Speaking English allows you to actually broaden your world, from job opportunities to the ability to relate to people from every country.Knowing the language makes it much more interesting every trip.Anywhere you want to go in the world you can find someone who speaks English. If we account only the country where the English language is the official language, the United Kingdom, Australia, U.S.A., Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and the Caribbean countries, there are more than 400 million native English speakers.

Simply put, we must recognize that English is an international language, the main language of this planet.The statistics reveal that more than a quarter of the world’s population speaks English that means that about 1.6 billion people understand and relate with the help of the language of Shakespeare. To not mention that most of the films are in English, the largest film industry, Hollywood, is produced in English.It is true that in the world are more than 3 billion people who speak Chinese, however it is very unlikely that in addition to the mother tongue there is someone else who wants to learn Chinese characters.Most of the international trade agreements are concluded in English and is the most widely used language for international business meetings.Good English is not only classy but a possibility to continue studies and specializations in the best universities in the world, which are in fact, in countries where they speak English.Education is very important to improve yourself but learning English also improves the quality of life. You have access to jobs that you could not even take into consideration, you can evaluate an international career and you can live in many countries with the ease of being able to go shopping or negotiate rent for the house.

The benefits they bring in the life of a person’s knowledge of the English language are countless. What is important to understand is that the English language is able to knock down a lot of barriers, including cultural ones.Knowing the habits and customs of other countries allows us to understand ourselves and others. By better understanding our fellow man around the world we are always surprised at how we are different and similar at the same time.The English language allows us to relate and therefore to understand each other.

Why English is important?

Learning, for me, is an opportunity to use what I’ve learned, and, broaden my horizons and improve the best version of myself. Learning, helps me discover my hidden talents and helps me to overcome fear and obstacles. I feel that the more I know, the more I am capable of accomplishing what I want, without fear of others’ judgment. Learning is life, and life is learning.

Life offers various challenges and we cannot let fear stop us from learning. I decided that I had to take a stand and be brave. I was sick and tired of not finding the correct words when trying to have a conversation in English. It’s really frustrating, not remembering the right words to express oneself. It breaks my heart when I look back and feel sorry for myself, that I allowed my fear to concur and stop me from fulfilling my dreams. If only I had believed more in myself, I would have succeeded like the rest of my classmates.

The lack of knowledge of the English language, and not being fluent, always kept me back from participating, and from applying for courses. There were times when I felt unworthy, and I had very low self-esteem. But I learned that, with a bit of goodwill I can do it. There was a point in my life, when I felt that I was no longer growing. I was relating perfectly to that expression, “If you’re not growing, you’re dying.” So, I dug deeper in my thoughts and decided that it was never too late. I won’t let my age stop me from learning. Apart from learning English, I must say that I’m enjoying the company of my foreign friends. Although the majority of the students are much younger than I am, they are making me feel I am still that adventurous and challenging person that I was. The fact that we all are on the same boat helps me go all out, speaking my mind without any fear at all.

Apart from my self-esteem, learning English will open more opportunities. However, the English Language plays an important role in our life. It is understood by many people around the world since it is the most spoken language. It is essential in our education. Big companies hire professional staff, soon after making sure that the people they are employing are good in English.

The English Language helps us to communicate with nearly all the people around the world, even though the internet. After all, no man, or woman is an island.

I grew up hearing over and over how important learning is. I used to have good marks at school, but even less free time.As time wore on my achievement at school became even more important because to be admitted to a university is only possible through good scholastic records. I think that as teenagers we learn more because of the expectations of our parents or other people, and it takes time to understand that being well educated and qualified is important for us.How I remember at the beginning of the university studies, almost all of us thought that after six, ten, or twelve semesters we can say Goodbye to learning. It’s true that graduating or rather achieving a Doctorate means that we can forget the exams, the essays, but not the learning at all.Learning as activity, as a way of knowing and understanding, is permanent. It should be a kind of daily routine which is for life. At school, I used to have different subjects like foreign languages, such as German and Italian. I remember that we always had the most fun at the language lessons.The atmosphere of a language class is different from anything else. Teaching and reading languages could be very creative, relaxed and humorous. Especially in the last decade – thanks to Technology – there are even more ways and methods of language teaching, for example through online lessons. In addition – thanks to Politics – it becomes even easier and common to look for a language school abroad.

Nowadays language schools are quite popular, they usually offer a wide selection of foreign languages with English in the focus.Why is it like this? Why is playing English such an important role? As I see it English is the “new Latin”, a kind of “mediator language” as Latin was in the past. You only have to learn one language and you will be able to communicate with people from all over the world. English is the language of our international communication in all areas, such as politics, science, media or art and it is often the language of entertainment as well as socialising.Having a good command of English helps us to have more opportunities in life, first of all, our career. We are likely to have more chance of finding a good job or to get our business of the ground.The latest world news and discoveries, the most important scholarly discussions and the various fields of art – like books, movies, music – are firstly or just available in English. The language of technology (the computers, the iPhones) is also written in English. English became part of our daily life, no matter in which country we live. Nowadays countries are getting more and more multicultural. Sometimes understanding and acceptance – as well as peace – between people, only depends on communication, which is almost impossible without a common language.I’m from a quite small, Central European country. For us it is essential to speak foreign languages. We cannot translate everything because it will be too expensive and first of all because it takes time. If I want to be well informed, up to date and modern, I have to speak the language ofmodernity.


Shashi Tharoor, a name or a class to dignify the Indians at global level that, we could rule in every state, whether it is a science and technology or just a mere language of which the Britishers were proud of. His accent and knowledge of English literature is impeccable. Mostly people think of him as ‘Oxford dictionary’, due to his commendable dialect. He is a very famous Indian politician, writer and former international diplomat. He has authored many books. But here we are going to talk about one of his book named An Era of Darkness: The British Empire in India. It was published in 2016 backlashing over the British rule. In his book, he had talked about the torture people faced during colonization, where we were treated like animals without freedom. He also add on the present situation comparing it with the previous one. He stated, in his book, that it was the guilt which can’t be forgiven yet they (Britishers) haven’t asked for an apology. It is an ugly truth which one could barely deny. Over time people are forgetting these things. But these things have been kept alive even today by writers like him so that the truth remains intact till the people. He talks about GDP of India, where he explains the largest dig of Britishers was to loot the wealthy country. It has also points regarding railways termed as scam, which he had explained with the evidence of literature and documents rooted of that time. He states “The British, created rule poverty as their direct result of their action. The book depicts about the industry and their revenues, which were giving the enemies, the monetary power to rule. He picturizes the assassination of innocent lives during British Raj.

How to stand out as a Digital Marketer

In the times , our lives are much more intertwined with the digital world than they were even ten years ago. And being a Digital Marketer is important. In fact, over half 53% of the world’s population can currently access the online from various mobile devices, with 42% of people having access to the online . With numerous people playing, working, and shopping online, it’s no wonder that digital has moved to the forefront of the marketing department’s priorities. From maintaining relevance in their customer’s mind to producing a profitable brand, companies, organizations, and businesses are starting to invest tons in digital marketing and people who are Digital Marketer.

What is Digital Marketing?

Digital selling, additionally referred to as on-line selling, is that the promotion of brands to connect with potential customers exploitation the net and alternative forms of digital communication . This includes not solely email, social media, and web-based advertising, however additionally text and transmission messages as a selling channel.

Here’s 5 ways you can be a successful Digital Marketer

  1. Indulge with Networking and Business events

Although knowledge and knowledge on digital marketing are widely available from sources like podcasts and online articles, investing during a visit to knowledgeable conference offers you benefits that other informational sources just can’t. At these conferences or networking events, you’ve the prospect to concentrate to global industry experts, take advice from best-in-class digital marketing professionals and acquire a glimpse of the direction that the digital marketing industry is heading in. they’re often crammed with interesting events, workshops, and lessons, all geared to help you improve your skillset and expand your understanding of why you’re doing what you’re doing .

2. Learn from Brand and Entrepreneurs

If you’re considering or just beginning are available a career in digital selling, creating the investment throughout knowledgeable digital selling conference might sound like too massive of a leap. Luckily, there is a diffusion of progressive and informative content on-line intermeshed towards creating your career in digital selling productive . These digital selling ‘thought leaders’ have the expertise, expertise, and knowledge required to make digital content that’s extraordinarily accessible for beginners. And since most of these thought leaders are digital marketers themselves, they grasp precisely the due to create their informative content straightforward to hunt out on search engines and across social media platforms.

3. Conversate with Like-Minded People

Active digital selling communities either on-line or offline will assist you recognize the importance of what you are doing and thus the method it fits inside the ‘big picture’ of your business and your life. after you area unit able to speak your frustrations overtly or just raise a haul a number of neighborhood of digital selling you are unfamiliar with , you may gain confidence in your talents and push yourself to each learn and examine new methods and process.

4. Be a Member of a Recognised Brand or Organization 

Digital selling is additionally a necessary and growing trade round the world, meaning that being a member of knowledgeable digital selling representative body will assist you stand out from the competition once attempting to land your dream job it’s an important element to be a successful Digital Marketer.

5. Stay well aware with the Updates across you

In the same manner that programs, apps, and social media platforms are ever-evolving, therefore a Digital Marketer should be aware of new updates that are across. Also, that the way throughout that digital marketers should act with audiences. From maintaining with common on-line acronyms to knowing however AI (AI) is impacting the way individuals use technology, the earth of digital promoting is dynamic and it takes adaptable digital marketers to remain up.

How Google Rank works?

At the point when Google positions your site, it searches for two things authority and pertinence. Google will make a positioning for a site, in light of the aftereffects of the calculation and data assembled via web search tool ‘bugs’. These sites are shown on query output pages in a request mirroring their position. Being at the highest point of the page conveys how suitable the page is with respect to the pursuit question. In any case, these equations, known as calculations, are continually changing as the web crawlers endeavor to accomplish further developed outcomes.

How Google Loves Optimization of Content
A streamlined site will have essential meta information, meta title, meta depiction and on location H1 and H2 labels on each page, these components assist with deciding how your site positions. Google reported in September 2009 that neither meta portrayals nor meta catchphrases factor into Google’s positioning calculations for web search. Notwithstanding, meta portrayal labels are significant in acquiring clients to navigate from SERPs and those snaps do impact it. These short passages offer you the chance to publicize content to searchers and allow clients the opportunity to choose whether the substance is important and contains the data they’re looking for from their hunt question.
Cash alone can’t purchase Google search results, yet with a brief period and procedure you can advance your situation on the web search tool results page (SERP) without spending a dime.
Here are 3 different ways to further develop your Google Search Rank.

  1. Improve your site’s client experience As indicated by a review on positioning variables by SEMrush, the main four positioning components are site visits, time nearby, pages per meeting, and skip rate. Each of the four of those are straightforwardly identified with the experience your site is giving your clients, which Google as of late underlined with its Page Experience update. It’s really straightforward: If your site is simple and agreeable to utilize and offers important data, you’ll get more guests, who will remain longer on your site and visit more pages, and that will further develop your hunt. It can help your content to grow and further develop your Google Search to get increased by the time.
  2. Write incredible substance streamlined for Search Engine Optimization (SEO) : Having top notch content on your site is one of the most incredible approaches to build traffic and further develop your hunt for result. Truth be told, Google itself said in a blog entry on page experience that having incredible, applicable substance on a page is more significant for positioning than page insight. Ensure your substance is without botch, watchword rich, versatile upgraded, written to address the particular requirements of your intended interest group, and incorporates important connections to extra inner and outside content.
  3. Get more backlinks: Backlinks joins from different destinations to yours are one of the most intensely weighted Google positioning variables. Approaching connects to your site content from significant position spaces show your site’s power, acquire traffic, and further develop your pursuit positioning.
    It’s an inaccurate science. Google utilizes an amazingly convoluted equation called a pursuit calculation to site content. Google doesn’t uncover the particulars of its calculation, since, in such a case that it did, everyone would game the framework instead of produce top notch content. Thus, no one external Google knows explicitly are determined. The equivalent is valid for other web indexes.
    How Google rank my webpage?
    Even on the off chance that you knew Google’s calculation precisely, which you truly can’t, you actually wouldn’t realize how Google positions your organization’s web content and it’s in alight of the fact that no two sites have a similar SEO beginning stage. Contingent upon factors, for example, how solid in SEO your opposition is, the manner by which old your space is, the way well your substance is composed, and considerably more, your site’s exhibition inside Google’s search algorithmic framework will fluctuate from one page to another and from one month to another.
    The positioning calculation is continually evolving. Google and other web indexes ceaselessly refine and adjust their inquiry calculations. In some cases changes are made to keep maltreatment from unscrupulous SEO experts others are made to adjust to changes in client propensities and specialized advances on the Internet. The things that were considered significant for high search optimization five years prior are not equivalent to the present, and five years from now SEO best practices will without a doubt look not at all like the present.

Basics of Search Engine Optimization(SEO)

What is SEO?

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is that the art and science of obtaining pages to rank higher in search engines like Google. as a results of search is one in every of the foremost ways during which throughout which individuals discover content on-line, ranking higher in search engines will cause an increase in traffic to an internet web site.

What are various Types of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)?

  • On-Page Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

On-page SEO, Refers to as a SEO done On-site. This is the process which includes the optimizing content on your website. This can include Keywords, Headers, Meta-Data, Images and more content.

  • Off-Page Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Off-Page SEO, it refers to the type of Search Engine Optimization which includes pretty much everything that can’t be done on the website or online. This is the type of SEO which includes about creating a exposure and trust for your brand or the organization. Which can end to a great marketing and it can be more described as an offline marketing for your organization or the brand.

  • Technical SEO

It is also referred as the type of Search Engine Optimization which includes the actions performed to help search engines crawl the data from the website. As search engines and their algorithms can become more complex, these requirements can change which meaning that this type of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is always on a evolving side.

Technical SEO also includes some parameters which can include certain pointers that are below:

  • Website Speed: A more faster and more pounced website is always a better website, User don’t wants to wait for website to be load and buffer. Be sure that to make your website more simple and unique as well as the website should include optimized graphics that can load in fraction of second or a blink of a eye.
  • Portable/Mobile Friendliness: As we are in the digital era, we all love portability and we like to view our content on our smartphones. That’s why we should always keep this in mind we should create a website that is more optimized for desktop and smartphone and look neat at the same time.
  • Site Structure: The website should look good and include HTTPS hypertext and a user-friendly and more consistent website looks better in everyway.

Why SEO is Important?

You’ve altogether probability detected 100 times that program improvement Search Engine Optimization could even be a big digital selling tool, however albeit you’ve got a basic understanding of what it entails, you’ll still not have a solid grasp on this advanced and multifarious creature. SEO is formed from multiple totally different components, and knowing what they’re and thus the way they work is significant to understanding why SEO is therefore important.

Why chocolates Are Good for Health

Chocolates contain anandamide, which as one might guess, comes from the Sanskrit word “ananda”, meaning happiness, joy and delight. Chocolates also contain the chemical compound phenylethylamine, which is said to enhance our feelings of love.

             Chocolate is made from tropical Theobroma cacao tree seeds. Its earliest use dates back to the Olmec civilization in Mesoamerica. After the European discovery of the Americas, chocolate became very popular in the wider world, and its demand exploded.

           Chocolate has since become a popular food product that millions enjoy every day, thanks to its unique, rich, and sweet taste.

 Facts on chocolate:

  • Chocolate consumption has long been associated with conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. 
  • Chocolate is believed to contain high levels of  antioxidants.
  • Some studies have suggested chocolate could lower  cholesterol levels and prevent memory decline.
  • Chocolate contains a large number of calories.
  • People who are seeking to lose or maintain weight should eat chocolate only in moderation.

Eating chocolate may have the following benefits:

  • Reduces stress:

Studies have found evidence that Polyphenols contained in cocoa used to prepare chocolates can reduce stress. Both dark chocolate and milk chocolate contain such polyphenols. Stress is said to signal an increase in oxidative damage to our systems. The antioxidants in chocolate neutralise this oxidative damage caused by free radicals and reduces stress.

  • Beneficial for the brain and improve its function:

Chocolate contains flavanols, which are antioxidant molecules that help in the optimisation of our brain’s functions and potential. Flavonols protect the neurons in the brain and increase our cognitive abilities concerning memory and learning. A study of healthy volunteers showed that eating high-flavanol cocoa for five days improved blood flow to the brain.

  • Reduces risk of heart diseases:

As per research, consumption of dark chocolate, in particular, has been linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Dark chocolate keeps our blood vessels dilated and aids in normal blood flow.Yet another study showed that eating dark chocolate more than 5 times per week lowered the risk of heart disease by 57% .

  • Protects the kidneys:

Dark chocolate was found to have protective effects on our kidneys. The flavanols in dark chocolate help maintain proper renal tissue oxygenation which is essential for the functioning of the kidneys.

·         Powerful Source of Antioxidants:

Dark chocolate is loaded with organic compounds that are biologically active and function as antioxidants. These include polyphenols, flavanols and catechins, among others. One study showed that dark chocolate had more antioxidant activity, polyphenols and flavonoids.

  • Protect the Skin from the Sun:

The bioactive compounds in dark chocolate may also be great for the skin. The flavanol’s can protect against sun damage, improve blood flow to the skin and increase skin density and hydration. Studies show that the flavanols from cocoa can improve blood flow to the skin and protect it from sun damage.

The darker the chocolate, the higher the concentration of cocoa, and so, in theory, the higher the level of antioxidants there will be in the bar.

However, nutrients vary widely in commercially available chocolate bars, depending on the brand and type you choose. It is best to check the label if you want to be sure of the nutrients.

Basics of Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

Search Engine Marketing

Search Engine Marketing is the act of promoting a business utilizing paid commercials that show up on internet searcher results pages (or SERPs). Sponsors bid on watchwords that clients of administrations, for example, Google and Bing may enter when searching for specific items or administrations, which offers the publicist the chance for their advertisements to show up close by results for those hunt inquiries.

What Is SEM?

SEM, or Search Engine Marketing, is the demonstration of utilizing paid methodologies to build search perceivability. Before, internet searcher advertising was a term used to portray both site design improvement (SEO) and paid inquiry. Be that as it may, presently, it quite often alludes just to pay pursuit advertising.

Pay Per Click

These advertisements, regularly known by the term pay-per-click promotions, arrive in an assortment of organizations. Some are little, text-based promotions, though others, for example, item posting advertisements (PLAs, otherwise called Shopping promotions) are more visual, item based ads that permit customers to see significant data initially, like cost and audits. It has to be considers an important basic element of Search Engine Marketing and Search Engine Optimization.

SEM vs SEO: What’s the distinction?

By and large, “web index promoting” alludes to paid hunt showcasing, a framework where organizations pay Google to show their advertisements in the list items.

Search Engine Optimization, or SEO, is diverse on the grounds that organizations don’t pay Google for traffic and snaps; rather, they procure a free spot in the query items by having the most important substance for a given watchword search.

Both Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and Search Engine Marketing (SEM), ought to be crucial pieces of your internet advertising methodology. Website design enhancement is an amazing method to drive evergreen traffic at the highest point of the channel, while web index ads are an exceptionally savvy approach to drive transformations at the lower part of the pipe.

SEM Keyword Research

Search Engine Before you can pick which catchphrases to use in your web search tool promoting efforts, you need to lead complete examination as a component of your watchword the board technique.

To start with, you need to recognize watchwords that are applicable to your business and that planned clients are probably going to utilize while looking for your items and administrations. One approach to achieve this is by utilizing Word Stream’s Free Keyword Tool. Basically, enter a catchphrase that is applicable to your business or administration, and see related watchword idea thoughts that can frame the premise of different web search tool promoting efforts. This can be consider as an important factor while performing Search Engine Marketing during any form of project or website.

Differential Equations


 Introduction:
Differential equations are meant to state relationship between a variable (to be specific, a function) and the rate of change of another associated with it. If we write,- Y = f(x) , then we are saying that Y is a function of X. Here x is an independent variable and y is dependent variable. In short, an equation with a derivative of an independent variable along with the dependent variable (or not) and a constant is named after “Differential Equation.”

 Key concepts:

 Order and Degree Of a Differential Equation:
The highest order derivative present in the differential equation is the “order” of the equation. Similarly, the power associated with the highest order of derivative is the “degree” of that equation.
In the given figure- 1,

(I) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(II) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(III) Order : 3
Degree: 1
(IV) Order : 1
Degree: 1
Always remember – “order and degree of a differential equation are positive integers.

 Solution of differential equation:
Here solution means the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable without having derivative inside. It has two specific ways which are going to be explained:

  1. General Solution:
    It contains the same number of the arbitrary constants as the order of the differential equation.

In figure- 2, we can see all of the three solutions have excluded the derivatives and established a relation between variables only.

  1. Particular Solution:
    After getting the general one, just assign the values of the constants and you will get particular solution.
    From figure- 2, if we find the value of C1, C2, then it will become a particular solution.
    Figure-3, gives us a clear idea of particular solution
     Formation of Differential Equation:
    There are some steps which are needed to follow while forming a differential equation.

(i) You need to differentiate the equations as many times as the number of arbitrary constants are present in the equation.
(ii) Eliminate all constants.
(iii) Say, there are n constants. Then, the equation will be of nth order and you will get n equations.

 Method of Solving 1st Order 1st Degree Differential Equation:
In this article, we shall deal with only three methods which are as followed.

(a) Variable Separable Method:
In this method, variables are separable i.e. coefficient of dx is only a function of x and coefficient of dy is only a function of y.
From figure- 4, we can see the procedure.

(b) Homogeneous Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,- dy/dx = v + x. dv/dx

Ratio of two homogeneous functions of same degree is to be taken as a single variable (say:”v”) here. Then integration goes on.

(c) Linear Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,- dy/dx + Py = Q

Here the coefficient of independent variable takes major part to solve this equation.

In figure – 6, the steps are to be followed and then the equation is prepared.

 Conclusion:
There are more methods but the syllabus comprises to the above only. The article has all the points which are detailed in NCERT like order and degree of differential equations, formation and methods to solve those. It will help you for last minute revision and to summarize your learnings will give you a new and better approach.

Differential quations


 Introduction:
Differential equations are meant to state relationship between a variable (to be specific, a function) and the rate of change of another associated with it. If we write,- Y = f(x) , then we are saying that Y is a function of X. Here x is an independent variable and y is dependent variable. In short, an equation with a derivative of an independent variable along with the dependent variable (or not) and a constant is named after “Differential Equation.”

 Key concepts:

 Order and Degree Of a Differential Equation:
The highest order derivative present in the differential equation is the “order” of the equation. Similarly, the power associated with the highest order of derivative is the “degree” of that equation.
In the given figure- 1,

(I) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(II) Order : 2
Degree: 1
(III) Order : 3
Degree: 1
(IV) Order : 1
Degree: 1
Always remember – “order and degree of a differential equation are positive integers.

 Solution of differential equation:
Here solution means the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable without having derivative inside. It has two specific ways which are going to be explained:

  1. General Solution:
    It contains the same number of the arbitrary constants as the order of the differential equation.

In figure- 2, we can see all of the three solutions have excluded the derivatives and established a relation between variables only.

  1. Particular Solution:
    After getting the general one, just assign the values of the constants and you will get particular solution.
    From figure- 2, if we find the value of C1, C2, then it will become a particular solution.
    Figure-3, gives us a clear idea of particular solution
     Formation of Differential Equation:
    There are some steps which are needed to follow while forming a differential equation.

(i) You need to differentiate the equations as many times as the number of arbitrary constants are present in the equation.
(ii) Eliminate all constants.
(iii) Say, there are n constants. Then, the equation will be of nth order and you will get n equations.

 Method of Solving 1st Order 1st Degree Differential Equation:
In this article, we shall deal with only three methods which are as followed.

(a) Variable Separable Method:
In this method, variables are separable i.e. coefficient of dx is only a function of x and coefficient of dy is only a function of y.
From figure- 4, we can see the procedure.

(b) Homogeneous Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,- dy/dx = v + x. dv/dx

Ratio of two homogeneous functions of same degree is to be taken as a single variable (say:”v”) here. Then integration goes on.

(c) Linear Differential Equation:
The general form of this equation is,- dy/dx + Py = Q

Here the coefficient of independent variable takes major part to solve this equation.

In figure – 6, the steps are to be followed and then the equation is prepared.

 Conclusion:
There are more methods but the syllabus comprises to the above only. The article has all the points which are detailed in NCERT like order and degree of differential equations, formation and methods to solve those. It will help you for last minute revision and to summarize your learnings will give you a new and better approach.


What is success to you? How to be successful in life?

To some, when they think of success, they imagine wealth; others want power; some just want to make a positive impact on the world.All of these are perfectly valid, indeed success is a concept that means different things to different people. Though no matter what success is to you, it almost certainly isn’t something will come easily.

There are countless guides and books to being successful, however, as success is personal and unique to each individual. The advice contained in these books can often not be relevant. Therefore following the advice of a single individual can often be unhelpful.

With this in mind, considering the advice of a great many people, people whose ideas of success were different both to each other, and quite possibly, to you can be a good alternative.

What follows is a list of 13 of the best pieces of advice from some of the most successful people who have ever lived. If you want to learn how to be successful, these tips are essential:

1. Think Big:

“The greater danger for most of us lies not in setting our aim too high and falling short; but in setting our aim too low, and achieving our mark.”

There are few artists as influential as Michaelangelo. Today centuries after his death, his work still inspires and connects to people. His work is world famous, just think of his statue of David, or the Mural in the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.

Imagine then, if he decided not to work as an artist.Being a successful artist has always been extremely difficult, imagine if he decided to give up this ambition in favour of something easier?

Oftentimes, people often decided to put their dreams aside for something more “realistic”. To give up their dream for something easier. This quote teaches us the danger of such a point of view.Instead be ambitious.

2. Find What You Love to Do and Do It:

“You know you are on the road to success if you would do your job and not be paid for it.”

This is a good quote to remember and think about when you’re at work.Imagine being as successful as possible in your current job. Ultimately you’ll probably find yourself working extremely hard and this it will take up much of your time.If it’s a job you hate, then being successful at it might only mean filling your life with something you hate to do. What’s the sense in this?

Instead, why not focus on doing something you love? When you’ve found what you’re passionate about, you get the motivation to keep you moving. Success at this means the fulfilment of your dreams.

Not sure what your passion is yet? You should learn about your Motivation Engine first. To discover your own Motivation Engine, join Lifehack’s free Fast-Track Class – Activate Your Motivation. In this intensive session, you will dig deep into your inner drive and passion and build a unique Motivation Engine based on it, so you will never lose motivation again even when times get tough. Join this fast-track class for free here.

Even if you’re not successful, you still filled your time with something you love to do. Many successful musicians spent years of their lives doing unpaid performances, the only reason they kept playing was because they loved to perform.

3. Learn How to Balance Life:

“There is an immutable conflict at work in life and in business, a constant battle between peace and chaos. Neither can be mastered, but both can be influenced. How you go about that is the key to success.”

All too often, people think that to be successful, they need to make the object of their success their life.

If a person thinks their job will lead them to success, then they may spend countless hours per day, and well into the evening working hard.

However this comes at the cost of rest, your health and having an enjoyable life. Ultimately they may burn out and cease to be successful at their job anyway.

If success comes from having a strong social life and a good group of friends, their job may suffer; meaning that they may lose their job, and then be unable to afford going out with friends.

In these ways, success, as Phil Knight says above, is helped by balance. Think of it as a balance between rest and work, or work and play.To achieve that balance, this Ultimate Guide to Prioritizing Your Work And Life can help you.

4. Do Not Be Afraid of Failure:

“Failure is simply the opportunity to begin again, this time more intelligently.”

There is a story, it’s unconfirmed whether it actually happened, yet the message within is none the less true:

Thomas Edison inventing the lightbulb was the result of several hundred failed attempts. In an interview, he was asked “How do you feel after all of your failed attempts?”

His response was great, “I didn’t fail, I learned hundreds of ways not to invent the lightbulb”

He saw each “failure” as a lesson. From that lesson he learned what won’t work, and also might work instead.

Each failed attempt, each rejection, were key steps on his path to success. It is easy to feel like you should give up after a failure. But perhaps in that failure is a lesson.

Pay attention to your failures, study them. Perhaps then you’ll learn how to succeed.

5. Have an Unwavering Resolution to Succeed

“I made a resolve then that I was going to amount to something if I could. And no hours, nor amount of labor, nor amount of money would deter me from giving the best that there was in me. And I have done that ever since, and I win by it. I know.”

This, in many ways relates to the above quote about learning from your failures.

It’s the easiest thing in the world to give up from a failure. The only way to push on is if you have the true burning desire to succeed, to not be moved or dissuaded from your goals.

If you are not truly dedicated towards success, then each failure will hurt more, each set back will slow you down.

Success is hard; without the unwavering desire to succeed, this difficulty may seem insurmountable. With the desire, it is merely an obstacle to go through.

6. Be a Person of Action:

“It had long since come to my attention that people of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and happened to things.”

Though it was said hundreds of years ago, it works just as much today as it ever had. It applies to literally any successful person.

Think about it, picture someone like William Shakespeare:

When we think of the time he lived in, we think of the time in a way shaped by him. When we think of Renaissance era Italy, we think of Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci. Or think about the present day, Bill Gates or Steve Jobs. Our current way of life would simply be incomparably different if they didn’t accomplish what they did.

You’re probably reading this article on a device by a company that they either founded or companies influenced by them.

All these figures were proactive, they saw ways to do things differently and did them. If they let the world shape them, then they’d simply fit into the background. Instead they shaped the world.

7. Cultivate Positive Relationships:

The most important single ingredient in the formula of success is knowing how to get along with people.”

The best leaders and some of the most influential people (and Theodore Roosevelt is one of the best leaders and one of the most influential people to have lived) were not those who caused commotions, who fought with people or disregarded people; but were people who were friendly to those around them.People liked them. They wanted them to do well.

It’s logical. If someone likes you, they want to help you; if you give them a suggestion, they’ll gladly follow through with it.

But if someone doesn’t like you, they may either refuse to help or actively get in your way.

What’s more, it’s always a good idea to cultivate good relationships. You can never tell who will prove to become someone who’ll be able to help you in a big way, or even be a good and supportive friend.As such, help people and they may help you; and be good to people, and they my be good to you.

8. Don’t Be Afraid of Introducing New Ideas:

“A person with a new idea is a crank until the idea succeeds.”

It is an unfortunate truth that those with the boldest ideas are often disregarded.Most of us are taught from an early age to think and do things similarly to everyone else. This can be great to fill an existing role. But to truly do things differently (and all successful people did things differently), you need to think differently.

If you have a new idea, don’t throw it away because it’s new and different; instead, celebrate it. Your strange new idea might one day be the one that leads you to success.

9. Believe in Your Capacity to Succeed:

“If you can dream it, you can do it.”

Success has to be something you can imagine yourself achieving.It is possible that you will come across those who doubt you and your ability to succeed. You must not become one of these people because the moment you cease believing and dreaming is the moment these dreams fall away.

10. Always Maintain a Positive Mental Attitude:

“Nothing can stop the man with the right mental attitude from achieving his goal; nothing on earth can help the man with the wrong mental attitude.”

Like the above quote says, you need to trust in your ability to succeed. This is the only way to cultivate the right mindset.

Replace negative thoughts with the positive ones. You need to approach problems, not as obstacles stopping you, but merely tasks that need to be completed for you to keep going.If you stay positive and think like this, setbacks won’t affect you so much, people’s doubts won’t impact you and even the biggest obstacles will seem like minor problems.However with the wrong mindset of doubt, you’ll be much easier to stop.

11. Don’t Let Discouragement Stop You from Pressing On:

“Let no feeling of discouragement prey upon you, and in the end you are sure to succeed.”

It is an unfortunate fact of human nature — all of us in some way, doubt ourselves. This can be made far worse if others doubt us too.When surrounded by doubts, giving up can actually seem like a good idea. Don’t pay attention to the doubts. If you are discouraged, ignore it.Watch this video and learn what to do even when others don’t believe that you’ll succeed:

12. Be Willing to Work Hard:

“Unless you are willing to drench yourself in your work beyond the capacity of the average man, you are just not cut out for positions at the top.”

You might have heard the quote that “success is 1% inspiration, 99% perspiration” or you may have heard about the 10,000 hours idea.Whichever way you frame it, they say one thing:True success comes from work.You’ll never become successful if you don’t work towards your goal in life and keep working towards it.

13. Be Brave Enough to Follow Your Intuition:

“Have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.”

In ancient Greece, there was a group of Oracles who lived in Delphi. Everyone who needed advice or to know their future visited them, from the poorest of society to kings. Above the doorway of the temple were the words “know thyself”.

If you strongly believe and desire something, chances are that you already have an idea how to get there. If not, you may naturally know what things will help you and what things will slow you down.It’s like how your body can detect danger even when things seem safe.Ultimately then, you need to trust your own instincts.


10 Tips to Manage Stress:


Working out regularly is one of the best ways to relax your body and mind. Plus, exercise will improve your mood. But you have to do it often for it to pay off.week?Work up to 2 hours and 30 minutes of moderately intense exercise like brisk walks or 75 minutes of a more vigorous exercise like swimming laps, jogging or other sports.Focus on setting fitness goals you can meet so you don’t give up. Most of all remember that doing any exercise is better than none at all.

2.Relax Your Muscles:

When you’re stressed, your muscles get tense. You can help loosen them up on your own and refresh your body by:

Stretching Enjoying a massage. Taking a hot bath or shower Getting a good night’s sleep.

3.Deep Breathing:

Stopping and taking a few deep breaths can take the pressure off you right away. You’ll be surprised how much better you feel once you get good at it.

Sit in a comfortable position with your hands in your lap and your feet on the floor. Or you can lie down.

Close your eyes.

Imagine yourself in a relaxing place. It can be on the beach, in a beautiful field of grass, or anywhere that gives you a peaceful feeling.

Slowly take deep breaths in and out.

Do this for 5 to 10 minutes at a time.

4.Eat Well:

Eating a regular, well-balanced diet will help you feel better in general. It may also help control your moods. Your meals should be full of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and lean protein for energy. And don’t skip any. It’s not good for you and can put you in a bad mood, which can actually increase your stress.

5.Slow Down:

Modern life is so busy, and sometimes we just need to slow down and chill out. Look at your life and find small ways you can do that. For example:Set your watch 5 to 10 minutes ahead. That way you’ll get places a little early and avoid the stress of being late.When you’re driving on the highway, switch to the slow lane so you can avoid road rage.Break down big jobs into smaller ones. For example, don’t try to answer all 100 emails if you don’t have to — just answer a few of them.

6.Take a Break:

You need to plan on some real downtime to give your mind time off from stress. If you’re a person who likes to set goals, this may be hard for you at first. But stick with it and you’ll look forward to these moments. Restful things you can do include:Meditation,Yoga,Tai chi, Prayer,Listening to your favorite music,Spending time in nature.

7.Make Time for Hobbies:

You need to set aside time for things you enjoy. Try to do something every day that makes you feel good, and it will help relieve your stress. It doesn’t have to be a ton of time — even 15 to 20 minutes will do. Relaxing hobbies include things like:


KnittinDoing an art project

Playing golf

Watching a movie

Doing puzzles

Playing cards and board games.

8.Talk About Your Problems:

If things are bothering you, talking about them can help lower your stress. You can talk to family members, friends, a trusted clergyman, your doctor, or a therapist.

And you can also talk to yourself. It’s called self-talk and we all do it. But in order for self-talk to help reduce stress you need to make sure it’s positive and not negative.So listen closely to what you’re thinking or saying when you’re stressed out. If you’re giving yourself a negative message, change it to a positive one. For example, don’t tell yourself “I can’t do this.” Tell yourself instead: “I can do this,” or “I’m doing the best I can.”

9.Go Easy On Yourself:

Accept that you can’t do things perfectly no matter how hard you try. You also can’t control everything in your life. So do yourself a favor and stop thinking you can do so much. And don’t forget to keep up your sense of humor. Laughter goes a long way towards making you feel relaxed.

10.Eliminate Your Triggers:

Figure out what are the biggest causes of stress in your life. Is it your job, your commute, your schoolwork? If you’re able to identify what they are, see if you’re able to eliminate them from your life, or at least reduce them.If you can’t identify the main causes of your stress, try keeping a stress journal. Make note of when you become most anxious and see if you can determine a pattern, then find ways to remove or lessen those triggers.


A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

On Earth, volcanoes are most often found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-ocean ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust’s plates, such as in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has been postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 kilometers (1,900 mi) deep in the Earth. This results in hotspot volcanism, of which the Hawaiian hotspot is an example. Volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another.

Large eruptions can affect atmospheric temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the Sun and cool the Earth’s troposphere. Historically, large volcanic eruptions have been followed by volcanic winters which have caused catastrophic famines.

Volcanic activity:

Volcanoes vary greatly in their level of activity, with individual volcanic systems having an eruption recurrence ranging from several times a year to once in tens of thousands of years.[50] Volcanoes are informally described as active, dormant, or extinct, but these terms are poorly defined.


There is no consensus among volcanologists on how to define an “active” volcano. The lifespan of a volcano can vary from months to several million years, making such a distinction sometimes meaningless when compared to the lifespans of humans or even civilizations. For example, many of Earth’s volcanoes have erupted dozens of times in the past few thousand years but are not currently showing signs of eruption. Given the long lifespan of such volcanoes, they are very active. By human lifespans, however, they are not.

Dormant and reactivated:

It is difficult to distinguish an extinct volcano from a dormant (inactive) one. Dormant volcanoes are those that have not erupted for thousands of years, but are likely to erupt again in the future.[52][53] Volcanoes are often considered to be extinct if there are no written records of its activity. Nevertheless, volcanoes may remain dormant for a long period of time. For example, Yellowstone has a repose/recharge period of around 700,000 years, and Toba of around 380,000 years.[54] Vesuvius was described by Roman writers as having been covered with gardens and vineyards before its eruption of 79 CE, which destroyed the towns of Herculaneum and Pompeii. Before its catastrophic eruption of 1991, Pinatubo was an inconspicuous volcano, unknown to most people in the surrounding areas. Two other examples are the long-dormant Soufrière Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat, thought to be extinct before activity resumed in 1995 (turning its capital Plymouth into a ghost town) and Fourpeaked Mountain in Alaska, which, before its September 2006 eruption, had not erupted since before 8000 BCE and had long been thought to be extinct.


Extinct volcanoes are those that scientists consider unlikely to erupt again because the volcano no longer has a magma supply. Examples of extinct volcanoes are many volcanoes on the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain in the Pacific Ocean (although some volcanoes at the eastern end of the chain are active), Hohentwiel in Germany, Shiprock in New Mexico, US, Zuidwal volcano in the Netherlands, and many volcanoes in Italy such as Monte Vulture. Edinburgh Castle in Scotland is located atop an extinct volcano, called Arthur’s Seat. Whether a volcano is truly extinct is often difficult to determine. Since “supervolcano” calderas can have eruptive lifespans sometimes measured in millions of years, a caldera that has not produced an eruption in tens of thousands of years may be considered dormant instead of extinct.

Volcanic-alert level:

The three common popular classifications of volcanoes can be subjective and some volcanoes thought to have been extinct have erupted again. To help prevent people from falsely believing they are not at risk when living on or near a volcano, countries have adopted new classifications to describe the various levels and stages of volcanic activity.Some alert systems use different numbers or colors to designate the different stages. Other systems use colors and words. Some systems use a combination of both.

History of volcanology:

Many ancient accounts ascribe volcanic eruptions to supernatural causes, such as the actions of gods or demigods. To the ancient Greeks, volcanoes’ capricious power could only be explained as acts of the gods, while 16th/17th-century German astronomer Johannes Kepler believed they were ducts for the Earth’s tears.One early idea counter to this was proposed by Jesuit Athanasius Kircher (1602–1680), who witnessed eruptions of Mount Etna and Stromboli, then visited the crater of Vesuvius and published his view of an Earth with a central fire connected to numerous others caused by the burning of sulfur, bitumen and coal.

Various explanations were proposed for volcano behavior before the modern understanding of the Earth’s mantle structure as a semisolid material was developed. For decades after awareness that compression and radioactive materials may be heat sources, their contributions were specifically discounted. Volcanic action was often attributed to chemical reactions and a thin layer of molten rock near the surface.


Neurologists diagnose, treat and manage disorders that affect the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (nerves and muscles which activate movement and transmit sensation from all parts of the body to the brain).

Nature of the work:

Neurologists treat any disease of the body’s systems that affects neurological function. High blood pressure, for example, is a cardiac problem, but if it causes a stroke (a sudden loss of blood supply to the brain) the problem becomes a neurological one as well.

Neurologists also treat infectious disease such as meningitis which can cause brain damage and lead to complications like epilepsy.

They also treat peripheral nerve diseases which may result in weakness or sensory impairment.

In many cases, the diagnosis of new patients with neurological problems is by clinical assessment alone (taking a thorough history of the symptoms and physical examination), though in others there may be a need for further investigation such as blood tests, scans (CT or MRI) and electrical tests which measure peripheral nerve and muscle function.

Patients are followed up either to clarify the diagnosis or alternatively to manage longer term problems. Examples of conditions which require long term follow-up are epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.

The process of diagnosis is becoming ever more sophisticated with improved imaging and other types of tests including genetic testing. Available treatments are broadening too with improvements in existing therapy as well as new treatments such as those to modify the disease in multiple sclerosis.

Neurologists treat conditions such as:

multiple sclerosisheadaches blackoutsperipheral neuropathy (disease affecting the nerves) including chronic neuropathic painParkinson’s disease and other movement disorders (eg tremor)Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) also known as motor neuron disease. MND (causing weakness and muscle wasting due to nerve degeneration)epilepsy spinal cord diseases muscle diseases like muscular dystrophy (causing weakness of muscle fibres)myasthenia gravis (where the muscles become weak and tire easily) and related disorders brain tumours functional disorders (symptoms which cannot be explained by neurological damage).

Common procedures/interventions:

Electroencephalography (EEG) to look for signs of epilepsy Nerve conduction tests (neurophysiology)injections for the treatment of patients with dystonia (abnormal muscle contractions)rarely, muscle or nerve biopsies.

Common reasons to visit a neurologist:

A thorough neurological exam is the most important tool I have as a neurologist,” Dr. Bruce explains. “It can help differentiate and localize the causes of common complaints.”

Chronic or severe headaches:

If you get migraine headaches, you should probably make an appointment with a neurologist, especially when the symptoms are associated with neurological deficits or tried treatments prove ineffective.


Experiencing vertigo (feeling like you’re spinning) or having difficulty keeping your balance could be a sign of something more serious.

Numbness or tingling:

Numbness or tingling, especially when it occurs on one side of the body or comes on suddenly, could be a sign of a stroke or other serious condition.

Movement problems:

Difficulty walking, shuffling your feet, tremors and unintentional jerks, can all be signs of a nervous system problem.

Memory problems or confusion:

Worsening memory problems, personality changes or mixing up words could be signs of Alzheimer’s disease.

What is Functional Neurology?

Functional Neurology is a new concept for many people. In essence, functional neurology, also called chiropractic neurology, is the clinical evaluation and treatment method for the central and peripheral nervous system. Very basically, functional neurology can be thought of as exercise for the brain. Just like training a muscle makes it stronger, training your brain will make it stronger.

What does it mean to make the brain stronger? By this, we mean improve the function of the brain. This can be achieved by making positive neuroplastic changes. Neuroplasticity is the term that describes the brains ability to make new connections in order to achieve a new function. Think about a developing child learning to walk or talk or write. It takes practice, but once the task is learned, it is hard wired. Through trauma, degeneration, or a developmental obstacle, the brain may not be wired correctly or it may have a weak or broken wire. A functional neurological treatment is one that promotes rewiring and/or strengthening a connection that is already in place.

Functional neurology is brain training. Smell, taste, sound, balance, vision, movement, and touch are utilized in specific ways to promote neuroplastic changes. Making a positive neuroplastic change requires specificity. Treatment needs to be specific for the part of the brain requiring change and then the treatment intensity needs to be done within the brain’s metabolic capacity. When working with fragile or broken wires (neurons), it is easy to cause more damage if the ‘weight’ of the treatment is not closely monitored.

Functional neurology does not include surgery or pharmaceutical solutions, but may employ some combination of chiropractic manipulation, various therapies, and recommended lifestyle changes.

The explanation which functional neurology provides for neurological disorders is still a hypothesis and difficult to convey in plain language, but here’s the short version based on a recent review of functional neurology.

Functional neurology treats the source of a patient’s ailments as “functional aberrations of the neuraxis” — meaning, clusters of neurons which aren’t working together in the way they are supposed to — in various locations throughout the central nervous system.

Functional neurologists attempt to assess the “central integrative state,” or CIS, of functional units of neurons within the nervous system to determine where those functional aberrations are. The CIS is essentially how they refer to the current healthiness of those neurons.

Functional neurologists believe functional aberrations come from lesions, which are the result of some deficiency — perhaps there are dead cells (worst case scenario), or maybe they aren’t getting enough oxygen or nutrition.

Whatever the case, these aberrations cause communication snafus throughout the central nervous system and lead to hyper- or hypo-functional areas of the brain. In turn, this situation results in “diverse motor, sensory, visceral, or cognitive symptoms”.

Many functional neurologists are also interested in fatigability (can you maintain a healthy response to a certain stimulus?) and hemisphericity (the belief that neurological symptoms come from some imbalance between the two halves of the brain or an area therein).

While their treatment protocols are highly varied, many functional neurologists base treatment on the idea that stimulation of an area is enough to engage the brain’s inherent neuroplasticity, which is its ability to heal itself from certain injuries and conditions.

For the purposes of this piece, we will assume that functional neurologists begin with chiropractic training. Chiropractors spend years learning about the central nervous system and the spine. They spend more time during diagnosis and treatment looking at whole-body care and the effects of lifestyle on health than do most neurologists.

To become a chiropractic neurologist, they complete additional coursework on neurological disorders and the functional neurology approach to treating them.Functional neurologists are in their element while treating symptoms of unknown cause, especially if they are related to the vestibular (balance) system. They can also help patients with neck soreness, back pain, and other symptoms relating to the spine because of their chiropractic training.

International Media Conclave 2021

We at School of Journalism and Mass Communication in JECRC University are all set to host our first International Media Conclave ‘Manthan’ from September 15 to September 17.
The Conclave will have three dozen speakers from over half a dozen countries. It will have six sessions, six keynote addresses and an inaugural address.

For registration and e-Certificate, Register to below link

Joining link
JU International Media Conclave Day 2Time: Sep 16, 2021  3PM India
Join Zoom Meetinghttps://zoom.us/j/98619567328?pwd=SFQ2RVlmdEVLdUV2aUNodGhKMWROdz09

iPhone 13, All you need to know!

The new Apple iPhone recently dropped and for some ‘iFans’ their failure is vast and their day is demolished. Late on Tuesday night, Apple dispatched the cutting edge Apple iPhone 13 series at the Apple California Streaming occasion. The new Apple cell phone series incorporates the standard iPhone 13 close by iPhone 13 smaller than normal, iPhone 13 Pro, and iPhone 13 Pro Max – like the archetype iPhone 12 series. All the new Apple cell phones hold the USB Type-C port, an OLED (Pro XDR) screen, MagSafe support, and quicker 5G groups. iPhone 13 models further get the new-age 5nm Apple A15 Bionic SoC, and obviously, the RAM arrangement and battery limit stay muddled. As far as plan, the iPhone 13 series holds the level edge plan, however the size of the front score has been diminished. The iPhone 13 smaller than expected elements a 5.4-inch show, while the ordinary iPhone 13 games a 6.1-inch show. The double back cameras are set slantingly on the customary and small models. The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max accompany 6.1-inch and 6.7-inch shows, separately. Prominently, the iPhone 13 Pro models presently accompany a 120Hz revive rate that Apple calls ProMotion Display. The ordinary iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 smaller than usual accompany least 128GB stockpiling choices. Conversely, iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max currently have up to 1TB capacity choices. With respect to optics, both normal iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 small hold two 12-megapixel cameras (wide and super wide) at the back and a solitary 12-megapixel from the megapixel camera. The Pro models accompany back three cameras (Main + wide-point + super wide-point) and a Lidar sensor for an improved AR experience.

Apple presented iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 scaled down, the up and coming age of the world’s best cell phone, highlighting an excellent plan with smooth level edges in five dazzling new tones. The two models highlight significant developments, including the most progressive double camera framework ever on iPhone with another Wide camera with greater pixels and sensor-shift optical picture adjustment (OIS) offering upgrades in low-light photographs and recordings, another approach to customize the camera with Photographic Styles, and Cinematic mode, which carries another measurement to video narrating. iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 small likewise gloat super-quick execution and force proficiency with A15 Bionic, longer battery life, a more splendid Super Retina XDR show that rejuvenates content, unimaginable solidness with the Ceramic Shield title page, twofold the passage level stockpiling at 128GB, an industry-driving IP68 rating for water obstruction, and a high level 5G experience.

Top 5 Ways to Fix Slow Internet after Windows 10 Update

1.Adjust the Internet Bandwidth Settings:

Since windows 10, with the aid of  using default ,reserves 20% of the Internet bandwidth for the system applications and its operating system, you can’t browse or surf on the Internet with 100% Internet connection. This solution speeds up the dropping Internet speed by trimming down the bandwidth which is reserved for Windows 10 and system applications. Follow the step-by-step guide to tackle slow Internet after Windows 10 Update.

Step 1. Press Windows shortcut keys Windows + R to open Run dialog box.

Step 2. Type gpedit.msc and then hit OK.

Step 3. Give permissions. A pop-up window will open with title of Group Policy.

Step 4. Click on Computer Configuration on the right side of the window.

Step 5. Navigate to: Administrative Templates >Network >Qos Packet Scheduler >Limit reservable bandwidth.

Step 6. Click on Enable.

Step 7. Change the Value from 20 to 0.

Step 8. Apply and after which click OK.


The maximum apparent solution to this problem is uninstalling the update itself. Since the new Windows 10 update is causing trouble, the easiest thing to do is to uninstall it and hold off updating your operating system until a newer update is released. Once uninstalled, Windows users have reported that the issues they are facing decease to exist.

        The procedure of uninstalling a Windows 10 update is pretty simple. Open Settings then click Update & Security. A window will appear from which you should choose Windows Update and then View update history. Select Uninstall Updates. You have successfully uninstalled the present update that was downloaded and it should, hopefully, fix your internet problem.

3. Disable Updates

Windows has an option called ‘Peer to Peer Updates’ which can be useful for those who are too busy to download Updates and keep their system up-to-date. However, for some, it can wreak havoc. Since these updates download automatically without informing the user, they use 90 percent of the internet bandwidth causing your internet connection to be slow during this Windows 10 update.

           The apparent solution is turning these Peer to Peer Updates off by doing the following. Go to Settings and then Update & Security. Choose the first option called ‘Windows Update’. Click Advanced Options. Select Delivery Optimization. Now, turn Allow Downloads from other PC(s) OFF. This will disable future automatic updates.

4.Update Your Network Drivers:

Some unexpected driver errors may happen when upgrade to new Windows OS. Outdated, missing or incorrect network drivers may result in limiting internet speed. To rule out that possibility, you might as well turn to a professional driver updater utility tool, like Driver Talent, which is able to match the compatible drivers for your computer and download them automatically within two minutes. All the drivers are collected from the official source (original manufacturers and Microsoft) and they are safe and well tested.

5. Disable the firewall:

Windows 10 has an excellent feature which is a built-in firewall. Firewalls are integral for the security of your malware, however, sometimes, firewalls can slow down your Internet speeds and can be the culprit of limiting your bandwidth.

           Many people criticize this option, but it seems to work for multiple users. Windows 10 has excellent features; it is a built-in firewall. A firewall is an indispensable part of malware security. However, sometimes a firewall may slow down the Internet speed and may be the culprit in limiting bandwidth. You can test the theory by disabling the firewall, and if it speeds up, you only need to switch to a third-party firewall instead of the built-in Windows 10 firewall.

How small savings can be a good thing

“Small droplets make a great ocean” edges | Benefits | Some allied honey votes to clarify the benefits and savings benefits. We are going to look at a touch of rationalization throughout this article.

Small savings to help in an accident
Man seeks money to guide traditional human life. Some value class dimensions are subject to human design. Some tribes are unplanned. Take medical expenses as an example. Someone suffers at times like this. Logic They are not set up and saved. However, people who are in the habit of saving need not worry. As a result of his small savings he is offered a hand.

Necessary cost savings
Allocating a line for small savings is the first expense that each individual or family must make to their potential subject to the financial leverage of the market. It is a good habit to set aside the exact share size in the long run.

Small savings classes measure security for tomorrow’s generation
To any person, “Why would anyone stay?” The solution is to ask, “For the well-being of my youth.” Yes, young people believe in religion and trust their elders. Fagis is responsible for providing a secure future for his children. It is the savings that provide such protection.

Those who save alone for children’s education, clothes, marriage do not have to worry about anything. For that, the semi-permanent setup and the short run setup must be run and run.

It is equally important to store fresh water in dams, lakes and ponds and to save occasional cash as it is used longer for agriculture and drinking.

Ways to save
We rarely see people shouting that the money we save is in camera corporations with low interest rates. So instead of saving in insecure private corporations, it is safer to save a lot in reliable, secure post offices or government-owned banks.

We really need a saving habit. It should be put in more reliable places. Only then will our life be happy.


In ordinary parlance law means the rules which guide human action. In every community there is a body of customary ways for carrying social activities.

These are clear-cut and definite. Otherwise, a good deal of time would have been wasted to meet the friction.These are a kind of unwritten code enforced by religious authorities or by the pressure of public opinion. These social standards sometimes assume greater significance for the purpose of the general welfare that some penalty is necessary for those who violate these customary laws.

Then these customs cease to be purely social customs and assume political nature and become the laws of the land. These laws then virtually become the commands of the society. Their violations are met with penalty. In modern states law is an enactment made by the state. It is backed by coercion or force. Its violation is punishable by the courts. It stands for the will of the state. It exists to realise the purpose of the state.

It regulates the rights and duties of the citizens towards one another and also towards the state.It is the medium of the state to fulfill its promises to the people.

It represents the sociological needs of the society. It reflects the political, social and economic relationship in the state.

Relation between Law and Morality:

Here we shall discuss the similarity between law and morality and then point out the difference between law and morality.

Similarity between Law and Morality:

There is a close relation between law and morality. Law is by and large based on the moral ethos of society.They act and react upon each other.

The ideal of law is to project general welfare and to promote the moral perfection of the individual.The state must endeavour to make such laws that will heighten the moral standard of the people. So the laws of the state are rather the standard of morality of that time.

Thus Plato’s Republic which is a book on politics is at the same time a good treatise on morality. In ancient India Dharma would stand for both law and morality. Thus law is not only the command of the sovereign but a code of moral conduct also.Without the moral support of the people a law cannot be enforced.

So we find that law against the dowry has not been successful because a vast majority of the people in India does not morally support it.In this context Thomas Hill Green pointed out “In attempting to enforce an unpopular law, a government may be doing more harm than good by creating and spreading the habit of disobedience to law. The total cost of such an attempt may well be greater than the total gain.”

Difference between Law and Morality:

Law :

1. Law is concerned with the external human conduct and does not regulate with the inner motives. Law does not take notice of the inner motives of a man notice of the inner motives of a man notice of the inner motives of a man.

2. Law is uniform for all and it does not vary from man to man.

3. Law is precise and definite. Every state has a common forum of law.

4. There is a definite organ in every state for making law. The violator of law is punished by the state.

5. Law belongs to the subject of jurisprudence.

Morality :

1. Morality is concerned with both the inner motives and external actions of a man. So the scope of morality is wider than that of law.

2. Every man has a different moral obligation. It varies from man to man, age to age and circumstances to circumstances.

3. Morality is vague and indefinite. There is no authority to enforce morality.

4. Morality is never made by any organ. There is no force to punish the breaker of morality. There is no element of compulsion in morality.

5. The branch of knowledge that deals with morality is called ethics.

Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States

The Indian system of governance is described as federal with a unitary bias. While in essence, our nation is a federation of states, with the state governments coming together under the leadership of the union government at the centre, but retaining their liberty in policy making for the state’s internal affairs; multiple factors point to the Unitarianism that is being followed in the democracy.

This type of governing mechanism makes Indian governance system unique as compared to those of other nations across the globe.

The Indian Constitution is a well-defined archive of the guidelines that help govern our country. Part V and Part VI of the constitution describes multiple aspects of the Union as a whole and the states respectively.

To maintain its status as a federation as well as implement the unitary nature, the seventh schedule of the constitution allocates the powers and functions on various subjects between the centre and the states.

This gave rise to three lists of subjects namely- the Union List, which covers 97 subjects under the jurisdiction of the Union, the State List, with 66 subjects to look after and the Concurrent List, pertaining to 47 subjects in which both the Union and the State have authority to look into.

With such a variety of subjects to tend to, both the centre and the state government are tasked with huge responsibility to maintain the stability and ensure welfare and development of the citizens.

In the following passages, we will cover the features and responsibilities of Union and State governments in India, and then explore the centre-state relationship that exists in our country.

These factors are crucial in understanding the functioning of these governments. Finally we will also take a brief look at the current problems our country is facing and what possible measures responsible Union and State governments can take to overcome these issues.

Relation between union and state governments :

While both the governments at their level of jurisdiction exercise powers similar to each other, it is important to understand the fields that each government can get involved in to make decisions and enforce them. As per the seventh schedule of the Indian Constitution, 210 subjects of national and regional interests were identified and distributed amongst the state and the union.

Being a federal nation, administration is primarily under the supervision of the state. The agencies of administrations hire individuals through separate commissions- the state public service commissions hire administrative employees for the state government, while the union public service commission does the same for union government.

Yet we see no overlapping in the fields of services. The state deals with the subjects as listed in the state list of the 7th schedule of the Indian Constitution, whereas the Centre limits its interest to the union list. The concurrent list is a separate list which consists all the subjects that the Union as well as state can look into.

The successful implementations of the schemes of the Union government require cooperation with the state. It is the state which is responsible for the programmes to take effect. The existing multi-party system has contributed to the decentralisation as in the current scenario; many states are being governed by regional political parties as compared to national parties.

Hence, mode of the administration is under their wing. This gives a heavy electoral edge to the regional parties and forces the national parties to rethink their strategies and make much more personalised schemes to suit the specific regions.

Enacting schemes and programmes that are against the regional parties might not sit well with them and can form a big gap between the union and the state.

Yet if there is a political tug-of-war between the Union and the state, the former is bound to get the advantage. The division of powers highly favours the centre. There are more subjects under the union list than the state list. Additionally, the overriding power that the Centre exercises on the concurrent list, makes them more powerful than the state.

Furthermore, the states are not indestructible. There borders, area and names can be altered by the centre if necessary. This slightly differs from the original ideology of federalism, giving it the famous ‘unitary bias’.

Major functions of the Union and the State :

The functions and responsibilities of the Union can be summarised into six major classes. First one concerns the formulation, execution, evaluation and revision of public policy in various spheres which the party in power seeks to progress and practice. Secondly, they are responsible for coordination among various ministries and other organs of the government which might indulge in conflicts and wastefulness.

The third duty is to prepare and monitor the legislative agenda which translated the policies of the government in action through statutory enactments. Fourth responsibility is the executive control over administration through appointments, rule-making powers and handling of crises and disasters, natural as well as political.

They are also involved in financial management through fiscal control and operation of funds like Consolidated Fund and Contingency Funds of India. And lastly, they can review the work of the planning commission.

State government have a separate jurisdiction limited to the boundary of their state. They have separate departments for efficient functioning of the state like education, agriculture, transport, water supply, public health, sanitation, hospitals and dispensaries and others.

They are also responsible to ensure the internal security of the state and maintain the law and order. Hence state police forces come under the state’s jurisdiction.

The state legislature also covers the finances of the state which includes authorisation of all expenditure, taxation and borrowing by the state government. It has the power to originate money bills. It has control over taxes on entertainment and wealth, and sales tax.

Conclusion :

To summarize, the Structure of Indian constitution deals with Union and State executive distinctly but the provisions follow a common pattern for the Union and the States. The system of distribution of administrative powers between union and states followed in the Constitution of India in various administrative fields.The Union Government is reliant on the States to give effect to its programmes.

The system of distribution of administrative powers has two objectives. It enables the union government with powers to control over administration of the state and at the same time it espouses several advice’s for intergovernmental cooperation and coordination.

Role of women’s and women organization

Traditionally, an Indian woman had four fold status-role sequences. These were her role as a daughter, wife, housewife (homemaker), and mother.Today Indian women work in demanding settings with long work hours, tight deadlines and professional pressures in competitive environments.

The natural tendency for anyone dealing with a busy day would be to turn home to relax. But for women, parenting duties and household work make it difficult to find this space at home.

The woman in modern times is entering into certain new fields that were unknown to the woman’s sphere of role-sets. They are activating participating in social, economic, and political activities.

Besides the lack of time faced by women after care giving activities to pursue income generating skills and active careers, they also find themselves often subjected to a family imposed ideal of priority skill sets to work on which in turn shapes them to cater to the requirements of a chauvinistic marriage market rather than a job market.

Role of Women in the Freedom Movement :

For the period of freedom struggle in the motherland, women were not staying at the back. The role of women in the freedom struggle is extremely significant and they also participated in the Indian struggle for Independence. There is a large list of great women whose names have gone down in history for their dedication and undying devotion to the service of India’s freedom struggle.

Bhima Bai Holkar fought against the British Colonel Malcolm, and defeated him in guerrilla warfare.

The Rani of Jhansi, Rani Lakshmi Bai whose heroism was an outstanding example for all. Begum Hazrat Mahal was a great Indian freedom fighter who played a major role during India’s First War of Independence. Arun Asaf Ali played an outstanding role in the Quit India Movement.

Annie Besant was the first Women President of the Congress and gave a powerful lead to women’s movements in India. Sarojani Naidu was elected as a president of Indian National Congress.

She campaigned for the Montague Chelmsford Reforms, the Khilafat issue, the draconian Rowlett Act and the Satyagraha. Kasturba Gandhi was a leader of women’s Satyagrah. Madam Cama unfolded the first National flag at International Socialist Conference in Stuttgart(Germany) in 1907. She declared “the Flag is of India”.

Factors affecting women’s work participation:

1)Education is one of the most important factors influencing female labour force participation. Human capital theories underline the importance of education in employment outcomes.

2)In the static labour supply model, the effect of education on female labour force participation is dependent on the relative strength of the substitution effect and the income effect. First, education increases the potential earnings and, therefore, the opportunity cost of not working also rises. Second, as a result of higher income, an individual prefers leisure to work and reduces his/her working hours. The net effect depends on which force prevails.

3) A number of studies have shown higher returns to education for women than for men. It is well established in literature that higher levels of human capital lead to higher wages, thereby increasing women’s participation in market work. However, the relationship between educational attainment and female labour force participation is by no means straightforward.

Women’s labour force participation in rural India is negatively influenced by the number of young children (below 5 years) in households. Recent analysis also reported the negative impact of the number of young children on women’s participation in both rural and urban India. In general, and especially in South Asia, it is believed that cultural and societal norms have a significant influence on women’s decision to participate in the labour market and choice of work and on their mobility.These norms operate at multiple levels of society, for example, religion, caste and region. It has been widely recognized that these norms discourage women to take up paid employment and that they confine women to the role of caregivers.Cultural factors limit women’s rights in the workplace and their engagement in work. Religion still has a key role to play in determining gender norms in many countries.

Women’s Organizations :

Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA)Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), meaning “service” in several Indian languages, is a trade union based in Ahmedabad, India that promotes the rights of low-income, independently-employed female workers. With over 2 million participating women, SEWA is the largest organization of informal workers in the world and largest non-profit in India . Self-employed women are defined as those who do not receive a salary like that of formally-employed workers and therefore have a more precarious income and life.

SEWA is framed around the goal of full employment in which a women secures for her family: income, food, health care, child care, and shelter. The principles behind accomplishing these goals are struggle and development, meaning negotiating with stakeholders and providing services, respectively.

Liberalizing the economy to foreign trade in 1991 caused a huge migration of rural inhabitants to Indian cities that then forced urban dwellers into informal occupations. Since the financial crisis of 2008, over 90% of India’s working population is in the informal sector(Shakuntala 2015); yet 94% of working women in 2009 worked in the informal sector. India’s history and modern culture of female subjugation also contributes to this disparity because traditional gender roles exclude women from regular, secure work.

Working women Hostel :

The objective of the scheme is to promote availability of safe and conveniently located accommodation for working women, with day care facility for their children, wherever possible, in urban, semi urban, or even rural areas where employment opportunity for women exist.

To achieve this objective, the scheme will assist projects for construction of new hostel buildings, expansion of existing hostel buildings and hostel buildings in rented premises.

The working women’s hostel projects being assisted under this scheme shall be made available to all working women without any distinction with respect to caste, religion, marital status etc., subject to norms prescribed under the scheme.

While the projects assisted under this scheme are meant for working women, women under training for job may also be accommodated in such hostels subject to the condition that taken together, such trainees should not occupy more than 30% of the total capacity the hostel and they may be accommodated in the hostels only when adequate numbers of working women are not available. Children of working women, up to the age of 18 years for girls and up to the age of 5 years for boys may be accommodated in such hostel with their mothers.

Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

There are various core environmental issues which are taking a heavy toll on human lives. Ranging from overpopulation, hydrological issues, ozone depletion, global warming to deforestation, desertification and pollution, all these issues pose a severe threat to the existence of humankind. The environmental conservation is a practice that paves the way for protecting the environment and natural resources on the individual, organisational as well as governmental levels. Unless environmental conservation is becoming an effective mass movement, it is futile to expect positive growth especially in the age of digital media which holds the potential to bring a revolution to save our planet from destruction.

Importance of Environmental Conservation :

It has become inherently important to work towards environmental conservation in contemporary times. The following pointers elucidate this crucial need to save the environment from further degradation:

–To reduce air, water and land pollution

–To facilitate the conservation of natural resources for our future generations

–To ensure the protection of biodiversity

–To implement sustainable development

–To restore the ecological balance

–To save our planet from harmful repercussions

What are the Methods of Environmental Conservation?

Now that you are familiar with the meaning and importance of Environmental Conservation, let’s understand the core methods through which it can be effectively facilitated:

Forest conversation :

We know that plants and trees are the essential sources of air, food as well as other day-to-day products we use. Forests are the dwelling place of different living creatures and a single disturbance in the ecosystem can cause disruption in the water cycle as well as the food chain. Thus, afforestation is amongst the core Environmental conservation and aims to plant more trees as well as save the existing ones from cutting down as trees play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance.

Soil conservation :

As one of the prominent methods for environmental conservation, the need for soil conservation has arisen to tackle the harmful effects of soil pollution. On earth, the soil is the main element that plays a pivotal role in soil erosion, land degradation and floods. Soil is filled with rich nutrients for plant production. Soil conservation can be carried out by ensuring minimal use of fertilizers and venomous chemicals as well as abolishing the disposal of harmful industrial waste in the soil.

Waste management :

Especially in developing countries and congested places, on a daily basis, a large amount of waste is thrown away recklessly on the streets and roads. The improper disposal of waste segregation can lead to various dreadful diseases as well as soil pollution.Waste Segregation Waste Segregation

To ensure minimal wastage as well as facilitate waste disposal, we can opt for various techniques like the 3R’s, i.e. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, dry and wet waste segregation, amongst others.

Public awareness :

With the boom of information technology and the advent of digital media, public awareness pertaining to environmental conservation can potentially yield promising results. There is a dire need to aware the masses about the consequences of environmental pollution and degradation. Further, every individual should be made conscious of how they are polluting the environment and what steps can be taken to implement environment conservation, be it through using greener energy sources to following the 3Rs of Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.

Pollution control :

As the increase in temperature is concerning, there is a need to keep a watch on the toxic compounds we ingest that pollute the atmosphere. We need to adopt environmentally sustainable methods to minimise multiple forms of emissions, such as eliminating waste, saving electricity, limiting the unnecessary usage of fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides, and using energy-efficient appliances, among others.

Measures to Conserve Environment :

Here are some measures to save the environment:

Deforestation must be stopped

Natural non-renewable resources must be utilized properly

Every year, we lose a huge number of forest life due to forest fire. We must find a solution to this

.Afforestation is the best way to conserve the environment

Create public awareness

Control pollution and population

Recycle goods

Adopt an environment-friendly lifestyle

Adopt waste management techniques

Species on the verge of extension should be save

Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities

Emotional intelligence is defined as “one’s ability to know, feel and judge emotions in cooperation with a person’s thinking process for behaving in a proper way, with ultimate realisation of happiness in him and in others”.

Like general intelligence, emotional intelligence is also developed in a person by birth. Normal development of emotion leads to healthy life, but too much variation in emotional level damages the individual’s life.

The level of emotion in a person is called Emotional Quotient (EQ). This can be obtained by using emotional intelligence tests, same way as we assess the IQ of a person.The success of a person in his job or profession depends not only on his IQ, but also on his EQ. The nurse with high emotional quotient can identify and perceive her emotions and of others like patients easily through face reading, bodily language, voice tone, etc.

She can have a proper understanding of the nature, intensity and outcomes of her emotions. High EQ also helps the nurse to exercise proper control and regulation over the expression and use of emotions in dealing with her and others, so as to promote harmony and peace.

Hence, it is very important for nurses to develop a high level of emotional intelligence because; they come across many emotional situations in their duties. They see the suffering of patients from many serious diseases, death of patients, and the sorrowfulness of the relatives with patients.

Many times she will come across the situations which lead to a lot of anxiety, tension, anger, etc. To deal with such emotional situations effectively and to have proper control over her emotions, the nurse should have a high level of emotional intelligence.

If not, she can learn to manage her emotions by modifying, changing her existing level of emotions and to use them in an intelligent way.

Concept of Emotional intelligence:

Emotional intelligence has prominence in organizational effectiveness. It is defined by psychological theorists as the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations. The cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living. Other theorists stated that Emotional intelligence involves the “capabilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mayer & Salovey, 1997).

Elements of EI:

Self-Awareness: It is the skill of being aware of and understanding one’s emotions as they occur and as they evolve.

Self-Regulation: It is about controlling one’s emotions i.e. instead of reacting quickly; one can reign in one’s emotions and thus will think before responding.

Internal Motivation: It includes one’s personal drive to improve and achieve commitment to one’s goals, initiative, or readiness to act on opportunities, and optimism and resilience.

Empathy: It is an awareness of the needs and feelings of others both individually and in groups, and being able to see things from the point of view of others.

Social Skills: It is applying empathy and balancing the wants and requirements of others with one’s. It includes building good rapport with others.

Improving Emotional Intelligence :

–By self-evaluating oneself, one can know one’s emotions and reactions to different situations.

–By observing others, one can comprehend feelings of others.

–By improving one’s expression, one can communicate better.

–By analyzing the impact of one’s action over others, one can fine tune the actions.

Now-a-days, organizations take initiative to improve Emotional Intelligence among its employees through different group activities, exercises, seminars and tests. However, EI also improves with age (maturity) due to one’s experiences in life.

Importance of government, transparency , accountability

We don’t have any commonly agreed definition of “governance”. Taking governance in its usual or most basic sense, we can define it as the action or manner of conducting the policy, actions, and affairs of a state, organization, or people with authority, where its course is reflected of control, influence, and regulation. Decision-making and the systems with their processes by which decisions are implemented are the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core of governance. These layers are separated by, crossed intricately together with, caused to blend dynamically into something else through the two most basic tenets of classical humanism called “transparency” and “accountability”. That authoritative conduct should be subject and open to public scrutiny where whoever is placed under this critical observation or examination shouldn’t be worried that something undesirable will happen, since whatever he or she did or has done can be only judged as the fact or condition of being accountable to be transparent.

The governance by means of accountability puts an end to the time, resources, and efforts spent on distracting activities and usual unproductive behavior, consequently, clears the way for transparency to take its natural course since when it makes people accountable for their actions, they have to value their work and get serious about its outcome.

Though governance, transparency, and accountability could have separate important aspects individually or respectively; they are indispensable aspects to each other. Their interdependence is an indissoluble and absolute relation that makes us experience governance as the superstructure built on transparency and accountability.

Accountability and transparency are treated as major building pillars for governing democratic nations in recent years. Before discussing about how they benefit, its needs, and its importance we shall see what exactly accountability and transparency is.

Accountability signifies the concern and duty of government institutional workers to perform their activities in the best interests of the public and that institutional officials should take responsibility for their activities performed. The mechanisms by which government officials can be held responsible for activities against formed principles and rules is called legal accountability. For understanding it well we shall have an example here, Government has accountability for laws and decisions affecting public; a citizen has accountability for his behavior and actions.

Need of Accountability and Transparency:

–Building of trust and impact of schemes can be enhanced with participative governance.

–Major changes can take place in work culture by adopting transparency and accountability in governance which leads to greater concern towards society.

–By adopting Accountability and transparency, it brings out a new way of providing real-time information in online dashboard.

–This not only solves the people’s problems but also service quality can be improved.

–The relationship between government and people can be enhanced and make citizens feel more connected.

–A two-way information channel will be created which helps to understand exactly what people want. By the concepts of “listen, ask, act, interact and inform”.

Some important steps to achieve transparency and accountability:

–Job functions and responsibilities shouldn’t be kept secret with people.

–Government, schemes and institutional outcomes should be shared with people, even if the results are not satisfactory.

–Transparency is about making sure everyone has the right to information to do their jobs effectively.

–People with appropriate principles and vision towards their organization must be hired or selected to maintain the culture of accountability and transparency in government and other institutions.

–Sharing of information, announcements and messages with people should be made easier with the help of open system of communication.

Democratic organizations and financial institutions must try to move away from the business of politics and concentrate more on moving towards accountability and transparency. This will help in building trust in the society. In social, industrial and government sectors its known that Indian democratic organizations are working, but to be better they should start building a good relationship with the public. Citizens who are paying their taxes would like to know exactly where their money is spent and all the developments that has happened in the country. “All government institutions and financial institutions should be re-positioned and redefined to focus on accountability and transparency, if you are a member of government or want to become a member of government, to be prepared to live in a glass house”. Higher the transparency and accountability better the stability of the country’s economy.


Dragon fruit, also known as pitahaya or strawberry pear, is a tropical fruit known for its vibrant red skin and sweet, seed-speckled pulp.

Its unique look and acclaimed superfood powers have made it popular among foodies and the health-conscious.

Luckily, you don’t have to live in the tropics to enjoy the many benefits of dragon fruit. In fact, you can find it fresh or frozen in supermarkets worldwide.

1. High in Nutrients

Dragon fruit is low in calories but packed with essential vitamins and minerals. It also contains a substantial amount of dietary fiber.

Here’s a rundown of the main nutrients in a one-cup serving (227 grams)

* Calories: 136
* Protein: 3 grams
* Fat: 0 grams
* Carbohydrates: 29 grams
* Fiber: 7 grams
* Iron: 8% of the RDI
* Magnesium: 18% of the RDI
* Vitamin C: 9% of the RDI
* Vitamin E: 4% of the RDI

Beyond essential nutrients, dragon fruit supplies beneficial plant compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and betacyanins


* Dragon fruit is low in calories but rich in vitamins, minerals and beneficial plant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and betacyanins.

2. May Help Fight Chronic Disease

Free radicals are unstable molecules that cause cell damage, which may lead to inflammation and disease.

One way to combat this is by eating antioxidant-rich foods like dragon fruit.

Antioxidants work by neutralizing free radicals, thus preventing cell damage and inflammation.

Studies suggest that diets high in antioxidants may help prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes and arthritis.

Dragon fruit contains several types of potent antioxidants, including

* Vitamin C: Observational studies have found correlations between vitamin C intake and cancer risk. For example, a study in 120,852 people associated higher intakes of vitamin C with lower rates of head and neck cancer

* Betalains: Test-tube studies indicate betalains can combat oxidative stress and may have the ability to suppress cancer cells

* Carotenoids: Beta-carotene and lycopene are the plant pigments that give dragon fruit its vibrant color. Diets rich in carotenoids have been linked to a reduced risk of cancer and heart disease

Importantly, antioxidants work best when eaten naturally in food, rather than in pill form or as a supplement. In fact, antioxidant supplements may have harmful effects, and taking them without medical supervision is not recommended

On the other hand, dragon fruit is highly recommended.


* Dragon fruit contains the antioxidants vitamin C, beta-carotene, lycopene and betalain. Studies have linked diets high in antioxidants to a reduced risk of chronic disease.

3. Loaded With Fiber

Dietary fibers are nondigestible carbohydrates that boast an extensive list of potential health benefits.

Health authorities recommend 25 grams of fiber per day for women and 38 grams for men. Like antioxidants, fiber supplements do not have the same health benefits as fiber from foods

With 7 grams per one-cup serving, dragon fruit is an excellent whole-food source.

Although fiber is probably most well known for its role in digestion, research has suggested it may also play a role in protecting against heart disease, managing type 2 diabetes and maintaining a healthy body weight.

Although more research is needed, some observational studies suggest that diets high in fiber may protect against colon cancer.

While no studies have linked dragon fruit to any of these conditions, its high-fiber content can help you meet your recommended daily values.

However, it’s important to note that high-fiber diets can have drawbacks, especially if you’re accustomed to a low-fiber diet. To avoid stomach discomfort, increase your intake of dietary fiber gradually and drink plenty of fluids.


* Dragon fruit offers 7 grams of fiber per serving, making it an excellent choice for meeting your daily fiber needs.

4. Promotes a Healthy Gut

Your gut is home to some 100 trillion diverse microorganisms, including more than 400 species of bacteria.

Many researchers believe this community of microorganisms may impact your health. Both human and animal studies have associated imbalances in your gut to conditions like asthma and heart disease.

Given that dragon fruit contains prebiotics, it can potentially improve the balance of good bacteria in your gut.

Prebiotics are a specific type of fiber that promotes the growth of healthy bacteria in your gut.

Like all fibers, your gut cannot break them down. However, the bacteria in your gut can digest them. They use the fiber as fuel for growth, and you reap the benefits.

In particular, dragon fruit mainly promotes the growth of two families of healthy bacteria: lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria.

Regularly consuming prebiotics may reduce the risk of infection in your digestive tract and diarrhea. This is because prebiotics promote the growth of good bacteria, which researchers believe may outcompete the bad.

For example, a study in travelers showed that those who consumed prebiotics before and during travel experienced fewer and less severe episodes of traveler’s diarrhea.

Some studies also suggest prebiotics may ease symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Unfortunately, these findings are inconsistent.

While much of the research on prebiotics is favorable, the research on the prebiotic activity of dragon fruit is limited to test-tube studies. More studies are needed to determine its true effect on the human gut.


* Dragon fruit may promote the growth of healthy bacteria in the gut, which is associated with a healthy gastrointestinal tract.

5. Strengthens Your Immune System

Your body’s ability to fight infection is determined by several different factors, including the quality of your diet.

The vitamin C and carotenoids in dragon fruit may boost your immune system and prevent infection by protecting your white blood cells from damage.

The white blood cells in your immune system attack and destroy harmful substances. However, they are extremely sensitive to damage by free radicals.

As potent antioxidants, vitamin C and carotenoids can neutralize free radicals and defend your white blood cells against harm.


* Dragon fruit’s high supply of vitamin C and carotenoids may offer immune-boosting properties.

6. May Boost Low Iron Levels

Dragon fruit is one of the few fresh fruits that contain iron.

Iron plays a crucial role in transporting oxygen throughout your body. It also plays an important role in breaking down food into energy.

Unfortunately, many people do not get enough iron. In fact, it has been estimated that 30% of the world’s population is deficient in iron, making it the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide.

To combat low iron levels, it’s important to consume a variety of iron-rich foods. Rich sources of iron include meats, fish, legumes, nuts and cereals.

Dragon fruit may be another great option, as one serving contains 8% of your recommended daily intake (RDI). It also contains vitamin C, which helps your body absorb iron


* Dragon fruit supplies iron along with vitamin C, a combination that may improve your body’s absorption of this important mineral.

7. Good Source of Magnesium

Dragon fruit offers more magnesium than most fruits, with 18% of your RDI in just one cup.

On average, your body contains 24g of magnesium, or roughly one ounce.

Despite this seemingly small amount, the mineral is present in every one of your cells and takes part in over 600 important chemical reactions within your body.

For example, it takes part in reactions needed for the breakdown of food into energy, muscle contraction, bone formation and even the creation of DNA.

More studies are needed, but some indicate that higher intakes of magnesium may reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Studies also show that diets adequate in magnesium support bone health


* Dragon fruit is a great source of magnesium, a nutrient needed for over 600 biochemical reactions in your body.

Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries


The sources of Indian Constitution include the imaginative aspirations of the nationalist leaders, the actual working of the Government of India Act, 1935, and the experience gained from the actual working of some of the Constitutions of important countries of the world. Its sources thus include not only the sources upon which the founding fathers of our Constitution drew but also the developmental ones such as the judicial decisions, constitutional amendments, constitutional practices and so on. The following overview of the major constitutions of the world has been laid down below.

A constitution is a set of rules through which a country or state operates.Some countries have unwritten constitutions which means there is no formal constitution written in one particular document. Their constitutional rules are originated from a number of sources. Britain sources its constitution from a number of important statutes, or laws, as well as principles decided in legal cases and conventions. New Zealand and Israel are two other countries that do not have formal written constitutions.Other nations have formal written constitutions in which the structure of government is defined and the respective powers of the nation and the states are written in one single document. These systems may also include unwritten conventions and constitutional law which can inform how the constitution is interpreted. Australia, India and the United States are examples of countries with a written constitution.

Importance of constitution:

The role of a constitution is to make certain that the government operates efficiently and in a fair and responsible manner. It does this in three ways:-

–It holds the government to the law.

–It provides distinction of power so that no one part of the government is any more powerful than another.

— It provides a series of checks and balances so that when laws are made or amended, the government follows the correct procedure to pass a Bill.

Ingredients of the Preamble:

The Preamble reveals four ingredients or components:

Source of authority of the Constitution:

The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India.

Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be of a sovereign, socialist, secular democratic and republican polity.

Objectives of the Constitution: It postulates justice, liberty, equality and fraternity as the objectives.

Date of adoption of the Constitution: It stipulates November 26, 1949 as the date.

Striking Features of the Constitution:

The Constitution of India establishes a federal system of government. It contains all the usual features of a federation, viz., two government, division of powers, written Constitution, supremacy of Constitution, rigidity of Constitution, independent judiciary, and bicameralism.

Though, the Indian Constitution also covershuge number of unitary or non-federal features, viz., a strong Centre, single Constitution, single citizenship, flexibility of Constitution, integrated judiciary, appointment of state governor by the Centre, all-India services, and emergency provisions.

Furthermore, the term ‘Federation’ has nowhere been used in the Constitution. Article 1, on the other hand, defines India as a ‘Union of States’ which implies two things: one, Indian Federation is not the result of an agreement by the states; and two, no state has the right to secede from the federation.

Parliamentary Form of Government:

The Constitution of India has chosen the British parliamentary System of Government instead of American Presidential System of Government. The parliamentary system is based on the principle of collaboration and coordination between the legislative and executive organs while the presidential system is based on the principle of separation of powers between the two organs.

The parliamentary system is also called the ‘Westminster’ model of government, responsible government and cabinet government. The Constitution establishes the parliamentary system not only at the Centre but also in the states. The basic attributes of parliamentary government in India are:

a)Presence of nominal and real executives

b)Majority party rule

c)Collective responsibility of the executive to the legislature

d) Membership of the ministers in the legislature

e) Leadership of the prime minister or the chief minister

f) Dissolution of the lower House (Lok Sabha or Assembly)

Though the Indian Parliamentary System is mainly based on the British system, there are some important differences between the two. For example, the Indian Parliament is not anindependent body like the British Parliament. Additionally, the Indian State has an elected head (republic) while the British State has hereditary head (monarchy).

Impact and comparison of various constitutions:

In order to compare Indian constitutional scheme with other countries, it is crucial to assess the impact of various constitution on India and the subsequent features borrowed.

The founding members of the Indian Constitution were intelligent to borrow from the experience gained in working of various other Constitutions. It is well recognized that the Constitution of India is borrowed from the various working Constitutions.

Comparison of Indian constitution vs British Constitution : The British Constitution had immense impact in many respects such as (i) Constitutional head of State (ii) Lower House of Parliament (Lok Sabha) is more powerful than the Upper House; (iii) Responsibility of Council of Ministers towards Parliament; (iv) Parliamentary system of Government , and (v) Prevalence of Rule of Law. UK, US and India countries are labelled as democratic countries of the world. United States is the oldest democratic country of the world and its constitution was made in 1789. WhereasIndia was the Colonial state of the United Kingdom till 1947 and the Indian Constitution came into force in 1950. But constitution of United Kingdom is dissimilar.

Although, UK is the self-governing country but the head of the state is monarch. Besides this one of the uniqueness of theUK‘s constitution is that it‘s not codified one like the US and India having. The UK Parliament can make any law or amendment by simply passing it by majority and then send to the monarch for his assent, which just the formality part. Other dissimilarities among these three countries is that United State is a true federal country, where each state has its own constitution; India is quasi federal there only one constitution for whole country but area of operation is divided between the Union and the State governments. Whereas UK is not having the federal structure, it has the unitary setup of government. In Federal system of governance, state legislatures have asay in amending the constitution but in unitary setup it‘s only the Parliament which hassupremacy for amending the constitution.

US and Indian constitution : The Constitution of the United States had its impact in many ways such as

(i) Preamble of the Constitution
(ii) Provision of Fundamental Rights
(iii) Functions of the Vice-President
(iv) Amendment of the Constitution
(v) Nature andfunctions of the Supreme court

There are many differences between the Constitution of India, and United States of America. Major difference between the two constitutions is that India has a prime minister which is like the president but is actually the head of the legislative branch, whereas the U.S. Constitution has a president, who is the head of the government, and only works in the executive branch. Under the Indian Constitution, the head of state is the president while the actual head of the government is the prime minister. The prime minister and his cabinet has political power, while the president has more power in the name. Other major difference involves the number of terms a president can run. In America, a president can serve a maximum of two -four year terms, while in India a president and prime minister can serve an unlimited number of terms that each last five years.

Comparison of Indian and Australian Constitution: The Indian Constitution, like that of Australia, espoused the federal arrangement and the creation of a judicial branch wholly independent of the other branches of government. Judicial review, to keep all recipients of pubic power within the Constitution and other applicable laws was faithfully imitated. But the Indian Constitution went further. Australian Constitution gave long list of concurrent powers and the procedure for solving deadlock over concurrent subjects between the Centre and the States.Under the Australian Constitution, the subjects in the concurrent list are 39. In India, the Concurrent list had 37 subjects to begin with. They were increased to 52 subsequently. The technique of resolution of disputes between the centre and the states has also been taken from Australia (Article 251) by the Indian Constitution.

Comparison of Indian and Canadian Constitution : India borrowed the provisions of a strong nation, the name ofUnion of Indian and vesting residuary poers with the Union from Canada. India has opted for Federal structure of Government on Canadian pattern. Like Canada, India has made centre more powerful. Indian Federal structure is termed ‘Quasifederal’ i.e., Federal with unitary bias’. Canadian Centre is very influential, so is the case with Indian Union government. Special powers have been accorded to the Union government for meeting all possible eventualities.The division of subjects between the centre and the units and provision of lists is to a great extent on Canadian lines. The Canadian constitution provides for lists of legislative powers, central and provincial. The residuary powers have been given to the centre.

Nord 2 Hit or Hot?

Lawyers for the OnePlus Nord pair in the capital caught fire and exploded, injuring around his abdomen. This is not the first time a pair of nord blasts have been found inside a bag in Bangalore last month. At trial, OnePlus said it was caused by an external injury and was not a manufacturing defect. However, this second incident raises some questions about what was behind the Nord 2 blast.
The OnePlus Nord duo re-launched as the first OnePlus Nord successor in the mid-range premium phase of the Gregorian calendar month. The Nord has a pair, the first OnePlus phone to run on a MediaTek Dimension 1200 processor and a 50MP triple camera option with a four, 500mAh battery that supports 65W quick charging. Prices start at Rs 27,999 in Asia.

According to a report on MySmartPrice, lawyer Gaurav Gulati’s OnePlus Nord pair caught fire and exploded in their cool court chamber. According to Gaurav, the phone was inactive and not charged and he had some stomach injuries. Images shared by Gaurav on Twitter show a very broken cord with a burnt inner couple. Speaking to MySmart Price, he said he felt extra heat when he was in his lawyer coat and saw smoke coming out of his pocket from his phone. “I immediately threw the robe and once my co-workers and I went to the edge of the phone, it exploded.

After he tweeted about the accident, OnePlus contacted Honor and a team met with him and asked him to submit the phone remains for any investigation. However, he told MySmartPrice and Gadgets360 that the company’s approach to the incident was not sensitive.

Many lawyers in New Delhi are currently likely to file an FIR against OnePlus and Amazon on Saturday, with OnePlus being over-subscribed to a terrorist attack that banned the sale of a pair of nodes in the Asian country and recall all manufactured units.

Literature of Manipuri

Manipuri literature is the literature written in the Manipuri language (i.e. Meeteilon). It is also known as Meetei Literature. The history of Manipuri literature can be traced back thousands of years with the flourishing of its civilisation.

But the Puya Meithaba (burning of ancient Manipuri scriptures) in 1729, during the reign of Meidingu Pamheiba (1709-1748), devastated the ancient Manipuri scriptures and cultural history. It began a new era of Manipuri literature.

The Meeteis had a long tradition of writing. It is not completely clear when the archaic Meetei Puyas (old scriptures) and Meetei Mayek (Manipuri scripts) first came into existence.However, the written constitution Loiyamba Shinyen (1110), during the regime of Meidingu Loiyamba (1074-1122), vividly connotes the practice of writing in this era. The Royal Chronicle, Chitharon Kumpaba, was kept meticulously and continued from the fifteenth century until the end of kingship (Meidingu Bodhchandra, 1941-1955).

The skill of writing was at first the prerogative of the professional scribes and scholars of the traditional Meetei culture, the Maichous. But later, as proliferation of religious, proto-scientific and astrological text suggests, writing was expanded beyond these professional scribal classes. However, most of the ancient Meetei puyas (scriptures) were anonymous and undated.

Early Manipuri literature consists of ritual hymn, cosmogony, history, or folktales in prose and poetry. A few of the notable works of ancient Meeteilon (i.e. Manipuri language) are: Numit Kappa, Ougri, Khencho, Sana Lamoak (6th or 7th century), Ahonglon (11th century), Khoiju Lamoak (12th century), Hijin Hirao, and Ningthauron (17th century).

One of the oldest literary works, Numit Kappa was written in archaic Meeteilon with Meetei Mayek (i.e. Manipuri script) in poetry verse. T.C. Hodson was the first to translate this archaic Meeteilon literary work into English in his book The Meitheis. Ougri (also Leiroi Ngongloi Eshei), is an anonymous and undated poetry written in archaic Meeteilon. But it is believed to have been written in the pre-Christian era.

A few notable works of ancient Manipuri literature in prose include Panthoibi Khongul, Nongshaba Laihui, Sakok Lairamlen, Poireiton Khunthokpa (3rd century), Kangla Haoba (5th century), Loyamba Shinyen (11th century), Naothingkhong Phambal Kaba (16th century), Khagemba Yumlep (16th century) and Cheitharon Kumbaba.

Modern poetry

Modern Manipuri poetry distinctly falls into two groups—the poetry of Lamabam Kamal and his contemporaries representing the early phase and poetry of more modern and younger poets representing the Zeitgeist of the contemporary world picture.

The approach of Minaketan is fresh and individualistic. Nilabir Sharma, Gourkishar, R.K. Elbangbam are famous lyrical poets. Surchand Sharma mainly deals with some aspects of the great Moirang Thoibi legend while R.K. Shitaljit is a poet of nature and humanity. R.K. Surendrajit blends the symbolic and the allegoric with lyricism, while in the poetry of Nadia, the narrative is blended with sonorous rhythm.

The poetry of younger poets—Samarendra, Nilakanta, Padmakumar, Shri Biren, Ibomcha, Ibohal, Ibopishak, Madhubir, Jyotirindra and Ibempishak—gives expression to the deep sense of the immense panorama of futility, anger, questioning of traditional values and absence of faith and integrity in the society.

In the field of translation, Nabadwipchandra is famous for his translation of Michael Madhusudhan’s Meghanad Badha Kavya into Manipuri. Tagore’s Gitanjali has been translated by A. Minaketan and Krishnamohan.


The early dramatics and patriotic exploits of the heroes of Manipur, and the heroic and pathetic lives of legendary and mythological characters are the themes in drama. The early drama includes Sati Khongnag and Areppa Marup of Lalit, Nara Singh of Lairenmayum Ibungahal, Moirang Thoibi of Dorendrajit, Bir Tikendrajit of Bira Singh, Chingu Khongnag Thaba of Birmangol, Mainu Pemcha of Shymsundar, and Kege Lanja of Bormani.

The contemporary dramatists have come forward with plays new in theme and technique. They easily come across politics and socio-economic problems in their search. The foremost among these are G.C. Tongbra, Netrajit, M.K. Binodini Devi, Ramcharan, Kanhailal, A. Sumorendro, Tomchou and Sanajaoba. Ratan Thiyam founded ‘Chorus Repertory Theatre’ in Imphal, in 1976.


Early in the 20th century, as stated, Lambam Kamal, Khwairakpam Chaoba and Hijam Anganghal attempted the first original novels in Manipur. Names of R.K. Shitaljit, H. Guno, Thoibi Devi, R.K. Elangbam, Ram Singh, Ibohal, Bhagya, Nodiachand, Ibomcha, Chitreshwar, M.K. Binodini and Pacha Meetei deserve mention besides those of many other contemporary novelists. Surchand Sarma, Shymsundar, Raghumani Sarma and Nishan Singh may be mentioned among the prominent translators.

Short stories :

The short stories also made their advent along with the novel. R.K. Shitaljit’s stories, racy and plain, are narrated in simple, direct and unadorned Manipuri. R.K. Elangbam portrays ordinary people moved by the ordinary concerns and passion of life. Nilbir Sharma expresses the concerns of the poor and the neglected in society. H. Gonu probes into the ailing Manipuri society.

Stories of Nongthombam Kunjamohan are famous for their sentimentalism which is one of the predominant strains of Manipuri literature. Shri Biren, M.K. Binodini, E. Dinamani and Biramani are popular writers.

Critical literature :

Critical literature in Manipuri is gaining popularity. Arabia Manipuri Sahityagi Itihas by Pandit Khelchandra and Manipuri Shatyagi Ashamba Itihas of Kalachand Shastri survey the early and medieval periods of Manipuri literature. Meitei Upanyasa (vol. 1) of Minaketan and Manipuri Sahitya Amasung Sahityakar of Dinamani are critical surveys of prominent Manipuri novels.

Sahityagi Neinaba Wareng of Chandramani, Sheireng Leiteng of Kalachand Shastri, Sahitya Mingshel of Gokul Shastri, Alangkar Kaumudi of Pandit Brajabihari Sharma and Alangkar Jyoti of Laurembam Iboyaima are also well-known critical writings.

Manipuri Kavitagi Chhanda of Nilakanta, Chhanda Veena of R.K. Surendrajit and Manipuri Kavya Kanglon by O. Ibo Chaoba makes a survey of the prosody of Manipuri poetry adopting a scientific approach.


Psychology has become a very important and popular subject today. It deals with many problems of everyday life. Psychology helps us to understand the behaviour of people around us, to find out why they behave differently and what forces are responsible to make them so different from others.

It tries to explain wide array of factors involved in what we human beings do. The principles explained by psychology give us a rational basis of understanding of what we and others do. Psychology has been defined in many ways. In ancient days people were analysing the behavioural aspects on the basis of philosophy. They believed that there is a soul in every individual and this is responsible for all our activities.

This view led to the opinion that the subject matter of psychology must be the study of soul. But this definition could not answer the questions regarding the existence of soul and its accessibility for study. This condition led to a new definition by Greek philosophers who defined psychology as a ‘science of mind’. But this definition was also rejected on the same grounds as soul was rejected.Later, Wilhelm Wundt a psychologist who established the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany defined psychology as the study of consciousness. EB Titchener the disciple of Wundt, proposed the method of Introspection to study consciousness. But because of its subjectivity and unscientific method of study, this definition was also rejected.

Gradually, as a result of the development of scientific outlook people started thinking on scientific basis and began to define psychology as a science of behaviour. Finally, it is JB Watson (1913) defined psychology as a science of behaviour of human as well as animal beings.

Scope of Psychology:

Psychology deals with the origins, development and change of behaviour. It deals with similarities and differences among people, with the occurrence of expected behaviour as well as unexpected behaviour. Equally so it is concerned with the non-occurrence of expected behaviour. It is concerned with behaviour which is observable and unobservable, conscious and unconscious, with the behaviour of individuals as well as groups and with the influence of individuals on the behaviour of one another.

It may also be said that psychologists are concerned not only with the actual day-to-day behaviour but also with the unique products of human activity like dreams, art, literature, mythology, folklore and all other products of human behaviour.

By analysing and studying these products, psychologists have tried to understand the motivational processes and other factors which might have influenced the production and creation of these activities. In recent years, psychologists have also extended their interest to studying political philosophies, ideologies and forms of government.

All this has naturally resulted in the expansion of the scope of psychology. Psychology is applied everywhere in the home, at the school, at the hospitals, in factories and offices, in the armed forces and in all imaginable situations involving the behaviour of human individuals alone or in a group.The subject of psychology which was mainly developed by philosophers from their armchairs, progressed to laboratories and is today studied and applied in all walks of life.

Methods of psychology :

The aim of science is to use scientific method to collect information in the form of verifiable data. Different sciences use different methods that are suitable for the investigation of their subject-matter. However, all of them have one thing in common, in the sense that, they aim at a very high objectivity in the collection of facts and precise description of the phenomena under investigation.

When discussing the methods used by psychology, we must be sure that they fulfill scientific requirements. The complexity of the subject-matter with which psychology deals is quite obvious. The behaviour of the individual is something that varies not only from person to person but also from time to time.

Such variations in behaviour, obviously, are less subject to accurate and objective observation and description than the subject-matter of many sciences like physics, chemistry, biology etc. In spite of these difficulties, psychologists, have tried to confine themselves to the requirements of objectivity, which characterize the methods of science. Like other sciences, psychology also uses several methods to study its problems.

Bell Bottom Review

In Bell Bottom in the mystery story, Akshay Kumar plays the role of investigator and the Analytical Division (RAW) ambassador named the United Nations agency ‘Bell Bottom’. After a plane was hijacked and landed in Amritsar, the seventh hijacking incident in 5 years, Kumar was brought in for several days to be rescued. The film revolves around their plans for a courageous military operation to rescue 210 hostages and neutralize the four kidnappers. Even more impressive is the fact that his operation is associated with personal tragedy.
Like many other Kumar films inspired by real events, this Ranjit Tiwari-directed film is based on two events in which Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister of Asia in the late 70s and early 80s. Happened. It is commendable that the film was shot in various parts of Asia and Scotland during the epidemic.

Kumar’s shiny entry as Bell Bottom really brings some whistleblowers and fills the concert with excitement, not to mention the fact that he looks smart in Tirpan. He was thin, mature and agile, and possessed a sharp army-man skill. Vani Kapoor, who appeared in the role of the husband of the Bell Bottom United Nations agency, may be a national participant. He has a sharp memory and is fluent in Hindi, English, French and German. Vani Kapoor as Kumar’s wife is charming on screen and even with limited screen time, she is well supported for her role. The film stars Adil Hussain, Huma Qureshi and Lara Dutta in polar roles. Looking at the buzz going on around Dutta makeup, we can really say that her makeover as a former Prime Minister politician is very nice. He does not recognize! Huma Qureshi assists the Indian team in rescuing Indian voters trapped in a hijacked plane.

Akshay Kumar is completely kind and strong. He makes full use of his stellar energy. Filming on the Statesman screen is not a trivial matter and Dutta looks half confident and confident. Kumar’s mother is competing with Daly Ahluwalia and they share some sharp and funny scenes.

Written by Asim Arora and Pervez Shaikh, the film featured and captured your attention for 123 minutes. However, every minute of the action you must pause because the inside of the plot is very forward and backward. The speed of the film is constant and the narration and characters also do not lose speed.
As you travel along with the story, the events that unfold are less likely to absorb the emotion it shows you. With a film like this, you expect a lot of goose bump moments, but it doesn’t. At the same time, the film leaves you with questions unrelated to many people, such as the hostage-taking and the terrorist kidnapping plan. The small uncertain size of the film may be , it is overwhelming and dies.

Fast & Furious 9 Review

To make this passage relevant to its time, here is an article. As a result of the Central Board of Film Certification, our Lord Vin Diesel decided that by the year 2009, I was not allowed to see the fourth film in Quick Adventure Story (which was a bit of an adventure story at the time), the moving film should give some friendly bald man ‘A’ status. The humble girl at Satyam Jawaharlal Nehru Place made up my mind in ‘No’ like the adult male in PVR Saket (we took Win recommendation and did not provide). Now, the ninth film in the same franchise is being streamed home (not ours; the Republic of India theatrical release). Therefore, enjoying a quick adventure story depends on whether you are recent and whether you have been able to tap into your past successes.

Not as ridiculous as the F9 franchise’s previous entries, but not due to a lack of effort. Now the difference is that the efforts made to cross the boundaries of the Quality Area Unit are transparently Mizonistic. De Janeiro | Rio | City | Metropolis | After finishing director Justin Statuemaker Accelerated 5 with a high-speed chase at the Urban Center} de Janeiro, it was almost a shameless mistake – the first of its kind in the series. Surprisingly people first became the scarf optical disc player, you have no choice but to admire and sit back for a ride.
It’s like Tom Cruise once set out to personally measure Burj Khalifa on a mission: not possible – Ghost protocol. Currently, every cruise and diesel field unit needs to propel itself to run alone. It is no coincidence that everyone is launching a similar flaky plan to intensify this madness: the house, the last frontier.

As we speak, Cruise is building a mission to be the primary person to film the narrative feature for an international artificial satellite. Meanwhile, Diesel decides to put his original underline Tyrese Gibson and Ludacris in sheltered costumes and asks the statue maker Justin to film him a flounder at zero gravity on an inexperienced screen. None of them are complete, it is almost impossible to tolerate the level of self-parody. The most important surprise is that it is not currently the tenth and eleventh movies in a row on Mars or the invention of the time travel machine to run the time travel machine, Diesel drives a Ford Auto from Canon. Franchise to build low and comeback images.

Public administration

Public administration, the implementation of government policies. Today public administration is often regarded as including also some responsibility for determining the policies and programs of governments. Specifically, it is the planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling of government operations.

Public administration is a feature of all nations, whatever their system of government. Within nations public administration is practiced at the central, intermediate, and local levels. Indeed, the relationships between different levels of government within a single nation constitute a growing problem of public administration.

In most of the world the establishment of highly trained administrative, executive, or directive classes has made public administration a distinct profession. The body of public administrators is usually called the civil service. In the United States, the elitist class connotations historically attached to the civil service were consciously abandoned or from the early 20th century, with the result that civil servants were recognized as professionals and valued for their expertise.

In most countries the civil service does not include local government or public corporations. In some countries, however—particularly those unitary states in which provincial administration is part of the central government—some provincial staffs are civil servants. In the United States, all levels of government have their own civil services—federal, state, and local—and a civil service is specifically that part of governmental service entered by examination and offering permanent tenure.

Let’s talk about some characteristics of public administration :

Commitment to the Mission:- Excitement trickles down from leadership to the employees on the ground. When the administrator is enthused about the organization or agency’s mission, the employees will mirror those feelings. In times of crisis, great administrators remind their staff of the purpose of their mission and the role their organization plays in the larger society.

Strategic Vision :- A public administrator must always remain focused on the strategic vision and the long-term mission of the agency or organization. Staff members can become narrowly obsessed with the day-to-day operations of the agency but count on their leaders to understand the five, 10 and 20-year plans. It is important to remember that the agency or organization was often around long before the public administrator arrived, and will remain in operation long after the administrator leave .

Delegation :- There is a fine line between delegating tasks to staff and shirking from responsibilities, knowing subordinates will take up the slack. Great public administrators navigate this distinction by assigning not just tasks, but clearly defined spheres of influence where staff members have the authority to make decisions. Delegating tasks and responsibilities in this manner empowers staff members to grow in their positions, preparing them for future leadership positions.

Grow Talent :- Internal promotions save companies and organizations thousands of dollars over adding outside hires. A public administrator must be able to take existing talent within the organization, nurture it, and place staff members in positions where they can be successful. Public administrators must be careful not to stifle staff growth by becoming overbearing or forcing staff members into positions for which they are ill-suited.

Creativity :- In most circumstances, public administrators work on shoestring budgets with short deadlines and difficult, seemingly impossible, objectives. Those drawn to public administration thrive on those unique challenges and use the restrictions as a way to showcase their creativity. Public administrators are able to come up with creative solutions to complex problems, usually by seeing an issue from a new perspective or by innovating a new approach to the solution.

Digital Communication Experience :- Social media and digital communication platforms, such as email and video, are cornerstones of modern communications. While leaders in for-profit organizations are responsible to shareholders, they have much more freedom to determine when and where they will communicate. Public administrators are beholden to the people and may be held accountable for their actions at any time. Successful administrators exhibit excellent digital communication skills, especially communication via social media.Public administrators choose their profession because of their love of service and their desire to make their communities a better place. These 10 traits can transform inexperienced administrators into tremendously successful ones.

Political science and International Relations

Political Science and International Relations are complementary and inter-related disciplines that explore power and politics in many different contexts. They provide concepts with which to explain, justify and critique the modern world. They examine ideologies such as colonisation and socialism. They explore systems of ideas like the new right, religious fundamentalism, and postmodernism. They analyse social movements that call for justice, development, gender equality or environmental protection. They help us to understand processes of electoral competition, government, and policy- making in New Zealand and a range of other countries across the world. They uncover the structures and motivations behind cooperation, conflict and war in the international system. They dig into issues of power, conflict, diplomacy, arms control, democracy, revolution, terrorism, developmental politics, civil society, human rights, foreign policy, humanitarian aid, and the international political economy.

Globalisation links people, cultures and countries much more closely than they have ever been. International Relations studies the relationships among countries and the roles of governmental and non-governmental organisations and multi-nationals. In an increasingly inter-connected world, people who understand and can work with these complex relationships have a significant advantage.


Studying these disciplines brings many benefits. There is the personal satisfaction and social confidence that comes from training your brain and raising your understanding of not only world events but also the events of daily life. Being able to step back and see a larger (political) process at work is very empowering at an individual level. It can take the sting out of tense or emotional situations and provide you with strategies that enable you to behave constructively and proactively. Being able to rise above difficulties and move on is enormously valuable in any work environment, particularly when professional issues or competing interests are involved. P

olitical Science and International Relations are embedded not only in social processes and group dynamics, but also different cultural realities. This raises your sensitivity to the taken-for-granted aspects of cultural experience, making you more open to different points of view and value systems. The ability to move comfortably within and between different cultures and political systems is fundamental to international business and trade activities, development support, humanitarian aid and peacekeeping missions. People with this kind of understanding are more likely to be successful in multi-national corporations and professional practices, non-government organisations (NGOs) such as aid agencies, and government agencies including diplomatic services and defence forces. They are also valuable ‘at home’ working in organisations where cultural or ethnic identity has a relationship with other social or political processes.


Political Science and International Relations graduates have a great toolkit of skills to take to work . These include :

Conceptual analysis : Graduates have learned to get their heads around the big issues, including models of government, cultural imperatives, false equivalents, the effects of war, historical intentions and complex current realities. Working productively with this range of information develops skills of abstract thinking and in-depth analysis, which transfer well to many jobs, especially those that deal in conceptual models and/or strategic planning. These include policy analysis, management roles, professional roles in law and economics, technical writing and promotion of the arts.

Consequential thinking: To a large extent Political Science and International Relations is about intentions, decisions and their various consequences. Graduates are adept at identifying the consequential effects of decisions and actions taken historically and in the present. They learn to make connections and formulate arguments. They learn to look for the hidden detail that changes everything. They become quite astute at predicting outcomes. Jobs that draw on these skills include all levels of management, particularly human resources, financial service roles, customer service positions, and any job that involves decision-making and problem solving.

Influencing and persuading skills: When it comes to getting what you want, graduates have an excellent understanding of what works and what doesn’t, having studied political agendas throughout the world and throughout history. It comes back to the element of power that underpins political business everywhere. Many job roles contain an expectation that you will be able to implement decisions, mobilise resources, or motivate others. These outcomes require influencing and persuading skills and are particularly relevant in supervisory roles, but also come into play in roles that involve interviewing for information, such as immigration officer or human resources consultant. Influencing skills make all the difference to sales, marketing and journalism roles, and work well for court lawyers and politicians.

Language skills: These skills encompass the biggies – written and verbal communication. Employers are always delighted to find people who write effectively and express their thoughts clearly. Graduates have these skills – partly from having to think big political ideas through to a logical conclusion, and partly because they are encouraged to write clear, lively well-argued assignments, and also argue their understanding of issues in tutorials with peers. Most work roles are enhanced by good language skills, and all positions of authority and leadership require them

Research skills: Graduates have studied their subject through its protocols of research design and methodology. This includes defining key research questions, tracking down and interpreting official documents, practising stringent internet research techniques, and for some, learning to write research proposals and make submissions to select committees. Many job roles, including policy analysts and advisors, journalists, managers, community liaison officers and social researchers, are highly dependent on superior research skills.


Camel, (genus Camelus), any of three species of large ruminating hoofed mammals of arid Africa and Asia known for their ability to go for long periods without drinking. The Arabian camel, or dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), has one back hump, while the domesticated Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus) and the wild Bactrian camel (C. ferus) have two.

These “ships of the desert” have long been valued as pack or saddle animals, and they are also exploited for milk, meat, wool, and hides. The dromedary was domesticated about 3000–2000 BCE in Arabia, the Bactrian camel by 4000 BCE in the steppes of Central Asia. Most of today’s 13 million domesticated dromedaries and roughly 97 domesticated breeds are in India and in the Horn of Africa. Wild dromedaries are extinct, although there is a large feral population in interior Australia descended from pack animals imported in the 19th century. About one million domesticated Bactrian camels range from the Middle East to China and Mongolia. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has classified the wild Bactrian camel as a critically endangered species since 2002. The largest population—numbering approximately 650 adult animals—lives in the Gobi Desert.

Natural history

Camels have an unmistakable silhouette, with their humped back, short tail, long slim legs, and long neck that dips downward and rises to a small narrow head. The upper lip is split into two sections that move independently. All three species are about 3 metres (10 feet) long and 2 metres (6.6 feet) high at the hump (itself 20 cm [8 inches]). Males weigh 400 to 650 kg (900 to 1,400 pounds), and females are about 10 percent smaller. Colour is usually light brown but can be grayish. Domesticated Bactrian camels are darker, stockier, and woollier than the wild form. Heavy eyelashes protect the eyes from blowing sand, and the nostrils can be squeezed shut. The dromedary has horny pads on the chest and knees that protect it from searing desert sand when it lies down, but the Bactrian camel lacks these callosities. Camels are generally docile, but they will bite or kick when annoyed. When excited, camels huff so sharply that spit is incidentally expelled.

Camels do not walk on their hooves. On each leg, weight is borne on two large toes that spread apart to keep the animal from sinking into the sand. Dromedaries have a soft wide-spreading pad for walking on sand; Bactrian camels have a firmer foot. Like the giraffe’s, the camel’s gait is a pace, with both legs on a side moving together. Short bursts of 65 km (40 miles) per hour are possible, but camels are excellent plodders. Bactrian camels can carry more than 200 kg (about 440 pounds) for 50 km (31 miles) in a day, while the more lightly built dromedaries can carry up to 100 kg (about 220 pounds) for 60 km (about 37 miles) if they are worked in the coolness of night.

During catastrophic droughts, herdsmen may lose all of their cattle, sheep, and goats while 80 percent of the camels will survive, owing to the camel’s ability to conserve water and tolerate dehydration. In severe heat a camel survives four to seven days without drinking, but it can go 10 months without drinking at all if it is not working and the forage contains enough moisture. Even salty water can be tolerated, and between drinks it forages far from oases to find food unavailable to other livestock. The body rehydrates within minutes of a long drink, absorbing over 100 litres (25 gallons) in 5–10 minutes. Cattle could not tolerate such a sudden dilution of the blood, because their red blood cells would burst under the osmotic stress; camel erythrocyte membranes are viscous (that is, sticky and flow-resistant), which permits swelling. A thirsty camel can reduce its urine output to one-fifth of its normal volume and produce feces dry enough for herders to use as fuel for fires.

Another adaptation is minimization of sweating. The fine woolly coat insulates the body, reducing heat gain. The camel also can allow its body temperature to rise to 41 °C (106 °F) before sweating at all. This reduces the temperature difference between the camel and its environment and thereby reduces heat gain and water loss by as much as two-thirds. Only in the hottest weather must the camel sweat. It tolerates extreme dehydration and can lose up to 25–30 percent of its body weight—twice what would be fatal for most mammals.

Camels have also adapted to desert conditions by being able to endure protein deficiency and eat items other livestock avoid, such as thorns, dry leaves, and saltbush. When food is plentiful, camels “overeat,” storing fat in one area on the back and forming a hump. When the fat is depleted, the hump sags to the side or disappears. Storing fat in one place also increases the body’s ability to dissipate heat everywhere else.

When not corralled, camels form stable groups of females accompanied by one mature male. Females breed by three to four years of age. Males begin to manufacture sperm at age three but do not compete for females until they are six to eight years old. Males compete for dominance by circling each other with the head held low and biting the feet or head of the opponent and attempting to topple it. After one camel withdraws from the bout, the winner may roll and rub secretions onto the ground from a gland on the back of its head. The dominant male breeds with all the females in each stable group. After a gestation of 13 or 14 months, one calf weighing up to 37 kg (81 pounds) is born, usually during the rainy season. Milk yields of 35 kg (about 77 pounds) per day are achieved in some breeds (e.g., the “milch dromedary” of Pakistan), though normal yield is about 4 kg (9 pounds) per day. Herders typically divert most milk to their own use during the calf’s first 9 to 11 months, then force weaning and take the rest. The calf is otherwise suckled 12 to 18 months. Females and males reproduce until about 20 years old. Longevity is 40 years.

Camels are classified in the family Camelidae, which first appeared in North America 40 million years ago. North American camelid stock became extinct 10,000 years ago. Living South American camelids are represented by the llama (Lama glama), guanaco (L. guanicoe), vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), and alpaca (V. pacos). The lineage that produced modern dromedary and Bactrian camels diverged from the South American camelid lineage between 11 million and 25 million years ago. Dromedary and Bactrian camel lineages split from one another between 4 million and 5 million years ago, with wild and domestic Bactrian camels separating from one another between 1.5 million and 700,000 years ago. Bactrian camel domestication by human beings came much later, however, occurring between 6,000 and 4,000 years ago. By 2 million years ago (the early Pleistocene Epoch) Camelus representatives had crossed back to Asia and were present in Africa (Tanzania). During the Pleistocene Epoch (2.5 million to 11,700 years ago) camelids reached South America. The family Camelidae belongs to the order Artiodactyla, a large group of hoofed mammals.

Cultural significance

Camels are among those few creatures with which humans have forged a special bond of dependence and affinity. Traditional lifestyles in many regions of the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia would never have developed without the camel, around which entire cultures have come into being. This camel-based culture is best exemplified by the Bedouin of the Arabian Peninsula—the native habitat of the dromedary—whose entire traditional economy depended on the produce of the camel. Camel’s milk and flesh were staples of the Bedouin diet, and its hair yielded cloth for shelter and clothing; its endurance as a beast of burden and as a mount enabled the Bedouin to range far into the desert. The mobility and freedom that the camel afforded to desert Arabs helped forge their independent culture and their strong sense of self-reliance, and they celebrated the camel in their native poetic verse, the qaṣīdah, in which the nāqah (female camel) was a faithful, unwavering mount. Among these nomadic people, a man’s wealth was measured not only by the number of camels he possessed but also by their speed, stamina, and endurance.

Until modern times, the camel was the backbone of the caravan trade, a central pillar of the economy in large parts of Asia and Africa. In settled regions, the caravansary, located on the outskirts of most urban centres, served as a hub for business and as a source of information about the outside world for the city’s residents. In the central Islamic lands, it likewise set the scene for many tales in the rich Arab-Persian oral tradition of storytelling, such as those found in The Thousand and One Nights. In Central Asia, vast and numerous camel caravans ensured the wealth and growth of the great trading cities of the Silk Road, upon which goods moved between Asia and Europe.

Today the camel remains an important part of some local economies, although it has been surpassed by automated forms of transportation for most tasks. Camels are still bred for their meat, milk, and hair, and, beginning in the late 20th century, the age-old sport of camel racing was revived, particularly in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula but also as far afield as Australia and the United States.

Role of civil services in a democracy

The greatness associated with “performing a public service utilizing public fund” reflects power, aspirations of achieving this power, and a consistent hope or ambition of achieving through this power!

The civil servants by virtue of their knowledge, experience, and understanding of public affairs assist the ministers in formulating policy and are responsible for implementing these policies wherein ministers are accountable to parliament and civil servants are accountable to ministers. Though we are a democracy and power is vested in the people, neither politicians nor civil servants are directly and meaningfully accountable to the public.

This lack of accountability has mirrored political and administrative passivity, non-intervention, and negligence. We call this image ‘the system’. This system prevents the poor from accessing basic necessities and resources, and a place giving permanent protection. This system characterizes many discreditable practices, habitual decisions for which accountability is not necessary, work culture where people sometimes habitually look uninterested and unorganized, overlapping of tasks and half-baked results, since the concept of ‘optimization’ has not found its place in this work culture yet.

Any system is a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network. In a democracy, the core things of a system are connected through legislation. A civil servant can change the official or accepted way of doing something, but he can’t change legislation-related input present in it. There are multiple parts in the system even if you better or replace one part, it distorts the working of other parts. In a country as diverse as India, these parts at different levels are uncountable, unless a major reformative decision at a parliamentary level is made, the current system will continue to work in a presentable manner. In this situation, a civil servant can control the work flow, but he can’t set that work to its optimization if it is a part of the interconnecting network.

We have seen various poverty alleviation programs, but some underperformed and their successes looked irregular and unpredictable. Some of them lacked economic rationale or another practical purpose. Had these programs been successful, we would have freed ourselves from poverty long back. Our bureaucratic mechanisms need to comprise holistic approaches and solutions. They monitored and moved to achieve short-term arbitrary outcomes whose consequences could be terrible and had long-term counter-productive effects.

One such consequence was that poverty in India was normalized through its credentials in various statistical projects. Normalizing here means we start taking something a standard condition or state. As we normalized poverty, it became a characteristic of the population, consequently, serious hardships from poverty were no longer seen as violations of law, justice, ethics, or the constitution, so it doesn’t matter if it continues to exist.

Now the legislators whom we call politicians to see their success in terms of improved public relations. A public relations exercise eats up a lot of time. Policymaking is the ultimate responsibility of a minister, but they hardly get time to study something in-depth. They don’t have real field work experience in device policies. In this case, a civil servant renders policy advice to the minister. Usually, politicians work on those combinations which are more beneficial to them than the public. But these policies do carry the inputs of civil servants despite this, these policies have failed to eradicate poverty.

A person becomes a civil servant after passing one of the toughest exams in the world. It is said so. But there is hardly any examination that can check a person’s commitment to work and his work potential. A person becomes a decision-maker after becoming a civil servant. This level of poverty can’t be eradicated through decision-making processes rather ‘individual’s originality related to work’ is a prerequisite that no exam can ensure. Is it possible or has it ever been thought of – that a bureaucrat himself/herself has earned at the grassroots level through inventing his/her original model, and under this model, he/she has devised schemes and implemented them, so that grassroots level people can practice them to earn their livelihoods and also get the scope to upgrade their skill levels? If schemes get formulated in this manner, they will definitely be successful and sustainable. We are heaven away from this kind of system. There is nothing great about “performing a public service utilizing public funds”, since earning according to what is morally right or fair is many times more difficult than spending.

The real work which can generate revenues, consequently employment and vice versa, has yet to see its dawn, the real commitment is unobserved, the real change looks near but it is more like a horizon. What should we do to experience real work, commitment, and change? One possible course of action can be the appointment of ‘village administrators’ through an entrance examination. There are more or less 638,000 villages in India. Every year the government could recruit 25,000 village administrators. A village administrator, after understanding the requirements of the village, will conceive a consolidated plan to address the problems related to livelihoods, education, society, infrastructure, drainage system, and so on.

The present system showcases conspicuous limitations. The limitations limit the scope of real development. In fact, a person who is working to bring real change at the grassroots level without being part of the government service is serving people in a better and sustainable manner. There is no need to become a civil servant to serve people. They can be served better by those who are not part of this system. People are not served through power, they are served through prowess, not that of decision making, but of the original exertions which have undeclared true potential for ‘the mass eradication and mass extinction of poverty’.

The world has failed to realize that poverty has become a species that adjusted long ago to survive on prosperity and by itself.

Wonders of Sciences

This is the age of science. There are many wonders in square metrology. It made our life easier and more enjoyable. Science plays an important role in our daily lives. It made man dreams and imaginations come true. There are imaginative good things for humans from the observation of ordinary events. Science is nothing but a scientific tool for information and living. There are many things and machines imagined for humans and the idea of ​​a railway engine came from observing very simple events from boiling water during a kettle in the US, an apple falling from a tree that helped create Newton’s law of gravity. Electricity is man’s greatest invention, “it serves the U.S. in thousands and thousands of ways to run our trains, mills and factories. Electricity keeps our homes cool and hot. Modern life is simply not possible.” When there is no electricity there is no electricity. Many scientific discoveries have made our lives so much fun. Electricity is a great invention of science. It serves the US in many ways. Modern life is not possible without these scientific discoveries.

Once a person sees a life as cruel as the junction rectifier age, we can notice how far back we have come. Similarly, human evolution is truly admirable. One of the main driving forces behind this is often science. It makes you believe in the miracle of science and the way it proves to be a blessing in our lives. Most importantly, science has contributed to the development of a good civilization. Throughout all the progress that man has made, he has succeeded in constructing a class measure only with the help of science. However, it is not wrong to say that science is a two-sided weapon. It comes with its own advantages and disadvantages. It is ironic to say that science has so many benefits. The benefits of science are not limited to just one area, but it is useful in different parts of the planet. Once we refer to innovations in science and engineering, the first thing that comes to mind is electricity. It helped the power of the planet through its evolution.

There are no boundaries as science is a universal subject. After years of active and lengthy efforts, the science school has been recognized and recognized as an area of ​​the program. Science has proven to be indispensable to human existence and has made revolutionary changes in human life.

Science proficiency is currently established in every field and therefore students need to be trained on science – what science is and where science is. Our pace of life has also accelerated. The individual was given a very new social and political perspective.

Therefore, the study of science became a necessity during this period and modern science did not learn, man was a lame man with an understanding of the fashion era. That’s why it’s so important to learn the wonders of science in the classroom. Provides specialized instruction on science observation and reasoning. It provides an objective call to students. Learning science to look after ourselves in life is incomparable. We are in a world of scientific discoveries. Therefore, science education cannot be neglected.

Optimism and Positivity

A positive attitude will never have a smile on your face, anytime it is over. Although things are completely confusing, the optimistic {mentality | Psychology | Attitude | Mind-set | Attitude |

About managing mental attitude and attitude. As mentioned above, proper or unhealthy diet for your body, positive and negative thoughts will do the same as your mind!

Fill your mind with positive thoughts and you will see amazing changes around you. An honest attitude or a positive attitude means that the external interpretation of the mind is based entirely on positive things. It is a mentality that favors activity over dissatisfaction, happiness over despair, and vain hope. A positive attitude is a state of mind that can only be maintained through conscious effort. Positive people understand that once a subject has shifted a person’s mental focus in a negative direction, changes must be made to bring prosperity. Positive Thinking, Thoughts, Optimism, Hope, and Belief A positive mind expects happiness, health, joy and a specific outcome of every illustration and action and works miracles like magic.

Water Scarcity

The importance of water has changed dramatically over the years. Industries turned farmers upside down. Urban claims much more water than rural areas. The rich take from the poor. Lifestyle dominates livelihoods. Water scarcity reinforces these trends.
The country, which emits more groundwater than any other, has reached water and food security figures that threaten political and economic stability and long-term public health. In this special report, the Circle of Blue reveals that a country of .3 billion people, based on many years of on-the-ground coverage, has failed to conserve its water and is facing a social upheaval. The appeal also included illness and financial difficulties. Going along with groundwater depletion and pollution, it could be a “toxic time bomb” food proposition that could have implications for the world. Once the irrigation wells have dried up, farmers are concerned about the production of untreated waste containing pollutants from industrial chemicals and human biodegradation.
Article on water scarcity: Water scarcity is a major problem facing almost half of the world’s population. Like warming and global climate change, water scarcity affects human life in many ways.
In some places, it can interfere with a greasy life. This makes it harder for human life to exist in alternative parts of the world. At this point, there is no arguing that water is one of the necessities needed for a group to survive on Earth. But, as it has recently appeared, the group itself is responsible for its destruction. Water scarcity around the world cannot be attributed to population growth. Do Nothing Water consumption is one of the many reasons behind water scarcity.
Water scarcity occurs when people do not save water or nature does not conserve it. In some countries of the world the water is thick. People in such countries do not use water. For example, water used to wash cars is also used for agriculture. And the water used to wash the floors is a place to be used for alternative household chores. Even in countries where water is scarce, people use water for every activity. This leads to indiscriminate use of water. In countries where water is scarce, people have set it aside in large quantities. Some governments use monetary incentives to save a lot of water. Water scarcity affects a lot of people. Some have to buy water, while others have to bear the hassle of transporting them from ponds and lakes. Most often, there are cases of water poisoning. This mainly happens when people do not collect water and use it when filtering.
Many water systems that feed ecosystems and feed a growing human population are under pressure. Rivers, lakes and reservoirs dry up or become unclean for use. Most [* fr1] wetlands in the world have disappeared. Agriculture consumes a lot more water than other supplies and much of it is wasted due to inefficiency. Global Climate Change is a global climate and water sterilization model that leads to depletion and drought in some areas and floods in others. At this consumption rate, this example is declining. By 2025, a portion of the world’s population will face water scarcity. And ecosystems around the world may suffer further.

About Afforestation & it’s pros

Forests provide fresh air, water and food grains, which force the creatures to survive in the world. There is no life when there are no forests. During this article we will look at the benefits of those forests and their current status.
The supply of life is wild
It is an observation that only living things on earth sleep in a stellar family, that only air and water exist on earth. The fact is that every living thing on Earth can survive, although researchers are researching whether the square measurements contain enough air and water for the planets to sustain life. This air contains gases such as N, oxygen and greenhouse gases. All living things absorb atomic number 8 and do not use greenhouse gases. At constant times, plants absorb greenhouse gas, do not use atomic number 8, and supply fresh air to measure organisms.
Water supply forest
Water is essential for humans and living things. This water has been on the U.S. market since the fall. Wherever it rains it is usually inside forests. It rains because of the forests. There are no trees in the desert. So no rain. Many of the trees are square inside the hills. Thus it rains abundantly. These forests provide freshwater to the world and American groundwater.
Shade trees and forests
Creatures rest in the shade of a tree as they travel from one place to another. That is why all the kings planted trees on both sides of the roads.
Forests that prevent wear
When it rains and the water flows, the soil washes away. Hence residential square measurements are wasted. However the roots of the trees are so close to the soil that the wear must be prevented.
Jungle to help home
In addition to the above, trees are also used to build doors, tables, beds and shelves for humans to measure.
Food and give medicine trees
The fruits of the square measure trees are used as food for humans and animals. The leaves, bark, roots, fruits and nuts of many trees are also used medicinally. Water falling on some plants and falling on America is also used as medicine.

Fastest Internet speed record

We all love super-fast, slick web services, and in the first place, if you live in a metropolitan city, you’re ready to get the fastest fiber broadband service that can deliver you three hundred Mbps of information. Provides measurement. On average it can stream virtually all of your streaming needs as well as 4K content on multiple devices. However, researchers have never been happy with the way things are, so labs at universities around the world are looking to get web speeds faster than ever before. It is currently set by the National Institute of Data and Engineering (NICT) in Japan, which holds the world’s fastest web speed record at 319 terabits per second.
First, the school – to surpass this record, NICT researchers initially chose to start with fiber optic cables‌. Ordinary fiber broadband cables have a core (which holds information at unsafe speeds for you), wrapped around an insulation pile to protect that core and prevent the information transmission from breaking. During this transmission, Japanese researchers collaboratively used an experimental cable that used four cores instead of the standard one, along with insulation throughout. Researchers believe that this is a very important discovery, and that it will facilitate greater cognitive diagnosis as a result of faster web speeds in the future.

To be clear, never expect a 319 Tbps network in your home. To achieve this speed, the team used a 552-channel comb optical major and transmitted it at multiple wavelengths to enable communication. It additionally uses lanthanum mineral amplifiers to retain information at this speed for older, simulated distances – apparently 3,001 km / h. While this is also a much more beloved and widespread method than practical commercial technology, it is worth noting that the 319 Tbps knowledge transmission is clearly achievable and robust.
Although this technique is low-cost, it should probably not be – it should be noted at least once. Researchers hope to use this type of technology in areas such as the transmission of industrial knowledge over the long term, such as geospatial exploration technology exchange, which can serve as a major tool for enhancing mission power. Super immediate knowledge exchange may be required. While this is not the right technology to facilitate US stream cat video on YouTube, current fiber broadband services already provide enough speed to allow you to watch content at high frame rates and maximum resolutions. Yes, without buffering. In alternative terms, buyer web services are already fast enough to fit the current crop of displays.



The Indian Constitution has been conceived and drafted in the mid-twentieth
century when the concept of social welfare state is the rule of the day. The
Constitution is thus pervaded with the modern outlook regarding the objectives
and functions of the state. It embodies a distinct philosophy of government, and
explicitly declares that India will be organised as a social welfare state, i.e., a
state which renders social services to the people and promotes their general
welfare. In the formulations and declarations of the social objectives contained
in the Preamble, one can clearly discern the impact of the modern political
philosophy which regards the state as an organ to secure the good and welfare
of the people.
This concept of a welfare state is further strengthened by the Directive Principles
of State Policy which set out the economic, social and political goals of the
Indian Constitutional system. These directives confer certain non-justiciable
rights on the people, and place the government under an obligation to achieve
and maximise social welfare and basic social values like education, employment,
health, etc.
In consonance with the modern beliefs of man, the Indian Constitution sets up
a machinery to achieve the goal of economic democracy along with political democracy,
for the latter would be meaningless without the former in a poor country
like India.


India is a country of religions. There exist multifarious religious groups in
the country but, in spite of this, the Constitution stands for a secular state of
The word ‘secular’ was not present originally in the Preamble. It was added
thereto by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment in 1976. What was implicit in
the Constitution until then became explicit. Even before 1976, the concept of
secularism was very much embedded in the Indian constitutional jurisprudence as
many court cases of this era would testify.

The concept of “secularism” is difficult to define and has not thus been defined
in the Constitution. Secularism has been inserted in the Preamble by reason
of the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976. The object of insertion
was to spell out expressly the high ideas of secularism and the compulsive need
to maintain the integrity of the nation which are subjected to considerable
stresses and strains, and vested interests have been trying to promote their selfish
ends to the great detriment of the public good. The concept is based on certain
postulates. Thus, there is no official religion in India. There is no state recognized
church or religion. Several fundamental rights guarantee freedom of
worship and religion as well as outlaw discrimination on the ground of religion

and, thus, by implication prohibit the establishment of a theocratic state. The
state does not identify itself with, or favour, any particular religion. The state is
enjoined to treat all religions and religious sects equally. No one is disabled to
hold any office on the ground of religion. There is only one electoral roll on
which are borne the names of all qualified voters.

The essential basis of the Indian Constitution is that all citizens are equal,
and that the religion of a citizen is irrelevant in the matter of his enjoyment of
Fundamental Rights. The Constitution ensures equal freedom for all religions
and provides that the religion of the citizen has nothing to do in socio-economic
matters. “Though the Indian Constitution is secular and does not interfere with
religious freedom, it does not allow religion to impinge adversely on the secular
rights of citizens or the power of the state to regulate socio-economic relations.”
The Supreme Court has declared secularism as the basic feature of the Indian
Constitution. The Court has further declared that secularism is a part of
fundamental law and an unalienable segment of the basic structure of the
country’s political system. It has explained that secularism is not to be confused
with communal or religious concepts of an individual or a group of persons.

It means that the State should have no religion of its own and no one
could proclaim to make the State have one such or endeavour to create a
theocratic State. Persons belonging to different religions live throughout the
length and breadth of the country. Each person, whatever be his religion, must
get an assurance from the State that he has the protection of law freely to profess,
practise and propagate his religion and freedom of conscience. Otherwise,
the rule of law will become replaced by individual perceptions of one’s
own presumptions of good social order. Religion cannot be mixed with secular
activities of the State and fundamentalism of any kind cannot be permitted
to masquerade as political philosophies to the detriment of the larger interest
of society and basic requirement of a Welfare State. The Court noted disturbing
trends. It noted that lately, vested interests fanning religious fundamentalism
of all kinds, and vying with each other, are attempting to subject
the Constitutional machineries of the State


The word “socialist” was not there originally in the Preamble. It was added to
the Preamble by the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution in 1976. Thus, the
concept of “socialism” has been made explicit and India’s commitment to this
ideal has been underlined and strengthened.

The term “socialist” has not been defined in the Constitution. It does not however envisage doctrinaire socialism in the sense of insistence on state ownership as a matter of policy. It does not mean total exclusion of private enterprise and complete state ownership of material resources of the Nation. In India, there has always been emphasis on mixed economy, i.e., along with a public sector, the private sector also has a role to play. The government accepts
the policy of mixed economy where both public and private sectors co-exist side by side. However, the private enterprises has so far been rigorously controlled by the government, but signs are appearing on the horizon that in future the private enterprise is going to play a much more important economic role than it has
played so far.

The Supreme Court has in a number of decisions referred to the concept of socialism
and has used this concept along with the Directive Principles of State
Policy to assess and evaluate economic legislation. The Court has derived the
concept of social justice and of an economically egalitarian society from the concept
of socialism. According to the Supreme Court, “the principal aim of socialism
is to eliminate inequality of income and status and standards of life, and to
provide a decent standard of life to the working people.”
Democratic socialism aims to end poverty, ignorance, disease and inequality
of opportunity. Socialistic concept of society should be implemented in the true
spirit of the Constitution.

In Samatha v. State of Andhra Pradesh, the Supreme
Court has stated while defining socialism : “Establishment of the egalitarian
social order through rule of law is the basic structure of the Constitution.”

The Court has laid emphasis on social justice so as to attain substantial degree
of social, economic and political equality. Social justice and equality are complimentary
to each other.
Another idea propounded by the Court is that socialism means distributive
justice so as to bring about the distribution of material resources of the community
so as to subserve the common good.
By reading the word ‘socialist’ in the Preamble with the Fundamental Rights
contained in Arts. 14 and 16, the Supreme Court has deduced the Fundamental
Right to equal pay for equal work and compassionate appointment.


Unlike the Constitutions of Australia, Canada or the U.S.A., the Constitution
of India has an elaborate Preamble. The purpose of the Preamble is to clarify who
has made the Constitution, what is its source, what is the ultimate sanction behind
it; what is the nature of the polity which is sought to be established by the
Constitution and what are its goals and objectives?

The Preamble does not grant any power but it gives a direction and purpose to
the Constitution. It outlines the objectives of the whole Constitution. The Preamble
contains the fundamentals of the Constitution. It serves several important
purposes, as for example:

(1) It contains the enacting clause which brings the Constitution into
(2) It declares the great rights and freedoms which the people of India
intended to secure to all its citizens.
(3) It declares the basic type of government and polity which is sought to
be established in the country.
(4) It throws light on the source of the Constitution, viz. the People of India.

The words in the Preamble, “We the people of India…in our Constituent Assembly…
do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this Constitution”, propound
the theory that the ‘sovereignty’ lies in the people, that the Constitution,
emanates from them; that the ultimate source for the validity of, and the sanction
behind the Constitution is the will of the people; that the Constitution has not
been imposed on them by any external authority, but is the handiwork of the Indians

Thus, the source of the Constitution are the people themselves from whom the
Constitution derives its ultimate sanction. This assertion affirms the republican
and democratic character of the Indian polity and the sovereignty of the people.
The People of India thus constitute the sovereign political body who hold the ultimate
power and who conduct the government of the country through their
elected representatives.
The claim that the People of India have given to themselves the Constitution
is in line with similar claims made in several other democratic Constitutions,
such as those of the U.S.A., Ireland, etc.

As regards the nature of the Indian Polity, the Preamble to the Constitution declares
India to be a ‘Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic’. The term
‘Sovereign’ denotes that India is subject to no external authority and that the state
has power to legislate on any subject in conformity with constitutional limitations.
The term ‘democratic’ signifies that India has a responsible and parliamentary form
of government which is accountable to an elected legislature. The Supreme Court has
declared ‘democracy’ as the basic feature of the Constitution. The term ‘Republic’
denotes that the head of the state is not a hereditary monarch, but an elected functionary.
As to the grand objectives and socio-economic goals to achieve which the Indian
Polity has been established, these are stated in the Preamble. These are: to
secure to all its citizens social, economic and political justice; liberty of thought,
expression, belief, faith and worship; equality of status and opportunity, and to
promote among them fraternity so as to secure the dignity of the individual and
the unity and integrity of the Nation.
Emphasizing upon the significance of the three concepts of liberty, equality
and fraternity used in the Preamble, Dr. Ambedkar observed in his closing speech
in the Constituent Assembly on November 25, 1949 : “The principles of liberty,
equality and fraternity are not to be treated as separate items in a trinity. They
form a union of trinity in the sense that to divorce one from the other is to defeat
the very purpose of democracy. Liberty cannot be divorced from equality, equality
cannot be divorced from liberty. Nor can liberty and equality be divorced
from fraternity. Without equality liberty would produce the supremacy of the few
over the many. Equality without liberty, would kill individual initiative”.
The Supreme Court has emphasized that the words “fraternity assuring the
dignity of the individual” have “a special relevance in the Indian context” because
of the social backwardness of certain sections of the community who had
in the past been looked down upon.
To give a concrete shape to these aspirations, the Constitution has a Chapter
on Fundamental Rights which guarantee certain rights to the people, such as,
freedom of the person, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, etc.
According to the Supreme Court, “The Constitution envisions to establish an
egalitarian social order rendering to every citizen, social, economic and political
justice in a social and economic democracy of the Bharat Republic.” The Constitution
thus ensures economic democracy along with political democracy.
The goals and objectives of the Indian Polity as stated in the Preamble are
sought to be further clarified, strengthened and concretized through the Directive
Principles of State Policy.

The Preamble lays emphasis on the principle of equality which is basic to the
Indian Constitution. The principle of equality is a basic feature or structure of the
Constitution which means that even a constitutional amendment offending the
basic structure of the Constitution is ultra vires. A legislature cannot transgress
this basic feature of the Constitution while making a law.


India’s Constitution is a lengthy, elaborate and detailed document. Originally
it consisted of 395 Articles arranged under 22 Parts and eight Schedules. Today,
after many amendments, it has 441 Articles and 12 Schedules. It is probably the
longest of the organic laws now extant in the world.

Several reasons contributed to its prolixity.

First, the Constitution deals with
the organization and structure not only of the Central Government but also of the

Secondly, in a federal Constitution, Centre-State relationship is a matter
of crucial importance. While other federal Constitutions have only skeletal provisions
on this matter, the Indian Constitution has detailed norms.

Thirdly, the
Constitution has reduced to writing many unwritten conventions of the British
Constitution, as for example, the principle of collective responsibility of the
Ministers, parliamentary procedure, etc.

Fourthly, there exist various communities and groups in India. To remove
mutual distrust among them, it was felt necessary to include in the Constitution
detailed provisions on Fundamental Rights, safeguards to minorities, Scheduled
Tribes, Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes.

Fifthly, to ensure that the future India be based on the concept of social welfare,
the Constitution includes Directive Principles of State Policy.

Lastly, the Constitution contains not only the fundamental principles of governance
but also many administrative details such as the provisions regarding citizenship,
official language, government services, electoral machinery, etc.

In other Constitutions,
these matters are usually left to be regulated by the ordinary law of the
land. The framers of the Indian Constitution, however, felt that unless these provisions
were contained in the Constitution, the smooth and efficient working of the
Constitution and the democratic process in the country might be jeopardized.
The form of administration has a close relation with the form of the Constitution,
and the former must be appropriate to, and in the same sense as, the latter. It
is quite possible to pervert the Constitutional mechanism without changing its
form by merely changing the form of the administration and making it inconsistent
with, and opposed to, the spirit of the Constitution. Since India was emerging
as an independent country after a long spell of foreign rule, the country lacked
democratic values. The Constitution-makers, therefore, thought it prudent not to
take unnecessary risks, and incorporate in the Constitution itself the form of administration
as well, instead of leaving it to the legislature, so that the whole
mechanism may become viable.
It would, however, be wrong to suppose that the Indian Constitution with all
its prolixity finally settles all problems of government. It leaves a number of
matters to be taken care of by ordinary legislation. It also provides scope, though
not so much as in Britain, for the growth and development of conventions.

Thus, the relationship between the President or the State Governor and his Council
of Ministers, the concept of ministerial responsibility for acts of the officials,
the relationship between the Prime Minister or the Chief Minister in a State and
his Council of Ministers, the appointment of a State Governor, dissolution of the
Lok Sabha or of a State Legislative Assembly by the President or the Governor
respectively, the relations between the President and the Governor, are some of the
matters which are left to be evolved by conventions.

It is not correct to assume that the conventions of the British Constitution would operate suo motu in India wherever relevant and applicable. In course of time, some of these conventions have been questioned, and new conventions are in the process of emergence. This is mainly because most of the conventions of the British Constitution have been evolved in the context of a two-party system, while in India, a multiparty system is evolving. More will be said on this subject in later pages.


The fact that the Indian Constitution was drafted in the mid-twentieth century gave an advantage to its makers in so far as they could take cognizance of the various constitutional processes operating in different countries of the world and thus draw upon a rich fund of human experience, wisdom, heritage and traditions in the area of governmental process in order to fashion a system suited to the political, social and economic conditions in India. In the end result, the Indian Constitution has turned out to be a very interesting and unique document. One could discern in it the impact of several Constitutions. As for instance, the Indian Federalism is influenced by the American, Canadian and Australian Federalism. Fundamental Rights in India owe a great deal to the American Bill of Rights; the process of Constitutional amendment adopted in India is a modified version of the American system.

The influence of the British Constitutional Law, theories and practices on the
Indian Constitution is quite pervasive. As for example, the parliamentary form of
government in India closely follows the British model in substance; the system of
prerogative writs which plays a crucial role in protecting peoples’ legal rights and
ensuring judicial control over administrative action is Britain’s contribution to
India. Australia’s experiences have been especially useful for ordering the Centre-
State financial relationship, and for promoting the concept of freedom of trade
and commerce in the country. Inspiration has come from the Irish Constitution in
the shaping of the Directive Principles of State Policy.
The Government of India Act, 1935, which preceded the Indian Constitution,
has furnished not only administrative details, but also the verbatim language of
many provisions of the Constitution.
It will, however, be wrong to suppose that the Indian Constitution is just a carbon
copy of other Constitutions and contains nothing new and original. While
adopting some of the principles and institutions developed in other democratic
and federal countries, it yet strikes new paths, new approaches and patterns, in
several directions. It makes bold departures in many respects from the established
Constitutional norms and introduces many innovations. For example, in the area
of Centre-State relationship, with a view to achieve the twin objectives of promoting
the unity of India and reducing rigidity inherent in a federal system, the
Indian Constitution makes several provisions which are original in conception as
nothing parallel to these is to be found in any other federal Constitution and, to
this extent, it makes a distinct contribution to the development of theories and
practices of federalism in general.

About Computers

Today’s twenty-first century is that ‘scientific age’. The first of all technologies here is our PC. It is important to explore the functionality and cons of such a PC throughout this article.

Computer History
The Chinese ‘Abacus’ device is considered to be the first step of the PC. The computing machine was invented in 1824 by Dr. Alan Mathison Turing. PC is a trend for the field unit as we know it these days. PC was created in 1944 by Dr. Howard Aiken, a faculty member at Harvard University. This was followed by the manufacture of mainframes in 1976. It is noteworthy that today’s microcomputers have undergone many changes in almost four decades.

PC type
A computer area unit used in many areas to look after the functions of a PC. They are computers such as analog, digital computers and hybrid computers. Computers that came when the basic generation did the mixing of the basic generation functions. Not only this but also use PC in general business record for area unit calculation for computer.
Blessings of PC
In the days to come, the North American nation will be hard to try to do anything but PC. It plays a very important role in the medical field from microbial detection to surgery. In the nuclear industry it became necessary to understand all the technologies from earth to field. In agriculture it is sensitive to soil level to seed level. PC Reception Rule. We need PCs and adhere to areas like police and pseudoscience fringes.

Disadvantages of computer

Lifestyle is a mixture of good and bad. There is wisdom and sickness in the use of all things, not just life. Similarly, there is a risk of ‘virus’ in the PC. And makes man lazy. Theme minded people are using PC these days for various evils.
We can only take advantage of the PC by demanding similar functions that can be used in a very good way for this PC at home and in the country! Let’s get better!


Jupiter was appropriately named after the king of the gods. It’s massive, has a powerful magnetic field, and more moons that any planet in the Solar System. Though it has been known to astronomers since ancient times, the invention of the telescope and the advent of modern astronomy has taught us so much about this gas giant.

In short, there are countless interesting facts about this gas giant that many people just don’t know about. And we here at Universe Today have taken the liberty of compiling a list of ten particularly interesting ones that we think will fascinate and surprise you. Think you know everything about Jupiter? Think again!

Facts about jupiter

1. Jupiter Is Massive:

It’s no secret that Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System. But this description really doesn’t do it justice. For one, the mass of Jupiter is 318 times as massive as the Earth. In fact, Jupiter is 2.5 times more massive than all of the other planets in the Solar System combined. But here’s the really interesting thing.

2. Jupiter Cannot Become A Star:

Astronomers call Jupiter a failed star, but that’s not really an appropriate description. While it is true that, like a star, Jupiter is rich in hydrogen and helium, Jupiter does not have nearly enough mass to trigger a fusion reaction in its core. This is how stars generate energy, by fusing hydrogen atoms together under extreme heat and pressure to create helium, releasing light and heat in the process.

This is made possible by their enormous gravity. For Jupiter to ignite a nuclear fusion process and become a star, it would need more than 70 times its current mass. If you could crash dozens of Jupiters together, you might have a chance to make a new star. But in the meantime, Jupiter shall remain a large gas giant with no hopes of becoming a star. Sorry, Jupiter!

3. Jupiter Is The Fastest Spinning Planet In The Solar System:

For all its size and mass, Jupiter sure moves quickly. In fact, with an rotational velocity of 12.6 km/s (~7.45 m/s) or 45,300 km/h (28,148 mph), the planet only takes about 10 hours to complete a full rotation on its axis. And because it’s spinning so rapidly, the planet has flattened out at the poles a little and is bulging at its equator.

In fact, points on Jupiter’s equator are more than 4,600 km further from the center than the poles. Or to put it another way, the planet’s polar radius measures to 66,854 ± 10 km (or 10.517 that of Earth’s), while its diameter at the equator is 71,492 ± 4 km (or 11.209 that of Earth’s). This rapid rotation also helps generate Jupiter’s powerful magnetic fields, and contribute to the dangerous radiation surrounding it.

4. The Clouds On Jupiter Are Only 50 km Thick:

That’s right, all those beautiful whirling clouds and storms you see on Jupiter are only about 50 km thick. They’re made of ammonia crystals broken up into two different cloud decks. The darker material is thought to be compounds brought up from deeper inside Jupiter, and then change color when they reacted with sunlight. But below those clouds, it’s just hydrogen and helium, all the way down.

5. The Great Red Spot Has Been Around For A Long Time:

The Great Red Spot on Jupiter is one of its most familiar features. This persistent anticyclonic storm, which is located south of its equator, measures between 24,000 km in diameter and 12–14,000 km in height. As such, it is large enough to contain two or three planets the size of Earth’s diameter. And the spot has been around for at least 350 years, since it was spotted as far back as the 17th century.

The Great Red Spot was first identified in 1665 by Italian astronomer Giovanni Cassini. By the 20th century, astronomers began to theorize that it was a storm, one which was created by Jupiter’s turbulent and fast-moving atmosphere. These theories were confirmed by the Voyager 1 mission, which observed the Giant Red Spot up close in March of 1979 during its flyby of the planet.

However, it appears to have been shrinking since that time. Based on Cassini’s observations, the size was estimated to be 40,000 km in the 17th century, which was almost twice as large as it is now. Astronomers do not know if or when it will ever disappear entirely, but they are relatively sure that another one will emerge somewhere else on the planet.

6. Jupiter Has Rings:

When people think of ring systems, Saturn naturally comes to mind. But in truth, both Uranus and Jupiter have ring systems of their own. Jupiter’s were the third set to be discovered (after the other two), due to the fact that they are particularly faint. Jupiter’s rings consist of three main segments – an inner torus of particles known as the halo, a relatively bright main ring, and an outer gossamer ring.

These rings are widely believed to have come from material ejected by its moons when they’re struck by meteorite impacts. In particular, the main ring is thought to be composed of material from the moons of Adrastea and Metis, while the moons of Thebe and Amalthea are believed to produce the two distinct components of the dusty gossamer ring.

This material fell into orbit around Jupiter (instead of falling back to their respective moons) because if Jupiter’s strong gravitational influence. The ring is also depleted and replenished regularly as some material veers towards Jupiter while new material is added by additional impacts.

7. Jupiter’s Magnetic Field Is 14 Times Stronger Than Earth’s:

Compasses would really work on Jupiter. That’s because it has the strongest magnetic field in the Solar System. Astronomers think the magnetic field is generated by the eddy currents – i.e. swirling movements of conducting materials – within the liquid metallic hydrogen core. This magnetic field traps particles of sulfur dioxide from Io’s volcanic eruptions, which producing sulfur and oxygen ions. Together with hydrogen ions originating from the atmosphere of Jupiter, these form a plasma sheet in Jupiter’s equatorial plane.

Farther out, the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind generates a bow shock, a dangerous belt of radiation that can cause damage tos spacecraft. Jupiter’s four largest moons all orbit within the magnetosphere, which protects them from the solar wind, but also make the likelihood of establishing outposts on their surface problematic. The magnetosphere of Jupiter is also responsible for intense episodes of radio emission from the planet’s polar regions.

8. Jupiter Has 67 Moons:

As of the penning of this article, Jupiter has a 67 confirmed and named satellites. However, it is estimated that the planet has over 200 natural satellites orbiting it. Almost all of them are less than 10 kilometers in diameter, and were only discovered after 1975, when the first spacecraft (Pioneer 10) arrived at Jupiter.

However, it also has four major moons, which are collectively known as the Galilean Moons (after their discovered Galileo Galilei). These are, in order of distance from Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. These moons are some of the largest in the Solar System, with Ganymede being the largest, measuring 5262 km in diameter.

9. Jupiter Has Been Visited 7 Times By Spacecraft:

Jupiter was first visited by NASA’s Pioneer 10 spacecraft in December 1973, and then Pioneer 11 in December 1974. Then came the Voyager 1 and 2 flybys, both of which happened in 1979. This was followed by a long break until Ulysses arrived in February 1992, followed by the Galileo space probe in 1995. Then Cassini made a flyby in 2000, on its way to Saturn. And finally, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft made its flyby in 2007. This was the last mission to fly past Jupiter, but it surely won’t be the last.

10. You Can See Jupiter With Your Own Eyes:

Jupiter is the third brightest object in the Solar System, after Venus and the Moon. Chances are, you saw Jupiter in the sky, and had no idea that’s what you were seeing. And here at Universe Today, we are in the habit of letting readers know when the best opportunities for spotting Jupiter in the night sky are.

Chances are, if you see a really bright star high in the sky, then you’re looking at Jupiter. Get your hands on a pair of binoculars, and if you know someone with a telescope, that’s even better. Using even modest magnification, you might even spot small specks of light orbiting it, which are its Galilean Moons. Just think, you’ll be seeing precisely what Galileo did when he gazed at the planet in 1610.

Success story of KFC

“It’s too late to start one new thing, to do any or all of those things you’ve always wanted to do.” Dallas Clayton. This statement is true of the KFC owner entrusted with military officer Harland Sanders. He started selling cooked chicken at the age of sixty-nine. He dismissed the idea of ​​capitalism as such that he would start at a young age to become a successful businessman.

History of KFC

KFC (Kentucky Cooked Chicken) was founded by military official Harland Sanders in 1952 in Mormon State. He has worked for many years in many successful mixed fields before starting KFC food. KFC is targeted at cooked chicken when there is a hamburger rule. Sanders learned to prepare at an early age at the age of seven. He developed what he called his “original recipe” containing eleven herbs and spices from the Gregorian calendar in 1940. The same formula is used for KFC restaurants. KFC headquarters was established in Louisville, USA, in 1959.

The first years of KFC

In 1952, Sanders introduced his secret formula “Kentucky Cooked Chicken” for the first time to Pete Harman of South Salt Lake, Utah, the operator of one of the city’s largest restaurants. The idea of ​​a franchise flourished. once in Pete Harman’s success, many other homeowners refused to think and paid Sanders $ 0.04 per chicken. Sanders has visited suitable restaurants in the U.S.A. wanting to provide for a franchise, once he has sold his south building in a salt lake due to new traffic rules that have been reduced. while closing the North Corbin website, Sanders and his wife Claudia opened a new building and company headquarters in Shelbyville in 1959. He slept in the back of his car several times, while visiting restaurants to provide a right if staff liked his chicken. once the jiffy franchise first approached military commander Sanders instead. She has worked for the company and her husband Claudia mixed it up and sent spices to restaurants.

The franchise method was a city necessity; KFC was one of the first expanded food chains in the world, with grocery stores in the North American nation and later within the united states, Mexico and Jamaica in the mid-1960s. powerless to expand the company, authorized military officer Sanders sold the company to John Y. Brown Jr. and Jack C. Massey in 1964. however Sanders continued his association with the company as a fully paid ambassador. a military officer sent by Sanders died at the age of 90 on December 16, 1980. Throughout the trip, he received rejection at 1009 restaurants. However, he does not give up as he is assured about his unique formula and style. and finally, at the same time a few restaurants came to an agreement to sell Sander chicken formula. In 1963, about 600 restaurants agreed to sell the American formula and chicken to make it perfect.

Today KFC has established us as a result of the largest environmental event taking place worldwide in 136 countries. A lesson we can learn from Sander’s life is that Success can happen at any age. the only real story required is your confidence in achieving your dream at any stage of your life. you always believe with all your heart, the burning need to succeed can open your way to your dream despite everything and your age! so don’t give up!

Rights and Rulings regarding Live-in relationship

In India, the concept of Live-In Relationships is not expressly recognized by the legislature.

However, the courts in India have time and again observed that a long continued live-in relationship can raise a presumption of marriage to safeguard the interests of the parties (generally women) to such arrangement and the children born out of such arrangement.

Reforms of Criminal Justice System


1) That evidence regarding a man and woman living together for a sufficiently long period should be enough to draw the presumption that the marriage was performed according to the customary rights and ceremonies of the parties

2) It was proposed that the word wife in the section 125 CrPC should be altered to include a woman who was living with the men like his wife for a reasonably protracted period.

Marvin versus Marvin

Court used a new expression of “palimony” has been coined the which is a combination of “pal” and “alimony”. For social obligation of a man entering into a live-in relationship with another woman without the formalities of a marriage.

It was held that

1) The provisions of the family law do not govern a non-marital relationship; such a relationship remains subject solely to the judicial decisions.

2) The court should enforce Express contracts between non marital parents except founded on the consideration of meretricious sexual services.

Gokal Chand versus Pravin Kumari

It was held that continuous cohabitation of men and women as husband and wife may raise the presumption of marriage but the presumption which may be drawn from long cohabitation is rebuttable and if there are such circumstances which we can destroy that presumption, the court cannot ignore them.

Badri Prasad v Director of consolidation

A strong presumption arises in favour of wed-lock where the partners have lived together for a long spell as husband and wife. Although the presumption is rebuttable, a heavy burden lies on him who seeks to deprive the relationship of legal origin.

D. Velusamy and D. Patchaimal

To get recognized as “in the nature of marriage,” certain conditions were set by the Supreme Court in the case of “D. Velusamy and D. Patchaimal (5 SCC 600).”

1) Duration of period of relationship Section 2 (f) of the DV Act has used the expression “at any point of time”, which means a reasonable period of time to maintain and continue a relationship which may vary from case to case, depending upon the fact situation.

(2) Shared household The expression has been defined under Section 2(s) of the DV Act and, hence, need no further elaboration.

(3) Pooling of Resources and Financial Arrangements Supporting each other, or any one of them, financially, sharing bank accounts, acquiring immovable properties in joint names or in the name of the woman, long term investments in business, shares in separate and joint names, so as to have a long standing relationship, may be a guiding factor.

(4) Domestic Arrangements Entrusting the responsibility, especially on the woman to run the home, do the household activities like cleaning, cooking, maintaining or upkeeping the house, etc. is an indication of a relationship in the nature of marriage.

(5) Sexual Relationship Marriage like relationship refers to sexual relationship, not just for pleasure, but for emotional and intimate relationship, for procreation of children, so as to give emotional support, companionship and also material affection, caring etc.

(6) Children; Having children is a strong indication of a relationship in the nature of marriage. Parties, therefore, intend to have a long-standing relationship. Sharing the responsibility for bringing up and supporting them is also a strong indication.

(7) Socialization in Public Holding out to the public and socializing with friends, relations and others, as if they are husband and wife is a strong circumstance to hold the relationship is in the nature of marriage.

(8) Intention and conduct of the parties Common intention of parties as to what their relationship is to be and to involve, and as to their respective roles and responsibilities, primarily determines the nature of that relationship. Live-in relationships are the new and on-going trends among the youth that gives them the freedom to live without any pressure of arranged marriages.

What is Dyspraxia?

Dyspraxia is a common neurological or brain-related disorder, which affects movement and coordination. People suffering from Dyspraxia face problems in everything that needs coordination. For example, playing games or learning to drive. It does not affect your intelligence, but it does affect your fine motor skills which can include writing or using small objects.

           This disorder affects a person’s capacity to make smooth and easy movements. Sometimes if a baby is born earlier than the normal time, there are more chances of the child developing this disorder. Studies also show that Dyspraxia is more common among men than women.

Symptoms Of Dyspraxia:

Some symptoms of this disorder have been explained on the Nation Health Service (NHS) website of the UK. It can have different effects on different people and keeps changing with time. A person can face many problems due to this disease. Some of them are listed below.

  • Problem in coordination, balance and movement
  • Problem in learning a new thing, which includes remembering information
  • Daily routine issues, like wearing clothes or preparing food
  • Issues in writing, using keyboard and in holding small items
  • Social awkwardness or lack of self-confidence and difficulty in dealing with emotions
  • Bad time management and organizational skills
  • Some people may also suffer from memory, perception and processing situation

          There is no treatment for Dyspraxia but therapy helps people cope with the issues they face in daily life. Occupational therapy is used to find ways to enable a person to be independent and perform daily chores like writing or cooking. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) named talking therapy is used to help people change their way of thinking and behaving and start managing their problems.

           Do regular exercise to remain fit and healthy, use laptop or computer in case of problems in writing, use of a calendar, dairy or pp to organize things and thinking positively may help. It is not unusual for a person to be suffering from other issues along with Dyspraxia like ADH, Autism spectrum disorder, childhood apraxia of speech, dyscalculia and dyslexia.

Diagnosis of Dyspraxia:

A diagnosis of dyspraxia can be made by a clinical psychologist, an educational psychologist, a pediatrician, or an occupational therapist   Any parent who suspects their child may have dyspraxia should see doctor. 

When carrying out an assessment, details will be required regarding the child’s developmental history, intellectual ability, and gross and fine motor skills:

  • Gross motor skills – how well the child uses large muscles that coordinate body movement, including jumping, throwing, walking, running, and maintaining balance.
  • Fine motor skills – how well the child can use smaller muscles, including tying shoelaces, doing up buttons, cutting out shapes with a pair of scissors, and writing.

The evaluator will need to know when and how developmental milestones, such as walking, crawling, and speaking were reached. The child will be evaluated for balance, touch sensitivity, and variations on walking activities.

Treatments for dyspraxia:

Although dyspraxia is not curable, with treatment, the individual can improve. However, the earlier a child is diagnosed, the better their prognosis will be. The following specialists most commonly treat people with dyspraxia:

  • Occupational therapy:

An occupational therapist will evaluate how the child manages with everyday functions both at home and at school. They will then help the child develop skills specific to daily activities which they find difficult.

  • Speech and language therapy:

The speech-language pathologist will conduct an assessment of the            child’s speech, and then implement a treatment plan to help them to communicate more effectively.

  • Perceptual motor training:

This involves improving the child’s language, visual, movement, and auditory skills. The individual is set a series of tasks that gradually become more advanced – the aim is to challenge the child so that they improve, but not so much that it becomes frustrating or stressful.

  • Active Play

Experts say the active play any play that involves physical activity –which can be outdoors or inside the home, helps improve motor activity. Play is a way children learn about the environment and about themselves, and particularly for children aged 3-5; it is a crucial part of their learning.

Active play is where a very young child’s physical and emotional learning, their development of language, their special awareness, the development of what their senses are, all come together.The more children are involved in active play, the better they will become at interacting with other children successfully.

Top Innovations in 2021

Technology is persistently refreshing at such a fast speed that it shouldseem to be faster than lightweight. A technology or a programing languagecreating the rounds in the weekperhaps obsolete within the next few days. As Associate in Nursing ever increasing variety of assets arplace resources into innovative work, laptop scientists and specialistsarcontinuously tweaking and dealing on existing advances to require advantage of them. Here armost likelythe foremost recent moving advances that ensure to overwhelm the IT business within the forthcoming years.

1. Data Computing

Artificial intelligence or AI could be a technology accustomed match laptop systems with human decision-making capabilities. Being one amongst the trending technologies, once Al programs ar fed to systems, the aim is to mimic human intelligence for actingadvanced tasks, like pattern recognition, speech recognition, prognosis, and diagnosing. So, learning Al canassist you secure job roles. like machine learning engineer, informationman of sciencelaptop vision engineer, business intelligence developer, information analyst.

2. Information Science

Data science is that the technology that helps to create sense of advancedinformation. Everyday a lot ofinformationarmade by firms across the world. This includes Business information, Sales data, client Profile info, Server informationmonetary Figures. the long run scope of information science appearance promising, successivelymaking opportunities for the subsequent career roles, informationman of scienceinformationdesigner, business intelligence manager, information engineer, information analyst, business analyst.

3. Internet of Things (IOT)

IoT, could be a network of devices that ar connected to everyalternative. The devices willmove and share information. These gadgets may be associated by suggests that of Wi-Fi, and that they share inforegarding their surroundingsand the waythey’re being used. The devices have a laptop chip that facilitates this exchange. it’sforeseen that quiteforty one billion devices hopped-up by IoT are going to beemployed by 2025. IoT chips embedded on machines facilitate businesses assess those machines performance and assist in their maintenance. Learning this most up-to-date technology can assist you with securing positions, as an example, IoT computer code developer, system style engineer, IoT product manager, IoT analysis developer, IoT resolutiondesigner.

4. Blockchain

Blockchain is that the foundational technology that powers electronic currencies like cryptocurrencies. In easy terms, a blockchain is Associate in Nursing electronic ledger that may be shared among totally different users. This helps in making a record of transactions that can’t be altered, creating the technology verifiable and secure. there’san increasein an exceedingly career in blockchain. Here ar some opportunities that ar on the increase. Blockchain developers, blockchain quality engineer, blockchain legal adviser or professional person, blockchain engineer.

5. Robotic method Automation (RPA)

Robotic method automation, RPA could be a technology accustomedautomatize daily tasks. Like computingcomputer codeis employed here to automatize a series of tasks like handling and responding to emails, process transactions and manipulating business informationfirms like Accenture, Deloitte and Capgemini use RPA tools to automatize their daily operations. Therefore, the bestwant for masterly professionals in RPA is to follow the varied RPA operating rules. RPA Developer, RPA Business Analyst, RPA adviser, RPA resolutiondesigner, RPA Project Manager.

Ways to reduce Global Warming

  1. Fluorescent Bulb Usage: Use compact fluorescent light weight (CFL) bulbs to measure bulb square measurement every second
    Extra energy saving and consumption but seventeen compared to regular bulbs. In
    Bulbs have a longer lifespan than ordinary bulbs.

2. Receive carpooling. If you choose less driving, the warming can also be reduced. One chooses carpooling or athletics. Each strategy can suit you. In addition to saving your fuel, it reduces the most important contributors such as fumes from oil and hydrocarbons and is a major step in reducing energy wastage.

  1. Reduce, reuse, recycle: Use eco-friendly materials and look to reduce the touch of waste without buying new items. Use plastic containers, recent newspapers, bottles, cardboard boxes, food cups, bread tiles and more. By doing this you do not have to buy new items because the recent one works equally well and your costs are also reduced. One can also use non-reusable items to maintain the setting.
  2. Plant trees: The green offering for planting trees would not only feed you the environment, however, will play a key role in reducing global warming.
  3. Regular Car Maintenance: When a person focuses on making their vehicles work better by focusing on regular maintenance and maintenance, the car will emit less carbon dioxide. This will help to reduce global warming.

What is Optical Fiber Network

  1. Bandwidth
    Investing in fiber optic net will considerably increase your information measure potential. Copper wire infrastructure and TDM technology ar restricted in nature. as a result of it had been originally designed for transmission voice calls solely, the demand for information measure wasn’t high. as an example, T-1 will solely carry one.5 Mbps of outturnand since of however electrical signal works, many sorts of connections over cable ar restricted by distance.
    Ethernet over Copper service (EoC) is usually not obtainable if the circuit is longer than fifteen,000 feet. For organizations considering shifting their voice communications to Voice-over-IP (VoIP), having your information measure delivered over fiber is an imperative plus.
  2. ) Upload and transfer speed

Is the speed increase of fiber optic net noticeable compared to cable? completely.
Many Atlantech on-line customers mistreatment fiber to attach to our network will transmit information at one gigabit per second. that is repeatedly quicker than the federal government’s definition of broadband service, that is twenty five Mbps uploads and three Mbps for downloads as of Gregorian calendar month 2019.
Tech journal NorthWest writes that downloads that take twenty two minutes over most copper wire net connections will take as very little as eight seconds over fiber.
With this technological advancement, the thought of “waiting for issues to load” is close to be a thing of the past.

3) Reliablity

There ar several factors which will cause outages once a company is dependent on copper cable-based net. Temperature fluctuations, severe climatic conditions, and wetness will all cause a loss of propertyrecent or worn copper cable will even gift a hearth hazard, thanks to the very fact it carries an electrical current.
Additional dependableness considerations related to cable embody risks of interference from electronic or radio signals. in addition, copper wires ar accessed within the building by utility personnel and typically they’ll build mistakes and manipulate the incorrect wires.

CPU Overclocking

Overclocking is that the action of accelerating a component’s clock rate, running it at a better speed than it absolutely was designed to run. this can be typically applies to the hardware or GPU, however different parts may be overclocked.
Increasing a component’s clock rate causes it to perform additional operations per second, however it additionally produces further heat. Overclocking will facilitate squeeze additional performance out of your parts, however they’ll usually would like further cooling and care.

What Is Overclocking?

Your computer’s hardware comes from the mill set to run at a definite most speed. If you run your hardware at that speed with correct cooling, it ought to perform fine while not providing you with any issues.
However, you’re usually not restricted to it hardware speed. you’ll increase the CPU’s speed by setting a better clock rate or multiplier factor within the computer’s BIOS, forcing it to perform additional operations per second.
This can speed up your hardware and thus speed up your pc if your pc is proscribed by its hardware, however the hardware can turn out further heat. it should become physically broken if you don’t offer further cooling, or it should be unstable and cause your pc to blue-screen or restart.

Can You Overclock?
You may not even be able to overclock your hardware. several motherboards and Intel CPUs ship with barred multipliers, preventing you from tinkering with their values and overclocking your hardware. Intel sells additional CPUs with unsecured multipliers, targeted at enthusiasts that wish to overclock and squeeze equally of performance out of the hardware. (Look for CPUs with “K” in their model variety.


Human body, the physical substance of the human organism, composed of living cells and extracellular materials and organized into tissues, organs, and systems.

Human anatomy and physiology are treated in many different articles. For detailed discussions of specific tissues, organs, and systems, see human blood; cardiovascular system; digestive system, human; endocrine system, human; renal system; skin; human muscle system; nervous system; reproductive system, human; respiration, human; sensory reception, human; skeletal system, human. For a description of how the body develops, from conception through old age, see aging; growth; prenatal development; human development.

For detailed coverage of the body’s biochemical constituents, see protein; carbohydrate; lipid; nucleic acid; vitamin; and hormone. For information on the structure and function of the cells that constitute the body, see cell.

Many entries describe the body’s major structures. For example, see abdominal cavity; adrenal gland; aorta; bone; brain; ear; eye; heart; kidney; large intestine; lung; nose; ovary; pancreas; pituitary gland; small intestine; spinal cord; spleen; stomach; testis; thymus; thyroid gland; tooth; uterus; vertebral column.

Humans are, of course, animals—more particularly, members of the order Primates in the subphylum Vertebrata of the phylum Chordata. Like all chordates, the human animal has a bilaterally symmetrical body that is characterized at some point during its development by a dorsal supporting rod (the notochord), gill slits in the region of the pharynx, and a hollow dorsal nerve cord. Of these features, the first two are present only during the embryonic stage in the human; the notochord is replaced by the vertebral column, and the pharyngeal gill slits are lost completely. The dorsal nerve cord is the spinal cord in humans; it remains throughout life.

Characteristic of the vertebrate form, the human body has an internal skeleton that includes a backbone of vertebrae. Typical of mammalian structure, the human body shows such characteristics as hair, mammary glands, and highly developed sense organs.

Beyond these similarities, however, lie some profound differences. Among the mammals, only humans have a predominantly two-legged (bipedal) posture, a fact that has greatly modified the general mammalian body plan. (Even the kangaroo, which hops on two legs when moving rapidly, walks on four legs and uses its tail as a “third leg” when standing.) Moreover, the human brain, particularly the neocortex, is far and away the most highly developed in the animal kingdom. As intelligent as are many other mammals—such as chimpanzees and dolphins—none have achieved the intellectual status of the human species.

Chemical composition of the body

Chemically, the human body consists mainly of water and of organic compounds—i.e., lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Water is found in the extracellular fluids of the body (the blood plasma, the lymph, and the interstitial fluid) and within the cells themselves. It serves as a solvent without which the chemistry of life could not take place. The human body is about 60 percent water by weight.

Lipids—chiefly fats, phospholipids, and steroids—are major structural components of the human body. Fats provide an energy reserve for the body, and fat pads also serve as insulation and shock absorbers. Phospholipids and the steroid compound cholesterol are major components of the membrane that surrounds each cell.

Proteins also serve as a major structural component of the body. Like lipids, proteins are an important constituent of the cell membrane. In addition, such extracellular materials as hair and nails are composed of protein. So also is collagen, the fibrous, elastic material that makes up much of the body’s skin, bones, tendons, and ligaments. Proteins also perform numerous functional roles in the body. Particularly important are cellular proteins called enzymes, which catalyze the chemical reactions necessary for life.

Carbohydrates are present in the human body largely as fuels, either as simple sugars circulating through the bloodstream or as glycogen, a storage compound found in the liver and the muscles. Small amounts of carbohydrates also occur in cell membranes, but, in contrast to plants and many invertebrate animals, humans have little structural carbohydrate in their bodies.

Nucleic acids make up the genetic materials of the body. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) carries the body’s hereditary master code, the instructions according to which each cell operates. It is DNA, passed from parents to offspring, that dictates the inherited characteristics of each individual human. Ribonucleic acid (RNA), of which there are several types, helps carry out the instructions encoded in the DNA.

Along with water and organic compounds, the body’s constituents include various inorganic minerals. Chief among these are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, and iron. Calcium and phosphorus, combined as calcium-phosphate crystals, form a large part of the body’s bones. Calcium is also present as ions in the blood and interstitial fluid, as is sodium. Ions of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium, on the other hand, are abundant within the intercellular fluid. All of these ions play vital roles in the body’s metabolic processes. Iron is present mainly as part of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment of the red blood cells. Other mineral constituents of the body, found in minute but necessary concentrations, include cobalt, copper, iodine, manganese, and zinc.

Organization of the body

The cell is the basic living unit of the human body—indeed, of all organisms. The human body consists of trillions of cells, each capable of growth, metabolism, response to stimuli, and, with some exceptions, reproduction. Although there are some 200 different types of cells in the body, these can be grouped into four basic classes. These four basic cell types, together with their extracellular materials, form the fundamental tissues of the human body: (1) epithelial tissues, which cover the body’s surface and line the internal organs, body cavities, and passageways; (2) muscle tissues, which are capable of contraction and form the body’s musculature; (3) nerve tissues, which conduct electrical impulses and make up the nervous system; and (4) connective tissues, which are composed of widely spaced cells and large amounts of intercellular matrix and which bind together various body structures. (Bone and blood are considered specialized connective tissues, in which the intercellular matrix is, respectively, hard and liquid.)

The next level of organization in the body is that of the organ. An organ is a group of tissues that constitutes a distinct structural and functional unit. Thus, the heart is an organ composed of all four tissues, whose function is to pump blood throughout the body. Of course, the heart does not function in isolation; it is part of a system composed of blood and blood vessels as well. The highest level of body organization, then, is that of the organ system.

The body includes nine major organ systems, each composed of various organs and tissues that work together as a functional unit. The chief constituents and prime functions of each system are summarized below. (1) The integumentary system, composed of the skin and associated structures, protects the body from invasion by harmful microorganisms and chemicals; it also prevents water loss from the body. (2) The musculoskeletal system (also referred to separately as the muscle system and the skeletal system), composed of the skeletal muscles and bones (with about 206 of the latter in adults), moves the body and protectively houses its internal organs. (3) The respiratory system, composed of the breathing passages, lungs, and muscles of respiration, obtains from the air the oxygen necessary for cellular metabolism; it also returns to the air the carbon dioxide that forms as a waste product of such metabolism. (4) The circulatory system, composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels, circulates a transport fluid throughout the body, providing the cells with a steady supply of oxygen and nutrients and carrying away waste products such as carbon dioxide and toxic nitrogen compounds. (5) The digestive system, composed of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines, breaks down food into usable substances (nutrients), which are then absorbed from the blood or lymph; this system also eliminates the unusable or excess portion of the food as fecal matter. (6) The excretory system, composed of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra, removes toxic nitrogen compounds and other wastes from the blood. (7) The nervous system, composed of the sensory organs, brain, spinal cord, and nerves, transmits, integrates, and analyzes sensory information and carries impulses to effect the appropriate muscular or glandular responses. (8) The endocrine system, composed of the hormone-secreting glands and tissues, provides a chemical communications network for coordinating various body processes. (9) The reproductive system, composed of the male or female sex organs, enables reproduction and thereby ensures the continuation of the species.

Basic form and development

In general structure, the human body follows a plan that can be described as a cylinder enclosing two tubes and a rod. This body plan is most clearly evident in the embryo; by birth, the plan is apparent only in the trunk region—i.e., in the thorax and abdomen.

The body wall forms the cylinder. The two tubes are the ventrally located alimentary canal (i.e., the digestive tract) and the dorsally located neural tube (i.e., the spinal cord). Between the tubes lies the rod—the notochord in the embryo, which becomes the vertebral column prior to birth. (The terms dorsal and ventral refer respectively to the back and the front, or belly, of an animal.)

Within the embryo, the essential body parts are:

(1) the outer enclosing epidermal membrane (in the embryo called ectoderm).

(2) the dorsal neural tube.

(3) the supporting notochord.

(4) the ventral alimentary tube, which becomes the lining of the stomach and intestine (in the embryo called endoderm).

(5) the intermediate mass (in the embryo called mesoderm).

(6) a rather fluid tissue that fills the interspaces, derived from the mesoderm and in the embryo called mesenchyme. Everything in the body derives from one of these six embryonic parts.

The mesoderm constitutes a considerable pad of tissue on each side of the embryo, extending all the way from the back to the front sides of the body wall. It is hollow, for a cleftlike space appears in it on each side. These are the right and left body cavities. In the dorsal part of the body they are temporary; in the ventral part they become permanent, forming the two pleural cavities, which house the lungs; the peritoneal cavity, which contains the abdominal organs; and the pericardial cavity, which encloses the heart. The dorsal part of the mesoderm becomes separated from the ventral mesoderm and divides itself into serial parts like a row of blocks, 31 on each side. These mesodermal segments grow in all directions toward the epidermal membrane. They form bones, muscles, and the deeper, leathery part of the skin. Dorsally they form bony arches protecting the spinal cord, and ventrally the ribs protecting the alimentary canal and heart. Thus they form the body wall and the limbs—much the weightier part of the body. They give the segmental character to the body wall in neck and trunk, and, following their lead, the spinal cord becomes correspondingly segmented. The ventral mesoderm is not so extensive; it remains near the alimentary tube and becomes the continuous muscle layer of the stomach and intestine. It also forms the lining of the body cavities, the smooth, shining, slippery pleura and peritoneum. The mesenchyme forms blood and lymph vessels, the heart, and the loose cells of connective tissues.

The neural tube itself is formed from the ectoderm at a very early stage. Anteriorly (i.e., toward the head) it extends above the open end of the cylinder and is enlarged to form the brain. It is not in immediate contact with the epidermis, for the dorsal mesoderm grows up around it and around the roots of the cranial nerves as a covering, separating the brain from the epidermis. Posteriorly the neural tube terminates in the adult opposite the first lumbar vertebra.

If the cylindrical body wall is followed headward, it is found to terminate ventrally as the tongue, dorsally in the skull around the brain, ears, and eyes. There is a considerable interval between eyes and tongue. This is occupied partly by a deep depression of the epidermis between them, which dips in to join the alimentary tube (lining of the mouth). Posteriorly the ventral body wall joins the dorsal at the tailbone (coccyx), thus terminating the body cavities.

Headward, the alimentary tube extends up in front of the notochord and projects above the upper part of the body wall (tongue) and in front of and below the brain to join the epidermal depression. From the epidermal depression are formed the teeth and most of the mouth lining; from the upper end of the alimentary canal are formed the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs. The alimentary canal at its tail end splits longitudinally into two tubes—an anterior and a posterior. The anterior tube becomes the bladder, urethra, and, in the female, the lining of the vagina, where it joins a depression of the ectoderm. The posterior (dorsal) tube becomes the rectum and ends just in front of the coccyx by joining another ectodermal depression (the anus).

Man Vs Machine

Machines are man-made so humans and machines work differently. Machines were created to make human life easier. A single gadget engine consists of different components. Some people believe that AI works better than the human brain when it has AI vs human brain. As time goes on people keep running the machines. People had to work together because communication through electronics was not possible. We are happy to accurately evaluate and solve our problems with people.

Man vs machine
Machines are the creation of mankind
Humans were created from flesh and blood, and they have life. Individuals have feelings and emotions, expressing different emotions at different times. Machines operate from their own man-made mechanical brain. People understand things and respond appropriately and therefore have no understanding of machines.

People are older and self-centered people. They create and invent new things but machines cannot do this kind of work because they use AI. Machines work and are man-made. People are blessed with ingenuity and emotion, but machines have AI. Humans have different abilities such as language, pattern recognition and artistic thinking.

Impact of technology on human health
Machinery and technology replace many workloads and this is often the biggest reason for lack of jobs and hence the backlog of kits. As people are replaced by machines, some jobs are also done. Industrial change also led to unemployment and, as a result, the loss of middle-class talent in various fields.

Other effects of the machine on humans are efficiency, war and destruction.

Environmental pollution has increased due to increasing vehicle consumption. The impact of technology on our environment is complex and we are dealing with severe global climate change such as warming that can lead to many diseases in humans. Machines are facing the extinction of many bird, plant and animal species due to global climate change.

Blood type

Do you know your blood type? If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important, you might not.

We know that there are 8 main blood groups that make up most of the world’s population.

But it turns out that scientists still don’t know why we evolved different blood types. And that may remain a mystery for a long time. But from now, science can at least tell you about your own blood.

Knowing your Blood type

In develops parts of the world, it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head. Doctors will typically run tests before any major procedure and if there’s any doubt in a medical emergency, you’ll most likely receive O negative blood, because that’s the universal donor blood that’s save to give to any A, B, AB or O recipient.

Blood type experiments

For thousands of years nobody really understood blood. A Greek doctor Claudius Galenus from 200 CE believed that it was created food and liver, and this school of thought lived on for nearly 1500 years.

It wasn’t until in the 17th century A british doctor named William Harvey, discovered that blood actually circulated through the body. This spawned A new age of experimentation with blood.

In 1665, an English physician successfully kept one dog alive by transfusing it with a blood of another dog. Just two years later, doctors began experimenting with Xenotransfusions. That is transfusing humans with animal blood, such a sheep. And those human patients died.

It wasn’t until 1900 that we finally realised people and animals actually have different types of blood that determine whose blood can mix with whose. That’s where different letters came into play.

If you’re type A, your immune system will perceive type B blood as an intruder and trigger auto immune response that can cause

  • kidney failure,
  • extensive blood clotting, and
  • even shock.

The reverse is true of type B blood. The immune system will attack type A.

AB blood however, accept both A and B blood without triggering the auto immune response. These things get little bit complicated when introduced there negative and positive part of your blood type. Positive can’t accept negative, but the opposite is extremely dangerous.

Other than 8 Blood types

To further complicate things scientists have discovered dozens of more blood type, such as the Duffy blood group, which can determine your susceptibility to malaria. Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000 people in India have. But the vast majority of the humans fall into this A, B, O system.

As per why humans evolved this complicated system of blood types and compatibility, we really don’t know. The original mutations are thought to date back nearly 20 million years. But whatever the biology is behind blood typing, it’s a real practical thing that matters.

It’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type. If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural, or doesn’t have access to advance medicine, it’s good for you and your travelling companion to know your types, just in case of an accident along the way. In big emergency closer to home, blood banks often put in calls for donors of a specific type. And remember if you’re type O Negative, you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So, knowing your type can give you a peace of mind.

Your body when you Swim

Harvard medical school published a study which looked at over 40,000 men, aged 20-90 who were either runners, walkers, swimmers, and physically in active people. With an average length of 13 years of observation and in that time

  • 2% of swimmers passed away
  • 8% of runners passed away
  • 9% of walkers passed away
  • 11% of physically inactive people passed away

This study showed that swimmers are much healthier later on in life than the rest of the population and for women swimming just 30 mins a day can decrease coronary heart disease by 30 to 40 percent.

It also helps to increase HDL aka good Colestrol. Some studies have also shown that aerobic excercise can keep the cells in the lining of your arteries more flexible and healthier. Hence there is no question that swimming is an awesome form of fitness.

Body during swimming

What do you actually feel when you go into the water? Here are some main elements of the human body that gets impacted during swimming.

1. Blood

According to the America Heart Association, swimming is considered as Aerobic activity. Aerobic excercise enlarges the heart and it increases the blood flow through the entire boby. Because swimming is an excercise, the blood has to pump all the molecules into the body.

2. Heart

Since so much of blood has to be pumped into the body, that ties into how it impacts your heart because we know that after 2 mins your body goes into aerobic respiratory because your heart has to pump all the oxygenated blood through the body. So as you swim, your heart is circulating the blood which help your body to perform and achieve the required goals.

3. Skin

You must have seen that the skin color changes of swimmers. For example, some swimmers face turns red when the swim, that happens because your blood vessels are dilating and the brings the heat to the surface into the skin then some people turn red, as a result your skin is showing the effort that you’re putting in the water.


There’s a reason why swimmers are considered to have best body and physiques in the world compared to any athlete, because swimming engages every single muscles in the water when it comes to your core stability, your upper body, your biceps, your hamstrings, your calves, everything is engaged when you swim.

When you’re swimming, you are micro tearing your muscles while swinging it. And the muscles requires 24-48 hrs to recover those muscles. That’s when sometimes you might feel sore.

5. Lungs

Swimming can actually help increase your lungs volume because in swimming different than other sports, you can’t actually breath whenever you want. It’s not like running when you have full access to oxygen.

In swimming you’re engaging your muscles and you’re not allowed to breathe necessarily at the time when your body might want it. So because you have to get used to this, you actually increase your Vo to max (maximum amount of oxygen body is able to use). So basically you are making your lungs more efficient at functioning.

6. Brain

The Brain loves swimming, because of all the extra blood flow moving through these endorphins that makes you more awake, alert and focus.

But this could happen in any type of sport but swimming is something really special because you’re sort of in your own world where the medium is 800 times more dense than air, which makes you feel free and relaxed.

Hence, from physical health to mental health, swimming is an incredible benefit human body and after reading this you must be thinking of trying swimming.


Starfish (or sea stars) are beautiful marine animals found in a variety of colors, shapes, and sizes. All starfish resemble stars, and though the most common have only five arms, some of these animals can grow up to 40 arms. The amazing sea creatures—part of a group of animals known as echinoderms—travel using their tube feet. They can regenerate lost limbs and swallow large prey using their unusual stomachs.

Sea Stars Are Not Fish

Although sea stars live underwater and are commonly called “starfish,” they are not true fish. They do not have gills, scales, or fins like fish do.

Sea stars also move quite differently from fish. While fish propel themselves with their tails, sea stars have tiny tube feet to help them move along.

Because they are not classified as fish, scientists prefer to call starfish “sea stars.”

Sea Stars Are Echinoderms

Sea stars belong to the phylum Echinodermata. That means they are related to sand dollars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and sea lilies. Overall, this phylum contains approximately 7,000 species.

Many echinoderms exhibit radial symmetry, meaning their body parts are arranged around a central axis. Many sea stars have five-point radial symmetry because their body has five sections. This means that they do not have an obvious left and right half, only a top side and a bottom side. Echinoderms also usually have spines, which are less pronounced in sea stars than they are in other organisms such as sea urchins.

There Are Thousands of Sea Star Species

There are about 2,000 species of sea stars.2 Some live in the intertidal zone, while others live in the deep water of the ocean. While many species live in tropical areas, sea stars can also be found in cold areas—even the polar regions.

Not All Sea Stars Have Five Arms

While many people are most familiar with the five-armed species of sea stars, not all sea stars have just five arms. Some species have many more, such as the sun star, which can have up to 40 arms.

Sea Stars Can Regenerate Arms

Amazingly, sea stars can regenerate lost arms, which is useful if a sea star is injured by a predator. It can lose an arm, escape, and grow a new arm later.

Sea stars house most of their vital organs in their arms. This means that some species can even regenerate an entirely new sea star from just one arm and a portion of the star’s central disc. This won’t happen too quickly, though; it takes about a year for an arm to grow back.

Sea Stars Are Protected by Armor

Depending on the species, a sea star’s skin may feel leathery or slightly prickly. Sea stars have a tough covering on their upper side, which is made up of plates of calcium carbonate with tiny spines on their surface.

A sea star’s spines are used for protection from predators, which include birds, fish, and sea otters. One very spiny sea star is the aptly named crown-of-thorns starfish.

Sea Stars Do Not Have Blood

Instead of blood, sea stars have a circulatory system made up primarily of seawater.

Seawater is pumped into the animal’s water vascular system through its sieve plate. This is a sort of trap door called a madreporite, often visible as a light-colored spot on the top of the starfish.

From the madreporite, seawater moves into the sea star’s tube feet, causing the arm to extend. Muscles within the tube feet are used to retract the limb.

Sea Stars Eat With Their Stomachs Inside-Out

Sea stars prey on bivalves like mussels and clams as well as small fish, snails, and barnacles. If you’ve ever tried to pry the shell of a clam or mussel open, you know how difficult it is. However, sea stars have a unique way of eating these creatures.

A sea star’s mouth is on its underside. When it catches its food, the sea star will wrap its arms around the animal’s shell and pull it open just slightly. Then it does something amazing: the sea star pushes its stomach through its mouth and into the bivalve’s shell. It then digests the animal and slides its stomach back into its own body.

This unique feeding mechanism allows the sea star to eat larger prey than it would otherwise be able to fit into its tiny mouth.

Sea Stars Have Eyes

Many people are surprised to learn that starfish have eyes. It’s true. The eyes are there—just not in the place you would expect.

Sea stars have an eye spot at the end of each arm. This means that a five-armed sea star has five eyes, while the 40-armed sun star has 40 eyes.

Each sea star eye is very simple and looks like a red spot. It doesn’t see much detail but it can sense light and dark, which is just enough for the environments the animals live in.

All True Starfish Are in the Class Asteroidea

Starfish belong to the animal class Asteroidea. These echinoderms all have several arms arranged around a central disk.

Asteroidea is the classification for “true stars.” These animals are in a separate class from brittle stars and basket stars, which have a more defined separation between their arms and their central disk.

Being Bilingual

People have very different opinions on what bilingualism really is. For some it means speaking two languages fluently and with little to no effort rather strongly consider a person bilingual, if it has perfect pronounciation in both languages and makes very few grammatical errors while talking.

The truth is that, even with a bad accent and making some mistake, being able to speak in two or more languages rather than one has practical benefits in an increasingly globalised world.


Multilingualism has been shown to have many psychological and social advantages that can go something simply as

  • watching movies with no subtitles
  • to having less problems in traveling and
  • even getting a job or business opportunities specially in tourist areas.

Types of Bilingualism

It is considered to be two types of Bilingualism

1. Compound Bilingualism

Compound Bilingualism, also called addictive Bilingualism happens for example when a child is raised by bilingual parents and both languages are used in home, the child grows when both languages are used simultaneously in the same environment.

With this type of Bilingualism, the person does not see the two languages as separate it is common to hear such people speaking different languages in the same sentence or using a word of a different language from the one they’re talking to better express themselves.

2. Coordinate Bilingualism

This is the second type of Bilingualism also know as Subtractive Bilingualism. In this type, the person perceive two languages as separate because he learns them separately and in different environments in context.

I am an example of coordinate Bilingualism, most of the time i talk Hindi when I’m in my college environment or to people who talks only that language, I use the language specifically for those context but to my family members i usually talk in Bengali which is my native language, the language related to my home environment. I see these two language as separate since I learned and used them in completely different environments.

Officially Monolingual Countries

Only a few countries in the world including the U.S, England, and Australia are officially Monolingual but even in these countries only a considerable percent of people who speaking and understand more than one language.


Researchers suggest that bilingualism can slow the advance of age-related mental issues such as Dementia and Alzheimer’s by up to 4 years.

Also in bilingual adult, brain tissue called grey matter is denser compared with Monolingual adults.

Although speaking more than one language does not necessarily make you more intelligent person, it helps stimulates and increase brain connections. Learning a new language is like an excercise to the brain that will improve your Cognitive skills and even if you grew up in a Monolingual environment, it is never too late to start learning a different language.