, have a large part to play as far as hair loss goes. As per studies, poor gut flora can cause thinning of hair and eventually, lead to hair loss. Vajrasana helps relieve and cure a lot of these issues and it also helps digest your food better. This is beneficial to hair growth as nutrients are absorbed by the body better when your digestion is in top form. Of course, maintaining a healthy diet is a must for long, thick and healthy hair.

7. Uttanasana

Uttanasana AKA the camel pose is an effective yoga asana that takes some time to master. This yoga pose stretches as well as relaxes muscles and it also increases the oxygen levels and blood flow to the head. This, in turn, enables the hair follicles to be strong and your hair grows long. It not only improves the quality and texture of your hair but also makes it flawless and shinier.

8. Matsyasana

Popularly known as the fish pose, this is among the most effective and popular asanas for strong, long and healthy hair. It is quite easy to practice and can be done at home quickly without needing any equipment, like the other poses mentioned above. This yoga asana is known to relieve most hair problems with daily practice.

Remember, Yoga and pranayama help in stimulating blood circulation in the head and scalp, which thereby helps in rejuvenating dry and limp hair. This, in turn, controls hair loss and promotes hair growth. So, if you are experiencing hair loss or are seeing early signs of baldness, practicing yoga daily could help greatly.

How to Get Access Articles on Google Scholar

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  1. Go to Google Scholar (scholar.google.com). 
  2. On the upper left side of your screen, click on the three lines icon.

  3. Click the Settings link or gear icon. Depending on your screen size, the link or icon may be at the top or the bottom of that section.

  4. In the left column, click on Library Links

  5. In the search box, type in Walden and click the Search button.
  6. An option for Walden University Library – Find @ Walden will appear below the search box.Check the box next to it to select it.
    Note: If you see the a box for Open WorldCat – Library Search box, check that too. This will allow Google Scholar to link to any freely available content.

  7. Click Save. Google Scholar will remember this setting until you clear your browser cookies
    Now when you search Google Scholar, you will see Find @ Walden links to the right of articles available in the Library.
  8. Click on the Find @ Walden link to access the article.


  • When you click on Find @ Walden you will be asked to login with your Walden username and password.
  • You may see a list of databases that contain the article; you will need to click on one of these database links to be taken to the article.
  • Pay attention to the years listed by the database links, as databases may have different publication years available.  Click on the database you want to try and it should take you to the article.


Tsunamis are a type of natural disaster that occurs when there is a sudden displacement of water in the ocean. They are large ocean waves caused by underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides. They can cause massive destruction to coastal regions, resulting in loss of life, infrastructure damage, and long-term environmental effects. Tsunamis affect both marine and terrestrial ecosystems, altering geographical features, water bodies, ice caps, flora, and fauna. In this essay, we will discuss the geographical features affected by tsunamis, including water bodies and ice caps, and their effects on flora and fauna.

Geographical Features


Tsunamis can cause severe changes in water bodies like oceans, seas, and lakes. They can trigger large waves that can inundate low-lying coastal areas and cause significant flooding, damaging infrastructure, and affecting marine ecosystems. Tsunamis can also cause saltwater intrusion into freshwater systems, disrupting aquatic habitats and affecting the water quality of freshwater bodies. Furthermore, the deposition of sediments and debris caused by tsunamis can alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the water bodies.For instance, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused significant damage to coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass beds in several countries, including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. These ecosystems play vital roles in coastal protection, fisheries, and carbon sequestration, and their damage can have long-term impacts on the ecosystem’s functionality. Similarly, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan caused significant changes to the coastline, including the formation of new bays and the erosion of existing beaches.


Tsunamis can also affect ice caps, which are large masses of ice covering the polar regions. The waves generated by tsunamis can cause icebergs to break off from the ice caps, resulting in the release of freshwater into the oceans. This can affect ocean currents and weather patterns, causing fluctuations in temperature and precipitation. Moreover, the melting of ice caps caused by tsunamis can result in sea-level rise, which can inundate low-lying coastal areas and lead to coastal erosion. This can lead to the loss of land, displacement of communities, and loss of biodiversity.

Flora and Fauna:

Tsunamis can also have significant effects on flora and fauna in the affected areas. The force of the waves can cause significant damage to coastal ecosystems, including mangroves, coral reefs, and sea grass beds. These ecosystems provide critical habitats for a variety of species, and their destruction can have cascading effects throughout the food chain.In addition to physical damage to ecosystems, tsunamis can also have indirect effects on flora and fauna. For example, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused significant damage to aquaculture operations in the affected regions, which had a ripple effect on the local fishing industry. Similarly, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan caused a significant decline in sea turtle populations due to the destruction of critical nesting habitats.

Marine Ecosystems:

Tsunamis can cause significant damage to marine ecosystems, affecting the biodiversity and productivity of the oceans. The waves generated by tsunamis can cause the death of marine organisms, such as fish, coral, and plankton. Furthermore, the deposition of sediments and debris can smother and damage seagrass beds and coral reefs, leading to long-term habitat loss and decreased biodiversity.For example, the 2011 Tohoku tsunami in Japan caused significant damage to marine ecosystems, leading to the death of marine organisms and the destruction of coral reefs and seagrass beds. The impacts of the tsunami on marine ecosystems were felt for several years after the event, affecting the fisheries and tourism industries.

Terrestrial Ecosystems:

Tsunamis can also affect terrestrial ecosystems, including forests, wetlands, and grasslands. The waves generated by tsunamis can cause significant flooding, resulting in the loss of vegetation and soil erosion. Furthermore, the deposition of sediments and debris can alter the physical and chemical properties of the soil, affecting the nutrient availability and soil structure.For instance, the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused significant damage to mangrove forests and other coastal vegetation. These ecosystems play vital roles in coastal protection, carbon sequestration, and habitat provision for wildlife. The loss of these ecosystems can have significant impacts on the environment and human communities.

Effects of Changes

The changes caused by tsunamis can have significant impacts on the environment, human populations, and economies in the affected regions.


The destruction of coastal ecosystems can have long-term effects on the environment. For example, the loss of coral reefs can lead to declines in fish populations, which can have cascading effects throughout the food chain. Similarly, the loss of mangroves can lead to increased coastal erosion and reduced protection from storm surges.

Human Populations:

Tsunamis can also have significant impacts on human populations. The loss of coastal infrastructure, including homes, businesses, and transportation networks, can disrupt local economies and displace communities. Additionally, the loss of critical habitats and resources can lead to food and water shortages, which can exacerbate existing poverty and inequality.


Finally, tsunamis can have significant impacts on local and global economies. The destruction of infrastructure and disruption of supply chains can lead to significant economic losses. For example, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan caused widespread disruptions in global supply chains, particularly in the electronics industry.

To sum up, both flora and fauna, as well as physical features like water bodies and ice caps, can be significantly impacted by tsunamis. The environment, human populations, and economies in the impacted areas may be negatively impacted for a long time by these changes. In order to lessen the effects of tsunamis and other natural disasters, it is crucial to have efficient disaster preparedness and response systems in place.

Earthquake, A Natural Disaster

One of nature’s most catastrophic catastrophes, earthquakes have the power to significantly alter the planet’s physical features, including water bodies, ice caps, flora, and fauna. The abrupt release of energy in the Earth’s crust, which causes the ground to shake violently, is the source of earthquakes. Earthquakes can have a terrible effect, resulting in human casualties and property destruction. In this article, we’ll talk about how important geographic features, including water bodies and ice caps, have changed and how that has affected the local flora and fauna.

Geographical Features and Location Changes

Earthquakes can cause significant changes in the landscape and location of various geographical features. One of the most common effects of earthquakes is the creation of new landforms, such as mountains, valleys, and canyons. This is because earthquakes can cause the Earth’s crust to fold, break, and shift, which can create new landforms.

Earthquakes can also cause changes in water bodies, such as lakes and rivers. In some cases, earthquakes can cause these bodies of water to drain or dry up entirely. This can happen when an earthquake causes a shift in the Earth’s crust, which can block the flow of water or cause it to flow in a different direction. In addition, earthquakes can cause tsunamis, which are large waves that can cause significant damage to coastal regions and can also affect water bodies such as oceans, seas and bays.

Ice caps are also at risk due to earthquakes. These large masses of ice can be affected by seismic activity in various ways. Earthquakes can cause cracks in the ice, which can lead to melting and fragmentation. In addition, earthquakes can cause avalanches, which can be especially dangerous if they occur on or near glaciers.

Water Bodies

Earthquakes can cause significant changes in water bodies, such as rivers, lakes, and oceans. The most common change is the formation of new water bodies or the expansion of existing ones. For example, earthquakes can cause landslides, which can dam rivers, creating new lakes or widening existing ones. On the other hand, earthquakes can also cause the collapse of riverbanks, leading to the diversion of rivers and the creation of new river channels. Another significant impact of earthquakes on water bodies is the generation of tsunamis. Tsunamis are large waves that are triggered by earthquakes occurring in the ocean floor. These waves can travel long distances and cause significant damage to coastal communities.

Flora and Fauna

Earthquakes can also have significant impacts on flora and fauna. These impacts can be both direct and indirect. The direct impact of earthquakes on flora and fauna is the destruction of their habitats. Earthquakes can cause landslides, which can bury vegetation, and collapse buildings, which can crush wildlife. In addition, earthquakes can cause soil liquefaction, which can suffocate plant roots and prevent them from obtaining nutrients and water. The indirect impact of earthquakes on flora and fauna is the disruption of ecosystems. Earthquakes can alter the availability of resources, such as water and food, leading to changes in the distribution and behavior of wildlife. For example, earthquakes can cause changes in the flow of rivers, leading to changes in the distribution of fish species.

Effects of Changes

The changes in geographical features caused by earthquakes can have significant short-term and long-term effects on the environment and human communities.

Short-term Effects:

The short-term effects of changes in geographical features include immediate impacts on human communities, such as loss of life and property damage. The destruction of habitats can also lead to the displacement of wildlife, which can have long-term impacts on ecosystems.

Long-term Effects:

The long-term effects of changes in geographical features include changes in the environment that can persist for years or even decades. For example, the creation of new water bodies can lead to changes in the hydrology of an area, altering the flow of rivers and affecting the availability of water for human communities and wildlife. The melting of ice caps due to earthquakes can also contribute to rising sea levels, leading to the displacement of coastal communities and the loss of biodiversity.

The ecology, infrastructure, and economy can all be severely harmed by earthquakes, which are a serious natural calamity. Further to having a substantial impact on flora and fauna, they can alter the terrain and the placement of many geographical features. It is crucial to take precautions to be ready for and lessen the consequences of earthquakes because their effects can be profound and lasting.

6 yoga poses that can give you bright and glowing skin

Yoga is meant to make you healthy and strong. Since time immemorial, yoga has proven to be beneficial for a lot of physical and mental ailments. It is supposed to work on your health inside out and give you glowing and radiant skin. However, doing yoga for skincare may be something you should consider.

1. Bow Pose (Dhanurasana)

This pose of yoga for skin care works effectively in giving you a glowing complexion. Practicing this pose regularly helps by putting intense pressure on the abdominal region, which in turn helps in detoxifying the body. This pose increases circulation in the face and pelvic region. It releases tension from the abdomen and strengthens it. Regular practice of this asana strengthens the reproductive organs. It also helps release indigestion and constipation. By maintaining a healthy gut, dhanurasana helps in giving you that glowing and healthy skin appearance.

2. Seated Forward Bend (Paschimottanasana)

This is a beautiful asana to stretch the spine, shoulders and hamstrings. It releases the stress in the lower back and also improves digestion, which otherwise may cause many skin conditions like pimples and acne. Not only is this pose beneficial for reducing stress, it also purifies the blood, improves skin complexion and reduces the appearance of dark spots and wrinkles. Paschimottasana is a perfect yoga for skin care.

3. Downward-facing dog (Adho Mukha Svanasana)

This asana helps unwind the entire body. It strengthens the arms and shoulders, lengthens the spine, calves and hamstrings and energizes the entire body by bringing blood flow to your brain and face. This asana improves blood circulation in those areas giving you healthy flushed cheeks.

4. Fish Pose (Matsyasana)

Fish pose is one of the back-bending poses that can be easily performed even by a beginner. This is one of the best yoga poses to attain fresh and even toned skin as it improves blood circulation in the head region.

5. Plough Pose (Halasana)

This yoga pose is effective in improving the overall blood circulation of the body. It induces a sensation of calmness and puts you in a relaxed state of mind making it a perfect pose of yoga for skin care.

This pose is beneficial in inducing sleep or tackling insomnia considering the fact that poor sleep cycle is one of the major reasons behind bad skin conditions. All these positive effects of this asana reflect on your skin.

6. Shoulder stand (Sarvangasana)

This would be an intermediate level pose which has amazing benefits on your skin and glow. Mastering this pose is not too difficult, regular practice helps in improving blood circulation to the facial region, which helps in battling skin conditions like facial dullness, acne and wrinkles.

World’s Physical Geography

The study of the Earth’s surface and the forces that shape it is referred to as physical geography. This comprises the soil, vegetation, climate, water features, and landforms. We’ll talk about the key aspects of the physical geography of the world in this post.

Continents and Oceans:
The world is divided into seven continents: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. These continents are separated by five oceans: the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest ocean on Earth, covering more than one-third of the planet’s surface area.

Mountains are large landforms that rise above the surrounding landscape. They are typically formed by tectonic activity, such as the collision of continental plates. The highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest, which is located in the Himalayas on the border between Nepal and Tibet. The Himalayas are the tallest mountain range in the world and stretch across several countries, including India, China, Nepal, and Bhutan.

Plateaus are elevated flatlands that rise above the surrounding terrain. They are typically formed by tectonic activity, such as the lifting of large sections of the Earth’s crust. The largest plateau on Earth is the Tibetan Plateau, which covers an area of approximately 2.5 million square kilometers and has an average elevation of over 4,500 meters.

Deserts are arid regions that receive very little rainfall. The largest desert on Earth is the Sahara Desert, which covers an area of approximately 9 million square kilometers and stretches across several countries in North Africa. Other notable deserts include the Arabian Desert, the Gobi Desert, and the Kalahari Desert.

Rivers are large bodies of water that flow from higher elevations to lower elevations. They are typically formed by precipitation and the melting of snow and ice. The longest river on Earth is the Nile River, which stretches over 6,650 kilometers and flows through several countries in Africa. Other notable rivers include the Amazon River, the Yangtze River, and the Mississippi River.

Lakes are large bodies of water that are surrounded by land. They can be formed by a variety of processes, including tectonic activity, glaciation, and erosion. The largest lake on Earth is the Caspian Sea, which is located between Europe and Asia and has an area of approximately 371,000 square kilometers. Other notable lakes include Lake Superior, Lake Victoria, and Lake Baikal.

Coastlines are the areas where land and water meet. They can be characterized by a variety of features, including beaches, cliffs, and estuaries. The longest coastline on Earth is that of Canada, which stretches over 202,080 kilometers and includes several large bays and fjords. Other notable coastlines include those of Australia, Brazil, and the United States.

Climate refers to the long-term patterns of temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other atmospheric conditions in a given region. The world’s climate is influenced by a variety of factors, including latitude, elevation, and proximity to oceans and other large bodies of water. The equator, for example, is characterized by a tropical climate with high temperatures and abundant rainfall, while the polar regions are characterized by a frigid climate with low temperatures and little precipitation.

Tundra is a type of biome that is characterized by low temperatures, high winds, and little vegetation. It is found in the Arctic and Antarctic regions, as well as at high elevations in mountainous areas. The Arctic tundra is the largest tundra region in the world, covering approximately 5 million square miles (13 million square kilometers).

The world’s physical geography is incredibly diverse, encompassing everything from towering mountains and vast oceans to arid deserts and dense rainforests. By understanding these salient features of the world’s physical geography, we can gain a greater appreciation for the natural world around us and the processes that have shaped it over millions of years.


The separation of religion and government is emphasized by the political and social concept known as secularism. It is a belief philosophy that advocates maintaining the separation of religion and state to avoid imposing particular religious views on the general populace. Although the idea of secularism has changed throughout time, its core idea has not changed: the state should not give preference to any one religion or any organization.

The origins of secularism can be traced back to the Enlightenment period in Europe. The Enlightenment thinkers believed in reason and rationality, and rejected the idea that religious dogma should be the basis for politics and governance. This idea of separating religion and state gained momentum during the French Revolution, which was marked by the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of a secular republic.

In modern times, secularism has become an important principle for many countries around the world. In countries with a secular political system, the government is neutral in matters of religion, and does not promote or endorse any religion. This means that citizens are free to practice their own religion, or to not practice any religion at all, without fear of persecution or discrimination.

The key tenets of secularism include the following:

Separation of religion and state: This means that the state should not be involved in religious affairs and that religion should not be used as a basis for making political decisions.

Freedom of religion and belief: This means that individuals should be free to practice any religion or belief system, or to have no religion at all, without fear of persecution or discrimination.

Equality before the law: This means that all individuals, regardless of their religion or belief system, should be treated equally under the law.

Neutrality of the state: This means that the state should remain neutral with regard to religion and belief and should not favor any particular religion or belief system.

Public sphere: This means that the public sphere, which includes institutions such as schools, government agencies, and the media, should be free from any particular religious influence.

The United States is a good example of a country that has a secular political system. The First Amendment to the US Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion, and the government is prohibited from establishing a state religion. This means that citizens are free to worship as they choose, without interference from the government.

Another example of a country with a secular political system is France. The French Revolution of 1789 marked the beginning of a secular republic, which was based on the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity. The French government is neutral in matters of religion, and religious symbols such as crucifixes, headscarves, and yarmulkes are not allowed in public schools or government buildings.

In India, secularism is enshrined in the Constitution, which guarantees the right to freedom of religion and prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion. However, the practice of secularism in India has been challenged in recent years by the rise of Hindu nationalism, which seeks to promote Hinduism as the dominant religion and marginalize other religious groups.

In Turkey, secularism is a founding principle of the state. The Turkish Republic was established in 1923 after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and was based on the principles of secularism and modernization. However, in recent years, there has been a growing trend towards Islamic conservatism in Turkey, which has led to tensions between secularists and religious conservatives.

The practice of secularism is not without its challenges. In some countries, the separation of religion and state is seen as a threat to traditional values and social cohesion. In other countries, religious groups may feel marginalized or discriminated against by a secular government. In some cases, secularism can be used as a cover for discrimination against religious groups, particularly minorities.

Another challenge to secularism is the rise of religious fundamentalism and extremism. Some religious groups seek to impose their beliefs on the population as a whole and may use violence or intimidation to achieve their goals. This can lead to tensions between religious groups and can undermine the stability of a secular society.

Secularism continues to be a crucial principle for many nations around the world despite these difficulties. A variety of religious practises and beliefs are permitted by the separation of church and state, which also supports individual liberty and human rights. It enables people to live their lives in accordance with their own views and ideals without worrying about discrimination or persecution.


Greater political, economic, and cultural autonomy for a single region or collection of regions within a larger nation or state is advocated by the political doctrine or movement known as regionalism. Power and resources are transferred from the federal government to the local or regional level under this type of decentralization. If regionalism is not effectively handled, it can be a source of conflict and division as well as a beneficial force for empowerment and progress. The history of regionalism can be traced back to the ancient world, where city-states and empires often had distinct regional identities and cultures. In modern times, regionalism has been a significant force in shaping the political and economic landscape of many countries around the world.

Types of Regionalism

There are different types of regionalism, each with its distinct characteristics and objectives. Some of the most common types of regionalism include:

Economic Regionalism: This refers to the integration of economic policies, institutions, and activities within a particular region. The goal is to promote economic growth, trade, and investment within the region, reduce barriers to trade, and increase the region’s competitiveness in the global market. Examples of economic regionalism include the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Political Regionalism: This refers to the establishment of political structures and institutions within a particular region. The goal is to promote regional cooperation, enhance security, and address common political challenges. Examples of political regionalism include the African Union, the Arab League, and the Organization of American States (OAS).

Cultural Regionalism: This refers to the preservation and promotion of the cultural identity and heritage of a particular region. The goal is to strengthen the cultural bonds and promote mutual understanding and respect among people of the region. Examples of cultural regionalism include the European Cultural Convention and the Latin American Cultural Integration Association (ALADI).

Causes of Regionalism

Regionalism can arise due to various reasons, including:

Economic Disparities: Regionalism can arise due to disparities in economic development between different regions within a country. This is often the case in developing countries, where some regions may be more developed and prosperous than others.

Political Marginalization: Regionalism can arise when certain regions or ethnic groups feel marginalized or excluded from political power and decision-making processes. This is often the case in countries with a history of authoritarian rule or ethnic conflicts.

Cultural Differences: Regionalism can arise due to cultural differences between different regions or ethnic groups within a country. This is often the case in countries with diverse cultural identities and traditions.

Effects of Regionalism

Regionalism can have both positive and negative effects, depending on how it is managed and implemented. Some of the positive effects of regionalism include:

Economic Development: Regionalism can promote economic development by enhancing trade, investment, and infrastructure development within a region. This can lead to increased productivity, job creation, and higher standards of living for people in the region.

Political Stability: Regionalism can promote political stability by reducing political tensions and conflicts between different regions or ethnic groups within a country. This can help to strengthen the legitimacy of the government and promote national unity.

Cultural Diversity: Regionalism can promote cultural diversity by preserving and promoting the cultural identity and heritage of a particular region. This can help to foster mutual understanding and respect among people of different cultures and promote social harmony.

Negative Effects of Regionalism:

Fragmentation: Regionalism can lead to the fragmentation of a country or larger political entity, as different regions pursue their own interests rather than working together for the common good. This can weaken the overall cohesion and stability of the country.

Economic disparities: Regionalism can exacerbate economic disparities between different regions, as some regions may have more resources or opportunities than others. This can lead to resentment and tension between regions and can also make it difficult to implement national economic policies that benefit everyone.

Political instability: Regionalism can create political instability, as different regions may have competing interests and goals. This can lead to political gridlock or even violence, as regions may seek to assert their own power or independence.

Nationalism: Regionalism can also fuel nationalism, as people in different regions may identify more strongly with their region than with the larger country or political entity. This can lead to conflicts between different nationalist groups, and can also make it difficult to promote a sense of national unity and identity.

Lack of cooperation: Finally, regionalism can make it difficult to cooperate on important issues such as infrastructure, education, and healthcare. This can lead to inefficiencies and missed opportunities, as different regions may pursue their own priorities rather than working together to address common challenges.

Overall, regionalism is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that can have both positive and negative effects. It is driven by a range of factors, including geography, history, and economics, and it plays an important role in shaping the culture and identity of communities and nations around the world.

Yoga for Peace and Harmony

Yoga for Harmony and Peace is the slogan of first ever International Yoga Day which has been celebrated in huge scale across India and other parts of the world. Now June 21 will be marked as International Yoga Day which was actually driven by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, being himself a regular yoga practitioner. Practicing yoga and meditation is believed to bring positive changes in our lives by making our body fit and mind refreshed full of positive energy and PM Modi believes that Yoga will help bring world together.

You must have experienced the benefits of yoga and meditation personally, if you are a regular practitioner. And if you are unknown regarding the topic, we recommend you to start doing some Yoga asanas and meditate from today, International Yoga Day. Today is the longest day of the year in northern hemisphere with special spiritual and mythological significance. Therefore yoga should not be taken just as to stretch a body; actually it should be taken as a habit to live healthy and cheerful stress free lifestyle. In mythological stories, it is mentioned that Lord Shiva meditating at top of Himalayas. So, where would be the better place to practice yoga other than Himalayan country of Nepal? And we would also like to inform that Outshine Adventures specializes in organizing yoga tours in Nepal.

Therefore, if you are looking for taking yoga classes from professional yoga instructor and grab the maximum benefits; then join our yoga classes in your next vacation and rejuvenate yourself with whole another level of positive energy.

The word yoga means union. Yoga is a practice that connects mind, body, and spirit through different body postures, meditation, and breathing. It is a mechanism you into a state where you see and experience reality just the way it is. Yoga aims to create perfect harmony between mind, body, and spirit. It is a means that helps you achieve the greater good.

Improves brain function –
When you are happy with your mind and body your brain starts functioning in a better way. All the postures and asanas of yoga help us to relax our mind, body, and soul which automatically improves brain function.

Lowers stress level –
With a busy schedule of work our mind and body gets exhausted, Yoga postures, pranayama and meditation improve stress level.

Increases flexibility –
Moving and stretching in different poses will help you become more flexible. The postures are meant to strengthen your body from the inside out, so you don’t just look good, you feel good, too. With age, our bones and muscles become more rigid yoga reverses this process and relieves you of body aches.

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Yoga for Peace and Harmony
English, Facts, Fitness, Habits, Health / Fitness, Habits, Health
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The word yoga means union. Yoga is a practice that connects mind, body, and spirit through different body postures, meditation, and breathing. It is a mechanism you into a state where you see and experience reality just the way it is. Yoga aims to create perfect harmony between mind, body, and spirit. It is a means that helps you achieve the greater good.

Improves brain function –
When you are happy with your mind and body your brain starts functioning in a better way. All the postures and asanas of yoga help us to relax our mind, body, and soul which automatically improves brain function.

Lowers stress level –
With a busy schedule of work our mind and body gets exhausted, Yoga postures, pranayama and meditation improve stress level.

Increases flexibility –
Moving and stretching in different poses will help you become more flexible. The postures are meant to strengthen your body from the inside out, so you don’t just look good, you feel good, too. With age, our bones and muscles become more rigid yoga reverses this process and relieves you of body aches.

Try This Yoga Booty Challenge!

Lowers blood pressure –
By regularly practicing yoga your blood circulation gets enhanced which further allows oxygenation in the body. As the body calms down blood pressure is significantly reduced.

Improves sexual function –
Practicing yoga increases your self-confidence. Yoga poses help massage organs and strengthens muscles; while breathing techniques and meditation release stress and improve immunity. So you automatically feel good and your sex life is also improved in turn.

Relieves Anxiety –
Many people begin practicing yoga to cope with the feeling of anxiety. Some yoga programs can reduce and heighten brain chemicals that help to combat depression and anxiety-related disorders.

Relieves back pain –
Yoga makes your body more flexible as muscles continuously expand and contract. It does not just reduce chronic pain but also increases the level of pain tolerance.

Lowers blood sugar level in diabetes –
Yoga reduces the level of glucose in the blood.

Weight loss –
With the regular practice of yoga, we become more sensitive about our food habits and keep a check on our food intake or food habits. Sun salutation and kapalbhati pranayama are very useful for weight loss.

Increases self-confidence –
Through yoga, you are more aware of yourself and your body. You feel good you look good so you become more confident.


Mental health:

Our emotional, psychological, and social well-being are all parts of our mental health. It influences our thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. Additionally, it influences how we respond to stress, interact with others, and make good decisions. Mental health is vital at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood.

Risk factors for Mental health:

1.Genetic predisposition.

2.Homelessness and unemployment


4.Family disorganization

5.Stressfull life events

1.Genetic predisposition:

a higher possibility or propensity to get a specific disease based on the existence of one or more genetic variations and a family history that suggests a higher risk of the disease. A person’s susceptibility to the disease is not guaranteed just because of their genetic makeup. The risk of developing an illness can also be influenced by a person’s lifestyle and surroundings. also known as inherited tendency, hereditary predisposition, and genetic susceptibility.

2.Homelessness and Unemployment:

One of the main factors contributing to homelessness globally is unemployment. Lack of employable skills or fierce market rivalry are the two main causes of unemployment. Many people have stable occupations up until an unpleasant event, such as a downsizing or firm closure, results in their unemployment. It is important to remember that employment does not always equate to homelessness. While an employed individual might find themselves living in a tent city, an unemployed person could nonetheless maintain a home.


You may experience relaxation, reduced anxiety, and more confidence after consuming alcohol because it has an impact on the area of your brain that regulates inhibition. Nevertheless, these results disappear shortly. Regardless of how you are feeling, the chemical changes in your brain can quickly cause more unpleasant emotions, including anger, melancholy, or anxiety.

4.Family inorganization:

Top concerns for family members and carers include: The family’s main concern frequently turns into the mental disorder. Family members disagree about the best course of action because they have different perspectives on the issue. helplessness, annoyance, sadness, guilt, and compassion weariness.

5.Stressful life events:

Stress hormones are secreted into your body when major events occur. This can then cause a number of psychological and physical issues. Headaches could develop as a result of a rise in blood pressure. When performing otherwise straightforward tasks, you might suffer cognitive challenges.

Importance of mental health:

Your wellbeing greatly depends on your mental health. How you are able to function psychologically, emotionally, and socially, among other things, depends on this component of your welfare. Given the significant impact your mental health has on every element of your life, it is crucial to protect and enhance psychological wellness using the right strategies. We’ll be emphasising risk factors and symptoms that could point to mental discomfort because various conditions can have an impact on your mental health. Perhaps most significantly, we’ll explore all the advantages of having excellent mental health.

Benefits for a good mental health:

When our minds are in good shape, we appreciate our lives, our surroundings, and the people that inhabit them. We have the capacity to innovate, learn, explore, and take chances. In both our personal and professional lives, we are better equipped to handle challenging situations.


Climate Migration:

People move away from their homes as a result of catastrophic weather conditions, such as floods, heat waves, droughts, and wildfires, as well as slower-moving climate issues like rising sea levels and worsening water stress.

What is climate forced Migration:

Hazards resulting from the increasing intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, such as abnormally heavy rainfall, prolonged droughts, desertification, environmental degradation, or sea-level rise and cyclones are already causing an average of more than 20 million people to leave their homes and move to other .

Climate migrants:

Those who are forced to flee their homes and communities as a result of climate change and global warming are known as climate refugees. Climate refugees are a subset of the wider immigrant population known as environmental refugees.

Causes of Migration due to climate change:

Every year, millions of people are forced to migrate due to climate change, a force that is growing in strength. According to the most recent Groundswell analysis from the World Bank, by 2050, climate change may compel 216 million people in six different world regions to relocate within their own nations.

 Climate migration occurs when people leave their homes due to extreme weather events, including floods, heat waves, droughts, and wildfires, as well as slower-moving climate challenges such as rising seas and intensifying water stress.


Precipitation intensity and frequency can be impacted by climate change. Oceans that are warmer cause more water to evaporate into the atmosphere. More severe precipitation, such as heavier rain and snowstorms, can result when more moisture-laden air travels over land or congregates into a storm system.

Heat waves:

Exceptionally hot days and heat waves are a normal component of the weather’s day-to-day variability. Yet, as the Earth’s climate warms, it is becoming more typical to experience hotter-than-normal days and nights , and heat waves are predicted to occur more frequently and with greater ferocity.


Longer fire seasons are a result of extreme meteorological conditions, such as higher temperatures and greater droughts, according to the Frontiers paper. Also, wildfires have increased in frequency within the Savannah ecosystem.

How to solve Migration due to climate change:

One way to lessen people’s exposure and susceptibility is to regulate how land is utilised, restrict the destruction of environmental resources, or offer social support to individuals who depend on natural resources. Another is planned relocation, provided it is carried out in an open and transparent manner.

Mineral Riches in Soil

Did you notice the sand the last time you went to the beach? And the ground on your last visit to the football field? The soil in both these places is distinctively different. Have you ever wondered why soil is a different texture and colour at different places? This is due to the different minerals in soil. Let us learn more about this.

Soil is the thin layer of loose material covering the earth’s surface. It is composed of both organic and inorganic materials. The formation of soil is an extremely long process taking up to an average of a thousand years. Soil is formed when surface rocks break into several smaller particles, called regolith, which then gets mixed with varied organic matter. This whole process is called Weathering. So weathering happens through three major ways, namely

Physical Weathering: This is the geological process when rocks get fragmented into smaller particles, without changing the chemical composition of the rocks. This primarily happens due to fluctuating temperatures causing the rocks to break apart.
Chemical Weathering: This is the erosion of rocks and other surface materials caused due to chemical reactions. The rocks react with substances in the atmosphere, such as moisture, air, water etc. The resulting substance has a different chemical composition than the rock from which it formed. Hydration, Hydrolysis, Oxidation, Carbonation and Reduction are the chemical processes involved in chemical weathering.
Biological Weathering: This is the process of disintegration of rocks due to actions of living organisms (animals, plants, microbes etc), like when a plant grows in the fissure of a rock and its roots exert pressure on the rock forcing in to break apart. Even microbes produce organic material that causes weathering.

Soil is essential a mix of various particles and substances. So let us have a look at all the things that make up soil,

Minerals: A very important substance found in soil. Minerals basically formed by the break down of large rocks. Some of the most common minerals found in soil are, Iron, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Sulphur etc.
Humus: Humus is the organic substances that are formed due to decomposition of dead and decomposing plants and animals. It lends the soil its fertility.
Living Organisms: These are mostly microbes and other organisms (such as worms, bacteria, fungi etc.) that live in the soil and perform the decomposition of animals and plants that gives the soil humus.
Water and Air: Water and air form a part of the soil and allow living organisms to perform their functions. They also help in the process of photosynthesis.

Soil is a mixture of various components. Now let us explore the importance of the minerals present in the soil. Minerals are the largest component in the soil, making up almost 40% to 45% of the total components. The minerals in the soil are classified into two categories, namely

Primary Minerals in soil: These are minerals which have not been chemically altered since deposition. They are same or similar to their parent materials. Often these materials are bigger in size and irregular in shape. These primary minerals are usually found in sand and silt.
Secondary Minerals in soil: These are minerals formed as a result of weathering of Primary Minerals. Secondary minerals are mainly found in fine silt or clay. The particle size of these minerals is much smaller, due to the weathering process. These minerals have a large surface area that helps them retain moisture.

Water Pollution

We already know that Water is the most important resource on the planet. It is the essence of all life on earth. And yet if you ever see a river or lake around your city, it would be evident to you that we are facing a very serious problem of Water pollution. Let us educate ourselves about water and water pollution.

Two-thirds of the Earths surface is covered by water, seventy-six perfect of your body is made up of water. As you already know water is everywhere and all around. However, we have a fixed amount of water on earth. It just changes its states and goes through a cyclic order, known as the Water Cycle. The water cycle is a natural process that is continuous in nature. It is the pattern in which the water from oceans, seas, lakes etc gets evaporated and turns to vapour. After which it goes through the process of condensation, and finally precipitation when it falls back to earth as rain or snow.

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, aquifers, and groundwater) usually caused due to human activities. Water pollution is any change in the physical, chemical or biological properties of water that will have a detrimental consequence of any living organism.

Drinking water, also called Potable Water, is the water that is considered safe enough for human and animal consumption. This is water that is generally used for drinking, cooking, washing, crop irrigation, etc. These days chemicals, bacteria, and other pollutants are even affecting our drinking water.

Some of the water pollution that is caused is by Direct Sources, such as factories, waste management facilities. refineries etc, that directly release waste and harmful by-products into the nearest water source without treating them. Indirect sources include pollutants that enter the water bodies via groundwater or soil or via the atmosphere as acid rain.

Air Pollution

You must have come across the problem of air pollution in Beijing, Delhi and Mumbai, and all the havoc it is causing. There are daily articles in the newspapers about the deteriorating Air Quality Index and its disastrous health effects. But how does the air get this much polluted? Why are some areas affected more and others less? Let us take a look at this topic of Air Pollution.

What is the most important component of air? Oxygen, right? Well, that is what we all think, however, in reality, all the various components of air are just as important as Oxygen.

In a broad sense, air pollution means the presence of chemicals or compounds (called pollutants) in the air which are not naturally occurring, and which lower the quality of air, and are harmful to all living things in the atmosphere. Air pollution is majorly caused due to the release of various chemicals into the atmosphere. Air pollution can be both man-made and naturally occurring.

In our current age of industrialisation and modernisation, the biggest source of air pollution is the burning of fossil fuels. For example when we burn petrol or diesel or coal to run our cars, machines, trains, power plants etc. this releases harmful pollutants into the atmosphere, endangering all living things around.

There are two major types of air pollutants, gaseous compounds and compounds in solid form.

Air pollution can be caused by both man-made and natural causes, although the contribution by these natural causes is pretty negligible.

The main culprit of air pollution is the man-made sources of air pollution. The single most harmful source of air pollution is the unchecked burning of fossil fuels by mankind. Fossil fuels (non-renewable sources of energy such as crude oil, petrol, diesel, coal etc.) are used in almost every process of industrialization, manufacturing, transport and energy generation. In rural areas, a major source of pollution is the practice of unchecked crop burning. In moderation, this is actually a useful tool in farming but uncontrolled crop burning causes significant air pollution. Another source of man-made pollution is military resources such as nuclear arsenal and chemical weaponry.

There are a few natural sources of air pollution as well. such as forest fires, volcanic activity and methane discharged from cattle. However, the amount of air pollution caused by natural causes is minuscule when compared to the damage done by man-made causes.

Pollution – A real threat

Pollution is a term which even kids are aware of these days. It has become so common that almost everyone acknowledges the fact that pollution is rising continuously. The term ‘pollution’ means the manifestation of any unsolicited foreign substance in something. When we talk about pollution on earth, we refer to the contamination that is happening of the natural resources by various pollutants. All this is mainly caused by human activities which harm the environment in ways more than one. Therefore, an urgent need has arisen to tackle this issue straightaway. That is to say, pollution is damaging our earth severely and we need to realize its effects and prevent this damage. In this essay on pollution, we will see what are the effects of pollution and how to reduce it.

Pollution affects the quality of life more than one can imagine. It works in mysterious ways, sometimes which cannot be seen by the naked eye. However, it is very much present in the environment. For instance, you might not be able to see the natural gases present in the air, but they are still there. Similarly, the pollutants which are messing up the air and increasing the levels of carbon dioxide is very dangerous for humans. Increased level of carbon dioxide will lead to global warming.

Further, the water is polluted in the name of industrial development, religious practices and more will cause a shortage of drinking water. Without water, human life is not possible. Moreover, the way waste is dumped on the land eventually ends up in the soil and turns toxic. If land pollution keeps on happening at this rate, we won’t have fertile soil to grow our crops on. Therefore, serious measures must be taken to reduce pollution to the core.

After learning the harmful effects of pollution, one must get on the task of preventing or reducing pollution as soon as possible. To reduce air pollution, people should take public transport or carpool to reduce vehicular smoke. While it may be hard, avoiding firecrackers at festivals and celebrations can also cut down on air and noise pollution. Above all, we must adopt the habit of recycling. All the used plastic ends up in the oceans and land, which pollutes them.

So, remember to not dispose of them off after use, rather reuse them as long as you can. We must also encourage everyone to plant more trees which will absorb the harmful gases and make the air cleaner. When talking on a bigger level, the government must limit the usage of fertilizers to maintain the soil’s fertility. In addition, industries must be banned from dumping their waste into oceans and rivers, causing water pollution.

To sum it up, all types of pollution is hazardous and comes with grave consequences. Everyone must take a step towards change ranging from individuals to the industries. As tackling this problem calls for a joint effort, so we must join hands now. Moreover, the innocent lives of animals are being lost because of such human activities. So, all of us must take a stand and become a voice for the unheard in order to make this earth pollution-free.


Diet plan for health:

The sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons .

Types of diet for health:

There are many kinds of diets for health. but manly few diets are used for health.

1.High protein vegetarian diet

2.Non vegetarian diet

3.Diabatic diet

4.Low fat diet

1.High protein diet:

In general, high-protein diets contain a lot of protein and very little carbohydrate. The majority of people can maintain a high-protein diet by consuming meat, fish, dairy products, beans and other legumes, eggs, and reasonably high-protein plants like asparagus and spinach.

2.Non vegetarian diet:

A person who consumes meat or fish: a non-vegetarian. For an additional layer of flavour, non-vegetarians could use well-reduced chicken stock in this recipe.

3.Diabatic diet:

Just keeping to regular mealtimes and consuming the healthiest foods in moderation constitutes a diabetes diet. A diabetes diet is a balanced, calorie- and fat-free eating regimen that is naturally high in nutrients. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are essential components.

4.Low fat diet:

Foods that contain 30% or fewer of their calories from fat are considered low fat. Many correlational studies have linked a nation’s population’s food consumption to cardiovascular mortality in that nation. According to a general guideline, if a food has 100 calories and 3 grams or less of fat, it qualifies as a low fat food.

Benefits of diet for health:

1.May prolong your life.

2.Helps one reach and keep a healthy weight.

3.Healthy diet gives to increases immunity.

4.It helps to strong our muscles.

5.Reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and several types of cancer.

6.Bolsters the bones for diet.

7.It enhances the digestive system’s performance.

8.supports breastfeeding and healthy pregnancy.

Is diet and Nutrition both are same:

Diet describes all the meals you regularly eat during the day. Contrarily, nutrition describes the fuel your body needs to function at its best and to preserve good health. It alludes to the proper balance of nutrients.


Meaning of Urbanization:

The population transfer from rural to urban regions, the concomitant decline in the number of people living in rural areas, and the methods in which societies adjust to this transition are all referred to as urbanisation.

Causes of Urbanization :



3.Employment opportunities

4.Rural to urban transformation

5.Social benefits



The process of industrialization is when a country or region switches its economic emphasis from industry to agriculture. A crucial element of this change is the use of automated mass production techniques.


Modern marketing institutions and exchange techniques have been formed through the distribution of goods and services and commercial transactions, which has greatly accelerated the development of towns and cities.

3.Employment opportunities:

Because businesses are situated close to other businesses, the labour market, and potential customers, jobs are created in cities. New employment are generated, revenues rise, and productivity rises.

4.Rural to urban transformation:

This shift entails the conglomeration of previously rural populations into cities, with rising city populations and city populations overall.

5.Social benefits:

Urbanization can alleviate poverty and inequality when it is planned for and managed properly since it increases employment opportunities and quality of life, including bettering education and health.


By generating economic prosperity and job possibilities that entice people to cities, industrialization has traditionally resulted in urbanisation or the spread of cities. A region becomes more urbanised as a result of the establishment of manufacturers since there is a strong need for factory workers.

Impact of Urbanization in India:

Urban areas can expand due to migration into urban regions or growth in the human population. Deforestation, habitat loss, and the removal of freshwater from the ecosystem are all frequent effects of urbanisation, which can reduce biodiversity and change the ranges and interactions of various species.

History of Urbanization In India:

Urbanization is the process by which rural settlements develop into cities or urban centres, and consequently, it is the process by which such cities develop and grow. For reasons that experts are still debating, urbanisation began in ancient Mesopotamia around the Uruk Period (4300-3100 BCE). Yet, it is hypothesised that a particularly prosperous and effective town drew the attention of other, less prosperous tribes, which led them to ally themselves with the prosperous settlement.


What is Ecology:

Ecology is the study of organisms and their interactions with their surroundings. The interaction between living organisms and their environments is studied by ecologists.

Types of Ecology:

There are various kinds of Ecology and they are:

1.Global Ecology

2.Landscape Ecology

3.Ecosystem Ecology


5.Population Ecology

6.Organismal Ecology.

7.Molecular Ecology

1.Global Ecology:

The study of the ecosystems found on land, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere is known as global ecology. Global ecology is required to comprehend what is happening and why since four primary environmental issues habitat degradation, invasive species, declining population densities, and pollution are occurring on a worldwide scale. Examine the concept and general outline of global ecology, as well as its size, its impact on globalisation, and the main issues it raises on a worldwide scale.

2.landscape Ecology:

Landscape ecology is the study of how ecosystems coexist and interact within a given area of interest, as well as how these interactions affect ecological processes, particularly the distinctive implications of spatial variation on these interactions.

3.Ecosystem Ecology:

An ecosystem is a region where a bubble of life is created by plants, animals, and other organisms interacting with the weather, environment, and other factors. Abiotic variables, or nonliving components, coexist with biotic components in ecosystems.

4.Community Ecology:

The term ecological community refers to a collection of species that are frequently found together. Ecological communities can be assemblages of animals or plants that have similar habitat needs and may interact with one another or depend on comparable environmental processes.

5.Population Ecology:

Population ecology is the study of the factors influencing the number and distribution of animal and plant populations.

6.Organismal Ecology:

The morphological, physiological, and behavioural adaptations that enable an organism to survive in a particular ecosystem are the main topics of organismal ecology. Population ecology looks at how many people live somewhere and how and why their population size changes over time.

7.Molecular Ecology:

Molecular ecology is the study of ecological issues using molecular genetic methods. The relationships and variety of natural populations are studied using methods like microarrays and Genetic markers.

Components of Ecology:

1.Biotic Components

2.Abiotic Components

1.Biotic Components:

The living species that directly or indirectly affect other organisms in an environment are referred to as biotic components. For instance, consider plants, animals, bacteria, and the waste products they produce. The non-living, or abiotic, aspects of an ecosystem include all chemical and physical substances.

2.Abiotic Components:

Abiotic factors are non-living components of an ecosystem that influence their surroundings. Examples could be light, water, and temperature in a terrestrial habitat. Abiotic elements in a marine ecosystem would be salinity and ocean currents. A particular ecosystem is produced by the interaction of biotic and abiotic elements.

Importance of Ecology:

Ecosystem research is crucial for resource allocation, pollution reduction, and preventing the ozone layer from being destroyed. It offers knowledge on the advantages of maintaining a healthy ecosystem and making wise use of the planet’s resources for the benefit of future generations.

Advantages of Ecology:

1.For humans, these are a source of food. The ecosystem is the source of all the natural resources on which humans rely. Humans can also access water and mineral resources thanks to ecosystems.

2.Ecosystems keep the environment in balance and control the weather. The ecosystem’s responsibility for preserving biodiversity is one of its primary roles.

Disadvantages of Ecology:

Because each component of an ecosystem depends on the others, an ecosystem becomes unbalanced when one of them is excluded.


Communalism is a phenomenon that arises from the interaction between religious or ethnic groups, where each group identifies primarily with its own religious or ethnic identity, leading to conflicts with other groups. In this sense, communalism can be seen as a form of identity-based politics. It is a complex social and political issue that has been experienced by many countries across the world, including India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia, among others. It has been defined by scholars in different ways. One of the earliest definitions comes from the Indian sociologist B.R. Ambedkar, who described communalism as “the spirit of hostility between the different religious communities.” Another definition by the Indian political scientist Paul Brass defines it as “a situation where the primary and overarching identity of individuals and groups is defined by religion or religious affiliation, and where this religious identity is used to mobilize political support.”

Communalism is often associated with the idea of communal violence, where members of one community attack members of another community based on religious or ethnic differences. Communal violence can take various forms, including riots, massacres, and targeted attacks on individuals or groups. Communal violence can be triggered by a range of factors, including political tensions, economic competition, or historical grievances. In many cases, communal violence is instigated by political parties or leaders seeking to mobilize support among their own community. It has its roots in history, where religion and ethnicity have often played a significant role in shaping social and political identities. In India, for example, the caste system has been a key factor in defining social identities, with each caste often associated with a particular religion. The legacy of colonialism has also contributed to communalism, as colonial powers often sought to create divisions between different religious or ethnic groups to maintain their control.

Communalism in India

In India, communalism has been a persistent problem, with numerous incidents of communal violence over the years. The Partition of India in 1947, which led to the creation of Pakistan, was a traumatic event that resulted in the displacement of millions of people and the deaths of hundreds of thousands. The Partition was based on religious identity, with Muslims being allocated to Pakistan and Hindus to India. The process of Partition was marked by communal violence, with members of different communities attacking each other. Since then, communalism has continued to be a major issue in India. One of the most significant incidents of communal violence in recent times was the Gujarat riots of 2002, where members of the Hindu and Muslim communities engaged in violence that resulted in the deaths of over a thousand people, mostly Muslims. The riots were triggered by an incident in which a train carrying Hindu pilgrims was set on fire, killing 59 people. The incident was blamed on Muslim militants, and members of the Hindu community retaliated by attacking Muslims in various parts of the state.

Communalism in Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, communalism has been a major issue for several decades, with the country experiencing a long-running civil war between the majority Sinhalese community and the Tamil minority. The conflict was fueled by ethnic and religious differences, with the Tamils being predominantly Hindu and the Sinhalese being predominantly Buddhist. The conflict resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of people and the displacement of hundreds of thousands.

Communalism in Pakistan

In Pakistan, communalism has also been a significant issue, with the country experiencing numerous incidents of sectarian violence over the years. The country has a large Shia minority, and members of the Shia community have often been targeted by Sunni militants. In recent years, there has also been a rise in violence against religious minorities such as Christians and Hindus.

One of the key challenges posed by communalism is how to balance the interests and identity of different groups within a society. In many cases, communalism has led to violence and instability, as different communities compete for resources, power, and influence. However, there are also many examples of societies that have managed to balance the interests and identity of different groups, and to build inclusive and pluralistic societies that celebrate diversity and promote social cohesion. To address communalism, policymakers and civil society organizations must work to promote greater social and economic equality, to combat corruption and political exclusion, and to promote intercommunal dialogue and understanding. This can involve a range of different strategies, from affirmative action programs and targeted development initiatives to cultural exchange programs and grassroots dialogue initiatives.

To sum up, communalism is a complicated, diverse phenomena that can manifest itself in a variety of ways. It is possible to combat communalism by a variety of policy and civil society actions, despite the fact that it can represent serious threats to social stability and cohesion. Ultimately, the solution to defeating communalism and establishing a more tranquil and wealthier world is to construct open and pluralistic societies that respect difference and advance social justice.

Science – a boon or bane

Gone is the age of steam. We are now in the age of hydrogen bombs and electricity. The most fantastic dreams of HG Wells in his novel: “The Dream” have come true. In this space age, where the wonders of science excel the wonders of nature, science affects our day-to-day life. Science has surpassed the old cobwebs of mythology and yesterday’s faith has proved to be today’s superstition in the crucible of science.

Yet the problem is whether science is a boon or bane to society. Science nurtures intelligence but leaves the will and emotions uncared for. As Helen Keller has quoted. “Science may have found a cure for most evils, but it has found no
remedy for the worst of them all- the apathy of human beings.”

Science triumphs in automating processes but now it reigns over man. Automation is the order of the day. The specter of war and destruction haunts the world and nobody is safe. Controlling scientific knowledge with moral judgement may be a solution to this dilemma. Audio-visual appliances annihilate times and distances. But more valuable than these concrete achievements is the spirit of science. Science means systematised knowledge. It finds the causes of phenomena, and works through observation and experiments. Science is the torch-bearer of the civilisation.science really a bane? As religion is a Matter of Faith, in the same way science is a Matter of Fact. Modern warfares are destructive beyond the wildest dreams of our unscientific predecessors. Machine guns, shells, submarines, the atom hydrogen bombs and nuclear weapons can destroy the world in the twinkling of an eye. Aeroplanes in war act as engines of mass destruction. Not only in times of war but in times of peace also man lives in the midst of diseases. Thfough cures are being invented, diseases are multiplying too.

It supplements him with acute knowledge and adds to his comforts. It should be refined by the philosophy of love, by a desire to tolerate others and then only man will be able to avert the evil effects that may follow from the misuse of science. An integrated educational pattern, which makes a scientist aware of his social responsibilities, may be a solution to the present turmoil. The extremely genius Albert Einstein once quoted

“To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new
angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science.”

Indeed, since his times, science has advanced manifolds. More than ever, science has brought hope to the lives of many with its medical advances, genetic engineering, biotechnology, various inventions and discoveries. Science has made it possible for man to live for longer time, decrease the death rate, increase the life expectancy etc.

Moreover, life has become extremely easy only with the help of science. Going places is easy, staying connected with people is convenient and keeping updated with the latest in world, and being entertained are all the blessings of science. Today even a child cannot imagine his life without cartoons. Latest technology toys that can fly, dance, move around, talk etc, mobiles, television, video games, movies and latest clothes are the boon of science.

Biotechnology- An emerging field

Biotechnology, the use of biology to solve problems and make useful products. The most prominent area of biotechnology is the production of therapeutic proteins and other drugs through genetic engineering.

People have been harnessing biological processes to improve their quality of life for some 10,000 years, beginning with the first agricultural communities. Approximately 6,000 years ago, humans began to tap the biological processes of microorganisms in order to make bread, alcoholic beverages, and cheese and to preserve dairy products. But such processes are not what is meant today by biotechnology, a term first widely applied to the molecular and cellular technologies that began to emerge in the 1960s and ’70s. A fledgling “biotech” industry began to coalesce in the mid- to late 1970s, led by Genentech, a pharmaceutical company established in 1976 by Robert A. Swanson and Herbert W. Boyer to commercialize the recombinant DNA technology pioneered by Boyer, Paul Berg, and Stanley N. Cohen. Early companies such as Genentech, Amgen, Biogen, Cetus, and Genex began by manufacturing genetically engineered substances primarily for medical and environmental uses.

In the early years, the main achievement of biotechnology was the ability to produce naturally occurring therapeutic molecules in larger quantities than could be derived from conventional sources such as plasma, animal organs, and human cadavers. Recombinant proteins are also less likely to be contaminated with pathogens or to provoke allergic reactions. Today, biotechnology researchers seek to discover the root molecular causes of disease and to intervene precisely at that level. Sometimes this means producing therapeutic proteins that augment the body’s own supplies or that make up for genetic deficiencies, as in the first generation of biotech medications. (Gene therapy—insertion of genes encoding a needed protein into a patient’s body or cells—is a related approach.)

The biotechnology industry has also expanded its research into the development of traditional pharmaceuticals and monoclonal antibodies that stop the progress of a disease. Successful production of monoclonal antibodies was one of the most important techniques of biotechnology to emerge during the last quarter of the 20th century. The specificity of monoclonal antibodies and their availability in quantity have made it possible to devise sensitive assays for an enormous range of biologically important substances and to distinguish cells from one another by identifying previously unknown marker molecules on their surfaces. Such advances were made possible through the study of genes (genomics), the proteins that they encode (proteomics), and the larger biological pathways in which they act.

Biotechnology has numerous applications, particularly in medicine and agriculture. Examples include the use of biotechnology in merging biological information with computer technology (bioinformatics), exploring the use of microscopic equipment that can enter the human body (nanotechnology), and possibly applying techniques of stem cell research and cloning to replace dead or defective cells and tissues (regenerative medicine). Companies and academic laboratories integrate these disparate technologies in an effort to analyze downward into molecules and also to synthesize upward from molecular biology toward chemical pathways, tissues, and organs.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein, (born March 14, 1879, Ulm, Württemberg, Germany—died April 18, 1955, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.), German-born physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity and won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century.

Einstein’s parents were secular, middle-class Jews. His father, Hermann Einstein, was originally a featherbed salesman and later ran an electrochemical factory with moderate success. His mother, the former Pauline Koch, ran the family household. He had one sister, Maria (who went by the name Maja), born two years after Albert.

Einstein would write that two “wonders” deeply affected his early years. The first was his encounter with a compass at age five. He was mystified that invisible forces could deflect the needle. This would lead to a lifelong fascination with invisible forces. The second wonder came at age 12 when he discovered a book of geometry, which he devoured, calling it his “sacred little geometry book.”

Einstein’s education was disrupted by his father’s repeated failures at business. In 1894, after his company failed to get an important contract to electrify the city of Munich, Hermann Einstein moved to Milan to work with a relative. Einstein was left at a boardinghouse in Munich and expected to finish his education. Alone, miserable, and repelled by the looming prospect of military duty when he turned 16, Einstein ran away six months later and landed on the doorstep of his surprised parents. His parents realized the enormous problems that he faced as a school dropout and draft dodger with no employable skills. His prospects did not look promising.

After graduation in 1900, Einstein faced one of the greatest crises in his life. Because he studied advanced subjects on his own, he often cut classes; this earned him the animosity of some professors, especially Heinrich Weber. Unfortunately, Einstein asked Weber for a letter of recommendation. Einstein was subsequently turned down for every academic position that he applied to.

The turning point came later that year, when the father of his lifelong friend Marcel Grossmann was able to recommend him for a position as a clerk in the Swiss patent office in Bern. About then, Einstein’s father became seriously ill and, just before he died, gave his blessing for his son to marry Maric. For years, Einstein would experience enormous sadness remembering that his father had died thinking him a failure.

At first Einstein’s 1905 papers were ignored by the physics community. This began to change after he received the attention of just one physicist, perhaps the most influential physicist of his generation, Max Planck, the founder of the quantum theory.

Soon, owing to Planck’s laudatory comments and to experiments that gradually confirmed his theories, Einstein was invited to lecture at international meetings, such as the Solvay Conferences, and he rose rapidly in the academic world. He was offered a series of positions at increasingly prestigious institutions, including the University of Zürich, the University of Prague, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, and finally the University of Berlin, where he served as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics from 1913 to 1933 (although the opening of the institute was delayed until 1917). Even as his fame spread, Einstein’s marriage was falling apart. He was constantly on the road, speaking at international conferences, and lost in contemplation of relativity. The couple argued frequently about their children and their meager finances. Convinced that his marriage was doomed, Einstein began an affair with a cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, whom he later married. (Elsa was a first cousin on his mother’s side and a second cousin on his father’s side.) When he finally divorced Mileva in 1919, he agreed to give her the money he might receive if he ever won a Nobel Prize.

Einstein also launched the new science of cosmology. His equations predicted that the universe is dynamic—expanding or contracting. This contradicted the prevailing view that the universe was static, so he reluctantly introduced a “cosmological term” to stabilize his model of the universe. In 1929 astronomer Edwin Hubble found that the universe was indeed expanding, thereby confirming Einstein’s earlier work. In 1930, in a visit to the Mount Wilson Observatory near Los Angeles, Einstein met with Hubble and declared the cosmological constant to be his “greatest blunder.” Recent satellite data, however, have shown that the cosmological constant is probably not zero but actually dominates the matter-energy content of the entire universe. Einstein’s “blunder” apparently determines the ultimate fate of the universe.


Solar energy:

Any energy produced by the sun is referred to as solar energy. Nuclear fusion occurs in the sun and produces solar energy. In the sun’s core, fusion happens when the protons of colliding hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium atoms.

Is solar energy is a Renewable source:

Solar energy is created by the Sun’s light (photovoltaic energy) and warmth (solar thermal energy) and is used to create heat or electricity. Solar energy, which originates from the Sun and is both renewable and inexhaustible, is captured using mirrors and panels.

How is solar energy produce:

Solar panels are used in solar power systems to harness the sun’s energy. To convert solar energy into useful power, these solar panels are typically installed on the roofs of buildings. The electricity gathered in this way is DC current.
DC electricity is transformed into AC (alternating current) electricity using a solar inverter. A grid receives the AC electricity after that. A system known as Solar PV Balance-of-System is used to convert DC electricity to AC.
Certain machinery is used by the BOS System to convert DC to AC. Such equipment consists of:

1.solar panels to generate DC from sunlight.

2. An inverter to convert DC to AC.

3.Solar battery to store the electricity.

4.A few extra electrical wire accessories are required for the system installation to function.

Sources of Solar energy:

Solar energy is created by the Sun’s light photovoltaic energy and its warmth solar thermal energy, and it can be used to produce heat or electricity. Solar energy, which originates from the Sun and is both renewable and inexhaustible, is captured using mirrors and panels.

Types of solar energy:

1.Photovoltaic solar energy.

2. solar thermal energy.

3.Passive solar energy.

4.Hybrid solar energy.

1.Photovoltaic solar energy:

With the aid of a photoelectric effect-based technology, sunlight is transformed into electricity to create photovoltaic solar energy. It is a form of renewable, limitless, and non-polluting energy that may be produced in a variety of settings, from modest home generators to substantial solar power plants.

2.Solar thermal energy:

Solar thermal energy (STE) is the conversion of solar radiation into heat that can be used for a variety of applications, including space and hot water heating, industrial process heating, and power generation.

3.Passive solar energy:

The term “passive solar” refers to the direct utilisation of solar energy for either heating or cooling reasons. Passive solar energy systems do not use mechanical or electronic methods to gather or transform energy, unlike photovoltaic systems or other technological solar power applications.

4.Hybrid solar energy:

A grid-connected, battery-powered renewable energy system known as a hybrid solar system. The system generates electricity during the day using solar panels, and the batteries store any extra energy for use at night when there is no light from the sun.

Advantages of solar power:

1.Solar energy is renewable and inexhaustible source.

2.Every where gets sunlight.

3.It works incredibly well with batteries and the power grid.

4.The sun generates local income and employment.

5.technical adaptability.

6.minimal upkeep necessary.

7. Green until the end of life.

8. A strong, trustworthy technology.

Disadvantages of solar energy:

1.The high initial cost of installing solar panels.

2.solar energy storage is more expensive.

3.solar does not work for any roof type.

4.solar panels are dependent for sunlight.

Social Empowerment

The process of giving individuals or groups the resources, tools, and support they need to engage fully in society, make informed decisions, and exercise their rights is known as social empowerment. For people to access chances and realize their full potential, barriers must be removed, as well as discrimination, inequity, and other hindrances.

Empowerment can occur at various levels, from the individual to the community and the wider society. At the individual level, empowerment can involve providing access to education, healthcare, employment, and other resources that enable individuals to improve their lives and make informed choices. At the community level, empowerment can involve promoting participation, collaboration, and self-help among community members to solve common problems and create a more inclusive and supportive environment. At the societal level, empowerment can involve advocating for policies and laws that protect and promote the rights and interests of disadvantaged and marginalized groups.

Social empowerment is closely linked to the concept of social justice, which refers to the fair and equitable distribution of resources and opportunities in society. Empowerment is seen as a key strategy for achieving social justice by enabling individuals and groups to have greater control over their lives, participate more fully in society, and challenge systems of oppression and inequality. One important aspect of social empowerment is the promotion of gender equality and women’s rights. Women have historically been marginalized and discriminated against in many societies, and empowering women is essential for achieving gender equality and promoting social justice. This can involve providing education and training opportunities for women, promoting their participation in decision-making processes, and ensuring equal access to healthcare and other resources. It can also involve challenging cultural and social norms that perpetuate gender-based violence and discrimination.

Another important aspect of social empowerment is the promotion of economic empowerment. Economic empowerment involves providing individuals and communities with the resources and skills they need to generate income and build sustainable livelihoods. This can involve providing access to credit and financial services, training and education opportunities, and support for entrepreneurship and small business development. Economic empowerment is important for reducing poverty and promoting economic growth, and it is closely linked to other forms of empowerment such as education, healthcare, and gender equality. It also involves promoting civic engagement and participation. This can involve encouraging people to participate in democratic processes, such as voting and community decision-making, and promoting active citizenship and social responsibility. It can also involve promoting social cohesion and building strong, inclusive communities that are based on mutual respect and understanding. To achieve social empowerment, it is important to address the root causes of social inequality and discrimination. This can involve challenging stereotypes and prejudices, promoting cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue, and advocating for policies and laws that protect the rights of disadvantaged and marginalized groups. It also involves building partnerships and alliances between different stakeholders, including government, civil society organizations, and private sector actors.

Political empowerment is also critical for promoting social empowerment. By enabling individuals to participate in the political process, whether through voting, running for office, or advocating for policy change, political empowerment can help to ensure that the voices of all members of society are heard and that policies reflect the needs and interests of all citizens. This is particularly important for marginalized groups, who may be underrepresented in the political process and whose needs may be overlooked in policymaking.

Cultural empowerment involves promoting respect for cultural diversity and recognizing the value of different perspectives and experiences. This can be achieved through education, cultural exchange programs, and initiatives that celebrate cultural diversity. By promoting cultural empowerment, we can help to create a more inclusive and tolerant society that values and respects all members of the community.

Finally, personal empowerment involves helping individuals develop the confidence and skills to take control of their lives and achieve their goals. This can be achieved through mentoring programs, skills training, and counseling services. By promoting personal empowerment, we can help individuals overcome personal and social barriers that may be preventing them from achieving their full potential.

In recent years, there have been many initiatives and programs aimed at promoting social empowerment. These include education and training programs, microfinance initiatives, community development projects, and advocacy and awareness-raising campaigns. Many of these initiatives are focused on empowering women and girls, who are often the most disadvantaged and marginalized group in society. Despite the many efforts to promote social empowerment, there are still many challenges and obstacles to overcome. These include persistent gender-based violence and discrimination, lack of access to education and healthcare, poverty and unemployment, and social exclusion and marginalization. Addressing these challenges requires sustained efforts and collaboration between different stakeholders, and a commitment to promoting social justice and equality.

Effects of Globalization on India

The process of worldwide integration that comes about as a result of cross-border trade in products, ideas, and culture is referred to as globalisation. Since the 1990s, when the nation started a series of economic reforms that opened up its markets to the rest of the globe, it has had a significant impact on Indian society. This essay will examine economic, social, and cultural ramifications of globalisation on Indian society.

Economic Effects

One of the most significant effects of globalization on Indian society has been the transformation of the Indian economy. Prior to the 1990s, the Indian economy was largely closed to foreign investment and trade. However, the government’s decision to liberalize the economy led to an influx of foreign investment, which spurred economic growth and development. Today, India is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, with a GDP growth rate of around 7% per year. Globalization has also led to the emergence of a new middle class in India. As the economy has grown, so has the purchasing power of the Indian people. This has led to an increase in demand for consumer goods and services, such as automobiles, electronics, and entertainment. As a result, multinational corporations have targeted the Indian market, leading to the establishment of many foreign-owned businesses in the country.

However, the benefits of economic growth have not been evenly distributed across Indian society. While the middle class has prospered, many people in rural areas and urban slums have been left behind. Income inequality remains a significant challenge, with the top 10% of the population accounting for nearly 55% of the country’s wealth.

Social Effects

Globalization has had a significant impact on Indian society, particularly in terms of social and demographic changes. One of the most significant changes has been the rise of urbanization. As the economy has grown, many people have migrated from rural areas to cities in search of better opportunities. This has led to the growth of cities such as Mumbai, Delhi, and Bangalore, which are now home to millions of people.

However, urbanization has also brought with it a range of social challenges. The rapid growth of cities has led to overcrowding, pollution, and inadequate infrastructure, such as housing and transportation. In addition, urbanization has contributed to the breakdown of traditional social structures, as people move away from their rural communities and traditional ways of life. Globalization has also had a significant impact on gender relations in India. As more women have entered the workforce, their role in society has changed. Women are now more likely to be educated and employed, which has increased their economic independence and social status. However, gender inequality remains a significant challenge in India, particularly in rural areas, where women’s rights are often neglected.

Cultural Effects

Globalization has had a significant impact on Indian culture, both positive and negative. On the one hand, the exchange of ideas and cultural practices has enriched Indian culture. For example, the influence of Western music, fashion, and cinema has led to the emergence of new cultural forms that are unique to India.

On the other hand, globalization has also led to the erosion of traditional cultural practices. As people have migrated to cities and adopted Western lifestyles, traditional practices such as dress, language, and religion have been replaced. In addition, the spread of Western media has led to a decline in the popularity of traditional art forms such as classical music and dance.

In conclusion, globalization has had a profound impact on Indian society, transforming it in many ways. While there have been some positive changes, such as increased economic growth and access to technology, there have also been negative consequences, such as increased inequality, cultural change, and environmental degradation. It is up to policymakers in India to navigate these changes and ensure that the benefits of globalization are distributed fairly across the population.

India’s Diversity

With its large 3.2 million square kilometre territory, 29 states, and 7 Union territories, India is a land of diversity. India’s diversity may be seen in the nation’s people, culture, language, religion, food, geography, and climate. India has long been a nexus of various civilizations and cultures that have coexisted and impacted one another.

Geography and Climate

India is a land of diverse geography, from the snow-capped Himalayas in the North to the tropical beaches of the South. The country is divided into four major regions, the Himalayan region, the Indo-Gangetic plains, the Deccan Plateau, and the coastal region. The Himalayan region is the highest and the youngest mountain range in the world, with peaks rising over 8,000 meters. The Indo-Gangetic plains are fertile plains, which are the breadbasket of India. The Deccan Plateau is a semi-arid region in the southern part of India, known for its rich history and culture. The coastal region comprises the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal and is known for its pristine beaches, backwaters, and seafood.

India’s climate is also diverse due to its size and geography. The country experiences a tropical climate in the south and a subtropical climate in the north. The Himalayas act as a barrier and prevent cold winds from the north from reaching the south, making it a tropical climate. The monsoon is an essential feature of the Indian climate, which brings rain from June to September, providing much-needed relief from the scorching summer heat.


India is a land of many languages, with over 19,500 dialects spoken across the country. However, there are 22 officially recognized languages, including Hindi, English, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Punjabi, and Gujarati. Hindi is the most widely spoken language, spoken by over 40% of the population. English is also widely spoken and is the language of government, business, and education.

Each language has its unique script, literature, and culture, which makes it different from the others. For instance, Bengali is known for its poetry, novels, and cinema, while Telugu is known for its vibrant dance and music.


India is a secular country with a majority of the population following Hinduism, followed by Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Hinduism is the oldest religion in the world, with a history dating back over 5,000 years. It is known for its diverse practices, including yoga, meditation, and puja. Islam is the second-largest religion in India, and its followers are concentrated in the northern part of the country. Christianity was brought to India by the Portuguese in the 16th century and is concentrated in the southern part of the country. Sikhism is a religion founded in the 16th century in Punjab and is known for its principles of equality, social justice, and service to humanity. Buddhism and Jainism are ancient religions that originated in India and are known for their emphasis on non-violence, compassion, and self-realization.


India is renowned for its cuisine, which is as diverse as its people and regions. Each region has its own unique cuisine, with different ingredients and cooking methods. Indian cuisine is known for its use of spices, which give its dishes their distinct flavors and aromas. Some popular Indian dishes include biryani, dosa, idli, samosa, and butter chicken.

Art and architecture

India’s art and architecture reflect its rich cultural heritage and diverse influences. The country has a long tradition of sculpture, painting, and architecture that dates back to ancient times. The most famous examples of Indian architecture are the Taj Mahal in Agra, the Qutub Minar in Delhi, and the Khajuraho temples in Madhya Pradesh. India’s art forms include classical dance, such as Bharatanatyam, Kathak, and Kuchipudi, and classical music, such as Hindustani and Carnatic music.


India has a rich tradition of sports, with many traditional games and sports that have been played for centuries. Some of the most popular sports in India include cricket, football, hockey, and badminton. Cricket is the most popular sport in India, and the Indian Premier League (IPL) is one of the most-watched sports leagues in the world.

In conclusion, India’s diversity contributes to its status as a singular and intriguing nation. Together, its people, dialects, beliefs, customs, and traditions form a unique cultural tapestry that is unmatched anyplace else in the world. India is a shining example of how people with different backgrounds and beliefs can coexist because it has maintained its unity and integrity despite its diversity. One of India’s greatest assets is its diversity, which has added to the country’s history, culture, and society’s richness and complexity.