CHANDRAYAAN-1India’s First Lunar Exploration Mission. Moon Mineralogy Mapper observations point to possibility of water on the Moon!

Chandrayaan-1, India’s first mission to Moon, was launched successfully on October 22, 2008 from SDSC SHAR, Sriharikota. The spacecraft was orbiting around the Moon at a height of 100 km from the lunar surface for chemical, mineralogical and photo-geologic mapping of the Moon. The spacecraft carried 11 scientific instruments built in India, USA, UK, Germany, Sweden and Bulgaria.



After the successful completion of all the major mission objectives, the orbit has been raised to 200 km during May 2009. The satellite made more than 3400 orbits around the moon and the mission was concluded when the communication with the spacecraft was lost on August 29, 2009.

The idea of undertaking an Indian scientific mission to Moon was initially mooted in a meeting of the Indian Academy of Sciences in 1999 that was followed up by discussions in the Astronautical Society of India in 2000.

Based on the recommendations made by the learned members of these forums, a National Lunar Mission Task Force was constituted by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Leading Indian scientists and technologists participated in the deliberations of the Task Force that provided an assessment on the feasibility of an Indian Mission to the Moon as well as dwelt on the focus of such a mission and its possible configuration.

After detailed discussions, it was unanimously recommended that India should undertake the Mission to Moon, particularly in view of the renewed international interest in moon with several exciting missions planned for the new millennium. In addition, such a mission could provide the needed thrust to basic science and engineering research in the country including new challenges to ISRO to go beyond the Geostationary Orbit. Further, such a project could also help bringing in young talents to the arena of fundamental research. The academia would also find participation in such a project intellectually rewarding.

Subsequently, Government of India approved ISRO’s proposal for the first Indian Moon Mission, called Chandrayaan-1 in November 2003.

The Chandrayaan-1 mission performed high-resolution remote sensing of the moon in visible, near infrared (NIR), low energy X-rays and high-energy X-ray regions. One of the objectives was to prepare a three-dimensional atlas (with high spatial and altitude resolution) of both near and far side of the moon. It aimed at conducting chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface for distribution of mineral and chemical elements such as Magnesium, Aluminium, Silicon, Calcium, Iron and Titanium as well as high atomic number elements such as Radon, Uranium & Thorium with high spatial resolution.

Various mission planning and management objectives were also met. The mission goal of harnessing the science payloads, lunar craft and the launch vehicle with suitable ground support systems including Deep Space Network (DSN) station were realised, which were helpful for future explorations like the Mars Orbiter Mission. Mission goals like spacecraft integration and testing, launching and achieving lunar polar orbit of about 100 km, in-orbit operation of experiments, communication/ telecommand, telemetry data reception, quick look data and archival for scientific utilisation by scientists were also met.

PSLV-C11
PSLV-C11, chosen to launch Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, was an updated version of ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle standard configuration. Weighing 320 tonne at lift-off, the vehicle used larger strap-on motors (PSOM-XL) to achieve higher payload capability.

PSLV is the trusted workhorse launch Vehicle of ISRO. During September 1993- April 2008 period, PSLV had twelve consecutively successful launches carrying satellites to Sun Synchronous, Low Earth and Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits. On October 22, 2008, its fourteenth flight launched Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft.

By mid 2008, PSLV had repeatedly proved its reliability and versatility by launching 29 satellites into a variety of orbits. Of these, ten remote sensing satellites of India, an Indian satellite for amateur radio communications, a recoverable Space Capsule (SRE-1) and fourteen satellites from abroad were put into polar Sun Synchronous Orbits (SSO) of 550-820 km heights. Besides, PSLV has launched two satellites from abroad into Low Earth Orbits of low or medium inclinations. This apart, PSLV has launched KALPANA-1, a weather satellite of India, into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).

PSLV was initially designed by ISRO to place 1,000 kg class Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into 900 km polar SunSynchronous Orbits. Since the first successful flight in October 1994, the capability of PSLV was successively enhanced from 850 kg to 1,600 kg. In its ninth flight on May 5, 2005 from the Second Launch Pad (SLP), PSLV launched ISRO’s remote sensing satellite,1,560 kg CARTOSAT-1 and the 42 kg Amateur Radio satellite, HAMSAT, into a 620 km polar Sun Synchronous Orbit. The improvement in the capability over successive flights has been achieved through several means. They include increased propellant loading in the stage motors, employing composite material for the satellite mounting structure and changing the sequence of firing of the strap-on motors.

Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, designed and developed PSLV-C11. ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) at Thiruvananthapuram developed the inertial systems for the vehicle. Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), also at Thiruvananthapuram, developed the liquid propulsion stages for the second and fourth stages of PSLV-C11 as well as reaction control systems. SDSC SHAR processed the solid motors and carries out launch operations. ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) provide telemetry, tracking and command support during PSLV-C11’s flight

Who can submit a Proposal?

Proposals could be submitted by individuals or a group of scientists and academicians belonging to recognized institutions, universities, planetaria and government organisations of India. Only those having at least a minimum remaining service of four years before superannuation are eligible to lead the project as PI/Co-PI. The proposals must be forwarded through the Head of the Institution, with appropriate assurance for providing necessary facilities for carrying out the projects under this AO programme. The end….

LUNAR ECLIPSE

A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon moves into the Earth’s shadow.This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are exactly or very closely aligned (in syzygy) with Earth between the other two, and only on the night of a full moon. The type and length of a lunar eclipse depend on the Moon’s proximity to either node of its orbit.

Totality during the lunar eclipse of 21 January 2019. Direct sunlight is being blocked by the Earth, and the only light reaching it is sunlight refracted by Earth’s atmosphere, producing a reddish color.

Latter phases of the partial lunar eclipse on 17 July 2019 taken from GloucestershireUnited Kingdom.

A totally eclipsed Moon is sometimes called a blood moon for its reddish color, which is caused by Earth completely blocking direct sunlight from reaching the Moon. The only light reflected from the lunar surface has been refracted by Earth’s atmosphere. This light appears reddish for the same reason that a sunset or sunrise does: the Rayleigh scattering of bluer light.

Unlike a solar eclipse, which can only be viewed from a relatively small area of the world, a lunar eclipse may be viewed from anywhere on the night side of Earth. A total lunar eclipse can last up to nearly 2 hours, while a total solar eclipse lasts only up to a few minutes at any given place, because the Moon’s shadow is smaller. Also unlike solar eclipses, lunar eclipses are safe to view without any eye protection or special precautions, as they are dimmer than the full Moon.

Types of Lunar Eclipse:

A schematic diagram of the shadow cast by Earth. Within the umbra, the central region, the planet totally shields direct sunlight. In contrast, within the penumbra, the outer portion, the sunlight is only partially blocked. (Neither the Sun, Moon, and Earth sizes nor the distances between the bodies are to scale.)

A total penumbral lunar eclipse dims the Moon in direct proportion to the area of the Sun’s disk covered by Earth. This comparison of the Moon (within the southern part of Earth’s shadow) during the penumbral lunar eclipse of January 1999 (left) and the Moon outside the shadow (right) shows this slight darkening.

Penumbral Lunar Eclipse

This occurs when the Moon passes through Earth’s penumbra. The penumbra causes a subtle dimming of the lunar surface, which is only visible to the naked eye when about 70% of the Moon’s diameter has immersed into Earth’s penumbra.A special type of penumbral eclipse is a total penumbral lunar eclipse, during which the Moon lies exclusively within Earth’s penumbra. Total penumbral eclipses are rare, and when these occur, the portion of the Moon closest to the umbra may appear slightly darker than the rest of the lunar disk.

Partial lunar eclipse

This occurs when only a portion of the Moon enters Earth’s umbra, while a total lunar eclipse occurs when the entire Moon enters the planet’s umbra. The Moon’s average orbital speed is about 1.03 km/s (2,300 mph), or a little more than its diameter per hour, so totality may last up to nearly 107 minutes. Nevertheless, the total time between the first and the last contacts of the Moon’s limb with Earth’s shadow is much longer and could last up to 236 minutes.

Total lunar eclipse

This occurs when the moon falls entirely within the earth’s umbra. Just prior to complete entry, the brightness of the lunar limb– the curved edge of the moon still being hit by direct sunlight– will cause the rest of the moon to appear comparatively dim. The moment the moon enters a complete eclipse, the entire surface will become more or less uniformly bright. Later, as the moon’s opposite limb is struck by sunlight, the overall disk will again become obscured.

This is because as viewed from the Earth, the brightness of a lunar limb is generally greater than that of the rest of the surface due to reflections from the many surface irregularities within the limb: sunlight striking these irregularities is always reflected back in greater quantities than that striking more central parts, and is why the edges of full moons generally appear brighter than the rest of the lunar surface.

Central lunar eclipse

This is a total lunar eclipse during which the Moon passes through the centre of Earth’s shadow, contacting the antisolar point. This type of lunar eclipse is relatively rare.

The relative distance of the Moon from Earth at the time of an eclipse can affect the eclipse’s duration. In particular, when the Moon is near apogee, the farthest point from Earth in its orbit, its orbital speed is the slowest. The diameter of Earth’s umbra does not decrease appreciably within the changes in the Moon’s orbital distance. Thus, the concurrence of a totally eclipsed Moon near apogee will lengthen the duration of totality.

Selenelion

A selenelion or selenehelion, also called a horizontal eclipse, occurs where and when both the Sun and an eclipsed Moon can be observed at the same time. The event can only be observed just before sunset or just after sunrise, when both bodies will appear just above opposite horizons at nearly opposite points in the sky. A selenelion occurs during every total lunar eclipse it is an experience of the observer, not a planetary event separate from the lunar eclipse itself. Typically, observers on Earth located on high mountain ridges undergoing false sunrise or false sunset at the same moment of a total lunar eclipse will be able to experience it. Although during selenelion the Moon is completely within the Earth’s umbra, both it and the Sun can be observed in the sky because atmospheric refraction causes each body to appear higher (i.e., more central) in the sky than its true geometric planetary position.

Timing

The timing of total lunar eclipses is determined by what are known as its “contacts” (moments of contact with Earth’s shadow)

P1 (First contact): Beginning of the penumbral eclipse. Earth’s penumbra touches the Moon’s outer limb.
U1 (Second contact): Beginning of the partial eclipse. Earth’s umbra touches the Moon’s outer limb.
U2 (Third contact): Beginning of the total eclipse. The Moon’s surface is entirely within Earth’s umbra.
Greatest eclipse: The peak stage of the total eclipse. The Moon is at its closest to the center of Earth’s umbra.
U3 (Fourth contact): End of the total eclipse. The Moon’s outer limb exits Earth’s umbra.
U4 (Fifth contact): End of the partial eclipse. Earth’s umbra leaves the Moon’s surface.
P4 (Sixth contact): End of the penumbral eclipse. Earth’s penumbra no longer makes contact with the Moon.

Danjon scale:

L = 0: Very dark eclipse. Moon almost invisible, especially at mid-totality.
L = 1: Dark eclipse, gray or brownish in coloration. Details distinguishable only with difficulty.
L = 2: Deep red or rust-colored eclipse. Very dark central shadow, while outer edge of umbra is relatively bright.
L = 3: Brick-red eclipse. Umbral shadow usually has a bright or yellow rim.
L = 4: Very bright copper-red or orange eclipse. Umbral shadow is bluish and has a very bright rim.

CHANDRAYAAN -2

Chandrayaan2 is India’s second lunar probe, and its first attempt to make a soft landing on the Moon. It has an Orbiter, which will go around the Moon for a year in an orbit of 100 km from the surface, and a Lander and a Rover that will land on the Moon. Once there, the Rover will separate from the Lander, and will move around on the lunar surface. Both the Lander and the Rover are expected to be active for one month.

CHANDRAYAAN BEGUN ITS JOURNEY: Chandrayaan-2 satellite had begun its journey towards the moon leaving the earth’s orbit in the dark hours on August 14, after a crucial maneuver called Trans Lunar Insertion (TLI) that was carried out by Isro to place the spacecraft on “Lunar Transfer Trajectory”

India’s Moon mission: Chandrayaan-2 will be a ground-breaking mission to the south pole of the moon and should land on a high plain between two craters, Manzinus C and Simpelius N, which are around 70° south.

India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, GSLV MkIII-M1 had successfully launched the 3,840-kg Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft into the earth’s orbit on July 22.

In a major milestone for India’s second Moon mission, the Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft had successfully entered the lunar orbit on August 20 by performing Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) maneuver. On August 22, Isro released the first image of the moon captured by Chandrayaan-2. On September 2,Vikram’ successfully separated from the orbiter, following which two de-orbiting manoeuvres were performed to bring the lander closer to the Moon.

Vikram’ and ‘Pragyan’

As India attempted a soft landing on the lunar surface on September 7, all eyes were on the lander ‘Vikram’ and rover ‘Pragyan’.

The 1,471-kg ‘Vikram‘, named after Vikram Sarabhai, father of the Indian space programme, was designed to execute a soft landing on the lunar surface, and to function for one lunar day, which is equivalent to about 14 earth days.

Chandrayaan, which means “moon vehicle” in Sanskrit, exemplifies the resurgence of international interest in space. The US, China and private corporations are among those racing to explore everything from resource mining to extraterrestrial colonies on the moon and even Mars.

LAUNCHED IN: India’s second mission to the Moon, Chandrayaan-2 was launched on 22nd July 2019 from Satish Dhawan Space Center, Sriharikota. The Orbiter which was injected into a lunar orbit on 2nd Sept 2019, carries 8 experiments to address many open questions on lunar science.

India’s ambitious mission to land on the Moon failed. The Vikram lander, of the Chandrayaan 2 mission, crashed on the lunar surface on September 7, 2019, but it was only in December that scientists found it. Why did it take so long to find the lander?

There are quite a few technical reasons for that. Let’s start with a quick recap of what happened on the landing day.

who said three days after the landing day that they had spotted the lander. ISRO failed to show any pictures or provide location coordinates to the public despite the claims.

The statement is in fact only the third and the last time ISRO publicly spoke of the lander’s condition. However, it didn’t stop ISRO from coming out of the slumber and boasting that they found the lander first, i.e. before NASA did with help from Subramanian.

Going by the publicly available evidence, NASA found the Vikram lander on the Moon’s surface, not ISRO. And what does Chandrayaan 2’s landing failure mean for ISRO? Go back to the launch pad.

The end ..

Poverty in India

Poverty is the state of not having enough material possessions or income for a person basic needs. Poverty may include social, economic, and political elements. Absolute poverty is the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs, such as food, clothing, and shelter. Poverty is linked with negative conditions such as substandard housing, homelessness, inadequate nutrition and food insecurity, inadequate child care, lack of access to health care, unsafe neighborhoods, and under resourced schools which adversely impact our nation’s children.

There are several definitions of poverty, and scholars disagree as to which definition is appropriate for India. Inside India, both income-based poverty definition and consumption-based poverty statistics are in use. Outside India, the World Bank and institutions of the United Nations use a broader definition to compare poverty among nations, including India, based on purchasing power parity (PPP), as well as a nominal relative basis. Each state in India has its poverty threshold to determine how many people are below its poverty line and to reflect regional economic conditions. These differences in definitions yield a complex and conflicting picture about poverty in India, both internally and when compared to other developing countries of the world. 

More than 800 million people in India are considered poor. Most of them live in the countryside and keep afloat with odd jobs. The lack of employment which provides a livable wage in rural areas is driving many Indians into rapidly growing metropolitan areas such as Bombay, Delhi, Bangalore or Calcutta. There, most of them expect a life of poverty and despair in the mega-slums, made up of millions of corrugated ironworks, without sufficient drinking water supply, without garbage disposal and in many cases without electricity. Poor hygiene conditions cause diseases such as cholera, typhus and dysentery, which affects children more. 

Poverty in India impacts children, families and individuals in a variety of different ways through:

  • High infant mortality
  • Malnutrition
  • Child labour
  • Lack of education
  • Child marriage
  • HIV / AIDS

Since the 1950s, the Indian government and non-governmental organisations have initiated several programs to alleviate poverty, including subsidising food and other necessities, increased access to loans, improving agricultural techniques and price supports, promoting education and family planning. These measures have helped eliminate famines, cut absolute poverty levels by more than half, and reduce illiteracy and malnutrition.

Around 75 million more people in India fell into poverty last year because of the pandemic-induced economic recession, compared with what it would have been without the outbreak, an analysis by Pew Research Center showed on Thursday. That number in India accounts for nearly 60% of the global increase in poverty in 2020, the analysis showed. It defined the poor as people who live on $2 or less daily.

India has achieved annual growth exceeding 7 per cent over the last 15 years and continues to pull millions of people out of poverty, according to the World Bank. The country has halved its poverty rate over the past three decades and has seen strong improvements in most human development outcomes, a report by the international financial institution has found. Growth is expected to continue and, the elimination of extreme poverty in the next decade is within reach, said the bank, which warned that the country’s development trajectory faces considerable challenges. 

Rail Transport in India

Rail transport is the most commonly used mode of long-distance transportation in India. Indian Railways (IR) is the primary operator of rail operations throughout the country, a state-owned organization of the Ministry of Railways, which historically had its government budget. The rail network traverses the length and width of the country, covering a total of 63,140 km (39,200 miles).

It is one of the world’s largest and busiest rail networks, transporting over 5 billion passengers and over 350 million tonnes of freight annually. Its operations cover 28 states and 3 Union territories and link the neighbouring countries of Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan. In March 2020, the national rail network comprised 126,366 km (78,520 mi) of track over a route of 67,368 km (41,861 mi) and 7,325 stations. It is the fourth-largest national railway network in the world (after those of the United States, Russia, and China).

Indian Railways is headed by a Four-member Railway Board whose chairman reports to the Ministry of Railways. The Railway Board also acts as the Ministry of Railways. The officers manning the office of Railway Board are mostly from organised Group A Railway Services and Railway Board Secretariat Service. IR is divided into 18 zones, headed by general managers who report to the Railway Board. The zones are further subdivided into 71 operating divisions headed by divisional railways managers (DRM).

A plan for a rail system in India was first put forward in 1832, but no further steps were taken for more than a decade. In 1844, the Governor-General of India Lord Hardinge allowed private entrepreneurs to set up a rail system in India. Two new railway companies were created and the East India Company was asked to assist them. Interest from a lot of investors in the UK led to the rapid creation of a rail system over the next few years.

Railways were first introduced to India in 1853, and by 1947, the year of India’s independence, they had grown to forty-two rail systems. In 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit to become one of the largest networks in the world. India’s first passenger train, operated by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and hauled by three steam locomotives (SahibSindh and Sultan), ran for 34 kilometres (21 mi) with 400 people in 14 carriages on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge track between Bori Bunder (Mumbai) and Thane on 16 April 1853.

It was as late as 1895 that India saw the birth of its first locomotive. The locomotive, an F class 0-6-0 metre gauge numbered F-734, was built at Ajmer for the Rajputana Malwa Railway. It weighed 38 tonnes. The locomotive, to be used for hauling mixed trains, was built at a cost of Rs 15,869. This locomotive has outside connecting rods and side rods. It was also used on the Bombay Baroda and Central India Railway (BB&CI) network. Today, the locomotive has been stored as one of the outdoor exhibits at the National Railway Museum, New Delhi.

In June 1950, the Railway Board put forward a plan to divide the railways in India into six zones to get things organized. However, after some formalities, the actual plan was implemented a year later, by April 1951.

On April 14, 1951, the Southern Railway was formed by merging the Madras Railway, the South Marhatta Railway, the South Indian Railway and the Mysore Railway. On November 5, 1951, the Central Railway was constituted by bringing together the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR), the Nizam Railway, the ScindiaRailway and the Dholpur Railway.

On the same day, the Western Railway was constituted by merging the Bombay Baroda and Central India Railway (BB&CI), the Sourashtra Railway, the Rajasthan Railway and Jaipur Railway. The merger of Eastern Punjab Railway, the Jodhpur Railway, the Bikaner Railway and some upper divisions of the East India Railway led to the formation of the Northern Railway on April 14, 1952.  Oudh Railway, Tirhut Railway and the Assam Railway formed the North Eastern Railway and the remaining divisions of the East India Railway and the Bengal Nagpur Railway constituted the Eastern Railway on the same day. These were the first six zones of Indian Railways.

On March 31, 1978, the railways were split into nine zones. The Northern zone with its headquarters at Delhi (Delhi junction), the North Eastern zone with its headquarters at Gorakhpur, the North East Frontier with its headquarters at Maligaon (Guwahati), the eastern zone with its headquarters at Kolkatta (Howrah junction), the south eastern zone with its headquarters at Kolkatta again (Howrah junction), the south central zone with its head offices at Secunderabad, the southern zone at Chennai (Chennai Central) and the Central and Western Railways with their administrative headquarters at CST and Churchgate respectively.

In 1977, the country’s first railway museum was set up at Chanakyapuri, New Delhi. The first of its kind in the country, this unique museum covers a land area of over 10 acres, comprising an elegantly designed octagonal building housing nine display galleries and a large open area laid out to simulate a Railway Yard. With constant emphasis on improvements and additions, the museum can now boast of being one of the finest rail museums in the world and a very popular tourist attraction of the country’s capital. On an average, this museum has around 1,000 visitors daily.

Marine Pollution

INTRODUCTION

Pollution in ocean is a major problem that is affecting the ocean and the rest of the Earth, too.Pollution in the ocean directly affects ocean organisms and indirectly affects human health and resources.Oil spills, toxic wastes, and dumping of other harmful materials are all major sources of pollution in the ocean.

Marine Pollution:

Marine pollution is a combination of chemicals and trash,most of which comes from land sources and is washed
or blown into the ocean.

CAUSES:

Some of the main causes for the marine pollution is as follows

• Ocean dumping

Land runoff

• Oil spills

• Littering

• Ocean mining

• Noise pollution

Ocean dumping:

Deliberate disposal of hazardous wastes at sea from vessels, aircraft, platforms or other human-made structures.

Land runoff:

Eighty percent of marine pollution comes from land run off.

Oil spills:

Contamination of seawater due to an oil pour, as a result of an accident or human error, is termed an oil spill.

Littering:

Marine litter is not only ugly it can harm ocean ecosystems wildlife, and humans. It can gure coral reels and bottom dwelling species and entangle or drown ocean wildlife. Some marine animals ingest smaller plastic particles and choke or starve

Ocean Mining (Deep Sea Mining):

Mining under the ocean for gold, silver, copper, cobalt,etc is another source for ocean pollution.Deep sea mining could even make climate change worse. The disruption caused by the machines may release carbon stored in deep sea sediments.

Noise Pollution in the ocean:

Ocean noise refers to sounds made by human activities that can interfere with or obscure the ability of marine animals to hear natural sounds in the ocean.

Devastating Effects of Ocean Pollution:

1. Effect of Toxic Wastes on Marine Animals:

The oil spilled in the ocean could get on to the gills and feathers of marine animals, which makes it difficult for them to move or fly properly or feed their children.

2. Disruption to the Cycle of Coral

Reefs:

Oil spill floats on the surface of the water and prevents sunlight from reaching to marine plants and affects the process of photosynthesis.

3. Depletes Oxygen Content in Water:

When oxygen levels go down, the chances of survival of marine animals like whales, turtles, sharks, dolphins, penguins for a long time also goes down.

4. Failure in the Reproductive System of Sea Animals

Chemicals from pesticides can accumulate in the fatty tissue of animals, leading to failure in their reproductive system.

5. Effect on Food Chain:

Chemicals used in industries are ingested into small animals in the ocean and are later eaten by large animals, which then affects the whole food chain.

6. Affects Human Health:

Animals from impacted food chain are then eaten by humans, which affects their health as toxins from these contaminated animals get deposited in the tissues of people and can lead to cancer, birth defects or long term health problems.

Solutions to Ocean Pollution:

1. Reducing the Use of Plastic Products

2. Use Reusable Bottles and Cutlery

3. Recycle Whatever You Can

REDUCE DISCHARGE OF SEWA IN THE OCEAN

4. Stop Littering the Beach, and Start

Cleaning It

5. Reducing the Use of Chemical Fertilize

6. Reducing the Energy Use

Conclusion

• We must help to stop ocean pollution, by recycling, using decomposable materials instead of plastic or glass to decrease our accumulating waste. Marine animals are suffering due to our actions, and if we do not put a halt to pollution soon, we too will suffer the consequences.

Code of Ethics

A code of ethics sets out an organization’s ethical guidelines and best practices to follow for honesty, integrity, and professionalism. It is a document that outlines the core values and ethics of business that professionals must follow. The codes of ethics are determined by the professional body, company management or the association. The main types of codes of ethics include a compliance-based code of ethics, a value-based code of ethics, and a code of ethics among professionals.

A code of ethics will start by setting out the values that underpin the code and will describe an organization’s obligation to its stakeholders. The code is publicly available and addressed to anyone with an interest in that organization’s activities and the way it operates. It will include details of how the organization plans to implement its values and vision, as well as guidance to staff on ethical standards and how to achieve them.

Types of Codes of Ethics

A code of ethics can take a variety of forms, but the general goal is to ensure that a business and its employees are following state and federal laws, conducting themselves with an idea that can be exemplary, and ensuring that the business being conducted is beneficial for all stakeholders. The following are three types of codes of ethics found in the business.

Compliance-Based Code of Ethics

For all businesses, laws regulate issues such as hiring and safety standards. Compliance-based codes of ethics not only set guidelines for conduct but also determine penalties for violations. In some industries, including banking, specific laws govern business conduct. These industries formulate compliance-based codes of ethics to enforce laws and regulations. Employees usually undergo formal training to learn the rules of conduct. Because noncompliance can create legal issues for the company as a whole, individual workers within a firm may face penalties for failing to follow guidelines.

To ensure that the aims and principles of the code of ethics are followed, some companies appoint a compliance officer. This individual is tasked with keeping up to date on changes in regulation codes and monitoring employee conduct to encourage conformity.

This type of code of ethics is based on clear-cut rules and well-defined consequences rather than individual monitoring of personal behaviour. Despite strict adherence to the law, some compliance-based codes of conduct do not thus promote a climate of moral responsibility within the company.

Value-Based Code of Ethics

A value-based code of ethics addresses a company’s core value system. It may outline standards of responsible conduct as they relate to the larger public good and the environment. Value-based ethical codes may require a greater degree of self-regulation than compliance-based codes.

Some codes of conduct contain language that addresses both compliance and values. For example, a grocery store chain might create a code of conduct that espouses the company’s commitment to health and safety regulations above financial gain. That grocery chain might also include a statement about refusing to contract with suppliers that feed hormones to livestock or raise animals in inhumane living conditions.

Code of Ethics Among Professionals

Financial advisers registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) or a state regulator are bound by a code of ethics known as a fiduciary duty. This is a legal requirement and also a code of loyalty that requires them to act in the best interest of their clients.

Certified public accountants, who are not typically considered fiduciaries to their clients, still are expected to follow similar ethical standards, such as integrity, objectivity, truthfulness, and avoidance of conflicts of interest, according to the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA).

E-Technology in Agriculture

Photo by Quang Nguyen Vinh on Pexels.com

E-Agriculture is a new area of knowledge emerging out of the convergence of IT and farming techniques. It enhances the agricultural value chain through the application of the Internet and related technologies. IT helps farmers to have better access to information which increases productivity. It also enables him to get better prices through the information of changes in price in different markets.

The information related to policies and programs of the government, schemes for farmers, institutions through which these schemes are implemented, innovations in agriculture, Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs), Institutions providing new agricultural inputs(high yielding seeds, new fertilizers etc) and training in new techniques are disseminated to farmers through the use of Information technology to ensure inclusiveness and to avoid digital divide.

The advantages of E-Agriculture are –

  1. Better and spontaneous agricultural practices.
  2. Better marketing exposure and pricing.
  3. Lessening of agricultural risks and enhanced incomes.
  4. Better awareness and information.
  5. Enhanced networking and communication.
  6. Facility of online trading and e-commerce.
  7. Better representation at various forums, authorities and platform.
  8. E-agriculture can play vital role in the increased food production and productivity in India.

Access to price information, access to agriculture information, access to national and international markets, increasing production efficiency and creating a ‘conducive policy environment’ are the beneficial outcomes of e-Agriculture which enhances the quality of life of farmers.

Soil Management, Water Management, Seed Management, Fertilizer Management, Pest Management, Harvest Management and Post-Harvest Management are the important components of e-Agriculture where technology aids farmers with better information and alternatives. It uses a host of technologies like Remote Sensing, Computer Simulation, Assessment of speed and direction of Wind, Soil quality assays, Crop Yield predictions and Marketing using IT.

In India, there have been several initiatives by State and Central Governments to meet the various challenges facing the agriculture sector in the country. The E-Agriculture is part of the Mission Mode Project, which has been included in NeGP (under National E-governance Plan) to consolidate the various learnings from the past, integrate all the diverse and disparate efforts currently underway, and upscale them to cover the entire country.

In the framework of agriculture, the impact of information technology can be evaluated broadly under two categories. First, Information technology is a tool for direct contribution to agricultural productivity and secondly, it is an indirect tool for empowering agriculturalists to make informed and quality decisions that will have a positive impact on the agriculture and allied activities conducted. Precision agriculture which is popular in developed countries broadly uses information technology to make a direct contribution to agricultural efficiency.

It is well recognized that E-Agriculture is a developing field focusing on the augmentation of agricultural and rural development through better information and communication processes. More precisely, e-Agriculture involves the conceptualization, design, development, evaluation and application of innovative ways to use information and communication technologies in the rural area, with a primary focus on agriculture.

Information technology can aid Indian farmers to get significant information regarding agro-inputs, crop production technologies, agro-processing, market support, agro-finance and management of farm agri-business. The agricultural extension tool is becoming dependent on Information technology to provide appropriate and location-specific technologies for the farmers to provide timely and proficient advice to the farmers. Information technology can be the best means not only to develop agricultural extension but also to expand agriculture research and education system.

Information and communication technologies can enhance the agricultural sector in developing countries by functioning as pioneering solutions to agricultural challenges. Information technology is drastically changing the lives of humans in all areas including the agriculture sector. Information technology use computers along with telecommunication equipment for the retrieval, storage, transmission and manipulation of data, which are aimed to improve competence in the agriculture sector. 

The Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita (“The Song of the Lord”) is is among the most important religious texts of Hinduism. The Gita is the sixth book of the Mahabharata, one of India’s most famous epic poems. The work is also known as the Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, Iswara Gita, the Ananta Gita, the Hari Gita, the Vyasa Gita, or simply the Gita. The Gita is a dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna, right before the start of the climactic Kurukshetra War in the Hindu epic Mahabharata

The Bhagavad Gita is a poem written in the Sanskrit language. It has a total of 700 verses which are structured into several ancient Indian poetic meters, with the principal being the shloka. It has 18 chapters in total. Each shloka consists of a couplet, thus the entire text consists of 1,400 lines. It’s unclear exactly when the Gita was composed as estimates vary widely, but several scholars suggest it was completed around 200 CE and then inserted into the larger work; many see it as the first fully realized yogic scripture. 

In the Indian tradition, the Bhagavad Gita, as well as the epic Mahabharata of which it is a part, is attributed to the sage Vyasa, whose full name was Krishna Dvaipayana, also called Veda-Vyasa. Another Hindu legend states that Vyasa narrated it while the elephant-headed deity Ganesha broke one of his tusks and wrote down the Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita.

The Gita is a dialogue between the warrior-prince Arjuna and the god Krishna who is serving as his charioteer at the Battle of Kurukshetra fought between Arjuna’s family and allies (the Pandavas) and those of the prince Duryodhana and his family (the Kauravas) and their allies. Arjuna and his brothers have been exiled from the kingdom of Kurukshetra for 13 years and cut off from their rightful heritage by another faction of the family; the Gita takes up their struggle to reclaim the throne, which requires that Arjuna wage war against his kinsmen, bringing his considerable military skills to bear. This dialogue is recited by the Kauravan counselor Sanjaya to his blind king Dhritarashtra (both far from the battleground) as Krishna has given Sanjaya mystical sight so he will be able to see and report the battle to the king.

On the battlefield, the armies of the Pandavas and the Kauravas have gathered, ready to fight. The Pandava prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna to drive to the center of the battlefield so that he can get a good look at both the armies and all those who are going to fight on both sides. He sees that some among his enemies are his own relatives, beloved friends, and revered teachers. He does not want to fight to kill them and is thus filled with doubt and despair on the battlefield. He drops his bow, wonders if he should renounce and just leave the battlefield. He turns to his charioteer and guide Krishna, for advice on the rationale for war, his choices and the right thing to do. 

The Bhagavad Gita is the compilation of Arjuna’s questions and moral dilemma, Krishna’s answers and insights that elaborate on a variety of philosophical concepts. The compiled dialogue goes far beyond the “a rationale for war”; it touches on many human ethical dilemmas, philosophical issues and life’s choices. The Gita has three major themes: knowledge, action and love. The setting of the Gita on a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of human life. 

The Gita combines the concepts expressed in the central texts of Hinduism – the Vedas and Upanishads – which are here synthesized into a single, coherent vision of belief in one God and the underlying unity of all existence. The text instructs on how one must elevate the mind and soul to look beyond appearances – which fool one into believing in duality and multiplicity – and recognize these are illusions; all humans and aspects of existence are a unified extension of the Divine which one will recognize once the trappings of illusion have been discarded.

The Gita inspired the Bhakti (“devotion”) Movement which then influenced the development of Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. Krishna explains the path of selfless devotion as one of the paths toward self-actualization, recognition of the truth of existence, and liberation from the cycle of rebirth and death; the other two being jnana (“knowledge”) and karma (“action”). The Hare Krishna Movement of the present day is an expression of Bhakti, and the Gita remains their principal text.

According to Flood and Martin, although the Gita is set in the context of a war epic, the narrative is structured to apply to all situations; it wrestles with questions about “who we are, how we should live our lives, and how should we act in the world”.

Home Automation System

Home automation or domotics is building automation for a home, called a smart home or a smart house. The word “domotics” is a contraction of the Latin word for a home (Domus) and the word robotics. The word “smart” in “smart home” refers to the system being aware of the state of its devices, which is done through the information and communication technologies (ICT) protocol and the Internet of Things (IoT).

A home automation system will monitor and control home attributes such as lighting, climate, entertainment systems, and appliances. It may also include home security such as access control and alarm systems. Home automation allows you to control almost every aspect of your home through the Internet of Things. 

A home automation system typically connects controlled devices to a central smart home hub (also called a “gateway”). The user interface for controls of the system uses either wall-mounted terminals, tablet or desktop computers, a mobile phone application, or a Web interface that may also be accessible off-site through the Internet. Home automation has a high potential for sharing data between family members or trusted individuals for personal security and leads to energy-saving measures with a positive environmental impact in the future.

Applications and technologies:

Home automation is prevalent in a variety of different realms, including:

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC): it is possible to have remote control of all home energy monitors over the internet incorporating a simple and friendly user interface.

Lighting control system: a “smart” network that incorporates communication between various lighting system inputs and outputs, using one or more central computing devices.

Occupancy-aware control system: it is possible to sense the occupancy of the home using smart meters and environmental sensors like CO2 sensors, which can be integrated into the building automation system to trigger automatic responses for energy efficiency and building comfort applications.

Appliance control and integration with the smart grid and a smart meter, taking advantage, for instance, of high solar panel output in the middle of the day to run washing machines.

Home robots and security: a household security system integrated with a home automation system can provide additional services such as remote surveillance of security cameras over the Internet, or access control and central locking of all perimeter doors and windows. 

Leak detection, smoke and CO detectors 

Laundry-folding machine

Indoor positioning systems (IPS). Home automation for the elderly and disabled.

Pet and baby care, for example, tracking the pets and babies’ movements and controlling pet access rights. 

Air quality control (inside and outside). For example, Air Quality Egg is used by people at home to monitor the air quality and pollution level in the city and create a map of the pollution. 

Smart kitchen, with refrigerator inventory, premade cooking programs, cooking surveillance, etc.

Voice control devices like Amazon Alexa or Google Home are used to control home appliances or systems.

Advantages:

1. Energy Savings

Home automation systems have proven themselves in the arena of energy efficiency. Automated thermostats allow you to pre-program temperatures based on the time of day and the day of the week. And some even adjust to your behaviours, learning and adapting to your temperature preferences without your ever inputting a pre-selected schedule. Traditional or behaviour-based automation can also be applied to virtually every gadget that can be remotely controlled – from sprinkler systems to coffee makers. Actual energy savings ultimately depend on the type of device you select and its automation capabilities. But on average, product manufacturers estimate the systems can help consumers save anywhere from 10 to 15 per cent off of heating and cooling bills.

2. Convenience

In today’s fast-paced society, the less you have to worry about, the better. Right? Convenience is another primary selling point of home automation devices, which virtually eliminate small hassles such as turning the lights off before you go to bed or adjusting the thermostat when you wake up in the morning.

Many systems come with remote dashboard capabilities, so forgetting to turn off that coffee pot before you leave no longer requires a trip back to the house. Simply pull up the dashboard on a smart device or computer, and turn the coffee pot off in a matter of seconds.

3. Security

Remote monitoring can put your mind at ease while you’re away from the house. With remote dashboards, lights and lamps can be turned on and off, and automated blinds can be raised and lowered. These capabilities – combined with automated security systems – can help you mitigate the risks of intrusions: you will be alerted immediately if something uncharacteristic happens.

The Disadvantages

1. Installation

Depending on the complexity of the system, installing a home automation device can be a significant burden on the homeowner. It can either cost you money if you hire an outside contractor or cost you time if you venture to do it yourself.

2. Complex Technology

Automating everything in life may sound extremely appealing, but sometimes a good old-fashioned flip of the switch is a lot easier than reaching for your smartphone to turn lights on and off. Before you decide which system is right for you, think about how far you want to take home automation in your household.

3. System Compatibility

Controlling all aspects of home automation from one centralized platform is important, but not all systems are compatible with one another. Your security system, for example, may require you to log in to one location to manage settings, while your smart thermostat may require you to log in to another platform to turn the air conditioner on and off. To truly leverage the convenience of home automation, you may need to invest in centralized platform technology to control all systems and devices from one location.

4. Cost

Even though the price of home automation systems has become much more affordable in recent years, the cost to purchase and install a device can still add up. Consumer Reports offers a wide range of information and insights – including costs – on the best home automation systems on the market.

Main purpose of home automation system is to provide ease to people to control different home appliances with the help of the android application present in their mobile phones and to save electricity, time and money. The sheer quantity of consumer attention generated by home automation technology means the biggest technology businesses and innovators have entered a race to overtake one another. That means better smart house technology is continually improved to coincide with our technological requirements. 

Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a form of international private business self-regulation which aims to contribute to societal goals of a philanthropic, activist, or charitable nature by engaging in or supporting volunteering or ethically-oriented practices.

According to the World Business Council of Sustainable Development, corporate social responsibility is the “continuing commitment by business to contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the community and society at large.” It is also called corporate sustainability, sustainable business, corporate conscience, corporate citizenship, conscious capitalism, or responsible business.

CSR is generally understood as being the way through which a company achieves a balance of economic, environmental and social imperatives (“Triple-Bottom-Line-Approach”), while at the same time addressing the expectations of  shareholders and stakeholders. It is a management concept that helps companies be socially accountable to themselves, their stakeholders, and the public. Corporate social responsibility is now a familiar metric of how well a brand interacts with stakeholders and communities, both locally and globally. 

On April 1, 2014, India became the first country to legally mandate corporate social responsibility. The new rules in Section 135 of India’s Companies Act make it mandatory for companies of a certain turnover and profitability to spend two percent of their average net profit for the past three years on CSR.

Some examples of CSR in action include:

  • Reducing carbon footprint
  • Engaging in charity work 
  • Purchasing fair trade products 
  • Investing in environmentally conscious businesses
  • Getting involved in volunteer work
  • Improving labour policies

Types of Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate social responsibility is divided into four categories: environmental, philanthropic, ethical, and economic responsibility.

Environmental Responsibility: Environmental responsibility refers to the belief that organizations should behave as environmentally friendly as possible. It’s one of the most common forms of corporate social responsibility. Some companies use the term “environmental stewardship” to refer to such initiatives.

Companies that seek to embrace environmental responsibility can do so in several ways: Reducing pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, the use of single-use plastics, water consumption, and general waste; Increasing reliance on renewable energy, sustainable resources, and recycled or partially recycled materials; Offsetting negative environmental impact; for example, by planting trees, funding research, and donating to related causes.

Ethical Responsibility: Ethical responsibility is concerned with ensuring an organization is operating fairly and ethically. Organizations that embrace ethical responsibility aim to achieve fair treatment of all stakeholders, including leadership, investors, employees, suppliers, and customers.

Firms can embrace ethical responsibility in different ways. For example, a business might set its own, higher minimum wage if the one mandated by the state or federal government doesn’t constitute a “livable wage.” Likewise, a business might require that products, ingredients, materials, or components be sourced according to free trade standards. In this regard, many firms have processes to ensure they’re not purchasing products resulting from slavery or child labour.

Philanthropic Responsibility: Philanthropic responsibility refers to a business’s aim to actively make the world and society a better place. In addition to acting as ethically and environmentally friendly as possible, organizations are driven by philanthropic responsibility often dedicate a portion of their earnings. While many firms donate to charities and nonprofits that align with their guiding missions, others donate to worthy causes that don’t directly relate to their business. Others go so far as to create their charitable trust or organization to give back.

Economic responsibility: Economic Responsibility is the practice of a firm backing all of its financial decisions in its commitment to do good in the areas listed above. The end goal is not to simply maximize profits, but positively impact the environment, people, and society.

Examples of CSR Companies

  1. Lego: The toy company has invested millions of dollars into addressing climate change and reducing waste. Lego’s environmentally conscious efforts include reduced packaging, using sustainable materials and investing in alternative energy.
  2. TOMS: TOMS donates one-third of its net profits to various charities that support physical and mental health as well as educational opportunities. As of April 1, 2020, the brand is directing all charitable donations to the TOMS COVID-19 Global Giving Fund.
  3. Johnson & Johnson: The brand focuses on reducing its environmental impact by investing in various alternative energy sources. Globally, Johnson & Johnson also works to provide clean, safe water to communities.
  4. Starbucks: The global coffee chain has implemented a socially responsible hiring process to diversify their workforce. Their efforts are focused on hiring more veterans, young people looking to start their careers, and refugees.
  5. Google: Google has demonstrated its commitment to the environment by investing in renewable energy sources and sustainable offices. The company’s CEO, Sundar Pichai, is also known to take stands on certain social issues.
  6. Pfizer: The pharmaceutical company’s focus on “corporate citizenship” is reflected in its healthcare initiatives. Some of the company’s initiatives include spreading awareness about noninfectious diseases and providing accessible health services to women and children in need. 

A properly implemented CSR concept can bring along a variety of competitive advantages, such as enhanced access to capital and markets, increased sales and profits, operational cost savings, improved productivity and quality, efficient human resource base, improved brand image and reputation, enhanced customer loyalty, better decision making and risk management processes.

While the goal of CSR is to push businesses to act responsibly and ethically toward the environment and community, there are some disadvantages. Engaging in CSR is not always cheap. It can rely on expensive structures and strategies to plan, execute and measure. A poorly planned CSR strategy that doesn’t deliver what it says it can quickly become a failure and business liability. The impact on a business’s reputation can be detrimental, and the community will be quick to scrutinise its actions.

H&M’s Greenwashing campaign is an example of a misleading or disingenuous CSR – Swedish fast-fashion chain H&M has been called out recently for supplying insufficient information about the sustainability of their “sustainable style” collection. This is known as greenwashing (the act of giving a false impression that a company and its products are more environmentally friendly than they truly are). The internationally renowned fashion company has marked some of its products as ethical and environmentally friendly, yet they still produce materials at a non-environmentally friendly rate. The Norwegian Consumer Authority called out the chain for failing to produce sufficient information on how their products have “environmental benefits”. As a result, H&M have received criticism in the media.

The movement toward CSR has had an impact in several domains. For example, many companies have taken steps to improve the environmental sustainability of their operations, through measures such as installing renewable energy sources or purchasing carbon offsets. In managing supply chains, efforts have also been taken to eliminate reliance on unethical labour practices, such as child labour and slavery.

As the use of corporate responsibility expands, it is becoming increasingly important to have a socially conscious image. Consumers, employees and stakeholders prioritize CSR when choosing a brand or company, and they are holding corporations accountable for effecting social change with their business beliefs, practices and profits. In today’s socially conscious environment, employees and customers place a premium on working for and spending their money with businesses that prioritize CSR. 

A Brief Introduction to Constellations

Constellations are a group of stars that form patterns in the sky. Constellations played a significant role in navigation for explorers of the Earth; these navigators created extensive star charts to help them find their way around the planet. The word “constellation” comes from the Late Latin term cōnstellātiō, which can be translated as “set of stars”; it came into use in Middle English during the 14th century.

Ancient humans spent a lot of time observing star patterns in the sky. They identified clusters of stars as gods, goddesses, heroes, animals, and objects. They also created stories to go along with these star patterns, which became the basis for many of the myths passed through centuries by the Greeks, Romans, Polynesians, Indigenous Americans, and members of various African tribes and Asian cultures. Most of the constellation names we know came from the ancient Middle Eastern, Greek, and Roman culture. In some cases, the constellations may have had ceremonial or religious significance. In other cases, the star groupings helped to mark the passage of time between planting and harvesting.

In 1930 the International Astronomical Union (IAU) officially listed 88 modern and ancient constellations in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the sky. In 1928 adopted official constellation boundaries that together cover the entire celestial sphere. It is roughly based on the traditional Greek constellations listed by Ptolemy in his Almagest in the 2nd century and Aratus’ work Phenomena, with early modern modifications and additions by Petrus Plancius (1592, 1597/98 and 1613), Johannes Hevelius (1690) and Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1763), who named fourteen constellations and renamed a fifteenth one.

36 modern constellations predominantly lie in the northern sky, while 52 are found in the southern celestial hemisphere. Most constellations (more than 40) represent animals. Many were named after humans or figures from mythology, while some depict inanimate objects.

Constellations are typically grouped around asterisms, which are patterns formed by bright stars that appear close to each other in the night sky. These asterisms are often the most conspicuous parts of constellations, which is why the term constellation is still colloquially (and incorrectly) used synonymously with asterism. The constellations themselves are much larger than asterisms and occupy considerably larger areas. For example, the Big Dipper, Little Dipper and Southern Cross are not constellations. They are asterisms formed by the brightest stars of the constellations Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, and Crux.

Zodiac Constellations are constellations that lie along the plane of the ecliptic. The ecliptic, or the apparent path of the Sun, is defined by the circular path of the Sun across the sky, as seen from Earth. In other words, the Sun appears to pass through these constellations over the course of a year.

There are 12 constellations in the zodiac family. They are: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpius, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius and Pisces.

The northern zodiac constellations – Pisces, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer and Leo – are located in the eastern celestial hemisphere, while the southern – Virgo, Libra, Scorpius, Sagittarius, Capricornus and Aquarius – are found in the west.

Some prominent constellations include:

Ursa Major constellation lies in the northern sky. Its name means “the great bear,” or “the larger bear,” in Latin. The smaller bear is represented by Ursa Minor. Ursa Major is the largest northern constellation and third largest constellation in the sky. Its brightest stars form the Big Dipper asterism, one of the most recognizable shapes in the sky, also known as the Plough. Ursa Major is well-known in most world cultures and associated with a number of myths. It was one of the constellations catalogued by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy in the 2nd century. In Greek mythology, it is associated with Callisto, a nymph who was turned into a bear by Zeus’ jealous wife Hera.

Cassiopeia is one of the most easily recognizable constellations in the northern night sky. Nicknamed the W constellation, Cassiopeia is easily recognizable for the prominent W asterism formed by its five brightest stars. The constellation is named after the vain queen Cassiopeia in Greek Mythology, wife of the King Cepheus of Aethiopia. Cassiopeia can be found high in the northeastern sky on October evenings, not far from Polaris, the North Star.

Andromeda constellation is located in the northern sky, between Cassiopeia’s W asterism and the Great Square of Pegasus. The constellation was named after the mythical princess Andromeda, the daughter of Queen Cassiopeia and wife of the Greek hero Perseus. It is also known as the Chained Maiden, Persea (wife of Perseus), or Cepheis (daughter of Cepheus).

Pegasus is one of the most prominent constellations in the northern sky. It was listed by the astronomer Ptolemy during the 2nd century and was named after a winged horse in Greek mythology. The brightest star in the constellation is Epsilon Pegasi, which forms the creature’s nose. Pegasus belonged to Poseidon, the god of the sea, earthquakes, and storms. In a battle between Perseus and Medusa, Perseus decapitated her and the winged horse “sprang” from her blood. In the Northern Hemisphere, the Pegasus constellation can be found high in the sky from the end of summer through autumn.

Orion is one of the brightest and best known constellations in the night sky and lies on the celestial equator. It is named after Orion the hunter in Greek mythology. In mythology, Orion was a supernaturally gifted hunter, and the son of Poseidon. He proclaimed himself as the greatest hunter in the world. This angered Zeus’s wife Hera, who had a scorpion kill him. Out of compassion, Zeus put Orion into the sky. Located on the celestial equator and made up of bright young blue giants or supergiants, it is one of the most prominent and recognizable constellations in the sky and can be seen throughout the world. Orion’s Belt includes the three most prominent stars in the constellation: Alnilam, Mintaka, and Alnitak. Orion is clearly visible in the night sky from November to February.

Each Latin constellation name has two forms: the nominative, for use, when talking about the constellation itself, and the genitive, or possessive, used in star names. For instance: Hamal, the brightest star in the constellation Aries (nominative form), is also called Alpha Arietis (genitive form), meaning literally “the alpha of Aries”. 

The 88 officially recognized constellations are visible at different times throughout the year. Each season has distinctive star patterns because the visibility of stars in the sky change as the Earth orbits the Sun. The Northern and Southern Hemisphere skies are very different from each other, and there are some patterns in each that cannot be viewed between hemispheres. In general, most people can see about 40-50 constellations over a year.

Most people can see more than half of them throughout the year, though it can depend on where they live. The best way to learn them all is to observe throughout the year and study the individual stars in each constellation. To identify the constellations, most observers use star charts found online and in astronomy books. Others use planetarium software such as Stellarium or an astronomy app. 

The Life of John Keats

John Keats was an English Romantic poet. He was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets, along with Lord Byron and P B Shelley. Although his poems were not generally well-received by critics during his lifetime, his reputation grew after his death, and by the end of the 19th century, he had become one of the most beloved of all English poets. Today his poems and letters are some of the most popular and most analyzed in English literature.

John Keats was born in Moorgate, London on 31 October 1795 to Thomas Keats and his wife, Frances Jennings, and was the oldest of 5 siblings. He lost both his parents at a young age. Keats attended the Clarke school at Enfield, two miles away, that was run by John Clarke, whose son Charles Cowden Clarke did much to encourage Keats’s literary aspirations.

After the death of Keats’s mother in 1810, his grandmother made Richard Abbey their guardian. In 1811, John Keats was apprenticed to a surgeon at Edmonton. He broke off his apprenticeship in 1814 and went to London, where he worked as a dresser, or junior house surgeon, at Guy’s and St. Thomas’ hospitals. In 1816 Keats became a licensed apothecary, but he never practiced his profession, deciding instead to write poetry. His literary interests had crystallized by this time, and after 1817 he devoted himself entirely to poetry.

Charles Cowden Clarke had introduced the young Keats to the poetry of Edmund Spenser and the Elizabethans, and these were his earliest models. His first mature poem is the sonnet “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer” (1816), which was inspired by his reading of George Chapman’s classic 17th-century translation of the Iliad and the Odyssey. Clarke also introduced Keats to the journalist, contemporary poet, and editor of the Examiner – Leigh Hunt, and Keats made friends in Hunt’s circle of literary men, including poets Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Wordsworth, and John Hamilton Reynolds. The group’s influence enabled Keats to see his first volume, Poems by John Keats, published in March 1817.

In 1817 Keats left London briefly for a trip to the Isle of Wight and Canterbury and began work on Endymion, his first long poem. On his return to London, he moved into lodgings in Hampstead with his brothers. Endymion appeared in 1818. This work is a long poem divided into four 1,000-line sections and composed in loose rhymed couplets. The poem narrates a version of the Greek legend of the love of the moon goddess Diana for Endymion, a mortal shepherd, but Keats emphasizes Endymion’s love for the goddess rather than on hers for him.

Soon after the completion of Endymion, Keats wrote “Isabella or the Pot of Basil” in 1818 which was a narrative poem based on a grotesque and tragic tale from Boccaccio’s Decameron. It was during the year 1819 that all his greatest poetry was written, which included: The Eve of St. Agnes, a romantic love story amid a family feud and Lamia, the story of a witch who is transformed by Hermes from a serpent into a beautiful maiden and then into a serpent again, and the two versions of Hyperion.

During the same year, he also wrote the great odes (“On Indolence,” “On a Grecian Urn,” “To Psyche,” “To a Nightingale,” “On Melancholy,” and “To Autumn”). All the odes were composed between March and June 1819 except “To Autumn,” which is from September. These odes are Keats’s most distinctive poetic achievement. They are essentially lyrical meditations on some object or quality that prompts the poet to confront the conflicting impulses of his inner being and to reflect upon his longings and their relations to the wider world around him. This subject was forced upon Keats by the painful death of his brother and his failing health, and the odes highlight his struggle for self-awareness and certainty through the liberating powers of his imagination.

Keats’ central theme of all his poetry is imagination mainly concerned with beauty because it was the only consolation he found in a life full of sadness and misunderstanding. The memory of beauty was to him a source of pure joy. For Keats, beauty is intrinsically tied to life as it should be, where humans and nature are in complete harmony with one another, where beauty is dynamic, changeable, in process, and includes its fulfillment. He loved nature just for its own sake and for the glory and loveliness’ which he everywhere found in it, and no modern poet has even been nearer than he was to the simple ‘poetry of earth’.

Keats’ letters were first published in 1848 and 1878. During the 19th century, critics disregarded them as distractions from his poetic works. During the 20th century, they became almost as admired and studied as his poetry, and are highly regarded within the canon of English literary correspondence. T. S. Eliot described them as, “certainly the most notable and most important ever written by any English poet.”

He had been increasingly ill throughout 1819, and by the beginning of 1820, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis, a disease that had afflicted many of his family members, Keats traveled along with Joseph Severn to Italy in hopes of finding treatment. Keats died in Rome on 23 February 1821 at the age of 25.

The United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is one of the largest and most familiar international organizations. It is an intergovernmental organization responsible for maintaining international peace and security and international cooperation among nations. The organization’s objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law.

The UN succeeded the ineffective League of Nations, the first worldwide intergovernmental organization whose mission was to maintain world peace. The League of Nations was created by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 and disbanded in 1946. The League lasted for 26 years; after which the United Nations (UN) replaced it in 1946 and inherited several agencies and organizations founded by the League. The UN was established after WWII to prevent future wars.

At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; with the addition of South Sudan in 2011, membership is now 193, representing almost all of the world’s sovereign states.  UN is headquartered in New York City and has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna, and The Hague.

Charter of the United Nations:

The Charter of the United Nations, also known as the UN Charter, is the founding document of the United Nations. The Charter establishes the purposes, governing structure, and the overall framework of the UN system. It was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, after the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945. The United Nations can take action on many issues due to its unique international character and the powers vested in its Charter, which is considered an international treaty. As a charter, its rules and obligations are binding on all members. 

The UN has four main purposes:

  • To maintain peace throughout the world.
  • To develop friendly relations among nations.
  • To help countries work together to improve people’s lives, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy. 
  • To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.

The Main Bodies of the United Nations:

The United Nations is part of a broader framework called the UN System, which includes many institutions and entities. It has six principal organs – 

The General Assembly:

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) is the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ. All 193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly, making it the only UN body with universal representation. 

The six committees of the general assembly include: (1) Disarmament and International Security, (2) Economic and Financial, (3) Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural, (4) Special Political and Decolonization, (5) Administrative and Budgetary, and (6) Legal.

The Security Council:

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security. It is responsible for establishing peacekeeping operations, international sanctions and authorization of military action. It has 15 Members (5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members) with each member having one vote.

The Economic and Social Council:  

The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is a central forum responsible for discussing and coordinating international economic and social issues and formulating policy recommendations. It is the central platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development. It has 54 member states, and over 1,600 NGOs have consultative status with the council to participate in the works of the UN. 

The International Court of Justice (ICJ): 

The International Court of Justice (ICJ), sometimes known as the World Court, is the primary judicial organ of the UN. It is a universal court for international law; its functions are to settle legal disputes between states following international law and gives advisory opinions on legal issues. The ICJ consists of a panel of 15 judges elected by the UN General Assembly and Security Council for nine-year terms. 

The UN Secretariat: 

 The United Nations Secretariat is the administrative organ of the UN, headed by the United Nations Secretary-General and assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, and other bodies.

The Trusteeship Council: 

The Trusteeship Council was established in 1945 to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories under the administration of seven Member States. It also aimed to prepare the Territories for self-government and independence. By 1994, all Trust Territories had attained self-government or independence. The Trusteeship Council suspended operation on 1 November 1994.

Specialized Agencies of the UN:

The UN specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations. All were brought into relationship with the UN through negotiated agreement, some of which include –

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

The International Monetary Fund (IMF)

World Health Organization (WHO)

The World Bank Group (WBG)

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

Programmes and Funds of the UN:

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

The World Food Programme (WFP)

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

The United Nations Environment Programme  (UNEP)

The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA)

UN Women 

UN-Habitat

Successes and Failures of the United Nations:

The U.N. is credited with helping negotiate 172 peaceful settlements and helping more than 30 million refugees. It has provided safe drinking water to more than a billion people and food to millions of people across 80 nations. It has assisted countries with their elections, provided vaccinations for children, helped millions of women with maternal health and protected human rights through some 80 treatise and declarations.

Currently, approximately 100,000 peacekeepers from 120 countries are serving in 13 missions. The U.N. and its agencies have had success in coordinating global efforts against diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola, cholera, influenza, yellow fever, meningitis and COVID-19, and has helped eradicate smallpox and polio from most of the world. Ten U.N. agencies and U.N. personnel have received Nobel prizes for peace.

UN inaction is responsible for a number of ongoing crisis, including Russia’s takeover of part of Ukraine; China occupying disputed territories in South China Sea; the Iraq War; the Israel-Palestine conflict; civil wars in Syria, Yemen, Libya and the Democratic Republic of Congo; and the treatment of Rohingyas in Myanmar, Ughyurs in China and Kashmiris in India.

Despite having many short-comings, the United Nations plays a crucial role in the world. The work of the United Nations reaches every corner of the globe. Although it is best known for peacekeeping, peacebuilding, conflict prevention and humanitarian assistance, there are many other ways the United Nations and its System (specialized agencies, funds and programmes) affect our lives and make a change in the world. 

E-Commerce

E-commerce, also known as electronic commerce, refers to the buying and selling of goods and services, or the transmitting of funds or data, over an electronic network, primarily the internet. Electronic commerce draws on such technologies as electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. In the emerging global economy, e-commerce and e-business have increasingly become a necessary component of a business strategy and a strong catalyst for economic development.

Photo Credits: Grace Kim, The Balance

Business-to-Consumer (B2C):

Business-to-Consumer (B2C), also called B-to-C, refers to the transaction of goods and services that take place directly between a business and a consumer, who is the end-users of its products or services. This type of ecommerce is among the most popular and widely known sales models. B2C traditionally referred to mall shopping, eating out at restaurants, pay-per-view movies, and infomercials. However, the rise of the internet created a whole new B2C business channel in the form of e-commerce or selling goods and services over the internet. Amazon is an example of B2C e-commerce.

Business-to-Business (B2B):

Business-to-business (B2B), also called B-to-B, is a form of transaction between businesses, such as one involving a manufacturer and wholesaler, or a wholesaler and a retailer. Simply put, it refers to business transactions between two companies. These transactions commonly happen in the supply chain, where one company will purchase raw materials from another to be used in the manufacturing process.

Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C):

Customer-to-customer (C2C), also called C2C, is a form of business model whereby customers can trade with each other, typically in an online environment. C2C transactions actually represent a form of bartering. It represents a market environment where one customer purchases goods from another customer using a third-party business or platform to facilitate the transaction. Two implementations of C2C markets are auctions and classified advertisements. eBay and Etsy are examples of C2C companies.

M-Commerce:

M-commerce, also called Mobile Commerce refers to the buying and selling of goods and services, paying bills, mobile ticketing and doing transactions through wireless handheld devices such as smartphones and tablets. Many choose to think of mobile commerce as “a retail outlet in your customer’s pocket.” M-commerce can be used by businesses to improve their customer base and increase their revenue. Some types of m commerce include online shopping, mobile banking, mobile app payments through PayPal and Google Pay, and booking tickets online.

F-Commerce:

F-commerce, also called Facebook Commerce, refers to the selling of goods and services on Facebook. It has become a major online trading vehicle. Facebook being a popular social media site provides a captive audience to transact business. Many small businesses rely more on their social media presence than they do on traditional websites. This is one of the newest forms of e-commerce, that has become popular with young entrepreneurs which makes shopping on Facebook pages convenient for the young generation.

Positive Psychology

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Positive psychology is the scientific study of what makes life most worth living, focusing on both individual and societal well-being. It is a field of study that has been growing steadily throughout the years as individuals and researchers look for common ground on better well-being. As a field, positive psychology deals with topics like character strengths, optimism, life satisfaction, happiness, well-being, gratitude, compassion, self-esteem and self-confidence, hope, and elevation. Positive psychology focuses on eudaimonia, an Ancient Greek term for “the good life” and the concept for reflection on the factors that contribute the most to a well-lived and fulfilling life.

Positive psychology began as a new domain of psychology in 1998. It became popular when Martin Seligman, who is known as the ‘father of positive psychology’, chose it as the theme for his term as president of the American Psychological Association. He was of the belief that past practices of psychology weren’t helpful and the new ones should instead focus on the enhancement of positive human attributes. From this point in time, theories and research examined positive psychology interventions that help make life worth living and how to define, quantify, and create wellbeing. Positive psychology can have a range of real-world applications in areas including education, therapy, self-help, stress management, and workplace issues.

Positive psychology focuses on the positive events and influences in life, which includes:
Positive experiences (happiness, joy, inspiration, and love).
Positive states and traits (gratitude, resilience, and compassion).
Positive institutions (applying positive principles within entire organizations and institutions).

Three Levels of Positive Psychology:

Subjective level: focuses on feelings of happiness, well-being, and optimism and how these feelings transform your daily experience.
Individual-level: a combination of the feelings in the subjective level along with virtues such as forgiveness, love, and courage.
Group level: positive interaction with your community, including virtues like altruism and social responsibility that strengthen social bonds.

The PERMA Model of Well-Being:

The PERMA Model is a well-being theory developed by positive psychologist Martin Seligman. It identifies five essential elements to well-being. PERMA is an acronym for the five elements of well-being – Positive Emotions, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishments.

Positive Emotions: Positive Emotions is much more than just happiness. It includes other emotions such as hope, joy, compassion, pride, and gratitude. Positive emotions are prime indicators of flourishing and can help improve well being. Increasing positive emotions helps individuals build physical, intellectual, psychological, and social resources that lead to this resilience and overall well-being.

Engagement: Engagement is something that an individual becomes engrossed in and is in line with the ‘flow’ concept, which includes the loss of self-consciousness and full involvement in an activity. This concept of engagement occurs when there is a perfect combination of skill and challenge involved. The concept of engagement is something much more powerful than simply “being happy,” but happiness is one of the many byproducts of engagement.

Relationships: Relationships include all the various interactions individuals have with partners, friends, family members, colleagues, and their community at large. Relationships in this model refer to feeling supported, loved, and valued by others. It is based on the idea that humans are inherently social creatures.

Meaning: Having a purpose in life helps individuals focus on what is important in the face of significant challenges or adversity. Having meaning or purpose in life is different for everyone. A sense of meaning is guided by personal values, and people who have a purpose in life live longer, have greater life satisfaction and have fewer health problems.

Accomplishments: A sense of accomplishment is the result of working toward and reaching goals, mastering an endeavour, and having self-motivation to finish what you set out to do. This contributes to well-being because individuals can look at their lives with a sense of pride. Accomplishment includes having a passion to attain goals. But flourishing and well-being come when accomplishment is tied to striving toward things with an internal motivation or working toward something just for the sake of the pursuit and improvement.

What is HR – Human Resource

Human Resources (HR)

What Is Human Resources (HR)?

Human resources (HR) is the division of a business that is charged with finding, screening, recruiting, and training job applicants, as well as administering employee-benefit programs. HR plays a key role in helping companies deal with a fast-changing business environment and a greater demand for quality employees in the 21st century. John R. Commons, an American institutional economist, first coined the term “human resource” in his book “The Distribution of Wealth,” published in 1893. However, it was not until the 19th century that HR departments were formerly developed and tasked with addressing misunderstandings between employees and their employers.

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KEY TAKEAWAYS

Human resources (HR) is the division of a business that is charged with finding, screening, recruiting, and training job applicants, and administering employee-benefit programs. Additional human resources responsibilities include compensation and benefits, recruitment, firing, and keeping up to date with any laws that may affect the company and its employees. Many companies have moved away from traditional in-house human resources (HR) administrative duties and outsourced tasks like payroll and benefits to outside vendors. Understanding Human Resources The presence of an HR department is an essential component of any business, regardless of the organization’s size. An HR department is tasked with maximizing employee productivity and protecting the company from any issues that may arise within the workforce. HR responsibilities include compensation and benefits, recruitment, firing, and keeping up to date with any laws that may affect the company and its employees. Research conducted by The Conference Board, a member-driven economic think tank, has found six key people-related activities that HR must effectively do to add value to a company. These include: Managing and using people effectively Tying performance appraisal and compensation to competencies Developing competencies that enhance individual and organizational performance Increasing the innovation, creativity, and flexibility necessary to enhance competitiveness Applying new approaches to work process design, succession planning, career development, and inter-organizational mobility

Managing the implementation and integration of technology through improved staffing, training, and communication with employees1 Beginning in the 1980s, there was a push for strategic initiatives within HR departments. This movement was based on research related to the impact of employee-related issues on a firm’s long-term business success. Collectively, these strategies are sometimes referred to as human resource management (HRM) strategies. HRM is a comprehensive approach to managing employees and an organization’s culture and environment. It focuses on the recruitment, management, and general direction of the people who work in an organization. An HR department that adopts HRM strategies typically plays a more active role in improving an organization’s workforce. They may recommend processes, approaches, and business solutions to management. Google is one example of an organization that has adopted a more active approach to employee relations through their HR department. The company offers tons of employee perks, and the company headquarters have a wide range of facilities for employees, including wellness centers, roller hockey rinks, and horseshoe pits. For Google, happy employees are equivalent to productive employees.

There are many online portal where you can search for HR professionals and get your Human Resources executive search completed with ease.

Special Considerations

Since the start of the 20th century, some companies have started outsourcing some of the more traditional administrative, transactional HR functions in an effort to free the department to recommend and implement more meaningful, value-adding programs that impact the business in positive ways. Functions that may be outsourced in this process include payroll administration, employee benefits, recruitment, background checks, exit interviews, risk management, dispute resolution, safety inspection, and office policies. The use of more moderns tools, such as the best recruitment software, can also afford HR departments more leeway by improving their efficiency. Compete Risk Free with $100,000 in Virtual Cash Put your trading skills to the test with our FREE Stock Simulator. Compete with thousands of Investopedia traders and trade your way to the top! Submit trades in a virtual environment before you start risking your own money. Practice trading strategies so that when you’re ready to enter the real market, you’ve had the practice you need.

Yoga

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Yoga is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines that has its origins in ancient India. The word Yoga first appeared in the oldest sacred texts, the Rig Veda and is derived from the Sanskrit root “Yuj” which means to join or unite.

According to the Yogic scriptures, the practice of Yoga leads an individual to the union of consciousness with that of universal Consciousness. It eventually leads to a great harmony between the human mind and body, man & nature. The prime objective of Yoga is Self-realization, to overcome all types of sufferings prompting ‘the state of salvation’ (Moksha) or ‘freedom’ (Kaivalya).

Yoga in the Bhagavad Gita:

The Bhagavad Gita (‘Song of the Lord’) is part of the Mahabharata and contains extensive teachings on the discipline of yoga. In addition to an entire chapter (chapter. 6) dedicated to traditional yoga practice, including meditation, it introduces three prominent types of yoga: 

Karma yoga: The yoga of action.

Bhakti yoga: The yoga of devotion.

Jnana yoga: The yoga of knowledge.

The Gita consists of 18 chapters and 700 shlokas (verses), with each chapter named as a different yoga, thus delineating eighteen different yogas. Some scholars divide the Gita into three sections: the first six chapters with 280 shlokas dealing with Karma yoga, the middle six containing 209 shlokas with Bhakti yoga, and the last six chapters with 211 shlokas as Jnana yoga; however, this is rough because elements of karma, bhakti and jnana are found in all the chapters.

Branches of Yoga:

Raja Yoga: Raja yoga is also known as ‘Classical Yoga’ and this approach is closely linked to Patanjali’s Eight Fold Path of Yoga. Raja refers to ‘royal’, ‘chief’ or ‘king’, and alludes to being the best or highest form of yoga. The focal point of this branch is meditation, aiming to ‘control’ the intellect and thoughts through meditation. A connection with ‘God’ or ‘consciousness’ is worked towards by un-identifying with the ego-based self and identifying with the universal true Self.

Karma Yoga: Karma Yoga (Religion of Love), also known as the ‘yoga of action’ is based on the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. Karma Yoga is an intrinsic part of many types of yoga. The word ‘Karma’ is derived from the sanskrit Kri, meaning ‘to do’. Karma yoga suggests that we relinquish attachment to the consequences of our actions and instead focus on the moment in action. Awareness of each thought, word and deed and mindfulness are an important part of Karma yoga, which allows the practitioner to truly experience that moment-in-action. Karma yoga is based upon selfless service and acting without any expectation of benefitting from the service. It occupies a large part of Indian thought and through this practice, union with ‘the divine’ is achieved through making any action an offering to God. 

Hatha Yoga: Hatha yoga is also known as ‘the yoga of force’. Many teachers equate Ha to mean ‘Sun’ and Tha to the moon, and reason that the physical yoga practice is intended to ‘balance’ the Sun and Moon energies within us. Whilst the physical yoga practice is intended to bring about a state of equilibrium within the human organism, the real meaning and essence of Hatha yoga is to change the physical body and mind by way of experimentation, movement and physical ‘force’. Hatha yoga is anything that uses the physical body. First mentioned and practised around 1100AD, it is the most ‘modern’ branch of yoga.

Bhakti Yoga: Bhakti yoga is also known as the ‘yoga of devotion’ and describes the path of devotion. The word Bhakti comes from the word ‘Bhaj’, of which the essence is ‘to share’. This form of yoga is based upon the heart, love and devotion towards a chosen deity. Much like Karma yoga, dedicating all actions towards a deity or ‘God’ is an intrinsic part of Bhakti yoga. Seeing the divine in all of creation, bhakti yoga is a positive way to channel the emotions. The path of bhakti provides us with an opportunity to cultivate acceptance and tolerance for everyone we come into contact with. Bhakti yogis express the devotional nature of their path in their every thought, word, and deed.

Jnana Yoga: Jnana yoga, also known as the ‘yoga of knowledge’ is the yoga of the mind, of wisdom, the path of the sage or scholar. This is the yoga of ‘knowing’, of realizing the truth of oneself. This path requires development of the intellect through the study of the scriptures and texts of the yogic tradition. The jnana yoga approach is considered the most difficult and at the same time the most direct. It involves serious study and will appeal to those who are more intellectually inclined.

Mantra Yoga: Mantra yoga is the yoga of sound. Considered sacred utterances, mantras are syllables, words, or phrases representing a particular attribute of the Divine. Mantra yoga is the practice of becoming centered through the repetition of mantras.

Yoga as a Physical Practice:

Yoga as an exercise is a physical activity consisting of asanas, often connected by flowing sequences called vinyasas, sometimes accompanied by the breathing exercises of pranayama, and usually ending with a period of relaxation or meditation. Yoga as exercise was created in what has been called the Modern Yoga Renaissance by the blending of Western styles of gymnastics with postures from Haṭha yoga in India in the 20th century, pioneered by Shri Yogendra and Swami Kuvalayananda.

Today, yoga has developed into a worldwide multi-billion dollar business, involving classes, certification of teachers, clothing, books, videos, equipment, and holidays. In 2015, The United Nations General Assembly established 21 June as “International Day of Yoga” and celebrated annually. On 1 December 2016, UNESCO listed yoga as an intangible cultural heritage.

Benefits of Yoga:

Building muscle strength
Enhancing flexibility
Promoting better breathing
Supporting heart health
Helping with treatment for addiction
Reducing stress, anxiety, depression, and chronic pain
Improving sleep
Enhancing overall well-being and quality of life

Yoga is the medicine for nearly every problem. As you practice yoga, it does not only help you to improve your physical body but also helps in maintaining your inner peace and relaxing your mind. Yoga is not just a one-day practice; it’s a lifelong commitment.

The Role of Civil Services in a Democracy

In a democracy, civil services play an important role in the administration, policy formulation and implementation, and in taking the country forward towards progress and development

Democracy is an egalitarian principle in which the governed elect the people who govern over them. There are three pillars of modern democracy: Legislature, Executive, and the Judiciary.
The civil services form a part of the executive. While the ministers, who are part of the executive, are temporary and are reelected or replaced by the people by their will (through elections), the civil servants are the permanent part of the executive.

The civil servants are accountable to the political executive, the ministers. The civil services are thus a subdivision under the government. The officers in the civil services form the permanent staff of the various governmental departments. They are expert administrators. They are sometimes referred to as the bureaucracy or also as the public service.

Importance of the Civil Services:

  • The civil service is present all over India and thus has a binding character.
  • It plays a vital role in effective policy-making and regulation.
  • It offers non-partisan advice to the political leadership of the country.
  • The service results in coordination between the various institutions of governance.
  • It offers service delivery and leadership at different levels of administration.

Functions of the Civil Services:

  • Civil services are the basis of governments. No government can function without an administrative machinery, which is necessary for implementing policies.
  • Civil services are responsible for implementing laws and executing policies framed by the government. The role of Civil Servants across the domains of policy making and policy implementation is critical to the development process.
  • The civil service is chiefly responsible for policy formulation as well. The civil service officers advise ministers in this regard and also provide them with facts and ideas.
  • Amidst political instability, the civil service offers a sense of stability and permanence. Civil services carry on the governance when governments change due to elections etc. While governments and ministers can come and go, civil service is a permanent fixture giving the administrative set-up continuity.
  • Successful policy implementation will lead to positive changes in the lives of ordinary people. The task of actualizing schemes and policies fall with the officers of the civil services.
  • Civil services are also managing public enterprises and public utilities in the interest of socio-economic justice. Public utilities are either publicly owned or strictly regulated in most countries. Government also imposes controls over private economic and business activities in the public interest.
  • The services offer welfare schemes such as providing social security, the welfare of weaker and vulnerable sections of society, old-age pensions, poverty alleviation, etc.
  • The services perform varied developmental functions like promoting modern techniques in agriculture, promoting the industry, trade, banking functions, bridging the digital divide, etc.
  • The civil services also perform quasi-judicial services by settling disputes between the State and the citizens, in the form of tribunals, etc.
  • Assisting ministers in fulfilling their responsibilities towards the parliament and its committees.
  • Handling financial operations of the state

Problems Affecting the Civil Services Today:

It is widely recognized that the civil services have contributed to stability in terms of maintenance of peace, the conduct of fair elections, managing disasters and the preservation of the unity of the nation, providing stability and maintaining order in a vast country prone to various conflicts – ethnic, communal, regional etc. Nonetheless, various committees including the Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC II) have pointed out that, there are certain criticisms with respect to the performance of the civil services, towards realizing a results-oriented government. Some of them are:

  • Lack of professionalism and poor capacity building.
  • The incentive system is ineffective and does not reward laudable and upright civil servants.
  • The rules and procedures are rigid, which doesn’t allow civil servants to exercise individual judgement and perform efficiently.
  • There is a lack of accountability and transparency procedure, with no adequate protection for whistle-blowers.
  • Political interference causes arbitrary transfers and insecurity in tenures. There has been regular political interference in the functioning of civil servants to further narrow political agenda, which undermines the public welfare at large. Fear of transfer and lure of promotion sometimes impairs judgement of civil servants making them politically compliant.
  • Rampant corruption and nepotism is common due to an erosion in ethics and values.
  • Patrimonialism (a form of governance in which all power flows directly from the leader) is prevalent.
  • Resistance to change from the civil servants themselves.

What is digital marketing?

What is digital marketing?

Digital marketing is the component of marketing that utilizes internet and online based digital technologies such as desktop computers, mobile phones and other digital media and platforms to promote products and services.

              At a high level, digital marketing refers to advertising delivered through digital channels such as search engines, websites, social media, email, and mobile apps. Using these online media channels, digital marketing is the method by which companies endorse goods, services, and brands. Consumers heavily rely on digital means to research products.

Digital Marketing in 2021:

1.Voice Search Optimization:

  • According to research on voice search, they found that 55% of teenagers use voice search every day. This massive adoption by the entire generation shows how popular voice search is going to get in the future.
  • Google claims that they have achieved 95% accuracy with their Voice Search. With higher precision of search, the ease of use factor for voice search has jumped up. Now with better accuracy to match what you ask for, and the ease of using your voice to get results makes the process personalized and attractive.

2. Programmatic Advertising:

  • Programmatic Ad Buying is the use of software to purchase digital advertising. While the traditional method includes human negotiation, requests for proposals, and quotes, programmatic buying makes use of algorithms and machines to buy ads.
  • Programmatic Advertising is when AI is used to automate so that advertisers can target more specific audiences. 
  • Programmatic Advertising is rapidly increasing every year and is predicted to be used for a huge majority of display advertising in the next couple of years.

3. Chatbots:

  • Chatbots are considered one of the top digital marketing trends in 2021,the AI-based technology makes use of instant messaging to chat with customers, and with site visitors. It is designed to communicate with customers by textual or auditory methods. 
  • Businesses can leverage the use of chatbots to engage with customers. Since there are plenty of users visiting the website at once, it advantageous to have a technology that answers hundreds of users at once.  The benefits of having chatbots are 24/7 customer service, instant responses to inquiries, and answers to simple questions. 

4. Personalization:

  • If you want to outperform your competitors and want to stand out in the market, you must focus on personalizing content, products, emails, etc. Personalization is the next big trend that will soon become an industry standard.
  • The best example to understand the power of personalization are Amazon and Netflix, they have personalized recommended movies for each user. Here are some other examples of brands that are progressively using personalization at present.

5. Video Marketing:

  • Video Marketing is also one of the top digital marketing trends in 2021 and is likely to be at the top for more years to come. Here are some stats that will demonstrate the importance of including a video in your digital marketing current trends list.
  • One of the issues faced by marketers in recent years was to showcase long-form texts on mobile screens, as it becomes too difficult and tedious for users to read them. 

6. Instagram Reels:

  • The Instagram Reels was great news for marketers & content creators. Especially since Tik Tok was banned in a few countries, reels have served as the best replacement. 
  • The great news for digital marketers is that Reels are providing more than double engagement rates when compared to posting a normal video.
  • video can present the same information in a much better way regardless of the device. 
  • As a marketer, you can use this feature to showcase many kinds of content such as informative content, behind the scenes of the organization, product reviews, etc.

Disasters and Disaster Management

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A disaster is a sudden event that results in massive damage, loss, and destruction of life and property beyond a community’s capacity to cope. It can be either natural or human-made and leads to disruption of the daily life of the community. The damage caused by disasters is immeasurable and varies with the geographical location, climate and the type of earth surface/degree of vulnerability. It causes human, material, and economic or environmental losses. 

Disasters are classified as per origin, into natural and man-made disasters. Natural disasters include earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, floods, and fires. Man-made disasters can include hazardous material spills, fires, groundwater contamination, transportation accidents, structure failures, mining accidents, explosions and acts of terrorism.

No country is immune from disaster, though vulnerability to disaster varies from country to country. There are four main types of disaster:

Natural disasters. These disasters include floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcano eruptions that can have immediate impacts on human health, as well as seconday impacts causing further death and suffering from floods causing landslides, earthquakes resulting in fires, tsunamis causing widespread flooding and typhoons sinking ferries

Environmental emergencies. These emergencies include technological or industrial accidents, usually involving hazardous material, and occur where these materials are produced, used or transported. Large forest fires are generally included in this definition because they tend to be caused by humans.

Complex emergencies. These emergencies involve a breakdown of authority, looting and attacks on strategic installations. Complex emergencies include conflict situations and war.

Pandemic emergencies. These emergencies involve a sudden onset of a contagious disease that affects health and disrupts services and businesses, bringing economic and social costs.

Worst Disasters of India:

A few of the worst disasters India has faced:

The Bengal Famine (1943): The Bengal famine of 1943 affected the Bengal province of British during World War II. An estimated 2.1–3 million died of starvation, malaria, and other diseases aggravated by malnutrition, population displacement, unsanitary conditions and lack of health care. 

Bhopal Gas Tragedy (1984): The Bhopal Disaster is considered among the world’s worst industrial disasters. It occurred due to a gas leak incident on the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. At least 30 tonnes of methyl isocyanate gas killed more than 15,000 people and affected over 600,000 workers.

Gujarat Earthquake (2001): The Gujarat earthquake, also known as the Bhuj earthquake, occurred on 26 January, 2001. Bhuj, Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Kutch, Surat, Surendranagar, Rajkot district, Jamnagar and Jodia districts of Gujarat. The earthquake killed between 13,805 and 20,023 people, injured another 167,000 and destroyed nearly 340,000 buildings.

Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami (2004): The Indian Ocean tsunami occurred on December 26, 2004 affected parts of southern India and Andaman Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, Indonesia etc., and resulted in the death of more than 2 lakh people.

Uttarakhand Flash Floods (2013): The Uttarakhand Flash Floods of 2013 caused devastating floods and landslides, becoming the country’s worst natural disaster since the 2004 tsunami. It affected 12 out of 13 districts of the state. Four districts were worst affected namely; Rudraprayag, Uttarkashi, Pithoragarh, and Chamoli.

Disaster Management:

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Disaster management refers to the conservation of lives and property during natural or human-made disasters. Disaster management plans are multi-layered and help tackle catastrophes such as floods, hurricanes, fires, mass failure of utilities, and the rapid spread of disease and droughts. Disaster management includes seven administrative decisions and operational activities: Prevention, Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, Recovery, and Rehabilitation.

There are three key stages of activities in disaster management:

  1. Before a disaster: to reduce the potential for human, material, or environmental losses caused by hazards and to ensure that these losses are minimized when disaster strikes;
  2. During a disaster: to ensure that the needs and provisions of victims are met to alleviate and minimize suffering; and
  3. After a disaster: to achieve rapid and durable recovery which does not reproduce the original vulnerable conditions.

National Disaster Management Authority:

The Government of India set up a High-Powered Committee (HPC) in August 1999 in recognition of the importance of Disaster Management as a national priority, and a nation committee after the Gujarat earthquake, for making recommendations on the preparation of Disaster Management plans and suggestion effective mitigation mechanisms. 

The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the apex body for Disaster Management in India, headed by the Prime Minister. The NDMA was established through the Disaster Management Act 2005 enacted by the Government of India. NDMA is responsible for framing policies, laying down guidelines and best practices for coordinating with the State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) to ensure a holistic and distributed approach to disaster management. The vision of the National Disaster Management Authority is “to build a safer and disaster resilient India by a holistic, pro-active, technology driven and sustainable development strategy that involves all stakeholders and fosters a culture of prevention, preparedness and mitigation.”

Functions and Responsibilities:

  • Lay down policies on disaster management
  • Approve the National Plan
  • Approve plans prepared by the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India in accordance with the National Plan
  • Lay down guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities in drawing up the State Plan
  • Lay down guidelines to be followed by the different Ministries or Departments of the Government of India for the Purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster or the mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects
  • Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy and plans for disaster management
  • Recommend provision of funds for the purpose of mitigation
  • Provide such support to other countries affected by major disasters as may be determined by the Central Government
  • Take such other measures for the prevention of disaster, or the mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building for dealing with threatening disaster situations or disasters as it may consider necessary
  • Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of the National Institute of Disaster Management.

Disasters are inevitable. Countries need to be prepared to survive unforeseeable impending disasters. It is necessary to stay watchful, and a structured and preplanned preparedness and a healthy response to the disaster will help save lives. 

Environmental Pollution

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes harm to plants, animals and human beings. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is the largest environmental cause of disease and premature death.  Pollution causes more than 9 million premature deaths (16% of all deaths worldwide). Major forms of pollution include air pollution, light pollution, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, and water pollution. The following are a few types of pollution:

Air Pollution:

Air pollution is the presence of undesirable substances in the air that are harmful to human health and the environment. It is the contamination of the air by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. Vehicle emissions, fuel oils and natural gas to heat homes, by-products of manufacturing and power generation, particularly coal-fueled power plants, and fumes from chemical products are the primary sources of human-made air pollution. Pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. 

Air pollution has various health effects. Short-term exposure to air pollutants is closely related to COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, asthma, respiratory disease, and high rates of hospitalization (a measurement of morbidity).The long-term effects associated with air pollution are chronic asthma, pulmonary insufficiency, cardiovascular diseases, and cardiovascular mortality.

Water Pollution:

Water pollution occurs when harmful substances—often chemicals or microorganisms—contaminate a stream, river, lake, ocean, aquifer, or other body of water, degrading water quality and rendering it toxic to humans or the environment. Water pollution reduces the ability of the body of water to provide the ecosystem services that it would otherwise provide. Water pollution traditionally is attributed to four sources: sewage, industry, agriculture, and urban runoff. The main water pollutants include bacteria, viruses, parasites, fertilisers, pesticides, pharmaceutical products, nitrates, phosphates, plastics, faecal waste and even radioactive substances.

Water pollutants may cause disease or act as poisons. Bacteria and parasites in poorly treated sewage may enter drinking water supplies and cause digestive problems such as cholera and diarrhoea. Hazardous chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides from industries, farms, homes and golf courses can cause acute toxicity and immediate death, or chronic toxicity that can lead to neurological problems or cancers.

Light Pollution:

Light pollution refers to the excessive and unwanted use of poorly implemented artificial light by urban and other heavily-populated areas. This light is from artificial sources, mainly electricity from houses, offices, streetlamps, billboards or car headlights. It disrupts the natural patterns of wildlife, contributes to the increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, disrupts human sleep and the activities of nocturnal animals, and obscures the stars in the night sky. 

There are three other kinds of light pollution: glare, clutter, and light trespass. Glare is excessive brightness that can cause visual discomfort (when driving). Clutter is bright, confusing, and excessive groups of light sources (Times Square in New York City). Light trespass is when light extends into an area where it is not wanted or needed (like a streetlight illuminating a nearby bedroom window). 

Noise Pollution:

Noise pollution, also known as environmental noise, refers to the unwanted or excessive sound that can impact human health, wildlife, and environmental quality. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines noise above 65 decibels (dB) as noise pollution. To be precise, noise becomes harmful when it exceeds 75 decibels (dB) and is painful above 120 dB.

The sources of noise include loud music, transportation, lawn care maintenance, construction, electrical generators, wind turbines, explosions, and people. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise disintegration or pollution, side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas. This type of pollution can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfering with reproduction and navigation, and contributing to permanent hearing loss.

Soil Pollution:

Soil pollution or soil contamination refers to the toxic chemicals (pollutants or contaminants) in the soil in high concentrations that poses a risk to human health and the ecosystem. Soil pollution consists of pollutants and contaminants. The major pollutants are biological agents and human activities. Soil pollution is mainly caused by deforestation, soil erosion, mining activities, industrialization, construction activities, sewage treatment, and overcrowded landfills.

Soil pollution affects plants, animals and humans alike. While anyone is susceptible to soil pollution, soil pollution effects may vary based on age, general health status and other factors, such as the type of pollutant or contaminant inhaled or ingested. Soil pollution may cause a variety of health problems, starting with headaches, nausea, fatigue, skin rash, eye irritation and potentially resulting in more serious conditions like neuromuscular blockage, kidney and liver damage and various forms of cancer.

Digital Marketing Strategies

Digital marketing refers to advertising delivered through digital channels such as search engines, websites, social media, email, and mobile apps. Companies use digital marketing to endorse their goods, services, and brands, using online media channels. In the past decade, digital marketing has become a vital component in organizations’ overall marketing strategy. It allows companies to tailor messages to reach a specific audience, making it possible to market directly to people who are likely to be interested in their product. Digital marketing encompasses a wide variety of marketing tactics and technologies used to reach consumers online.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO): 

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a process used to optimize a website’s technical configuration, content relevance and link popularity so its pages can become easily findable, more relevant and popular towards user search queries. Search engines recommend SEO efforts that benefit both the user search experience and the website ranking by featuring content that fulfils user search needs. SEO targets unpaid traffic, organic results rather than direct traffic or paid traffic. Unpaid traffic may originate from different types of searches, including image search, video search, academic search, news search, and industry-specific vertical search engines.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM):

Search engine marketing refers to marketing a business using paid advertisements that appear on search engine results pages (or SERPs). Advertisers bid on keywords that users of services such as Google and Bing might enter when looking for certain products or services, which gives the advertiser the opportunity for their ads to appear alongside results for those search queries. Search engine marketing’s greatest strength is that it offers advertisers the opportunity to put their ads in front of motivated customers who are ready to buy at the precise moment they’re ready to make a purchase. No other advertising medium can do this, which is why search engine marketing is so effective way to grow your business.

Pay-per-Click (PPC):

Pay per click advertising is an umbrella term for online paid ads where you pay each time someone clicks on your ad. Paid search ads are the ones that show up in the search results. Most of the time (except for some home services queries), those ads are search ads triggered when someone searches for a particular set of keywords. Within pay per click, there are a few different types of ad strategies: Paid search campaigns, Social media campaigns, Google Local Services ads, YouTube ads, Display ads, Immersive ads (VR and AR), Shopping ads (e-commerce), and Nextdoor ads.

Social Media Marketing (SMM):

Social media marketing refers to the marketing activity done via social media profiles and platforms to build a brand, increase engagement and promote the business. Social media is an ideal place for brands looking to gain insights into their audience’s interests and tastes. The way experts see it, smart companies will continue to invest in social media to achieve sustainable business growth. Seven out of ten consumers expect a business to have a well-maintained social media presence, and 17% of consumers actively use social networks to know more about the business. The top platforms for social media marketing are Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Pinterest, and Instagram.

Content Marketing:

Content marketing is a long-term strategy that focuses on building a good relationship with the target audience by giving them high-quality content that is relevant to them consistently. Content marketing uses storytelling and information sharing to increase brand awareness. Ultimately, the goal is to have the reader take action in becoming a customer, such as requesting more information, signing up for an email list, or making a purchase. Content can mean blog posts, resources like white papers and e-books, digital videos, podcasts, etc.

Email Marketing:

Email marketing is the act of sending a commercial message to a group of people using email. Every email sent to a potential / a current customer could be considered email marketing. It involves using email to send advertisements, request business, or solicit sales or donations. Email marketing helps you connect with your audience to promote your brand and increase sales. 

Mobile Marketing:

Mobile marketing is a multi-channel strategy that aims at reaching a target audience on their smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices, via websites, email, SMS, social media, and apps. In recent years, customers have started to shift their attention to mobile. Because of this, marketers are doing the same to create engagement. Mobile marketing is an indispensable tool for companies large and small. To earn and maintain the attention of potential buyers, content must be strategic and highly personalized. Some types of mobile marketing are mobile app marketing, in-game advertisements, quick-response barcode, mobile banner ads, proximity or bluetooth marketing, and voice marketing.

What does your taste in music reveal about you?

pink headphone isolates on blue background.

Music plays an important role in the lives of people all over the world, which is why many wonder what individual factors might influence musical preferences. Ever thought, Could the contents of your playlist, for example, reveal something about your personality?

Personality Traits Linked to Musical Styles

One large-scale study conducted by researchers at Heriot-Watt University looked at more than 36,000 participants from all over the world. Participants were asked to rate more than 104 different musical styles in addition to offering information about aspects of their personalities.

According to the researcher, Adrian North, the reason people sometimes feel defensive about their taste in music might be related to how much it relates to attitudes and personality. 

North suggests that people define themselves through music and use it to relate to other people. His research points to the connection that people often make between who they are as an individual and their musical tastes.

Keep in mind that these are the results published in only one study rather than being replicated and validated by a variety of researchers and different study designs. The following are some of the personality traits the study linked to certain musical styles.

Pop Music

Fans of the top 40 pop hits tend to be extroverted, honest, and conventional. While pop music lovers are hardworking and have high self-esteem, researchers suggest that they tend to be less creative and more uneasy.

Rap and Hip/Hop Music

Despite the stereotype that rap lovers are more aggressive or violent, researchers have found no such link. Rap fans do tend to have high self-esteem and are usually outgoing.

Country Music

Country music fans are typically hardworking, conventional, and outgoing. While country songs are often centered on heartbreak, people who gravitate towards this genre tend to be very emotionally stable. They also tend to be more conservative and rank lower on the trait of openness to experience.

Rock/Heavy Metal Music

Despite the sometimes aggressive image that rock and heavy metal music project, researchers found that fans of this style of music are usually quite gentle. They tend to be creative, but are often introverted and may suffer from low self-esteem.

Indie Music

Fans of the indie genre are typically introverted, intellectual, and creative. According to researchers, they also tend to be less hardworking and less gentle. Passivity, anxiousness, and low self-esteem are other common personality characteristics.

Dance Music

According to researchers, people who prefer dance music are usually outgoing and assertive. They also tend to rank high on the trait of openness to experience, one of the five major personality traits. People who prefer fast-paced electronic music also tend to rank low on gentleness.

Classical Music

Classical music lovers are typically more introverted but are also at ease with themselves and the world around them. They are creative and have a good sense of self-esteem.

Jazz, Blues, and Soul Music

People who enjoy jazz, blues, or soul music were found to be more extroverted with high self-esteem. They also tend to be very creative, intelligent, and at ease.

Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system in which a country’s trade, industry, and profits, are controlled by private companies instead of the people who contribute their time and labour to the company. In this system, private entities own the factors of production such as entrepreneurship, capital goods, natural resources, and workforce. Individual capitalists are typically wealthy people who have a large amount of capital invested into the business and benefit from the capitalistic system by making increased profits and thereby accumulating more wealth.

Capitalism requires a free market economy to succeed. It distributes goods and services according to the laws of supply and demand. The law of demand says that when demand increases for a particular product, its price rises. When competitors realize they can make a higher profit, they increase production. The greater the supply reduces prices to a level where only the best competitors remain.

Capitalism results in the best products for the best prices because consumers will pay more for what they want the most. Businesses provide what customers want at the highest prices, but the prices are limited by business competition, making their products as efficiently as possible to maximize profit. Most important for economic growth is the reward of capitalism for innovation, including new products and more efficient production methods.

Capitalism does not provide for those who lack competitive skills, including the elderly, children, the developmentally disabled, and caretakers. To keep society functioning, capitalism requires government policies that value the family unit. Despite the idea of a level playing field, capitalism does not promote equality of opportunity. Those without good nutrition, support, and education may never even make it, and society will never benefit from their valuable skills. People who can find work may face low wages, limited possibilities for advancement, and potentially unsafe working conditions. In the short term, this inequality may seem to be in the best interest of capitalism’s winners. They have fewer competitive threats and may use their power to rig the system by creating barriers to entry. Capitalism also ignores external costs, such as pollution and climate change, in its pursuit of increasing levels of consumption and growth. The system makes goods cheaper and more accessible in the short run, but over time, it depletes natural resources, lowers the quality of life in the affected areas, and increases costs for everyone.

Story of Netflix

When Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph founded Netflix (formerly known as Kibble) in 1997, the company appeared to be little more than an upstart DVD rental business whose only real value proposition was the mail-order element of its operation. Fast forward two decades and Netflix has become one of the biggest TV and movie studios in the world, with more subscribers than all the cable TV channels in America combined. How did Netflix go from renting movies to making them in just 20 years?

By consistently doing the obvious.

For Netflix, however, doing the obvious rarely meant taking the easy way out. It meant making business decisions that were so difficult and so ambitious, few people could even see them, let alone understand them. Netflix has innovated in several key ways. They started with a frictionless DVD rental business facilitated by the internet, developed an entirely new streaming business from scratch, and finally invested in original content creation. But many of the most pivotal moves Netflix has made during the past 20 years haven’t been all that surprising. As we’ll see, it makes perfect sense that Netflix became a movie studio. It just didn’t look that way to most people in the beginning.

1997-2006: From Video Rentals by Mail to Smart Suggestions by Algorithm

To the casual observer, Netflix might look like one of the luckiest companies in the world.

For every major change or development in the home entertainment market, Netflix always seems to be just off-screen, waiting to capitalize on the latest consumer trend. Netflix has had its fair share of these kinds of opportunities, but good fortune had very little to do with the company’s early wins.

Netflix’s secret weapon wasn’t luck but rather a keen understanding of its market. Hastings and Randolph may have built their initial business around DVDs, but they knew they wouldn’t be in the DVD business forever—even if nobody else did.

Legend has it that Reed Hastings decided to start Netflix after returning a copy of Apollo 13 to his local Blockbuster. Upon returning to the movie, Hastings was told that he owed $40 in late fees. Fearing what his wife would say about such a steep late fee and convinced there must be a better way to rent movies, Hastings began to devise what would later become Netflix.

Although Randolph later disputed Hastings’ story about their company’s origins, Netflix did indeed set out to change the way we rented movies. In 1997, Blockbuster was the undisputed king of the home entertainment rental vertical, which made Netflix’s mail-order DVD rental business unique. As a result, when Netflix launched in ’97, many people understandably thought the business was focused exclusively on distribution—most people saw Netflix as nothing more than a more convenient way to rent movies.

Although this was a crucial element of Netflix’s early business, Hastings and Randolph never set out to be the best entertainment distribution company. They saw an opportunity to use the internet to decentralize entertainment and unbundle premium TV from the monopolistic grip of Big Cable, even if nobody else recognized their initial play for what it was. DVD rentals were never Netflix’s endgame – they were just a way for the new company to gain a tentative toehold in an intensely competitive market.

1997: Netflix launches with a video library of approximately 900 titles, with a 7-day maximum rental policy. By April 1999, Netflix’s video library expands to 3,100 titles. Rentals initially cost just 50 cents each. By January 2000, Netflix’s catalog reaches 5,200 titles.

Sustainable Development

Sustainable development refers to development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is the idea that human societies must live and meet their needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development attempts to minimize greenhouse gases, reduce global warming, preserve environmental resources, and provide communities that allow people to reach their fullest potentials. The concept of sustainable development formed the basis of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The summit marked the first international attempt to draw up action plans and strategies for moving towards a more sustainable pattern of development. It was attended by over 100 Heads of State and representatives from 178 national governments. 

Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, the first woman prime minister of Norway was asked to chair a United Nations commission to address “a global agenda for change.” She came to make strong impact on the commission’s work, widely referred to as the Brundtland Commission. She developed the broad political concept of sustainable development in the course of extensive public hearings. Brundtland has become known as the “mother of sustainability” since the release of the 1987 report, Our Common Future

Pillars of Sustainability:

The three pillars of sustainability are a powerful tool for defining the Sustainable Development problem. This consists of the Social, and Environmental, and Economic pillars.

Social Sustainability:

Social Sustainability is the ability of a social system, such as a country, family, or organization, to function at a defined level of social well-being and harmony indefinitely. Problems like war, endemic poverty, widespread injustice, and low education rate are symptoms of a socially unsustainable system.

Environmental Sustainability:

Environmental Sustainability is the ability of the environment to support a defined level of environmental quality and natural resource extraction rates indefinitely. This is the world’s biggest actual problem, though, since the consequences of not solving the problem now are delayed, the problem receives too low a priority to be solved.

Economic Sustainability:

Economic Sustainability is the ability of an economy to support a defined level of economic production indefinitely. Since the Great Recession of 2008, this is the world’s biggest apparent problem that endangers progress due to environmental sustainability.

Sustainable Development Goals:

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as the global goals, includes 17 interlinked goals, addressing global challenges, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace, and justice. In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the SDGs intending to meet the target by 2030. The goals are a blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all.

  1. No Poverty – End poverty in all its forms everywhere. 
  2. Zero Hunger – End hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
  3. Good Health and Well-Being – Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all of all ages.
  4. Quality Education – Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all.
  5. Gender Equality – Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
  6. Clean Water and Sanitation – Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
  7. Affordable and Clean Energy – Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
  8. Decent Work and Economic Growth – Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
  9. Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure – Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.
  10. Reduced Inequalities – Reduce inequality within and among countries.
  11. Sustainable Cities and Communities – Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
  12. Responsible Consumption and Production – Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.
  13. Climate Action – Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
  14. Life Below Water – Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
  15. Life on Land – Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
  16. Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions – Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
  17. Partnerships for the Goals – Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

Impact of Globalisation on India

Globalisation refers to the interdependence of world economies and populations brought about by trade in goods and services, technology, and the flow of investment, people, and information. It includes the creation of networks and pursuits transgressing social, economical, and geographical barriers. One of the effects of globalization is that it promotes and increases interactions between different regions and populations around the globe.

India is one of the countries which experienced significant success after the initiation and implementation of globalisation. The growth of foreign investment in corporate, retail, and the scientific sector increased enormously. It tremendously impacted the social, monetary, cultural, and political aspects of the country. In recent years, globalisation has increased due to improvements in transportation and information technology, and improved global synergies have led to the growth of trade and culture globally. 

The Indian economy has witnessed drastic growth since it integrated into a global economy in 1991. It had a tremendous impact on the economic condition. Although India has had immense economic growth, not all sectors of the country have benefited. Globalisation did not have a positive impact on agriculture. Agriculture now contributes only about 20% to the GDP. International norms imposed by WTO and multilateral companies have directed funds of the agriculture sector to private-sector enterprises. Agriculture has received reduced government support, affecting farmers because production costs are very high, while commodity costs are low. Greater integration of global commodities markets leads to a constant fluctuation in prices, which has increased the vulnerability of Indian farmers, who are also increasingly dependent on seeds sold by the MNCs.  

Globalisation has led to an increase in the consumer products market. They have a a variety choices in selecting goods. People in cities working in high paying jobs have a greater income to spend on lifestyle goods. There has been an increase in the demand for products like meat, egg, pulses, organic food as a result. It has also led to protein inflation. Protein food inflation contributes a large part to the food inflation in India. It is evident from rising prices of pulses and animal proteins in the form of eggs, milk and meat. With an improvement in the standard of living and rising income level, the food habits of people change. People tend toward taking more protein intensive foods. This shift in dietary pattern, along with the rising population results in an overwhelming demand for protein-rich food, which the supply side could not meet. Thus resulting in a demand-supply mismatch thereby, causing inflation.

Outsourcing is one of the principal results of globalisation. In outsourcing, a company recruits regular service from outside sources, often from other nations. As a kind of economic venture, outsourcing has increased, in recent times, because of the increase in quick methods of communication, especially the growth of information technology (IT). Voice-based business processes, accountancy, record keeping, music recording, banking services, book transcription, film editing, clinical advice, or teachers are outsourced from advanced countries to India.

Another sector the government has neglected is public health. India has one of the lowest ratios of public to private health expenditure. The rate of epidemics among the poor has increased, leading to outbreaks of contagious diseases becoming common. 

Globalisation has provided a relatively better environment for women. Technology has made education in India accessible for more people, especially women, decreasing the gender gap stratified by gender roles. Women now have access to more jobs and are more involved in avenues generally reserved for men. It has increased the number of women in competitive professions, empowering them. 

The increasing migration coupled with financial independence has led to the breaking of joint families into nuclear ones. The western influence of individualism has led to an aspirational generation of youth. Concepts of national identity, family, job and tradition are changing rapidly and significantly. The rise of nuclear families has reduced the social security that the joint family provided, leading to greater economic, health and emotional vulnerability of old age individuals.

The current generation, especially, the young have an identity that gives them a sense of belonging to a worldwide culture, which includes an awareness of events, practices, styles and information that are a part of the global culture. People have developed a bicultural identity or perhaps a hybrid identity, which means that part of their identity is rooted in the local culture and another part that stems from an awareness of one’s relation to the global world. The development of these global identities is no longer just a part of immigrants and ethnic minorities. Media plays a significant role in developing a global identity. Yet, along with this new global identity, people also retain and develop their local identity for daily interactions with their family, friends and community.

We cannot say that the impact of globalisation has been totallly positive or totally negative. It has been both. However, it becomes a point of concern when an overwhelming impact of globalization can be observed in Indian culture.

Social Anxiety Disorder

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder that involves intense fear of social settings. Everyday interactions can cause a significant amount of anxiety, and self-consciousness, due to the constant fear of being scrutinized and judged negatively by people. According to ICD-10 guidelines, the main diagnostic criteria of social phobia are fear of being the center of attention or behaving in a way that will be embarrassing or humiliating. 

People experience anxiety in several social situations, from meaningful encounters to everyday trivial ones. They can experience overwhelming anxiety or fear in social situations, such as meeting new people, being on a job interview, answering a question in class, talking to a cashier in a store, answering the phone and making new friends. Even everyday things like eating or drinking in front of others or using a public restroom may cause anxiety. Social anxiety disorder is referred to an illness of lost opportunities where “individuals make major life choices to accommodate their illness”.

Social anxiety disorder is known to appear at an early age in most cases. 50% of people with this disorder develop it by the age of 11, and 80% develop it by age 20. This early age of onset may lead to people with social anxiety disorder being particularly vulnerable to depressive illnesses, substance use, and other psychological conflicts. Generally, social anxiety begins at a specific point in an individual’s life, which develops over time as the person struggles to recover. Eventually, mild social awkwardness can develop into symptoms of social anxiety or phobia. 

Social anxiety isn’t the same as just “shyness”. Shyness is short-term and doesn’t impact daily life majorly or lead to excessive social avoidance. Whereas social anxiety is persistent, interferes with everyday life, and disrupts one’s ability to attend school, work, and develop close relationships. This disorder could lead to the following:

Low self-esteem

Trouble being assertive

Negative self-talk

Hypersensitivity to criticism

Poor social skills

Isolation and difficulty in social relationships

Low academic and employment achievement

Causes:

Research into the causes of social anxiety and social phobia is wide-ranging with encompassing multiple perspectives. Scientists haven’t yet figured out the exact cause. Studies suggest that genetics can play a part in combination with environmental factors. 

Genetics: Anxiety disorders tend to run in families. Studies suggest that parents of people with social anxiety disorder tend to be more socially isolated themselves, and shyness in adoptive parents is associated with shyness in adopted children. Growing up with overprotective and hypercritical parents has also been associated with social anxiety disorder. Adolescents who found having an insecure (anxious-ambivalent) attachment with their mother as infants were twice as likely to develop anxiety disorders by late adolescence, including social phobia 

Brain structure: A structure in the brain called the amygdala could play a role in controlling the fear response. People who have an overactive amygdala may have a heightened fear response, causing more anxiety in social settings.

Social Environment and Experiences: A social anxiety disorder may be a learned behaviour. Half of the people diagnosed had the anxiety worsened due to a specific traumatic, unpleasant or embarrassing social situation. Direct experiences, observing or hearing about the socially negative experiences of others, or verbal warnings of social problems and dangers, may also make the development of a social anxiety disorder more likely. Longer-term effects of not fitting in or being bullied, rejected, or ignored are also causes. 

Signs and Symptoms:

Physical Symptoms

  • Shortness of Breath
  • Excessive Sweating
  • Blushing
  • Blurred Vision
  • Shaking
  • Dry Mouth
  • Trembling Voice
  • Palpitations
  • Muscle Tension
  • Nausea
  • Headaches
  • Numbness or tingling in extremities
  • Dizziness
  • Chest tightness

Behavioral Symptoms

  • Avoiding what makes you anxious 
  • Fidgeting or other nervous actions
  • Isolating yourself and limiting actions related to the social situation
  • Leaving or escaping from a feared social or performance situation

Emotional Symptoms

  • Fear of rejection, humiliation
  • Worrying about being left out or being unable to overcome anxiety
  • Feeling defeated as if there is something “wrong” with you
  • Feeling exposed or vulnerable around others

Cognitive Symptoms

  • Racing thoughts
  • Worrying about what people will think
  • Believing everyone is looking at you or judging you 
  • Thinking it is not worth the discomfort of trying to socialize 
  • Assuming the worst about a situation or interaction
  • Analyzing social interactions after it’s over
  • Negative evaluations of yourself

Diagnosis:

Clinicians use a predetermined set of criteria to diagnose SAD, also known as the DSM-5. The following is an overview, which also corresponds to its presentation and help with the understanding of social anxiety disorder. 

Fear or anxiety is evident in social situations, where possible scrutiny may be experienced.

Aversion to situations in order to avoid getting embarrassed, humiliated, or rejected.

If the person is able to endure it, it is often done with intense fear or anxiety

Anxiety experienced by an individual that is not proportional to the situation

If the fear or anxiety has lasted for 6 months or longer.

When an individual experiences anxiety or distress that affects their daily living 

Anxiety or fear that is not associated with a medical condition, medication or substance abuse

Treatment:

Treatments depend on the severity of your emotional and physical symptoms and how well you function daily. The length of treatment also varies. Some people may respond well to initial treatment and not require anything further, while others may require some form of support throughout their lives.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: CBT is the first-line psychotherapeutic treatment for this disorder. It is a type of psychotherapy useful for treating social anxiety disorder. CBT teaches you different ways of thinking, behaving, and reacting to situations that help you feel less anxious and fearful. It can also help you learn and practice social skills. CBT delivered in a group format can be especially helpful. 

Psychoanalysis: Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy involve a therapist helping you to understand underlying issues from childhood that may have contributed to your social anxiety. It is most useful for people who have deeper unresolved conflicts contributing to their anxiety. Psychoanalysis may also be useful in some instances to explore potential resistance to change.

Support Groups: Many people with social anxiety also find support groups helpful. In a group of people who all have a social anxiety disorder, you can receive unbiased, honest feedback about how others in the group see you. This way, you can learn that your thoughts about judgment and rejection are distorted. You can also learn how others with social anxiety disorder approach and overcome the fear of social situations.

Medication: There are three types of medications used to help treat social anxiety disorder – 

Anti-anxiety medications

Antidepressants

Beta-blockers

Accounting Concept and Convention

Accounting is a business language, which is used to communicate financial information to the company’s stakeholders, regarding the performance, profitability and position of the enterprise and help them in rational decision making. The financial statement is based on various concepts and conventions. Accounting concepts are the fundamental accounting assumptions that act as a foundation for recording business transactions and preparation of final accounts

Definition of Accounting Concept

Accounting Concepts can be understood as the basic accounting assumption, which acts as a foundation for the preparation of the financial statement of an enterprise. Indeed, these form a basis for formulating the accounting principles, methods and procedures, to record and present the financial transactions of the business.

These concepts provide an integrated structure and rational approach to the accounting process. Every financial transaction that occurs is interpreted taking into consideration the accounting concepts, which guide the accounting methods.

  • Business Entity Concept: The concept assumes that the business enterprise is independent of its owners.
  • Money Measurement Concept: As per this concept, only those transactions which can be expressed in monetary terms are recorded in the books of accounts.
  • Cost concept: This concept holds that all the assets of the enterprise are recorded in the accounts at their purchase price
  • Going Concern Concept: The concept assumes that the business will have a perpetual succession, i.e. it will continue its operations for an indefinite period.
  • Dual Aspect Concept: It is the primary rule of accounting, which states that every transaction affects two accounts.
  • Realization Concept: As per this concept, revenue should be recorded by the firm only when it is realized.
  • Accrual Concept: The concept states that revenue is to be recognized when they become receivable, while expenses should be recognized when they become due for payment.
  • Periodicity Concept: The concept says that a financial statement should be prepared for every period, i.e. at the end of the financial year.
  • Matching Concept: The concept holds that, the revenue for the period, should match the expenses.

Definition of Accounting Convention

Accounting Conventions, as the name suggest are the practice adopted by an enterprise over a period of time, that rely on the general agreement between the accounting bodies and help in assisting the accountant at the time of preparation of financial statement of the company.

To improve the quality of financial information, the accountancy bodies of the world may modify or change any accounting convention. Given below are the basic accounting conventions:

  • Consistency: Financial statements can be compared only when the accounting policies are followed consistently by the firm over the period. However, changes can be made only in special circumstances.
  • Disclosure: This principle states that the financial statement should be prepared in such a way that it fairly discloses all the material information to the users, to help them in taking a rational decision.
  • Conservatism: This convention states that the firm should not anticipate incomes and gains, but provide for all expenses and losses.
  • Materiality: This concept is an exception to the full disclosure convention which states that only those items to be disclosed in the financial statement which has a significant economic effect.

An Introduction to Halley’s Comet

Image Credit: NASA

Halley’s Comet, officially known as 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 75–76 years. It is the most famous known comet and is the only known short-period comet that is regularly visible to the naked eye from Earth and thus can be viewed twice in a human lifetime. The comet made its last appearance in 1986 and will next appear in mid-2061. 

Comet Halley was the first comet recognized as a periodic or short-period comet, with an orbit lasting 200 years or less. Its shape vaguely resembles that of a peanut shell, and its dimensions are about 9.3 by 5 miles (15 kilometres by 8 kilometres). It is one of the darkest or least reflective objects in the solar system, reflecting only 3% of the light that falls on it.  While it travels around the Sun, Halley leaves behind a trail of dust and ice particles that form the annual Orionid Meteor shower every October.

Origin:

Halley’s periodic returns have been subject to scientific investigation since the 16th century. Although it was around for centuries, it wasn’t until 1705 that Edmond Halley, an English astronomer and physicist, calculated its orbit and predicted its next appearance. He noted the three occurrences of the comet, used Isaac Newton’s recently developed Laws of Motion and some observational records and concluded that the comets which appeared in 1531, 1607, and 1682 were the same comet, and predicted that it would appear again in 1758. As foretold, the comet did reappear, but unfortunately, Edmond Halley wasn’t around to see its appearance. In 1759, Nicholas-Louis de Lacaille, a French astronomer, named the comet after Halley to honour him.

History of the Comet:

Some historians believe that the comet was sighted as early as 467 BCE by the ancient Greeks. A comet in ancient Greece, recorded between 468 and 466 BC with its timing, location, duration, and an associated meteor shower all suggest it was Halley.

The first official known sighting of this comet, according to historical records, occurred in the year 240 BC. The Chinese recorded this sighting in the Chinese chronicle ‘Records of the Grand Historian’ or ‘Shiji’, which describes a comet that appeared in the east and then moved north. 

In 1066, the comet was seen in England and was considered an omen. Later that year, King Harold II of England was overthrown and killed at the Battle of Hastings by William the Conqueror, who then claimed the throne.  The battle depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry chronicles those events and prominently displays the comet as a star. 

In 1456, on a return passage, Pope Calixtus III determined that the comet was an agent of the devil, attempted to excommunicate this natural phenomenon, and ordered special prayers for the city’s protection. His misguided attempt to frame it as a religious issue failed because the comet came back 76 years later. 

He wasn’t the only person of the time to misinterpret what the comet was. Around the same time, while Turkish forces laid siege to Belgrade, the comet was described as a fearsome celestial apparition “with a long tail like that of a dragon.”

Modern Observations:

The comet’s reappearance in 1986 sparked great interest in scientists around the world, who planned extensive plans to observe it closely. It marked the first time scientists were able to study it with sophisticated and developed technology. The high-quality images returned by the probes were the first of their kind, providing a fascinating insight into Halley and proving that its core is a solid mass primarily composed of dust and ice. Five spacecraft from the USSR, Japan, and the European Space Agency journeyed to Comet Halley. ESA’s Giotto obtained close-up photos of the comet’s nucleus. Halley being large and active, with a well-defined and regular orbit, was a relatively easy target for Giotto and the other probes. 

Ecosystems

An Ecosystem is a geographic area where plants, animals, and other organisms, as well as weather and landscapes, work together to form a bubble of life. Ecosystems are dynamic entities—they are subject to periodic disturbances and are always in the process of recovering from some past disturbance. The tendency of an ecosystem to remain close to its equilibrium state, despite that disturbance, is termed its resistance. The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedback is termed its ecological resilience. Ecosystems can be studied through a variety of approaches—theoretical studies, studies monitoring specific ecosystems over long periods of time, those that look at differences between ecosystems to elucidate how they work and direct manipulative experimentation. Biomes are general classes or categories of ecosystems. Ecosystems are controlled by external and internal factors. External factors such as climate, parent material which forms the soil and topography, control the overall structure of an ecosystem but are not themselves influenced by the ecosystem. Internal factors are controlled, for example, by decomposition, root competition, shading, disturbance, succession, and the types of species present. While the resource inputs are generally controlled by external processes, the availability of these resources within the ecosystem is controlled by internal factors. Therefore, internal factors not only control ecosystem processes but are also controlled by them.

The structure of an ecosystem consists of two major components:

  • Biotic components
  • Abiotic components

Biotic Components – It can be described as any living component that affects another organism or shapes the ecosystem. This includes both animals that consume other organisms within their ecosystem, and the organism that is being consumed. Biotic factors also include human influence, pathogens, and disease outbreaks. Each biotic factor needs a proper amount of energy and nutrition to function healthily.

Biotic components are typically sorted into three main categories:

  • Producers, otherwise known as Autotrophs, convert energy (through the process of photosynthesis) into food.
  • Consumers, otherwise known as Heterotrophs, depend upon producers (and occasionally other consumers) for food.
  • Decomposers, otherwise known as Detritivores, break down chemicals from producers and consumers (usually antibiotic) into simpler form which can be reused.

Abiotic components – This are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems. Abiotic factors and the phenomena associated with them underpin biology as a whole. They effect a plethora of species, in all forms of environmental conditions such as marine or land animals. We humans can make or change abiotic factors in a species’ environment. For instance, fertilizers can effect a snail’s habitat, or the greenhouse gases which humans utilize can change marine pH levels.

Types of Ecosystems

The four types of ecosystems are Terrestrial, Freshwater, Marine, and Artificial ecosystems.

Terrestrial ecosystem – A terrestrial ecosystem is a land-based community of organisms and the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in a given area. Examples of terrestrial ecosystems include the tundra, taigas, temperate deciduous forests, tropical rainforests, grasslands, and deserts.

  • A Forest ecosystem is one that consists of various plants, particularly trees. Because of the abundance of plants that serve as producers, this ecosystem abounds in life. Not only plants but also animals are teeming in a forest. They are also a great source of fruits, wood, They also help maintain the earth’s temperature. They are also a major carbon sink.
  • Grassland ecosystems are typically found in tropical or temperate regions. They are dominated by grasses. As such, the animals commonly found in this type of ecosystem are grazing animals, such as cattle, goats, and deer.
  • Tundra ecosystems are characterized as being treeless and snow-covered. The snow melts briefly in spring and summer, producing shallow ponds. During this time, lichens and flowering plants typically grow. Because of the ice that covers the land in the tundra, this type of ecosystem is important in regulating the earth’s temperature. It also serves as a water reservoir (in the form of ice or frost).
  • Desert ecosystems are the ones occurring in desert habitats. Deserts are typically arid and windy. Some of them contain sand dunes, others, mostly rock. Organisms in the desert are not as diverse as those in forests but they possess adaptations that make them suited to their environment. Plants that are commonly found in the desert are CAM plants, such as cacti. Desert animals include insects, reptiles, and birds.
A Forest EcoSystem
A Grassland Ecosystem
Tundra Ecosystem
Desert Ecosystem

Freshwater ecosystems – Freshwater ecosystems are a subset of Earth’s aquatic ecosystems. They include lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, springs, bogs, and wetlands.They can be contrasted with marine ecosystems, which have a larger salt content.

Freshwater Ecosystem
  • Lentic ecosystem – A lentic ecosystem refers to ecosystems in still waters. Examples include the following: ponds, puddles, and lakes. Lakes, in particular, may form zonation. That is when it becomes very well established that different zones are formed. These zones are as follows: littoral, limnetic, and profundal. The littoral zone is the part that is near the shore. Here, light can penetrate up to the bottom. The limnetic zone is the zone in which light does not completely penetrate through. The part of the limnetic zone that is penetrated by light is the photic zone whereas the zone in which light cannot penetrate through, and therefore is dark, is the benthic zone. The plants and animals vary in these zones. For instance, rooted plants are found in the littoral zone but not in the limnetic zone. Rather, freely-floating plants are the ones commonly seen on the surface of the limnetic zone.
  • Lotic ecosystem – A lotic ecosystem is an aquatic ecosystem characterized by a freshwater habitat that is freely flowing. That is as opposed to the lentic that is nearly stationary. Examples include rivers and streams. Many plants and animals in these ecosystems have adaptations to help them cope with the force and the different conditions that running water brings.

Marine ecosystem – Marine ecosystems are aquatic environments with high levels of dissolved salt. These include the open ocean, the deep-sea ocean, and coastal marine ecosystems, each of which have different physical and biological characteristics. The ocean ecosystems, in particular, are an important source of atmospheric oxygen due to the vast population of autotrophic algae that release oxygen through photosynthesis. Marine ecosystems are regarded as the most abundant type of ecosystem in the world.

Marine Ecosystem

Artificial ecosystem – An artificial ecosystem is not self-sustaining, and the ecosystem would perish without human assistance. For example, a farm is an artificial ecosystem that consists of plants and species outside their natural habitat. Many man-made ecosystems are built for conservation purposes, aesthetics, and for studying biology and ecology.

An Artificial Ecosystem

Ecosystems provides a variety of goods and services upon which people depend. Ecosystem goods include the “tangible, material products” of ecosystem processes such as water, food, fuel, construction material, and medicinal plants. Ecosystem services, on the other hand, are generally “improvements in the condition or location of things of value”. These include things like the maintenance of hydrological cycles, cleaning air and water, the maintenance of oxygen in the atmosphere, crop pollination and even things like beauty, inspiration and opportunities for research.Thus the ecosystems are the integral part of our Earth. They bind the fauna & flora all together in the same environment to co-exist and thus being one dependable to the other. Our purpose is to look after our Mother Earth and therefore to preserve her so that she can be as perennial as forever.

The Ganges

The Ganges River, also known as the Ganga River, is a transboundary river that flows through India and Bangladesh. The river emerges in the western Himalayas in Uttarakhand and flows down across Northern India into Bangladesh, where it empties itself into the Bay of Bengal. It is the longest river in India and flows for around 2,525 km, and has the second greatest water discharge in the world. Its basin is heavily populated, with 400 million people living in it. Nearly 80% of the Ganges river basin is in India, and the rest is in Nepal, China and Bangladesh.

Humans have inhabited The Ganges river basin since ancient times. The first people in the region were of the Harappan civilization. They moved into the Ganges River basin from the Indus River basin around the 2nd millennium BCE. Later, the Gangetic Plain became the center of the Maurya Empire and then the Mughal Empire. The first European traveler to mention the Ganges was the Greek envoy Megasthenes in his work ‘Indica’. 

Course:

The headwaters of the Ganges River begin high in the Himalayan Mountains, where the Bhagirathi River flows out of the Gangotri Glacier in India’s Uttarakhand state. The glacier sits at an elevation of 12,769 feet (3,892 m). The Ganges River proper begins farther downstream, where the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers join. 

The Ganges River emerges from the Himalayas at Rishikesh and begins to flow onto the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Also known as the North Indian River Plain, it makes up most of the northern and eastern parts of India, parts of Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh. In addition to entering the Indo-Gangetic Plain, part of the Ganges River is diverted towards the Ganges Canal for irrigation in the Uttar Pradesh state.

As the Ganges River then flows farther downstream, it changes direction several times, joined by many other tributary rivers such as the Ramganga, Tamsa, and Gandaki Rivers, to name a few. There are also several cities and towns that the Ganges River passes through on its way downstream. Some of these include Chunar, Kolkata, Mirzapur, and Varanasi. Many Hindus visit the Ganges River in Varanasi as that city is considered the holiest of cities. 

Once the Ganges River flows out of India into Bangladesh, its main branch is the Padma River. The Padma River is joined downstream by large rivers like the Jamuna and Meghna rivers. After joining the Meghna, it takes on that name before flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Before entering the Bay of Bengal, the river creates the world’s largest delta, Ganges Delta. This region is a highly fertile sediment-laden area that covers 23,000 square miles (59,000 sq km).

The course of the Ganges River described above is a general description of the river’s route from its source where the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers join to its outlet at the Bay of Bengal. The Ganges has very complicated hydrology, and there are several different descriptions of its overall length and the size of its drainage basin based on the included tributary rivers.

Significance:

The Ganges is a sacred river to the Hindus and worshipped as goddess Ganga Ma or “Mother Ganges.” According to Hindu mythology, the goddess Ganga descended from heaven to dwell in the waters of the Ganges River to protect, purify and bring to heaven those who touch it. Hindus visit the river daily to offer flowers and food to Ganga. They also drink the water and bathe in the river to cleanse and purify their sins. Hindus consider the waters of the Ganges to be pure and purifying. Regardless of scientific understanding of its waters, the river is ritually and symbolically vital in Hindu culture.

In Hindu tradition, the Ganges flows in heaven, earth, and the netherworld, and thus is a ‘tirtha’, a crossing point between heaven and earth. At a ‘tirtha’, prayers and offerings are thought most likely to reach the gods and, in the other direction, blessings can descend most readily from heaven. Hindus believe that upon death, the waters of the Ganges River will help them reach the World of the Ancestors. 

Economy:

The Ganges River provides water to about 40% of India’s population across 11 states. The fertile soil of the Ganges Basin is instrumental to the agricultural economies of India and Bangladesh. The Ganges and its tributaries provide a perennial source of irrigation to a large area. Chief crops cultivated include rice, sugarcane, lentils, oilseeds, potatoes, and wheat. The swamps and lakes along the riverbank provide a rich growing area for crops such as legumes, chillies, mustard, sesame, sugarcane, and jute. There are also many fishing opportunities along the river, though it remains highly polluted.

The three towns holy to Hinduism — Haridwar, Allahabad (Prayagraj), and Varanasi attract millions of pilgrims to its waters to take a dip in the Ganges. Varanasi, Haridwar, Gangotri, Allahabad, and Rishikesh are the prime destinations that have great religious significance for Hindu devotees. Allahabad and Haridwar are renowned for organizing Kumbh Mela, a grand religious fair, and Haridwar is known as the “Gateway to Heaven.”

Pollution:

The Ganges suffers from extreme pollution and is the fifth most polluted river in the world. Industrial and human activities of the 400 million people living near the river contribute majorly to the state of the river. Sewage dumped from cities along the river’s course, industrial waste, and religious offerings wrapped in non-degradable plastics add large amounts of pollutants to the river as it flows through densely populated areas.  There are many tanneries, chemical plants, textile mills, distilleries and slaughterhouses along the river and many of them dump their untreated and often toxic waste into the river. Furthermore, people who rely on the river daily for bathing, cooking, and washing their laundry have worsened the situation. Varanasi, where many pilgrims visit to take a “holy dip” in the Ganges, releases around 200 million liters of untreated human sewage into the river each day. It has led to large concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria, at least 3,000 times higher than what is established by the World Health Organization as safe. The water of the Ganges has been tested to contain high levels of things like chromium sulfate, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and sulfuric acid. 

Clean-Up Efforts:

The Ganga Action Plan: (GAP)

In 1985, the government of India launched an environmental initiative, the Ganga Action Plan to clean up the river in selected areas by installing sewage treatment plants and threatening fines and litigation against industries that pollute. It was “the largest single attempt to clean up a polluted river anywhere in the world.” The initiative was a failure, owing to corruption, a lack of will in the government, poor technical expertise, environmental planning, and lack of support from religious authorities. 

National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)

National Ganga River Basin Authority is the financing, planning, implementing, monitoring and coordinating authority for the Ganges River, established by the Central Government of India. It declared the Ganges as the “National River” of India.

Namami Gange Programme:

In the budget tabled in Parliament on 10 July 2014, the Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley announced an integrated Ganges development project titled ‘Namami Gange’. As a part of the program, the government of India ordered the shut down of 48 industrial units around the Ganges. Significantly the approach is underpinned by socio-economic benefits that the program is expected to deliver in terms of job creation, improved livelihoods and health benefits to the vast population that is dependent on the river.

Importance of Exercises in Human Body

Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons, to aid growth and improve strength, prevent aging, develop muscles and the cardiovascular system, hone athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, improve health, or simply for enjoyment. Many individuals choose to exercise outdoors where they can congregate in groups, socialize, and improve well-being as well as mental health. In terms of health benefits, the amount of recommended exercise depends upon the goal, the type of exercise, and the age of the person. Even doing a small amount of exercise is healthier than doing none.

Classification of Exercises

Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would while resting.

  • The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance.
  • Examples of aerobic exercise include running, cycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, dancing, playing tennis, continuous training, and long distance running.

Aerobic exercise provides the following benefits:

  • Improves muscle strength in the lungs, heart, and whole body.
  • Lowers blood pressure.
  • Improves circulation and blood flow in the muscles.
  • Increases the red blood cell count to enhance oxygen transportation.
  • Reduces the risk of diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
  • Improves life expectancy and symptoms for people with coronary artery diseases.
  • Stimulates bone growth and reduces the risk of osteoporosis when at high intensity.
  • Improves sleep hygiene.
  • Enhances stamina by increasing the body’s ability to store energy molecules, such as fats and carbohydrates, within muscle.

Anaerobic exercise, which includes strength and resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and increase muscle mass, as well as improve bone density, balance, and coordination.

  • Examples of strength exercises are push-ups, pull-ups, lunges, squats, bench press.
  • Anaerobic exercise also includes weight training, functional training, eccentric training, interval training, sprinting, and high-intensity interval training which increase short-term muscle strength.

Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen muscles.

  • Activities such as stretching help to improve joint flexibility and keep muscles limber.
  • The goal is to improve the range of motion which can reduce the chance of injury.

Benefits of Regular Exercising

  1. Exercise has been shown to improve your mood and decrease feelings of depression, anxiety, and stress. It produces changes in the parts of the brain that regulate stress and anxiety. It can also increase brain sensitivity for the hormones serotonin and norepinephrine, which relieve feelings of depression Additionally, exercise can increase the production of endorphins, which are known to help produce positive feelings and reduce the perception of pain. Furthermore, exercise has been shown to reduce stress and improve symptoms of anxiety.
  2. Your body spends energy in three ways: Digesting food, Exercising, Maintaining body functions like your heartbeat and breathing. While dieting, a reduced calorie intake will lower your metabolic rate, which can delay weight loss. On the contrary, regular exercise has been shown to increase your metabolic rate, which can burn more calories to help you lose weight. Additionally, studies have shown that combining aerobic exercise with resistance training can maximize fat loss and muscle mass maintenance, which is essential for keeping the weight off.
  3. Exercise plays a vital role in building and maintaining strong muscles and bones. Activities like weightlifting can stimulate muscle building when paired with adequate protein intake. This is because exercise helps release hormones that promote the ability of your muscles to absorb amino acids. This helps them grow and reduces their breakdown.
  4. Exercise can be a real energy booster for many people, including those with various medical conditions. One older study found that 6 weeks of regular exercise reduced feelings of fatigue for 36 people who had reported persistent fatigue. Furthermore, exercise can significantly increase energy levels for people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and other serious illnesses.
  5. Your skin can be affected by the amount of oxidative stress in your body. Oxidative stress occurs when the body’s antioxidant defenses cannot completely repair the cell damage caused by compounds known as free radicals. This can damage the structure of the cells and negatively impact your skin.

Proper nutrition is as important to health as exercise. When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macro-nutrients while providing ample micro-nutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise. Active recovery is recommended after participating in physical exercise because it removes lactate from the blood more quickly than inactive recovery. Removing lactate from circulation allows for an easy decline in body temperature, which can also benefit the immune system, as an individual may be vulnerable to minor illnesses if the body temperature drops too abruptly after physical exercise. Exercise has an effect on appetite, but whether it increases or decreases appetite varies from individual to individual, and is affected by the intensity and duration of the exercise. Thus, Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute to maintaining a healthy weight, regulating the digestive system, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system that will lead to the increase of life expectancy and the overall quality of life.

Poverty

The state of being extremely poor is known as poverty. The most widely held and understood definition of absolute poverty measures poverty strictly in economic terms earning less than 142 Rupees a day. Poverty can have diverse social, economic, and political causes and effects. Social forces, such as a gender, disability or race or ethnicity, can exacerbate issues of poverty with women, children and minorities frequently bearing unequal burdens of poverty. Moreover, impoverished individuals are more vulnerable to the effects of other social issues, such as the environmental effects of industry or the impacts of climate change or other natural disasters or extreme weather events. Poverty can also make other social problems worse, economic pressures on impoverished communities frequently play a part in deforestation, biodiversity loss and ethnic conflicts.

Poverty Impacts children, families and individuals in a variety of different ways through:

  1. High infant mortality
  2. Malnutrition
  3. Child labour
  4. Lack of education
  5. Child marriage

The High Infant Mortality Rate – Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the probability of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births.

  • Causes of infant mortality directly lead to the death.
  • Environmental and social barriers prevent access to basic medical resources and thus contribute to an increasing infant mortality rate; 99% of infant deaths occur in developing countries, and 86% of these deaths are due to infections, premature births, complications during delivery, and perinatal asphyxia and birth injuries.
  • Greatest percentage reduction of infant mortality occurs in countries that already have low rates of infant mortality.
  • Common causes are preventable with low-cost measures. Pneumonia, malaria and diarrheal diseases as well as chronic malnutrition are the most frequent causes of death.

Malnutrition – Malnutrition occurs when the body doesn’t get enough nutrients. Causes include a poor diet, digestive conditions or another disease. Symptoms are fatigue, dizziness and weight loss. Untreated malnutrition can cause physical or mental disability.

  • The term malnutrition covers two broad groups of conditions. One is ‘under-nutrition’ which includes stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiency (a lack of important vitamins and minerals). The other is overweight, obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer).
  • Malnutrition affects people in every country. Around 1.9 billion adults worldwide are overweight, while 462 million are underweight. An estimated 41 million children under the age of 5 years are overweight or obese, while some 159 million are stunted and 50 million are wasted.
  • Adding to this burden are the 528 million or 29% of women of reproductive age around the world affected by anaemia, for which approximately half would be amenable to iron supplementation.
  • Many families cannot afford or access enough nutritious foods like fresh fruit and vegetables, legumes, meat, and milk, while foods and drinks high in fat, sugar, and salt are cheaper and more readily available, leading to a rapid rise in the number of children and adults who are overweight and obese, in poor as well as rich countries.
Percentage of population suffering from hunger, World Food Programme, 2020

Child labour – Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful.

  • For impoverished households, income from a child’s work is usually crucial for his or her own survival or for that of the household. Income from working children, even if small, may be between 25 and 40% of the household income.
  • Roughly 160 million children were subjected to child labour at the beginning of 2020, with 9 million additional children at risk due to the impact of COVID-19.
  • Child labour compounds social inequality and discrimination, and robs girls and boys of their childhood.
  • Unlike activities that help children develop, such as contributing to light housework or taking on a job during school holidays, child labour limits access to education and harms a child’s physical, mental and social growth.
  • Especially for girls, the “triple burden” of school, work and household chores heightens their risk of falling behind, making them even more vulnerable to poverty and exclusion.

Lack of Education – Children living in poverty face many barriers to accessing an education.

  • Increasing access to education can improve the overall health and longevity of a society, grow economies, and even combat climate change.
  • Yet in many developing countries, children’s access to education can be limited by numerous factors. Language barriers, gender roles, and reliance on child labor can all stall progress to provide quality education.
  • The world’s most vulnerable children from disadvantaged communities are more likely to miss out on school. This includes young girls and children with disabilities.
  • A child cannot learn without the right environment.
  • When girls don’t have access to safe toilets, they are often harassed or attacked when looking for a private place to go. Girls also miss or drop out of school when they begin menstruating if they don’t have the sanitation facilities or sanitary products to manage their periods with pride and dignity.
  • Students with disabilities have lower attendance rates and are more likely to be out of school or leave school before completing primary education. They are suspended or expelled at a rate more than double the rate of their non-special education peers.
  • The impact of hunger on education systems is gravely under-reported. Being severely malnourished, to the point it impacts on brain development, can be the same as losing four grades of schooling. It is estimated that around 155 million children under the age of five are estimated to be stunted.

Child marriage – A patriarchal mind-set is one of the main reasons for most child marriages in India: young girls, and women in general are perceived to be natural homemakers. Their lives are to be limited within the four walls, as they are unqualified to protect themselves from the dangerous world outside. They need not be educated, nor employed, as they are born to serve and care for the men in the family. The lack of basic awareness about family planning and budgeting, we have a blazing cause for the shocking rates of child marriages in the country. The married girls grow up illiterate and unskilled to earn their own livelihood, leading to a continuation of poverty.

World population living in extreme poverty, 1990-2015

“Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time. Poverty is losing a child to illness brought about by unclean water. Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom.”

Hydrology

Hydrology is a branch of Earth Science. The importance of hydrology in the assessment, development, utilisation and management of the water resources, of any region is being increasingly realised at all levels. It was in view of this that the United Nations proclaimed the period of 1965-1974 as the International Hydrological Decade during which, intensive efforts in hydrologic education research, development of analytical techniques and collection of hydrological information on a global basis, were promoted in Universities, Research Institutions, and Government Organisations.

WORLD’S WATER RESOURCES

The World’s total water resources are estimated at 1.36 × 108 Μ ha-m. Of these global water resources, about 97.2% is salt water mainly in oceans, and only 2.8% is available as fresh water at any time on the planet earth. Out of this 2.8% of fresh water, about 2.2% is available as surface water and 0.6% as ground water. Even out of this 2.2% of surface water, 2.15% is fresh water in glaciers and icecaps and only of the order of 0.01% is available in lakes and streams, the remaining 0.04% being in other forms. Out of 0.6% of stored ground water, only about 0.25% can be economically extracted with the present drilling technology (the remaining being at greater depths).

WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA

The important rivers of India and their approximate water potentials are given below:

  1. West flowing rivers like Narmada and Tapti – 30.55 (M ha-m)
  2. East flowing rivers like Mahanadi, – Godavari, (M ha-m)
  3. Krishna, Cauvery and Pennar – 35.56 (M ha-m)
  4. The Ganges and its tributaries – 55.01 (M ha-m)
  5. Indus and its tributaries – 7.95 (M ha-m)
  6. The River Brahmaputra – 59.07 (M ha-m)

HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

Hydrologic cycle is the water transfer cycle, which occurs continuously in nature; the three important phases of the hydrologic cycle are: (a) Evaporation and evapotranspiration (b) precipitation and (c) runoff. The globe has one-third land and two-thirds ocean. Evaporation from the surfaces of ponds, lakes, reservoirs. ocean surfaces, etc. and transpiration from surface vegetation i.e., from plant leaves of cropped land and forests, etc. take place. These vapours rise to the sky and are condensed at higher altitudes by condensation nuclei and form clouds, resulting in droplet growth. The clouds melt and sometimes burst resulting in precipitation of different forms like rain, snow, hail, sleet, mist, dew and frost. A part of this precipitation flows over the land called runoff and part in-filters into the soil which builds up the ground water table. The surface runoff joins the streams and the
water is stored in reservoirs. A portion of surface runoff and ground water flows back to ocean. Again evaporation starts from the surfaces of lakes, reservoirs and ocean, and the cycle repeats.

FORMS OF PRECIPITATION

  1. Drizzle — a light steady rain in fine drops (0.5 mm) and intensity (<1 mm/hr) Rain the condensed water vapour of the atmosphere falling in drops (>0.5 mm, maximum size—6 mm) from the clouds.
  2. Glaze — Freezing of drizzle or rain when they come in contact with cold objects.
  3. Sleet — Frozen rain drops while falling through air at subfreezing temperature.
  4. Snow — Ice crystals resulting from sublimation (i.e., water vapour condenses to ice)
  5. Snow flakes — Ice crystals fused together.
  6. Hail — Small lumps of ice (>5 mm in diameter) formed by alternate freezing and melting, when they are carried up and down in highly turbulent air currents.
  7. Dew — Moisture condensed from the atmosphere in small drops upon cool
    surfaces.
  8. Frost — A feathery deposit of ice formed on the ground or on the surface of exposed objects by dew or water vapour that has frozen.
  9. Fog — A thin cloud of varying size formed at the surface of the earth by condensation of atmospheric vapour.
  10. Mist — Avery thin fog.

SCOPE OF HYDROLOGY

The study of hydrology helps us to know;

  • The maximum probable flood that may occur at a given site and its frequency; this is required for the safe design of drains and culverts, dams and reservoirs, channels and other flood control structures.
  • The water yield from a basin—its occurrence, quantity and frequency, etc; this is necessary for the design of dams, municipal water supply, water power, river navigation, etc.
  • The ground water development for which a knowledge of the hydro-geology of the area, i.e., of the formation soil, recharge facilities like streams and reservoirs, rainfall pattern, climate, cropping pattern, etc. are required.
  • The maximum intensity of storm and its frequency for the design of a drainage project in the area.

A hydrologist is often posed with lack of adequate data. The basic hydrological data required are:

  • Climatological Data.
  • Hydro meteorological data like temperature, wind velocity, humidity, etc.
  • Precipitation records and Stream-flow records.
  • Seasonal fluctuation of ground water table and evaporation data.
  • Cropping pattern, crops and their consumptive use water quality data of surface streams and ground water
  • Geomorphologic studies of the basin, like area, shape and slope of the basin, mean and median elevation, mean temperature (as well as highest and lowest temperature recorded) and other physiographic characteristics of the basin; stream density and drainage density; tanks and reservoirs

Hydro-meteorological characteristics of basin:

  • Depth-area-duration (DAD) curves for critical storms.
  • Isohyetal maps—Isohyets may be drawn for long-term average, annual and monthly precipitation for individual years and months.
  • Cropping pattern crops and their seasons.
  • Daily, monthly and annual evaporation from water surfaces in the basin.
  • Water balance studies of the basin
  • Soil conservation and methods of flood control

Hydrology means the science of water. It is the science of the water that deals with the occurrence , circulation and distribution of water of the earth and earth’s atmosphere. As a branch of earth science, it is concerned with the water in the streams and lakes, rainfall and snow fall, snow and ice on the land and water occurring below the earth’s surface in the pores of rocks ans soils.

Fish-Culture

The artificial reproduction, rearing and transplantation of fish is called pisciculture. It is also called fish farming. The term pisciculture is specific to aqua farming or the raising of fish inside of tanks or in house ponds. Pisciculture is a form of aquaculture as aquaculture is the scientific rearing and management of all aquatic animals. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species’ natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. Global demand is increasing for dietary fish protein, which has resulted in widespread overfishing in wild fisheries, resulting in significant decrease in fish stocks and even complete depletion in some regions. Fish farming allows establishment of artificial fish colonies that are provided with sufficient feeding, protection from natural predators and competitive threats, access to veterinarian service, and easier harvesting when needed, while being separate from and thus do not usually impact the sustainable yields of wild fish populations.

Aquaculture vs Pisciculture

Intensive Aquaculture

An intensive fish farming system is the well-managed form of fish farming, in which all attempts are made to achieve maximum production of fish from a minimum quantity of water.

  • This system involves small ponds/tanks/raceways with very high stocking density (10-50 fish/m3 of water).
  • Although intensive aquaculture is completely mechanized and self-contained it can have a detrimental impact on the environment.
  • The biggest problem caused by intensive aquaculture is the difficulty in properly dealing with the nutrient rich effluent.
  • Effluent contains high levels of both organic and inorganic nutrients like ammonia, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus.
  • If not disposed of correctly the effluent could cause a number of problems including eutrophication, and hypernutrification
  • Ingenious solutions have been developed to reduce the negative effects to the environmental caused by this effluent. The most effective solution is the advent of aquaponics.
Aquaculture fish farming of salmon and mackerel in the Chilean fjords about 6 km south from Castro, on March 16, 2019. Fish pens and crew scow can be moved.

Aquaponics is the combination of Intensive aquaculture (fish farming) and hydroponics (growing plants without soil). Aquaponic systems use the nutrient rich effluent from fish tanks as fertilizers for produce. The advent of aquaponics has made the aquaculture industry into a sustainable and Eco-friendly business.

Extensive Aquaculture

Extensive aquaculture is the other form of fish farming. It is more basic than intensive aquaculture in that less effort is put into the husbandry of the fish.

  • Extensive aquaculture is done in the ocean, natural and man-made lakes, bays, rivers, and Fiords.
  • Fish are contained within these habitats by multiple mesh enclosures which also function as trapping nets during harvest.
  • Since fish are susceptible to the elements, site placement is essential to ensuring rapid growth of the targeted species.
  • The drawback of these facilities is that they depend on the surrounding area for good water quality in order to reduce mortality and increase the survivorship and growth rate of the fish.
  • Fish chosen for extensive aquaculture are very hardy and often do well in high densities.Seaweed, prawns, muscles, carp, talapia, tuna and salmon are the most prominent forms of extensive aquacultured seafood .

Extensive Aquaculture – Drawbacks

Extensive aquaculture facilities have negative impacts on the environment as well. Natural habitats are destroyed in the development of man made ponds used for extensive aquaculture. In the Philippines, shrimp aquaculture is responsible for the destruction of thousands of acres of mangrove fields which serve as nurseries and living habitats for many marine organisms. Benthic habitats are being depleted due to the high amount of organic waste produced by the fish which settles below their pens. Phytoplankton and algae breakdown fecal matter and residual fish meal reducing the amount of available oxygen in the water column,which chokes and kills the Benthic organisms. Another serious problem acquainted with extensive aquaculture is the introduction of invasive species into ecosystems. Escaped fish increase the competition between organisms for limited resources. Also, when foreign fish interbreed with wild species, they upset the genetic variability of the species, making them more prone to disease and infection. The high density of fish in these mesh tanks is very tempting for predators of the sea and air. To protect the harvest from predators protective netting is set up at a high cost. Often times predatorial fish and mammals like seals, sharks, and tuna get caught in these barrier nets and die. Some farmers protect their stocks from predatorial birds such as pelicans and albatross by shooting these sometimes endangered creatures.

Pisciculture Complex, outside Rio Branco, Brazil

Today, only industrialized nations have the funds to invest in intensive aquaculture. Mass produced aquacultured fish has lowered the wholesale price of fish, thus drawing customers away from the already poor fishermen. Today, the only form of aquaculture available to small time fishermen is in the form of grow out pens for juvenile fish. Research is being done to create more complex and affordable forms of extensive aquaculture for subsistence fishermen in order to increase their standard of living, and more importantly, act as an incentive to protect endangered species.

World capture fisheries and aquaculture production by production mode, from FAO’s Statistical Yearbook 2020

National Unity Day – 31st October

National Unity Day is celebrated in India on 31 October. It was introduced by the Government of India in 2014. The day is celebrated to mark the birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel who had a major role in the political integration of India.

Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (31st October 1875 – 15th December 1950), endeared as Sardar, was an Indian statesman. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1950. He was an Indian barrister and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress who played a leading role in the country’s struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. He was one of the conservative members of the Indian National Congress. In India and elsewhere, he was often called Sardar, meaning “chief” in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian. He acted as Home Minister during the political integration of India and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.

As the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India, Patel organised relief efforts for partition refugees fleeing to Punjab and Delhi from Pakistan and worked to restore peace. He led the task of forging a united India, successfully integrating into the newly independent nation those British colonial provinces that formed the Dominion of India. Besides those provinces that had been under direct British rule, approximately 565 self-governing princely states had been released from British suzerainty by the Indian Independence Act of 1947. Patel persuaded almost every princely state to accede to India.

  • His commitment to national integration in the newly independent country was total and uncompromising, earning him the sobriquet “Iron Man of India”.
  • He is also remembered as the “Patron saint of India’s civil servants” for having established the modern All India Services system.
  • He is also called the “Unifier of India”.

Father of All India Services

He was also instrumental in the creation of the All India Services which he described as the country’s “Steel Frame”. In his address to the probationers of these services, he asked them to be guided by the spirit of service in day-to-day administration. He reminded them that the ICS was no-longer neither Imperial, nor civil, nor imbued with any spirit of service after Independence. His exhortation to the probationers to maintain utmost impartiality and incorruptibility of administration is as relevant today as it was then. “A civil servant cannot afford to, and must not, take part in politics. Nor must he involve himself in communal wrangles. To depart from the path of rectitude in either of these respects is to debase public service and to lower its dignity,” he had cautioned them on 21 April 1947. He, more than anyone else in post-independence India, realized the crucial role that civil services play in administering a country, in not merely maintaining law and order, but running the institutions that provide the binding cement to a society.The present-day all-India administrative services owe their origin to the man’s sagacity and thus he is regarded as Father of modern All India Services.

There is no alternative to this administrative system… The Union will go, you will not have a united India if you do not have good All-India Service which has the independence to speak out its mind, which has sense of security that you will standby your work… If you do not adopt this course, then do not follow the present Constitution. Substitute something else… these people are the instrument. Remove them and I see nothing but a picture of chaos all over the country.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

In his twilight years, Patel was honoured by members of Parliament. He was awarded honorary doctorates of law by Nagpur University, the University of Allahabad and Banaras Hindu University in November 1948, subsequently receiving honorary doctorates from Osmania University in February 1949 and from Punjab University in March 1949. Previously, Patel had been featured on the cover page of the January 1947 issue of Time magazine.

After suffering a massive heart attack (his second), Patel died on 15 December 1950 at Birla House in Bombay. In an unprecedented and unrepeated gesture, on the day after his death more than 1,500 officers of India’s civil and police services congregated to mourn at Patel’s residence in Delhi and pledged “complete loyalty and unremitting zeal” in India’s service. In homage to Patel, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru declared a week of national mourning. Patel’s cremation was planned at Girgaum Chowpatty, but this was changed to Sonapur (now Marine Lines) when his daughter conveyed that it was his wish to be cremated like a common man in the same place as his wife and brother were earlier cremated. His cremation in Sonapur in Bombay was attended by a crowd of one million including Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Rajagopalachari and President Rajendra Prasad.

Statue of Unity

The Statue of Unity is a colossal statue of Indian statesman and Independence activist Vallabhbhai Patel. Patel was highly respected for his leadership in uniting 562 princely states of India with a major part of the former British Raj to form the single Union of India. The Statue of Unity is the world’s tallest statue, with a height of 182 metres (597 feet). It is located in the state of Gujarat, India, on the Narmada River in the Kevadiya colony, facing the Sardar Sarovar Dam 100 kilometres (62 mi) southeast of the city of Vadodara and 150 kilometres (93 mi) from the city of Surat. Kevadia railway station is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the statue. The project was first announced in 2010, and construction of the statue started in October 2013 by Indian company Larsen & Toubro, with a total construction cost of 2700 crore (27 billion; US$422 million). It was designed by Indian sculptor Ram V. Sutar and was inaugurated by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 31 October 2018, the 143rd anniversary of Patel’s birth.

Patel was a selfless leader, who placed the country’s interests above everything else and shaped India’s destiny with single-minded devotion. The invaluable contribution of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in building a modern and unified India needs to be remembered by every Indian as the country marches ahead as one of the largest economies in the world. His enduring fame rests on his achievement of the peaceful integration of the princely Indian states into the Indian Union and the Political unification of India.

Agricultural Machinery

Agricultural machinery relates to the mechanical structures and devices used in farming or other agriculture. There are many types of such equipment, from hand tools and power tools to tractors and the countless kinds of farm implements that they tow or operate. Agricultural machinery and equipment help farmers produce the goods that consumers want and need. Without the proper machinery and equipment, farmers would not be efficient enough to provide the food, clothing, and shelter that we need. Hundreds of years ago, the population was made up of primarily farmers and ranchers. Now, a very small percent of the population is responsible for producing the food and fiber used today. Machinery and equipment allow this to be possible. Because of the high technology with machinery and equipment, in some countries one farmer produces enough food to feed over 100 people.
Using power only from humans or horses would not produce nearly this amount. Machinery and equipment reduce the amount of hard labor needed for farmers to do their work. Jobs are easier and take less time when machinery and equipment are used. Machinery and equipment also help farmers produce larger amounts of higher quality livestock and grain products.

Different types Machinery and Equipments are used in every Sector of the Agricultural Industry. Some of them are in-

  1. Livestock production
  2. Horticulture
  3. Forestry
  4. Crop production

Livestock production

Machinery and equipment can be used to help producers care for and manage their livestock. Milking machines, automated feeding and watering systems, incubators, egg candlers, tractors, computers, and many other types of machinery and equipment can be used by the producer to improve efficiency and quality of products.

AUTOMATED FEEDING SYSTEM
INCUBATOR
MILKING MACHINES
LOADER ( HAULING MANURE)
EGG CANDLER
Automated Watering System

Horticulture

Machinery and equipment are very important in the horticulture industry. Lawnmowers, tillers, sprayers, spreaders, irrigation systems, wood chippers, lawn rollers, leaf blowers, computers, and tractors are all vital pieces of machinery and equipment used by horticulturalists.

Pesticide Sprayer
Lawnmower with Utility Cart
Greenhouse Irrigation System
Wood Chipper
Rotary Tiller
Rotary Spreader

Forestry

The forestry industry relies on machinery and equipment to function. Log trucks, skidders, loaders, cutters, harvesters, chainsaws, computers, and surveying equipment are all necessary for efficient forestry operations.

Log Truck
Harvester
Loader
Skidder
Chainsaw
GRASS CUTTER

Crop production

Without the proper machinery and equipment, large-scale crop production would be impossible. Tilling, planting, applying pesticides and fertilizers, and harvesting all require specialized machinery and equipment. Plows, planters, drills, sprayers, spreaders, combines, balers, computers, tractors, grain trucks, and many other types of machinery and equipment are necessary to produce crops effectively.

PLANTER
FERTILIZER SPREADER
COMBINER
PLOW

Some other Machineries and Equipments used in producing crops are-

  1. Tractor
  2. Tillage equipment
  3. Planting equipment
  4. Application equipment
  5. Harvesting equipment
  6. Global Positioning System
  7. Geographic Information System

Tractor – A tractor is a motorized vehicle that is used to pull heavy loads and to provide power to operate implements. There are two main types of tractors — wheeled and crawler.

  • A wheeled tractor is a tractor that usually has four or more wheels that turn and move the tractor.
  • A crawler tractor is a tractor that has steel or rubber tracks fitted around the wheels that make the tractor move.

Tillage equipment – It is a equipment used to plow or till the soil. It slices, breaks, or cuts the soil in order to prepare the ground, control weeds, or create mulch. The tillage equipment used depends on the type of soil and the crop that is to be grown. Tillage equipment includes plows, harrows, and cultivators.

  • A plow is an implement used to cut, lift, and turn over soil. It is commonly used to prepare the soil for planting. There are various types of plows and the one most commonly used in many countries is the moldboard plow.
  • A harrow is an implement with spikes or disks that is used to cultivate the soil by pulverizing and smoothing it.
  • A cultivator is an implement used to loosen the soil and control weeds between rows of growing crops..

Planting equipment – It is a equipment used to place seeds in the soil for germination. It must be properly adjusted so the right amount of seed is planted at the proper depth in the soil. Planting equipment includes planters and drills.

  • A planter is an implement used to place seeds in the soil at the proper rate, depth, and spacing.
  • A drill is an implement used to plant seeds for germination.

Application equipment – It is a equipment used to apply fertilizer, pesticides, growth regulators, and other materials to crops. It must be properly calibrated and operated so the right amount of material is delivered. The equipment may use dry or liquid materials. Application equipment includes sprayers and dusters.

  • A sprayer is a piece of equipment that uses tanks, pumps, and nozzles to apply liquid materials.
  • A duster is a piece of equipment used to apply dry powder materials..

Harvesting equipment – It is a equipment used to pick, reap, or otherwise gather crops. Different types of crops require different types of equipment. Harvesting equipment includes combines, pickers, balers, and mowers.

  • A combine is a machine used to harvest crops as it moves across a field
  • A picker is a machine used to harvest crops by picking. Cotton is the most common crop harvested with a picker.
  • A mower is a piece of equipment used to cut standing vegetation. Mowers are used to harvest forage crops, such as grass and alfalfa. After mowing, the crop may be left in rows to dry and be picked up by a baler.
  • A baler is a piece of equipment used to harvest forage crops that have been cut, dried, and placed in rows. The baler is pulled behind a tractor and picks the dried vegetation up off the ground.

Global Positioning System (GPS) – It is a system that uses satellites and computers to tell a farmer his or her exact location in a field. The earth is continually circled by 24 GPS satellites. At least four of these satellites are visible from any one point on Earth.
GPS uses three satellites that are connected by an electronic signal with a receiver on the ground. (A fourth satellite is used to verify that the information is accurate.) Distances from satellites to the receiver can be quickly measured. Computers calculate the exact location of the receiver. GPS receivers are generally located on equipment that moves over a field. GPS systems can precisely guide tractors and equipment through a field and program computers to deliver precise amounts of seed, fertilizer, or herbicide to plants in variable amounts.

Geographic Information System (GIS) – It is a system used with GPS to make maps or grids of a field. These maps give a farmer data about soil conditions, crop yield, and other information so he or she can make decisions needed to improve the crops in the field.

Maintenance of Farm Machinery

  1. During the repair of any machinery, appropriate protective clothing should be worn. This includes helmets, goggles, gloves, hearing protection, and safety shoes.
  2. Do not wear baggy clothing, and keep long hair tied back. Loose-fitting clothing and hair can easily catch in rotating machinery parts.
  3. All machinery should be maintained regularly. Any worn or broken parts should be replaced immediately, not fixed in a temporary manner. When repairs are made, the machine should be fixed according to manufacturers’ specifications.
  4. When repairs are made, any guard removed during repair must be replaced before the equipment is used.
  5. Check tire inflation and tread periodically to prevent flats and blowouts.
  6. Whenever preparing to work on a piece of equipment, block wheels to prevent movement. Any jacks used should be stable and in good condition.
  7. Inspect brakes, hitches, safety chains, springs, and shackles regularly for wear, broken or missing parts, and cracks in the welds.
  8. Inspect hydraulic and air lines regularly for wear and cracks. Replace lines that show any sign of damage.
  9. Caution should be taken when working on hydraulic systems. Make sure all pressure in the system is relieved and that the fluid is cool before loosening any fittings or removing lines. Wear leather or rubber gloves.

The Great Exhibition of 1851

One of the landmark events of 19th century Victorian England was the Great Exhibition of 1851. It was one of the most successful cultural events of the century and was an attempt to showcase Britain’s progress and superiority to the rest of the world. Following two decades of political and social upheaval in Europe, Great Britain sought to provide the world with the hope for a better future through the aid of technology.

The Great Exhibition, also known as the ‘The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, was held from 1st May to 15th October 1851 at the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London. It was a celebration of modern technology and design of the Industrial Revolution and was a platform where countries could flaunt their achievements. It was the first-ever exhibition held for manufactured products.

Although its conception is famously associated with Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s husband, the idea was initially proposed by Henry Cole, a civil servant. When Albert became the president of the ‘Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce’ in 1943, he backed Cole’s idea for an international fair. They were impressed in particular by the scale of the Paris Exposition of 1849, but they proposed an even larger event, which would be international in scope, where Britain’s engineering and manufactured goods could be compared with those of its international competitors.

Initially there was little interest in the concept of an exhibition by the government of the day, but Henry and Albert continued to develop their idea. They wanted it to be for All Nations, the greatest collection of art in industry, ‘for the purpose of exhibition of competition and encouragement’, and most significantly it was to be self-financing. The government was finally persuaded to form the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 to establish the viability of hosting such an exhibition.

Dickinson’s Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851

Designing and constructing a large enough building in 12 months was one of the biggest challenges. A design competition was staged, which received a total of 245 entries, but none of the proposed structures were suitable – partly because they would be difficult to remove once the event had ended. However, a landscape gardener, Joseph Paxton, who had previously designed greenhouses for the Duke of Devonshire, came up with the idea of the Crystal Palace. 

The Crystal Palace, made entirely of glass and iron, was created exclusively at Hyde Park for the Great Exhibition by Joseph Paxton. It was a temporary structure that was built in 8 months and could be easily assembled and dismantled. The Crystal Palace was created with 294,000 glass panes and was 1,851 feet long, with an interior height of 128 feet, about three times the size of St Paul’s Cathedral. The name resulted from a piece that playwright Douglas Jerrold wrote for Punch magazine, where he referred to it as a “palace of very crystal.” 

William Makepeace Thackeray, one of the leading novelists of the Victorian era, was moved to write a poem about the opening of the Crystal Palace:

“As though ’twere by a wizard’s rod

 Leaps like a fountain from the grass

As blazing arch of lucid glass

 To meet the sun.”

Dickinson’s Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851

Queen Victoria officially opened The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations with an elaborate ceremony at noon on May 1, 1851. Famous people of the time attended the Great Exhibition, including Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, Michael Faraday (who assisted with the planning and judging of exhibits), Samuel Colt, members of the Orléanist Royal Family and the writers Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dickens, Lewis Carroll, George Eliot, Alfred Tennyson and William Makepeace Thackeray. 

The exhibition featured objects from the host country, Britain and its colonies, and foreign states. More than 100,000 objects were displayed by over 14,000 exhibitors from around the world. The exhibits displayed were divided into four themes: Machinery, Manufactures, Fine Arts, and Raw Materials. The objects displayed included almost every marvel of the Victorian age, including pottery, porcelain, ironwork, furniture, perfumes, pianos, firearms, fabrics, steam hammers, hydraulic presses, and even the odd house or two. Many more ordinary items were displayed by manufacturers and merchants. Inventors and manufacturers from Britain displayed tools, household items, farm implements, and food products.

Dickinson’s Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851

India contributed an elaborate throne of carved ivory, a coat embroidered with pearls, emeralds and rubies, and a magnificent howdah and trappings for a rajah’s elephant. The most anticipated artifact from the Indian subcontinent was “The Great Diamond of Runjeet Singh called the Koh-i-Noor or the Mountain of Light”, the world’s largest known diamond. It was of priceless value, but visitors found it underwhelming, owing to its lack of sparkle. Another diamond was the Daria-i-Noor, a pale pink diamond, one of the rarest in the world.

The Russian exhibits arrived late, having been delayed by ice in the Baltic. When they did arrive, they were breathtaking: huge vases and urns made of porcelain and malachite more than 10ft tall; furs; sledges and Cossack armour. Canada sent a fire engine with painted panels showing Canadian scenes, and a trophy of furs. Chile sent a single lump of gold weighing 50kg, Switzerland sent gold watches. C C Hornung of Copenhagen, Denmark, showed his single-cast iron frame for a pianoforte, the first made in Europe. The American display was headed by a massive eagle, wings outstretched, holding a drapery of the Stars and Stripes, all poised over one of the organs scattered throughout the building. The largest foreign contributor was France, with its sumptuous tapestries, Sevres porcelain and silks from Lyons, enamels from Limoges and furniture. 

Dickinson’s Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851

The opening of the Great Exhibition coincided with one of the greatest innovations of the Industrial Revolution, the railways. Visiting London had become feasible and accessible for the masses, thanks to the new railway lines spread across the country. About 6 million people flocked to witness the exhibition between May and October. The ticket was initially priced at £1 each and reduced to one shilling each, which proved much more popular. However, the tickets were still expensive on peak days – Friday and Saturday. The fair brought in an enormous profit of £186,000, which funded the construction of well-known cultural centers in South Kensington like the Science Museum, the Natural History Museum, and the Victoria & Albert Museum.

Shortly after the exhibition, the whole structure of the Crystal Palace was removed from the Hyde Park site and re-erected at Sydenham, in the Kent countryside, now a part of South East London. The structure was transformed into a permanent attraction, and was in use for 85 years until it was destroyed in a fire in 1936.

The Great Exhibition of 1851 has become one of the most defining cultural events of Victorian England and is an enduring symbol of the 19th century. The exhibition set a precedent for the many international exhibitions which followed, inspiring a long succession of international fairs in other cities, including Paris, Dublin, New York, Vienna, and Chicago – almost one a year for the rest of the 19th century. The Great Exhibition was enormously influential in developing many aspects of society, like art and design education, international trade and relations, and tourism.

Animal Husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock. Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated, from around 13,000 BC onward, predating farming of the first crops. By the time of early civilizations such as ancient Egypt, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs were being raised on farms. Most livestock are herbivores, except for pigs and chickens which are omnivores. Ruminants like cattle and sheep are adapted to feed on grass; they can forage outdoors, or may be fed entirely or in part on rations richer in energy and protein, such as pelleted cereals. Pigs and poultry cannot digest the cellulose in forage, and require other high-protein foods.

The domestication of livestock was driven by the need to have food on hand when hunting was unproductive. The desirable characteristics of a domestic animal are that it should be useful to the domestication, should be able to thrive in his or her company, should breed freely, and be easy to tend. In ancient Egypt, cattle were the most important livestock, and sheep, goats, and pigs were also kept; poultry including ducks, geese, and pigeons were captured in nets and bred on farms, where they were force-fed with dough to fatten them. In northern Europe, agriculture including animal husbandry went into decline when the Roman empire collapsed. Some aspects such as the herding of animals continued throughout the period. By the 11th century, the economy had recovered and the countryside was again productive. The improvements of animal husbandry in the medieval period in Europe went hand in hand with other developments. Improvements to the plough allowed the soil to be tilled to a greater depth. Horses took over from oxen as the main providers of traction, new ideas on crop rotation were developed and the growing of crops for winter fodder gained ground. Peas, beans and vetches became common; they increased soil fertility through nitrogen fixation, allowing more livestock to be kept.

Branches

Dairy Farming – Dairy farming is a class of agriculture for long-term production of milk, which is processed (either on the farm or at a dairy plant, either of which may be called a dairy) for eventual sale of a dairy product. Although any mammal can produce milk, commercial dairy farms are typically one-species enterprises. In developed countries, dairy farms typically consist of high producing dairy cows. Other species used in commercial dairy farming include goats, sheep, water buffaloes, and camels. In Italy, donkey dairies are growing in popularity to produce an alternative milk source for human infants.

Meat industry – The meat industry are the people and companies engaged in modern industrialized livestock agriculture for the production, packing, preservation and marketing of meat (in contrast to dairy products, wool, etc.). In economics, the meat industry is a fusion of primary (agriculture) and secondary (industry) activity and hard to characterize strictly in terms of either one alone. The greater part of the meat industry is the meat packing industry – the segment that handles the slaughtering, processing, packaging, and distribution of animals such as poultry, cattle, pigs, sheep and other livestock. A great portion of the ever-growing meat branch in the food industry involves intensive animal farming in which livestock are kept almost entirely indoors or in restricted outdoor settings like pens. Many aspects of the raising of animals for meat have become industrialized, even many practices more associated with smaller family farms. The production of livestock is a heavily vertically integrated industry where the majority of supply chain stages are integrated and owned by one company.

Cattle – Cattle, taurine cattle, or European cattle (Bos taurus or Bos primigenius taurus) are large domesticated cloven-hooved herbivores. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos. Depending on sex, they are referred to as cows (female) or bulls (male). Cattle are commonly raised as livestock for meat (beef or veal, see beef cattle), for milk (see dairy cattle), and for hides, which are used to make leather. They are used as riding animals and draft animals (oxen or bullocks, which pull carts, plows and other implements). Another product of cattle is their dung, which can be used to create manure or fuel.

Sheep farming – Sheep farming or sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep. It is a branch of animal husbandry. Sheep are raised principally for their meat (lamb and mutton), milk (sheep’s milk), and fiber (wool). They also yield sheepskin and parchment. Sheep can be raised in a range of temperate climates, including arid zones near the equator and other torrid zones. Farmers build fences, housing, shearing sheds, and other facilities on their property, such as for water, feed, transport, and pest control. Most farms are managed so sheep can graze pastures, sometimes under the control of a shepherd or sheep dog.

Pig farming – Pig farming or hog farming is the raising and breeding of domestic pigs as livestock, and is a branch of animal husbandry. Pigs are farmed principally for food (e.g. pork, bacon, gammon) and skins. Pigs are amenable to many different styles of farming: intensive commercial units, commercial free range enterprises, or extensive farming (being allowed to wander around a village, town or city, or tethered in a simple shelter or kept in a pen outside the owner’s house). Historically, farm pigs were kept in small numbers and were closely associated with the residence of the owner, or in the same village or town.They were valued as a source of meat and fat, and for their ability to convert inedible food into meat and manure, and were often fed household food waste when kept on a homestead. Pigs have been farmed to dispose of municipal garbage on a large scale. All these forms of pig farm are in use today, though intensive farms are by far the most popular, due to their potential to raise a large amount of pigs in a very cost-efficient manner. In developed nations, commercial farms house thousands of pigs in climate-controlled buildings. Pigs are a popular form of livestock, with more than one billion pigs butchered each year worldwide, 100 million of them in the USA. The majority of pigs are used for human food but also supply skin, fat and other materials for use as clothing, ingredients for processed foods, cosmetics, and medical use.

Cuniculture – Cuniculture is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising domestic rabbits as livestock for their meat, fur, or wool. Cuniculture is also employed by rabbit fanciers and hobbyists in the development and betterment of rabbit breeds and the exhibition of those efforts. Scientists practice cuniculture in the use and management of rabbits as model organisms in research. Cuniculture has been practiced all over the world since at least the 5th century.

Poultry farming – Poultry farming is the form of animal husbandry which raises domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese to produce meat or eggs for food. It has originated from the agricultural era. Poultry – mostly chickens – are farmed in great numbers. More than 60 billion chickens are killed for consumption annually. Chickens raised for eggs are known as layers, while chickens raised for meat are called broilers.

Aquaculture – Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture , also known as aquafarming, is the controlled cultivation (“farming”) of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, algae and other organisms of value such as aquatic plants (e.g. lotus). Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled or semi-natural conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Mariculture, commonly known as marine farming, refers specifically to aquaculture practiced in seawater habitats, opposed to in freshwater aquaculture.

Beekeeping – Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans. Most such bees are honey bees in the genus Apis, but other honey-producing bees such as Melipona stingless bees are also kept. A beekeeper (or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produce (including beeswax, propolis, flower pollen, bee pollen, and royal jelly), to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or “bee yard”.

Insect farming – Insect farming is the practice of raising and breeding insects as livestock, also referred to as minilivestock or micro stock. Insects may be farmed for the commodities they produce (like silk, honey, lac or insect tea), or for them themselves; to be used as food, as feed, as a dye, and otherwise.

Sericulture – Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk. Although there are several commercial species of silkworms, Bombyx mori (the caterpillar of the domestic silkmoth) is the most widely used and intensively studied silkworm. Silk was believed to have first been produced in China as early as the Neolithic Period. Sericulture has become an important cottage industry in countries such as Brazil, China, France, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, and Russia. Today, China and India are the two main producers, with more than 60% of the world’s annual production.

Environmental Impact

Animal husbandry has a significant impact on the world environment. Being a part of the animal–industrial complex, animal agriculture is the primary driver of climate change, ocean acidification, biodiversity loss, and of the crossing of almost every other planetary boundary, in addition to killing more than 60 billion non-human land animals annually. It is responsible for somewhere between 20 and 33% of the fresh water usage in the world, and livestock, and the production of feed for them, occupy about a third of the earth’s ice-free land. Livestock production is a contributing factor in species extinction, desertification, and habitat destruction. Since the 18th century, people have become increasingly concerned about the welfare of farm animals. Possible measures of welfare include longevity, behavior, physiology, reproduction, freedom from disease, and freedom from immunosuppression. Standards and laws for animal welfare have been created worldwide, broadly in line with the most widely held position in the western world, a form of utilitarianism: that it is morally acceptable for humans to use non-human animals, provided that no unnecessary suffering is caused, and that the benefits to humans outweigh the costs to the livestock. An opposing view is that animals have rights, should not be regarded as property, are not necessary to use, and should never be used by humans.

Study of Tractors – Mostly Used Farm Machine

DESCRIPTION OF A TRACTOR

Tractor, an engineering vehicle, was specially designed to provide a high torque or tractive effort within the low speed, to haul machinery or trailer used in construction or agriculture. The tractor is a special farm machine that helps a wide array of agricultural equipment to complete many roles assign on the farm. Tractors are important tools for farmers in another world we can say that modern farm is incomplete without a tractor. Tractor helps the farmers to cut down extra costs for resources, which is the main purpose to use tractors by farmers. Farm tractor technology helped push up yields and producers get the rewards of higher fuel efficiency.

HISTORY OF TRACTOR ENGINES

The word “TRACTOR” is derived from Latin word “TRAHERE” or “TRACT” which means something that pulls. The first powered farm implements in the early 19th century were portable engines – steam engines on wheels that could be used to drive mechanical farm machinery by way of a flexible belt. Richard Trevithick designed the first ‘semi-portable’ stationary steam engine for agricultural use, known as a “barn engine” in 1812, and it was used to drive a corn threshing machine. The truly portable engine was invented in 1893 by William Tux ford of Boston, Lincolnshire who started manufacture of an engine built around a locomotive-style boiler with horizontal smoke tubes. In the 1850s, John Fowler used a Clayton & Shuttle worth portable engine to drive apparatus in the first public demonstrations of the application of cable haulage to cultivation.

“1882 Harrison Machine Works steam-powered traction engine”

CLASSIFICATIONS OF TRACTOR ENGINES

  1. Utility Tractors
  2. Row Crop Tractors
  3. Orchard Type Tractors
  4. Industrial Tractors
  5. Garden Tractors
  6. Rotary Tillers
  7. Implement Carrier
  8. Earth Moving Tractors

Utility Tractors – A low- to medium-horsepower tractor; used primarily for pulling auxiliary equipment, but also used in construction with attachments for trenching, dozing, breaking, etc.

Row Crop Tractors – A general-purpose or row-crop tractor is tailored specifically to the growing of crops grown in rows, and most especially to cultivating these crops. These tractors are universal machines, capable of both primary tillage and cultivation of a crop.

Orchard Type Tractors – The orchard tractor is a type of tractor that is used in vineries and orchards. These tractors are built to navigate and manoeuvre in small areas or fields These are a special type of tractor used in orchards only. They are usually very high and tall so that the user can sit on the tractor and still pick the fruits or trim the trees. Outside of the surface of the tractor, it is clear, which means that you can get in and around all of the trees without a hassle. Best of all, they can be used in various types of orchards, regardless of what you’ve planted there, whether it is fruit trees or grapes.

Rotary Tillers – These are “walking type” tractors and are usually used in smaller fields and those that are at different height levels. These are places where ordinary equipment often doesn’t work efficiently, yet rotary tillers are small enough to get into small spaces and over hills with ease. A rotary tiller is essentially a motorized cultivator that works by the rotation of blades or tines in order to work the soil. It takes the soil, even hard, chunky soil, and creates a fine, clod-free bed of soil. After you use this equipment to “till” the soil, your garden bed is ready to be planted with any type of seeds you wish to plant.

Industrial tractors – Industrial tractors were once called Tuggers, and they are used to pull loads. In fact, most industrial tractors are not even made for agricultural use, but instead, they are used in factories while pulling things. They come in various models and horsepower strengths.

Garden tractors – Garden tractors tend to have a very small construction size. They are used more for grass-cutting tasks than anything else, or for creating new flower beds in your garden. Garden tractors have wheels that are roughly the size of a scooter’s wheels but are much thicker.

Earth-moving tractors – Earth-moving tractors have to be quite strong and extremely heavy, and they come in both tire and track types. If you’re working on a construction site, including work on dams and quarries, an earth-moving tractor can be a lifesaver.
They move earth to dig holes for basements and new construction, in addition to numerous other tasks, and even though they are expensive they are always built to last. They are used to move and relocate things such as dirt, debris, rocks, mud, or even lumber.

Implement Carrier Tractors – These types of tractors are meant to carry and mount many different types of implements, the chassis frame between the front and rear tires is extended. Therefore, they are able to mount implements that include drills, sprayers, seed drills, rotary sweepers, loaders, and dusters, among others. They come in many different sizes and designs, and the companies that sell them can provide you with the information that you need to make sure that you get the right one.

COMPONENTS OF A TRACTOR

A tractor is made of following main units:

  1. Clutch
  2. Transmission Gears
  3. Differential Unit and Final Drive
  4. Steering System and Brake Steering System
  5. Hydraulic Control System
  6. Hitch and Control Board of Tractor
  7. Power Take-Off Unit
  8. Belt Pulley
  9. Control Board or Dash Board of a Tractor
  10. Tractor Tyre and Front Axle.

Component 1 – Clutch: Clutch is a device, used to connect and disconnect the tractor engine from the transmission gears and drive wheels.

Component 2 -Transmission Gears: A tractor engine runs at high speed, but the rear wheel of the tractor requires power at low speed and high torque. & Torque Converter: This is also called hydro-kinetic transmission. It is a device used on tractors for transmission of power and for multiplying the torque of the engine. It works as a torque multiplier.

Component 3 – Differential Unit: It is a special arrangement of gears to permit one of the rear wheels of the tractor to rotate slower or faster than the other. While turning the tractor on a curved path, the inner wheel has to travel lesser distance than the outer wheel & Final Drive: It is a gear reduction unit in the power trains between the Differential and the Drive wheels. Final drive transmits the power finally to the rear axle and the wheels.

Component 4 – Steering System: The system governing the angular movement of front wheels of a tractor is called Steering system. This system minimizes the efforts of the operator in turning the front wheel with the application of leverages. & Brake: Brake is used to stop or slow down the motion of a tractor.

Component 5 – Hydraulic Control System: It is a mechanism in a tractor to raise, hold or lower the mounted or semi-mounted equipments by hydraulic means. All tractors are equipped with hydraulic control system for operating three point hitch of the tractor.

Component 6 – Hitch: Implements are needed to be hitched properly for efficient and safe operation of the tractor. Implements can be: 1. Trailed 2. Semi-mounted and 3. Mounted.

Component 7 – Power Take-Off Unit (PTO): It is a part of tractor transmission system. It consists of a shaft, a shield and a cover.

Component 8 – Belt Pulley: All tractors are provided with a belt pulley. The function of the pulley is to transmit power from the tractor to stationary machinery by means of a belt. It is used to operate thresher, centrifugal pumps, silage cutter and several other machines

Component 9 – Control Board or Dash Board of a Tractor:

The control board of a tractor generally consists of:

  • Main Switch: When the main switch is on, the electric current flows in the electrical circuit.
  • Throttle Lever: This lever is for increasing or decreasing the speed of the engine.
  • Decompression Lever: This lever releases compression pressure from the combustion chamber of the engine and helps to start the engine.
  • Hour Meter: This meter indicates the engine hour as well as engine revolution per minute.
  • Light Switch: Light switch is for light points only.
  • Horn Hutton: This is for horn of the tractor
  • Battery Charging Indicator: This indicates the charge and discharge of the battery.
  • Oil Pressure Indicator: This indicates the lubricating oil pressure in the system.
  • Water Temperature Gauge: This indicates the temperature of water of the cooling system.

Component 10 – Tractor Tyre: The tyres are available in many sizes with the ply ratings as 4, 6 or 8. The ply rating of tyres indicates the comparative strength of tyres. The higher the rating, the stronger are the tyres. The inflation pressure in the rear wheels of the tractor varies between 0.8 to 1.5 kg/cm . The inflation pressure of the front wheel varies from 1.5 to 2.5kg/cm &
Front Axle: Front axle is the unit on which front wheel is mounted. This wheel is an idler wheel by which tractor is steered in various directions.

APPLICATION OF TRACTORS

Farm tractor designs and styles differ greatly. Tractors are often used on a daily basis for the several agricultural and non agricultural tasks by attaching or operating the light, medium to heavy implements, equipments and machineries according to the requirement and HP of tractors.

The major application of farm tractors for Agricultural and Non Agricultural sectors are given below :-

AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES

Preparing the field by attaching different implements, equipments and machinery for tilling, disking, harrowing, levelling and forming of beds, bunds, furrow & ridges.

Application of organic manure in line or rows by attaching a trailer and organic manure applicator.

Spraying of pesticides in field crops and tress by operating different types of sprayers.

Pumping the ground, canal, river, open well, pond or stored water by operating pumps.

Crushing of sugarcane by operating sugarcane crusher

NON-AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES

Removing the snow by attaching snow blower and grader.

Generating electricity by operating the Alternator/Generator.

Using for defence & airport applications to tow baggage.

Powering of building and road construction equipments.

Breaking of rock with tractor mounted pneumatic compressors.

CONCLUSION

A tractor can act as a best friend to a farmer. In a country like India where farming and agriculture is the leading occupation of the people, a tractor plays a vital role in the life of a farmer. It can deliver several advantages to the farmers and make the task of farming easier. As an efficient machine, it helps the farmer to comprehensively carry out the various works related to the farming. Therefore, with a tractor, you as a farmer in India can expect good profits in the case of farming.

World Mental Health Day

The World Health Organisation recognizes World Mental Health Day on 10 October every year. October 10, 1992 was the first time the World Mental Health Day was observed in over 150+ countries. It was the Deputy Secretary General Richard Hunter whose relentless efforts led to the observance. The day used to be celebrated to educate, and remove the general problems arising from mental illness until 1993. It was only in 1994, that the event began to follow a theme-based approach. For the first time in that year, the event was commemorated on the theme of ‘Improving the Quality of Mental Health Services throughout the World’. It was suggested by the Secretary General Eugene .

Importance of World Mental Health Day

The day is important in the medical world as it aims at improving the mental health issues of people by using various medications and counselling and other important services. In many parts of the world, the preparation for this day is done beforehand and some countries even hold workshops and courses that run for a week or sometimes months. Moreover, this day allows people to speak up about mental health in general and breaks the stigma of society. It is important to know that anyone can face mental issues, but the right diagnosis and counselling can yield positive results in a short period of time.

What is Mental Health?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO)Trusted Source:

“Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.”

  • People sometimes use the term “mental health” to mean the absence of a mental disorder.
  • Mental health can affect daily living, relationships, and physical health. However, this link also works in the other direction.
  • Factors in people’s lives, interpersonal connections, and physical factors can all contribute to mental health disruptions. Looking after mental health can preserve a person’s ability to enjoy life.
  • Doing this involves reaching a balance between life activities, responsibilities, and efforts to achieve psychological resilience.
  • Conditions such as stress, depression, and anxiety can all affect mental health and disrupt a person’s routine. Although the term mental health is in common use, many conditions that doctors recognize as psychological disorders have physical roots.
  • The WHO stress that mental health is “more than just the absence of mental disorders or disabilities.” Peak mental health is about not only avoiding active conditions but also looking after ongoing wellness and happiness.
  • They also emphasize that preserving and restoring mental health is crucial on an individual basis, as well as throughout different communities and societies the world over.

Common Mental Health Disorders

Anxiety disorders – According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, Anxiety Disorders are the most common type of mental illness. People with these conditions have severe fear or anxiety, which relates to certain objects or situations. Most people with an anxiety disorder will try to avoid exposure to whatever triggers their anxiety.

Panic disorders – People with a panic disorder experience regular panic attacks, which involve sudden, overwhelming terror or a sense of imminent disaster and death.

Phobias – A phobia is a persistent, excessive, unrealistic fear of an object, person, animal, activity or situation. It is a type of anxiety disorder. A person with a phobia either tries to avoid the thing that triggers the fear, or endures it with great anxiety and distress.

There are Different types of Phobia:

  • Simple phobias: These might involve a disproportionate fear of specific objects, scenarios, or animals. A fear of spiders is a common example.
  • Social phobia: Sometimes known as social anxiety, this is a fear of being subject to the judgment of others. People with social phobia often restrict their exposure to social environments.
  • Agoraphobia: This term refers to a fear of situations in which getting away may be difficult, such as being in an elevator or moving train. Many people misunderstand this phobia as a fear of being outside.

Phobias are deeply personal, and doctors do not know every type. There could be thousands of phobias, and what might seem unusual to one person may be a severe problem that dominates daily life for another.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) – People with OCD have obsessions and compulsions. In other words, they experience constant, stressful thoughts and a powerful urge to perform repetitive acts, such as hand washing.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – PTSD can occur after a person experiences or witnesses a deeply stressful or traumatic event. During this type of event, the person thinks that their life or other people’s lives are in danger. They may feel afraid or that they have no control over what is happening. These sensations of trauma and fear may then contribute to PTSD.

Mood disorders – People may also refer to mood disorders as affective disorders or depressive disorders. People with these conditions have significant changes in mood, generally involving either mania, which is a period of high energy and elation, or depression.

Examples of mood disorders include:

  • Major depression: An individual with major depression experiences a constant low mood and loses interest in activities and events that they previously enjoyed. They can feel prolonged periods of sadness or extreme sadness.
  • Bipolar disorder: A person with bipolar disorder experiences unusual changes.Trusted Source in their mood, energy levels, levels of activity, and ability to continue with daily life. Periods of high mood are known as manic phases, while depressive phases bring on low mood.
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – Reduced daylight triggers during the fall, winter, and early spring months trigger this type of major depression . It is most common in countries far from the equator.

Schizophrenia Disorders – Mental health authorities are still trying to determine whether schizophrenia is a single disorder or a group of related illnesses. It is a highly complex condition. Signs of schizophrenia typically develop between the ages of 16 and 30 years. The individual will have thoughts that appear fragmented, and they may also find it hard to process information. Schizophrenia has negative and positive symptoms. Positive symptoms include delusions, thought disorders, and hallucinations. Negative symptoms include withdrawal, lack of motivation, and a flat or inappropriate mood.

Mental Health Promotion and Protection

An environment that respects and protects basic civil, political, socio-economic and cultural rights is fundamental to mental health. Without the security and freedom provided by these rights, it is difficult to maintain a high level of mental health.

Specific ways to promote mental health include:

  • Early childhood interventions (e.g. providing a stable environment that is sensitive to children’s health and nutritional needs, with protection from threats, opportunities for early learning, and interactions that are responsive, emotionally supportive and developmentally stimulating).
  • Support to children (e.g. life skills programmes, child and youth development programmes); Socio-economic empowerment of women (e.g. improving access to education and microcredit schemes).
  • Social support for elderly populations (e.g. befriending initiatives, community and day centers for the aged); Programmes targeted at vulnerable people, including minorities, indigenous people, migrants and people affected by conflicts and disasters (e.g. psycho-social interventions after disasters).
  • Mental health promotional activities in schools (e.g. programmes involving supportive ecological changes in schools). Mental Health interventions at work (e.g. stress prevention programmes). Housing policies (e.g. housing improvement) Violence prevention programmes (e.g. reducing availability of alcohol and access to arms).
  • Community development programmes (e.g. integrated rural development). Poverty reduction and social protection for the poor.

Early Signs

  • Withdrawing from friends, family, and colleagues.
  • Avoiding activities that they would normally enjoy.
  • Sleeping too much or too little.
  • Eating too much or too little.
  • Feeling hopeless.
  • Having consistently low energy.
  • Using mood-altering substances, including alcohol and nicotine, more frequently.
  • Displaying negative emotions.
  • Being confused.
  • Being unable to complete daily tasks, such as getting to work or cooking a meal.
  • Having persistent thoughts or memories that reappear regularly.
  • Thinking of causing physical harm to themselves or others.
  • Hearing voices.
  • Experiencing delusions.

Treatment

In the context of national efforts to develop and implement mental health policy, It is vital to not only protect and promote the mental well-being of its citizens, but also address the needs of persons with defined mental disorders. Knowledge of what to do about the escalating burden of mental disorders has improved substantially over the past decade. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating both the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of key interventions for priority mental disorders in countries at different levels of economic development.

Examples of interventions that are cost-effective, feasible, and affordable include:

  • Treatment of depression with psychological treatment and, for moderate to severe cases, antidepressant medicines.
  • Treatment of psychosis with anti-psychotic medicines and psychosocial support.
  • Taxation of alcoholic beverages and restriction of their availability and marketing.
  • A range of effective measures also exists for the prevention of suicide, prevention and treatment of mental disorders in children, prevention and treatment of dementia, and treatment of substance-use disorders.
  • The mental health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) has produced evidence based guidance for non-specialists to enable them to better identify and manage a range of priority mental health conditions.

Interpersonal Skills

Interpersonal skills, also known as people skills, are the qualities and behaviours one exhibits while interacting with people. They can be defined as character traits, personal attributes, and other non-technical abilities that help you work and communicate with other people.

It is one of the most sought after soft skills. Interpersonal skills is one of the top criteria based on which companies hire their employees. A person with good interpersonal skills can communicate effectively and collaborate with a range of people, which will help them become successful. 

Types of Interpersonal Skills:

The following are some of the essential interpersonal skills:

Communication:  Communication is one of the most important interpersonal skills. Communication skills involves verbal, non verbal, and written. Regardless of the field of work, the ability to express your thoughts clearly and effectively with others verbally and in writing is crucial.

Active Listening: Listening goes hand in hand with good communication skills. Active listening involves paying close attention to what the other person is saying and taking the time to absorb and reflect on what they say. It helps you truly understand what someone is trying to convey. Listening demands the ability to decode and interpret verbal messages and nonverbal cues, like the tone of voice, facial expressions, and body language.

Empathy: Empathy is the ability to understand what another person is experiencing and is an essential part of being a good manager, employee, or colleague. This skill can help one get along with their colleagues and form meaningful relationships at the workplace. 

Emotional Intelligence: People who have high emotional intelligence are good at identifying and meeting the needs of others while taking responsibility for their own needs and feelings.

Teamwork: Teamwork is essential in almost every industry, and companies expect employees to be team players. Regardless of the role, it is necessary to collaborate and work together towards a common goal. 

Conflict Management: Conflict management or conflict resolution skills is needed to mediate and resolve workplace conflicts effectively. Poor communication and lack of interpersonal skills can easily cause simple disagreements to flare up for the worse, affecting the work environment. Having good conflict management skills can help keep the morale high and diffuse conflicts. 

Negotiation: Negotiation is a necessary skill for many positions. Depending on the specific job, it might involve creating formal agreements (or contracts) between clients or helping colleagues solve a problem and determine a solution. To be a good negotiator, you must be able to listen to others, use creative problem solving, and arrive at an outcome that satisfies everyone.

Positive Attitude: A positive attitude can take you a long way. A positive attitude plays a vital role in maintaining a good work environment to work. Being positive during difficult situations will make tasks easier, encourage others and boost morale.

Ways to Improve Interpersonal Skills:

Cultivate a positive outlook. 

Control your emotions. 

Practice active listening.

Be assertive. 

Practice empathy.

Maintain good relationships. 

Master good communication skills

Attend classes or workshops

In today’s world, technical skills alone won’t guarantee one a job. Strong interpersonal skills help you stand out from the crowd. They complement your technical abilities, enhance performance, boost social interactions, and give you an edge over your competition. Employers look for candidates with good interpersonal skills, as they can be effective communicators, great leaders, good team players and efficient managers.

The three-tier consumer grievances machinery under the consumer protection act

The three-tier consumer grievances machinery under the consumer protection act are :

  1. District Forum Each District Forum shall consist of a person who is or has been qualified as a District judge, as the President. There must be two other persons who are not less than thirty-five years of age and also possesses a degree from a recognized university. The persons must have adequate knowledge in the field of economics, commerce, industry, public affairs, and administration. The district forum must have the jurisdiction to entertain such complaints where the value of goods or services and the compensation, does not exceed Rs. twenty lakhs. The need for district forums for consumer redressal is that majority of the people who face any consumer rights violation are unable to file a complaint in a state or national forum because such have to look at matters concerning various other district forums which result in a large number of pending cases. District forums are also enabled with a faster way of dispensing consumer redressal as the number of claims is pretty less than that of State/National redressal forums which enables normal people to seek a solution for their problems.
  2. State Commission Each State Commission shall consist of a person who is or has been a judge of the High Court as its president. The Commission also consists of not less than two members, who are above thirty-five years of age and also possess a degree from a recognized university. The persons must have adequate knowledge in the field of economics, commerce, industry, public affairs, and administration. The Act also states that not less than fifty percent of the members shall be from amongst the persons having a judicial background. The State Commission has a jurisdiction to entertain cases where the value of goods or services or the compensation claimed, if any, exceeds the number of Rs. twenty lakhs but does not exceed Rs. one crore. It also entertains appeals against any District Forum within the state and also looks after any pending disputes or cases decided by any of the District forums in which the forums have exercised a jurisdiction not vested in them by the law, or has been exercised illegally or with any material irregularity.
  3. National Commission The National Commission shall consist of a person, who is or has been a judge of the Supreme Court, to be appointed by the Central Government, shall be the President, provided that no appointment shall be made except after the consultation with the Chief Justice of India. The commission shall consist of not less than four members of its executive committee who shall not be less than thirty-five years of age and must be graduates from a recognized university. They must also be specialized in the areas of commerce, economics, and administration. The jurisdiction of the commission shall extend to any case where the compensation amount might exceed Rs. one crore and the Commission shall also entertain appeals against State Commissions.

The Commission also has the power to check any pending disputes or cases decided by any of the State Commissions where the State Commission has exercised a jurisdiction not vested in it by law or it has been exercised illegally or with any material irregularity Power of redressal forums There are various powers for all of the redressal forums with regards to its jurisdiction.
Some of them include:

  1. Examining, enforcing as well as summoning the witness on oath;
  2. Discovering and producing any material evidence;
  3. Receiving evidence on affidavit;
  4. Requesting for the report or test analysis from the concerned authorities and laboratories;
  5. Issuing commission for examining the witness; 6. Enforcing any other powers prescribed by the Central or State Government Limitation period

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence, also known as the emotional intelligence quotient (EIQ) or emotional quotient (EQ), is the ability to perceive, control, and manage emotions. Although the term first appeared in 1964, it gained popularity in the 1995 best-selling book Emotional Intelligence, written by science journalist Daniel Goleman. Goleman defined EI as the array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance. Emotional intelligence helps build stronger relationships, increase performance at school and work, and achieve professional and personal goals. It can also help connect with your feelings, turn intention into action, and make informed decisions about what matters the most. Since its popularization in recent decades, methods of developing EI have become widely sought by individuals seeking to become more effective leaders. 

Abilities:

Mayer, Salovey and Caruso developed the four-branch ability model of emotional intelligence. They divide the abilities and skills of emotional intelligence into four areas – 

The ability to perceive emotion 

The ability to use emotion to facilitate thought 

The ability to understand emotions

The ability to manage emotions 

Components:

According to Daniel Goleman, an American psychologist who helped to popularize emotional intelligence, there are five main components to it:

Self Awareness: Self-awareness refers to the capacity to recognize and understand emotions and how they can affect others. Self-awareness is associated with being open to different experiences and new ideas and learning from social interactions. It involves knowing your strengths and weaknesses. 

Self Regulation: Self-regulation includes being flexible, coping with change, and managing conflict. It also refers to diffusing difficult or tense situations and being aware of how one’s actions affect others and taking ownership of these actions. It involves the appropriate expression of emotion.

Empathy: Empathy, or the ability to understand how others are feeling, is critical to emotional intelligence. This component enables an individual to respond appropriately to other people based on recognizing their emotions. Being empathetic also allows you to understand the power dynamics that often influence social relationships, especially in workplaces. It is vital for guiding your interactions with different people you encounter each day.

Social Skills: Social Skills refers to interacting well with other people. It involves applying an understanding of the emotions of ourselves and others to communicate and interact with others on a day-to-day basis. Different social skills include – active listening, verbal communication skills, non-verbal communication skills, leadership, and developing rapport.

Motivation: Motivation is another important emotional intelligence skill. Emotionally intelligent people are motivated by things beyond external rewards like fame, money, recognition, and acclaim. Instead, they have the desire to fulfil their own inner needs and goals. They seek internal rewards, experience flow from being totally in tune with activity, and pursue peak experiences. Those who are competent in this area tend to be action-oriented. They set goals, have a high need for achievement, and are always looking for ways to do better.

Ways to improve emotional intelligence:

Practice observing how you feel

Pay attention to how you behave

Take responsibility for your feelings

Take time to celebrate the positive

Acknowledge your emotional triggers

Today, studies show that emotional intelligence (EQ) is more important than IQ. Individuals can improve their emotional intelligence to live a successful life. Being emotionally intelligent is important to how you respond to what life gives us. It’s also an important component of compassion and understanding the deeper reasons behind other people’s actions.

Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Life

Three hundred million years before human first stood upright, reptiles known as dinosaurs ruled supreme. Some evolved to become the largest land animals ever to walk on Earth. Other were savage predators. The dinosaurs reign ended about 65 million years ago, probably when a asteroid smashed into the earth and caused them to extinct. In the period that followed, mammals were the dominant species, evolving to produce some amazing creatures, including, eventually us.

The Beginning of life

The Beginning Life on earth began about 3,5600 million years ago. When Earth first formed, it was too hot for life to exist. The first living things were bacteria, which developed in deep-sea springs or muddy pools near volcanoes after the earth had cooled. The bacteria took their energy from chemicals in eater, and slowly developed into more complex life forms, a process known as evolution. Many new living things began to develop by 3,000 million years ago, after some early life forms found a way of getting energy from sunlight and using it to make food. This process is called photosynthesis. During Photosynthesis, Plants release the gas oxygen. The first animals probably looked a little like tiny tadpoles, They lived in the shallow seas that covered earth about 1,200 million years ago and thrived on the new supplies of oxygen in the atmosphere. Slowly, these tiny animals grew together in clusters and developed into the first sponges.

Stromatolites are layers of blue-green algae and rocks. These algae were among the earliest living things to make food by photosynthesis.

Giant Forest and Insects

Plants began to grow on land around 475 million years ago. These plants lived in swamps and on the muddy shores of rivers. They probably had a waxy coating to stop the salty waters and the sun from drying them out. Plant gradually developed roots to reach water underground. They soon spread beyond the shores and began to the land green. Early plants were able to grow so big because of the climate long ago. In many places the air was damp , rather like it in tropical jungles today. As plants crowded together, they grew taller and taller as they competed for the light. Plants in the great early forests included huge horsetails, club mosses and ferns up to 50 meters tall, That is as high as 10 double Decker buses stacked on top of each other. The first insects were probably the bristle tails, which were the size of the a large prawn.. they had no wings and scurried about the ancient swamps on little legs, They used their bristles to sense movements in the air that warned them a predator was about. They had claws on their mouth-parts that they used to feed on plants and waste.

Bristletails
These ferns were common in the Carboniferous and Permian periods between 300 and 270 million years ago. While they had fern-like leaves, they produced seeds rather than spores. This 300 million year old fern is in an ironstone concretion. Photographed at the State Museum, Pennsylvania, USA.
Fossil dragonfly. A fossilized dragonfly preserved in rock. Fossilization occurs when an organism is buried and its body structures are slowly replaced by minerals, leaving an impression in the rock. Dragonflies are large carnivorous insects which catch other insects in mid-flight. Insects made their first appearance in geological history in the Devonian period, between 395 and 345 million years ago. This dragonfly lived in the Upper Jurassic period, 140 million years ago. The fossil comes from Kimmeridge, Solnhofen, Germany.
This giant swampy forest is from about 300 million years ago.

Rise of the Reptiles

The first reptile was probably Hylonomus, which lived 315 million years ago. Hylonomus was 20 centimetres long and looked rather like a modern lizard. Reptiles like these evolved from a group of amphibian-like tetrapods that laid their eggs on land. Inside the eggs,the young fed on yolks,which made them strong and more likely to survive. Reptiles soon became the dominant species on land. Some early reptiles lived permanently in water. The plesiosaurs had large paddle-like legs for moving through the water and long necks for reaching out to catch fish. Ichthyosaurs looked more like large, toothy dolphins. they were swimming in the oceans at the same time as dinosaurs were living on the land.

Hylonomus used its small sharp teeth to eat millipedes and early insects.
The group of reptiles known as Pareiasaurs had plates of bony Armour over their bodies. They lived about 260 million years ago. One type of pareiasaurs was Scutosurus which means “shield lizard.”
Dimentrodon’s spiny sail probably helped it to warm up and cool down.
Ichthyosaurs were sleek, fast-swimming reptiles.

Dawn of the Dinosaurs

The first dinosaurs developed from other reptiles from other reptiles about 230 million years ago. At this time, the world looked very different. There were no birds or mammals, and, although there were ferns and trees, there were no grasses or flowering plants. Vast areas were desert, Dinosaurs dominated the world for 150 million years. Dinosaurs lived on land. Some reptiles did live live in the sea, including Plesiosaurus, which was not related to dinosaurs. This large carnivorous animal had along neck and sharp teeth to catch fish. Other reptiles, such as the Pterosaurs, could fly. They had wings made of skin, similar to those of bats. Some dinosaurs might have hunted in packs, working together in order to catch and bring down larger dinosaurs. Their are several theories about why dinosaurs died out about 65 million years ago. The main one is that a giant asteroid crashed into earth around this time. The impact would have created dust, fires, tsunamis, (giant waves) and volcanic eruptions that caused a huge change in planet”s climate. it seems likely that the wold became freezing cold, and the dinosaurs simply could not survive in the icy conditions.

Brachiosaurus was one of the largest sauropods-gigantic, slow-moving plant eaters. Sauropods included some of the biggest land animals of all time.
Compsognathus, which means “pretty Jaw” lived about 150 million years ago and was only about a metre long.
Plesiosaurus lived in the sea and could grow upto to 12 meter long.
Stegosaurus used its spiked tail for defense and beaked mouth to bite off plants to eat.
Gallimimus was upto 6 meters long and about 3.5 meters tall.
Argentinosaurus grew to over 35 meters long. Even so, it was prey to Giganotosaurus.
Giganotosaurs
Tyrannosaurus Rex’s teeth could be up to 30 centimetres long.
Triceratops used its horns for defense.

Early Birds

Scientists believe that birds developed from dinosaurs. They have discovered the fossil remains of feathered dinosaurs that many people believe are descended from dinosaurs. Archaeopteryx is the oldest known bird in the world. It flew in ancient skies about 150 million years ago. It was a meat – eating bird about the size of a cow that probably flew fairly short distances at a time. It had feathers like bird, but it also had teeth and clawed hand rather like a dinosaur.

A fossil of an Archaeopteryx
The largest of the prehistoric birds was Aepyornis, also called the Elephant bird.

The Rise of Mammals

The 1st mammals developed almost 200 million years ago. During the time of the dinosaurs, mammals were small, furry creatures. They looked rather like the rats and shrews of today, and they ate insects. They scurried around at night and probably lived in holes underground to hide from dinosaurs. After the dinosaurs died out, many new kind of mammals slowly developed.

The 1st mammal was probably Megazostrodon, a small rat like animal.

From Apes to Humans

Primates are a group of mammals that includes apes, monkeys and humans. The 1st primates lived on earth about 50 million years ago, but they looked rather like squirrels. Over million of years, different kinds of primates evolved. Between 20 and 10 million years ago, giant apes were common in Africa. The Neanderthals were an ancient human species that lived in Europe and Asia from about 300,000 to 30,000 years ago, when they became extinct. Long ago, there were other human species, but all of these died out. One was Homo erectus, perhaps our earliest human ancestor. Homo erectus first appeared almost 2 million years ago and died out 100,000 years ago. The 1st people depended on wild plants and animals for food. They used sharp sticks to spear animals or knock them from trees. Their uses of tools and their ability to work together were two of the things that made early humans so successful. Around 5,000 years ago, people began to write and read. This was the end of the prehistoric period because started to write down their history.

Genetic Disorders

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities formed in the genome. Most genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions. Genetic disorders may be hereditary, meaning that they are passed down from the parents’ genes. In other genetic disorders, defects may be caused by new mutations or changes to the DNA. In such cases, the defect will only be passed down if it occurs in the germ-line.

Gene related disorders Autosomal dominant disorders

Autosomal Dominant – A pattern of inheritance in which an affected individual has one copy of a mutant gene and one normal gene on a pair of autosomal chromosomes. (In contrast, autosomal recessive diseases require that the individual have two copies of the mutant gene.)

Types:-

Chondrodystropic dwarfism– A congenital dwarfism in which the disturbed development of the cartilage of the long bones arrests the growth of long bones, resulting in extremely shortened extremities. People with chondrodystrophy have a normal-sized trunk and abnormally short limbs and extremities (dwarfism). Those affected with the disorder often call themselves dwarfs, little people or short-statured persons. Over 100 specific skeletal dysplasias have been identified. Chondrodystrophy is found in all races and in both females and male and occurs in around one of every 25,000 children.

Myotonic muscular dystrophy– Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a form of muscular dystrophy that affects muscles and many other organs in the body. The term “muscular dystrophy” means progressive muscle degeneration, with weakness and shrinkage of the muscle tissue. DM is divided into two types;

  • Type 1 DM (DM1), long known as Steinert disease, occurs when a gene on chromosome 19 called DMPK contains an abnormally expanded section located close to the regulation region of another gene, SIX5.
  • Type 2 DM (DM2), recognized in 1994 as a milder version of DM1, is caused by an abnormally expanded section in a gene on chromosome 3 called ZNF9. DM2 was originally called PROMM, for proximal myotonic myopathy, a term that has remained in use but is somewhat less common than the term DM2.

Huntington’s disease– An inherited condition in which nerve cells in the brain break down over time.It typically starts in a person’s 30s or 40s. Usually, Huntington’s disease results in progressive movement, thinking (cognitive) and psychiatric symptoms.No cure exists, but drugs, physiotherapy and talk therapy can help manage some symptoms.

Neurofibromatosis– A condition that causes tumors to form in the brain, spinal cord and nerves. Neurofibromatosis is usually non-cancerous. There are three types of this condition.

  • Type 1 usually appears in childhood, while Types 2 and 3 appear in early adulthood.
  • Type 1 can cause bone deformities, learning disabilities and high blood pressure.
  • Type 2 can cause hearing loss, vision loss and difficulty with balance.
  • Type 3 can cause chronic pain throughout the body.
  • Some cases may not require treatment other than careful observation. Other cases may require chemotherapy, radiation therapy or surgery.

Hypercholesterolemia– High amounts of cholesterol in the blood. High cholesterol can limit blood flow, increasing the risk of a heart attack or stroke. It’s detected by a blood test. High cholesterol has no symptoms. Treatments include medication, a healthy diet and exercise.

Retinoblastoma- An eye cancer that begins in the back of the eye (retina), most commonly in children. It may occur in one or both eyes. It has few, if any, symptoms at first. It may be noticed if a pupil appears white when light is shone into the eye, sometimes with flash photography. Eyes may appear to be looking in different directions. Treatments include chemotherapy, radiation and laser therapy.

Autosomal recessive disorders – To have an autosomal recessive disorder, you inherit two mutated genes, one from each parent. These disorders are usually passed on by two carriers. Their health is rarely affected, but they have one mutated gene (recessive gene) and one normal gene (dominant gene) for the condition.

Types:

Cystic Fibrosis – An inherited life-threatening disorder that damages the lungs and digestive system.It affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. It causes these fluids to become thick and sticky. They then plug up tubes, ducts and passageways. Symptoms vary and can include cough, repeated lung infections, inability to gain weight and fatty stools.
Treatments may ease symptoms and reduce complications. Newborn screening helps with early diagnosis.

Sickle cell disease – A group of disorders that cause red blood cells to become misshapen and break down. With sickle cell disease, an inherited group of disorders, red blood cells contort into a sickle shape. The cells die early, leaving a shortage of healthy red blood cells (sickle cell anaemia) and can block blood flow causing pain (sickle cell crisis). Infections, pain and fatigue are symptoms of sickle cell disease.Treatments include medication, blood transfusions and rarely a bone-marrow transplant.

Thalassaemia – A blood disorder involving lower-than-normal amounts of an oxygen-carrying protein. Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized by less oxygen-carrying protein (haemoglobin) and fewer red blood cells in the body than normal.
Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, paleness and slow growth. Mild forms may not need treatment. Severe forms may require blood transfusions or a donor stem-cell transplant.

Alkaptonuria (black urine disease) – Alkaptonuria, or “black urine disease”, is a very rare inherited disorder that prevents the body fully breaking down two protein building blocks (amino acids) called tyrosine and phenylalanine. It results in a build-up of a chemical called homogentisic acid in the body.

Phenylketonuria – A birth defect that causes an amino acid called phenylalanine to build up in the body. Newborns should be screened for PKU. Untreated phenylketonuria can lead to brain damage, intellectual disabilities, behavioral symptoms or seizures. Treatment includes a strict diet with limited protein.

Albinism – Albinism is a rare group of genetic disorders that cause the skin, hair, or eyes to have little or no color. Albinism is also associated with vision problems. According to the National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation, about 1 in 18,000 to 20,000 people in the United States have a form of albinism.

Tay-Sachs Disease – A rare, inherited disorder that destroys nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Tay-Sachs disease is typically found in people with certain ancestry, such as Eastern European Jews. A fatty substance in the brain destroys nerve cells. Symptoms of slowed development usually appear around six months of age. Symptoms progress until they lead to death, often around age four. There is no cure for Tay-Sachs disease, but research is ongoing.

Gaucher,s disease – Gaucher disease is an inherited condition (passed down through families). It is a lysosomal storage disorder, a type of disease that causes fatty substances to build up in the bone marrow, liver and spleen. The fatty substances (sphingolipids) weaken bones and enlarge the organs, so they can’t work like they should.

Galactosemia – Galactosemia is a rare, hereditary disorder of carbohydrate metabolism that affects the body’s ability to convert galactose (a sugar contained in milk, including human mother’s milk) to glucose (a different type of sugar).

Sex linked dominant disorders – Sex-linked dominant is a rare way that a trait or disorder can be passed down through families. One abnormal gene on the X chromosome can cause a sex-linked dominant disease.

Types:

Fragile X-syndrome – A genetic condition causing intellectual disability. Fragile X syndrome causes mild to severe intellectual disability. It affects both males and females, but females usually have milder symptoms. Symptoms include delays in talking, anxiety and hyperactive behaviour. Some people have seizures. Physical features might include large ears, a long face, a prominent jaw and forehead and flat feet. Therapy can be used to treat learning disabilities. Medication may be used to treat anxiety and mood disorders.

Vitamin-D resistant rickets – Hypophosphatemic rickets (previously called vitamin D-resistant rickets) is a disorder in which the bones become painfully soft and bend easily, due to low levels of phosphate in the blood. Symptoms usually begin in early childhood and can range in severity

Sex linked recessive disorders

Types:

Haemophilia (Bleeder’s Disease) – Hemophilia is usually an inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. This can lead to spontaneous bleeding as well as bleeding following injuries or surgery. Blood contains many proteins called clotting factors that can help to stop bleeding.

Red green Colour blindness – Red-green color blindness is the most common type of color deficiency. Also known as deuteranopia, this is most likely a congenital condition, meaning that you’re born with it. If you have this type of color blindness, you may have difficulty seeing different shades of red, green, and yellow.

X linked Ichthyosis (XLI) – X-linked ichthyosis (abbreviated XLI) is a skin condition caused by the hereditary deficiency of the steroid sulfatase (STS) enzyme that affects 1 in 2000 to 1 in 6000 males. XLI manifests with dry, scaly skin and is due to deletions or mutations in the STS gene.

Chromosome disorder – An abnormal condition due to something unusual in an individual’s chromosomes. For example, Down syndrome is a chromosome disorder caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21, and Turner syndrome is most often due to the presence of only a single sex chromosome: one X chromosome.

Autosomal Trisomy in Human beings

Types:-

Down syndrome (trisomy of 21st chromosomes) – A genetic chromosome 21 disorder causing developmental and intellectual delays. Down’s syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in extra genetic material from chromosome 21. Down’s syndrome causes a distinct facial appearance, intellectual disability and developmental delays. It may be associated with thyroid or heart disease. Early intervention programmes with a team of therapists and special educators who can treat each child’s specific situation are helpful in managing Down’s syndrome.

Edward Syndrome (trisomy of 18th chromosomes) – A condition that causes severe developmental delays due to an extra chromosome 18. A first-trimester screening that includes a blood test and ultrasound offers early information about a baby’s risk of having it. A second trimester blood test called a quad screen can also detect it. Symptoms include low birth weight, small abnormally shaped head and birth defects in organs that are often life threatening. Edwards’ syndrome has no treatment and is usually fatal before birth or within the first year of life.

Patau syndrome (trisomy of 13th chromosomes) – A condition in which a person has an extra chromosome 13. Prenatal testing can detect Patau syndrome during pregnancy. Patau syndrome causes severe intellectual disability and physical defects. Most infants with this condition don’t live past their first week of life. Treatment varies from child to child and focuses on relieving symptoms and managing complications.

Deletion in Chromosomes – In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication. Any number of nucleotides can be deleted, from a single base to an entire piece of chromosome.

Types:-

Cri-Du-chat Syndrome Cri du chat syndrome is a rare genetic disorder due to a partial chromosome deletion on chromosome 5. Its name is a French term (“cat-cry” or “call of the cat”) referring to the characteristic cat-like cry of affected children.

Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome(WHS) – Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a genetic disorder that affects many parts of the body. The major features include a characteristic facial appearance, delayed growth and development, intellectual disability , low muscle tone ( hypotonia ), and seizures.

Translocation in chromosomes – In genetics, chromosome translocation is a phenomenon that results in unusual rearrangement of chromosomes. This includes balanced and unbalanced translocation, with two main types: reciprocal-, and Robertson Ian translocation.

Types:-

Chronic myelogenous Leukemia (CML Ttanslocation between 9th and 22nd chromosomes) – A slowly progressing and uncommon type of blood-cell cancer that begins in the bone marrow. Chronic myeloid leukaemia typically affects older adults. It’s caused by a chromosome mutation that occurs spontaneously. Doctors aren’t sure what causes the mutation.Many people don’t develop symptoms until later stages and the diagnosis is only made through routine blood work. When symptoms do occur, they include bleeding easily, feeling run down or tired, weight loss, pale skin and night sweats. Treatments include targeted drugs, stem-cell transplant, chemotherapy and biological therapy.

Burkitt’s Lymphoma (Translocation between 8th and 14th chromosomes) – Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a very fast-growing type of cancer. It is a form of B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Signs and symptoms may differ depending on the form of BL and the organs or body systems involved. When it spreads, weakness and fatigue often develop. Lymphoma cells may build up in the lymph nodes and other organs, causing swelling.

Sex chromosomes linked Disorders – It can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. Sex-linked diseases are inherited through one of the sex chromosomes, which are the X and Y chromosomes. Dominant inheritance occurs when an abnormal gene from one parent can cause a disease, even though a matching gene from the other parent is normal.

Types:-

Turner syndrome( X – monosomy = 44+ XO) – A chromosomal disorder in which a female is born with only one X chromosome
Turner syndrome results from a missing or incomplete sex chromosome. Symptoms include short stature, delayed puberty, infertility, heart defects and certain learning disabilities. Treatment involves hormone therapy. Fertility treatment may be necessary for women who want to become pregnant.

Klinefelter Syndrome (extra X- chromosomes along with Y- chromosomes) – Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal condition in boys and men that can affect physical and intellectual development. Most commonly, affected individuals are taller than average are unable to father biological children (infertile); however the signs and symptoms of Klinefelter syndrome vary among boys and men with this condition. In some cases, the features of the condition are so mild that the condition is not diagnosed until puberty or adulthood, and researchers believe that up to 75 percent of affected men and boys are never diagnosed.

Jacobs syndrome ( XYY- with Extra Y- chromosomes) – Males with XYY syndrome have 47 chromosomes because of the extra Y chromosome. This condition is also sometimes called Jacob’s syndrome, XYY karyotype, or YY syndrome. According to the National Institutes of Health, XYY syndrome occurs in 1 out of every 1,000 boys.

Poly X females or Triplo X (with Extra X- chromosomes) – An abnormality resulting in an extra X chromosome in some females.Triple X syndrome is usually caused by malformation of an egg or sperm cell or by an error early in embryo development.
Many women have few or no symptoms. In most cases, no treatment is required. Those who experience developmental delays and learning disabilities may require intervention, such as counselling.

Diagnosis

Due to the wide range of genetic disorders that are known, diagnosis is widely varied and dependent of the disorder. The basic aspects of a genetic disorder rests on the inheritance of genetic material. With an in depth family history, it is possible to anticipate possible disorders in children which direct medical professionals to specific tests depending on the disorder and allow parents the chance to prepare for potential lifestyle changes, anticipate the possibility of stillbirth, or contemplate termination Prenatal diagnosis can detect the presence of characteristic abnormalities in foetal development through ultrasound, or detect the presence of characteristic substances via invasive procedures which involve inserting probes or needles into the uterus such as in amniocentesis.

Prognosis

Not all genetic disorders directly result in death; however, there are no known cures for genetic disorders. Many genetic disorders affect stages of development, such as Down syndrome, while others result in purely physical symptoms such as muscular dystrophy. Other disorders, such as Huntington’s disease, show no signs until adulthood. During the active time of a genetic disorder, patients mostly rely on maintaining or slowing the degradation of quality of life and maintain patient autonomy. This includes physical therapy, pain management, and may include a selection of alternative medicine programs.

Treatment

The treatment of genetic disorders is an ongoing battle with over 1800 gene therapy clinical trials having been completed, are ongoing, or have been approved worldwide. Despite this, most treatment options revolve around treating the symptoms of the disorders in an attempt to improve patient quality of life. Gene therapy refers to a form of treatment where a healthy gene is introduced to a patient. This should alleviate the defect caused by a faulty gene or slow the progression of disease. A major obstacle has been the delivery of genes to the appropriate cell, tissue, and organ affected by the disorder. How does one introduce a gene into the potentially trillions of cells which carry the defective copy? This question has been the roadblock between understanding the genetic disorder and correcting the genetic disorder.

Conclusion

Genetic disorders are a topic in biology that cannot be avoided. The fact is that genetic disorders can happen in humans, plants or animal. No one and nothing is safe from a genetic disorder. A genetic disorder can appear in the first years off life, or can appear much later in life when least expected. A basic principal of biology states that the behaviour of chromosomes during the meiosis process can account for genetic inheritance patterns.

A Brief Overview of The Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of the country. It is the fundamental governing document that provides a comprehensive framework to guide and govern the country. The Constituent Assembly of India on adopted the Constitution on 26th November, 1949. It came into effect on 26th January 1950, celebrated as Republic Day in India, replacing the Government of India Act 1935, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. 

The Constitution of India establishes the main organs – executive, legislature, and judiciary, defining their powers, states the fundamental rights and the responsibilities of citizens. The Indian Constitution is the world’s lengthiest for any sovereign nation. At its enactment, the original text of the Constitution contained 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. At about 145,000 words, it is the second-longest active Constitution in the world, after the Constitution of Alabama. The Constitution has a preamble and 470 articles, in 25 parts, with 12 schedules and 5 appendices. It was neither printed or typed, but was handwritten and calligraphed in both Hindi and English.

The Constituent Assembly:

The Constituent Assembly was responsible was drafting the Constitution. The members were elected indirectly by the people by the ‘Provincial Assemblies’ by a single, transferable-vote system of proportional representation. The Constituent Assembly met for the first time on 9 December 1946, reassembling on 14 August 1947 as a sovereign body. The constitution was drafted by 299 delegates, and the assembly took almost 3 years to frame the document holding 11 sessions over 165 days.

Dr. B.R Ambedkar, the chairman of the Drafting Committee, was the chief architect and widely known as the Father of the Indian Constitution. Some of the prominent members of the assembly included – Jawaharlal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, Rajendra Prasad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Abul Kalam Azad, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Nalini Ranjan Ghosh, and Balwantrai Mehta, Sarojini Naidu, Hansa Mehta, Durgabai Deshmukh, Amrit Kaur, and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit. Following India’s independence from the British Government in 1947, its members served as the nation’s first Parliament.  

The Preamble:

A preamble is an introductory statement in a document that explains the philosophy and objectives behind it. The Preamble contains the intention of the makers and the history behind its creation. The Preamble declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. The objectives stated by the Preamble are to secure justice, liberty, equality for all citizens and promote fraternity to maintain the unity and integrity of the nation. These objectives specified in the Preamble cannot be amended and constitute the basic structure of the Indian Constitution. 

Keywords of the Preamble:

We, The People of India: The Constitution was created and made by the people through representatives, without any external power. 

Sovereign: People have the supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India.

Socialist: Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce social and economic inequalities.

Secular: Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. The government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect. 

Democratic: A form of government where people have equal political rights, elect their rulers, and hold them accountable. 

Republic: The head of the state is an elected person and not a hereditary position.

 Justice:  Citizens will not be discriminated against by their caste, religion, and gender. Government should work for the welfare of all, especially of the disadvantaged groups.

Liberty: There are no restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts, and the way they want to follow up their ideas in action.

Equality: All are equal before the law. The government must ensure that there are no social inequalities. 

Fraternity: All of us should behave as if we belong to the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizen as inferior.

Fundamental Rights:

Fundamental Rights are the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of India. These rights are justiciable, and an individual can move the Supreme Court or the High Courts if there is an encroachment on any of these rights. 

(i) Right to Equality

(ii) Right to Freedom

(iii) Right against Exploitation 

(iv) Right to Freedom of Religion 

v) Cultural and Educational Rights 

vi) Right to Constitutional Remedies. 

Governmental Sources of Power:

The Constitution is considered federal in nature and unitary in spirit. It has features of a federation, including a codified, supreme constitution; a three-tier governmental structure (central, state, and local); division of powers; bicameralism; and an independent judiciary. It also possesses unitary features such as – a single constitution, single citizenship, an integrated judiciary, a flexible constitution, a strong central government, appointment of state governors by the central government, All India Services (the IAS, IFS, and IPS), along with emergency provisions. This unique combination makes it quasi-federal in form.

The executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government receive their power from the Constitution. It provides for the Parliamentary form of government with a bicameral legislature at the Centre consisting of Lok Sabha (Lower House of Parliament) and Rajya Sabha (Upper House of Parliament). The President is the nominal head of the state and the Parliament. In actual practice, the Prime Minister, aided by the Council of Ministers, heads the executive and is responsible for governance. 

An impartial judiciary, independent of the legislature and the executive, is one of the main features of the Constitution. The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the country, and is known as the guardian of the Constitution. Each state has a High Court as its highest court. Under powers of judicial review, the Supreme Court and High Court can declare a law as unconstitutional or ultra vires if it contravenes any provisions of the Constitution.

Interesting Physiological Facts

The Body of man is made up of many tissues and organs. They number in millions. The cells are organised uniquely and function dynamically together. Their complexities can be better understood when it is closely scanned. Here are some bits of information that are quite interesting.

  1. The stomach takes 20 minutes to tell the brain that is is full and that one should stop eating.
  2. The thickness of the skin varies from 1/2 to 6 mm, depending on the area of your body.
  3. The four taste zones on your tongue are bitter (back), sour (back sides), salty (front sides), and sweet (front)
  4. One uses 14 muscles to smile and 43 to frown.
  5. It takes the interaction of 72 different muscles to produce human speech.
  6. The strongest muscle of the body is the masseter muscle, which is located in the jaw.
  7. The small intestine is about 750 cm long.
  8. The large intestine is 150 cm long and 3 times wider than the small intestine.
  9. Most people shed 20 kg of skin in their lifetime.
  10. When you sneeze, air rushes through your nose at the rate of 156 kmph.
  11. An eye lash lives about 150 days before it falls out.
  12. Our brain sends messages at the rate of 375 kmph.
  13. About 5-6 litres of blood is filtered by 2 million nephrons 37 times a day.
  14. Each of our eyes has 120 M rods, which helps us to see in black & white.
  15. Each eye has 6 M cones, which helps us to see colour.
  16. We blink our eyes about 20,000 times a day.
  17. Our heart beats about 100,000 times day.
  18. Placed end-to-end all our body”s blood vessels would measure about 90,000 kms.
  19. The average human brain has about 100 billion nerve cells.
  20. The thyroid cartilage is more commonly known as the Adam’s Apple.
  21. It is impossible to sneeze with open eyes.
  22. When you sneeze, all your bodily functions stop even your heart.
  23. Babies are born without knee cap. They don’t appear till they are 2-6 years of age.
  24. Children grow faster in spring season.
  25. Women blink twice as much as men.
  26. If one is blind in one eye, he/she only loses about 1/5 vision and the sense of depth.
  27. Our eyes are always the same size from the birth, but our nose and years never stop growing.
  28. The length of the finger shows how fast the fingernail grows. the nail on the middle finger grows fastest. On an average our toenails grow twice as slow as our fingernails.
  29. Hair is made of the same substance as fingernails.
  30. The nose can remember 50,000 scents.
  31. A finger nail takes 6 months to grow from base to tip.
  32. The energy used by the brain is enough to light a 25 watt bulb.
  33. The heart produces enough pressure to squirt blood 900 cm.
  34. We get a new stomach lining every 3-4 days. If we didn’t,the strong acids our stomach uses to digest foods would also digest our stomach.
  35. A pair of feet has 500,000 sweat glands.
  36. Each square inch of human skin consists of 600 cm of blood vessels.
  37. The liver is the only major organ in the human body that can regenerate itself if part of it is removed.

Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam

Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam is a well known name in the entire world. He is considered as a part of the best researchers of the 21st century. Considerably more, he turns into the eleventh leader of India and served his country. He was the most esteemed individual of the nation as his commitment as a researcher and as a president is mind-boggling. Aside from that, his commitment to the ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) is noteworthy. He headed many activities that added to the general public likewise he was the person who helped in the improvement of Agni and Prithvi rockets. For his association in the Nuclear force in India, he was known as “Rocket Man of India”. What’s more, because of his commitment to the country, the public authority granted him with the most noteworthy regular citizen grant.

APJ Abdul Kalam was brought into the world in Tamil Nadu. Around then the monetary state of his family was poor so since the beginning he began supporting his family monetarily. However, he never surrendered training. Alongside supporting his family he proceeded with his investigations and finished graduation. Most importantly, he was an individual from the Pokhran atomic test directed in 1998.

There is an innumerable commitment of Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam to the nation yet he was generally renowned for his most prominent commitment that is the improvement of rockets that passes by the name Agni and Prithvi.

The incredible rocket man turns into the President of India in 2002. During his administration period, the military and nation accomplished a huge number that contributed a great deal to the country. He served the country with an open heart that is the reason he was called ‘individuals’ leader’. However, toward the finish of his term period, he was not happy with his work that is the reason he needed to be the President a second time yet later on relinquished his name.

In the wake of leaving the official office toward the finish of his term Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam again go to his old enthusiasm which is instructing understudies. He worked for some eminent and esteemed organization of India situated the nation over. Most importantly, as indicated by his the young people of the nation is exceptionally skilled yet need the chance to demonstrate their value that is the reason he upheld them in all their products deed.

He passed on during conveying a talk to understudies in Shillong by unexpected heart failure in 2015. He was an extraordinary researcher and a pioneer engineer who served as long as he can remember for the country and kicked the bucket while serving it. The man had the vision to make India an incredible country. Furthermore, as indicated by his the adolescent are the genuine resources of the nation that is the reason we ought to move and persuade them.

Social Issues

Social Issues is an unwanted state which opposes society or a certain a part of society. It refers to an unwanted situation that regularly consequences in issues and continues to harm society. Social issues can motive a whole lot of issues that can be past the manipulate of just one character. Through an essay on social problems, we are able to study why they’re dangerous and what varieties of social troubles we are facing.

Social problems have a lot of drawbacks that harms our society. They are conditions that have an unfavourable and unfavourable end result on our society. They rise up when the public leaves nature or society from a great situation. If you look intently, you may recognise that almost all varieties of social troubles have not unusual origins. In the experience that they all are interconnected one way or the other. Meaning to say, if one solves the other one is likewise maximum likely to clear up. Social troubles have a massive awful impact on our society and in the long run, it affects all and sundry. In order to solve a few social troubles, we need a commonplace technique. No society is free from social problems, almost every considered one of them has some social trouble or the other.

There are a whole lot of social issues we are going through proper now, a few more prominent than the others. First of all, poverty is a international problem. It gives birth to quite a few other social issues which we need to try and get away with on the earliest. Further, international locations like India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and more are facing the problem of the caste gadget on the grounds that times unknown. It consequences in a whole lot of caste violence and inequality which takes the lives of many on a each day basis. Moreover, child labour is any other principal social trouble that damages the lives of younger youngsters. Similarly, illiteracy additionally ruins the lives of many via destroying their chances of a bright future.

In developing nations often, child marriage still exists and is liable for ruining many lives. Similarly, dowry is a completely severe and commonplace social problem that the majority instructions of people partake in. Another distinguished social difficulty is gender inequality which takes away many possibilities from deserving human beings. Domestic violence specially in opposition to ladies is a serious social difficulty we have to all fight against. Other social problems include starvation, infant sex abuse, religious conflicts, child trafficking, terrorism, overpopulation, untouchability, communalism and many greater. It is high time we stop those social troubles.

A society can efficaciously cease social issues if they turn out to be adamant. These social problems act as a barrier to the progress of society. Thus, we ought to all come collectively to fight against them and placed them to an end for the extra desirable.

Personality

In daily existence the time period character is very freely utilized by human beings with exclusive meanings. Some humans discuss with the bodily appearance like height, weight, color, frame constructed, dress, voice, and so on. Some other people talk to intellectual qualities like intelligence, activeness, manner of speech, questioning and reasoning talents, etc.

It is likewise stated social traits like sociability, generosity, kindness, reservedness, etc. On the basis of these characteristics they judge humans as robust or vulnerable personalities, accurate and terrible personalities, and so forth. In this manner all of us make character judgments about the people we recognise. A predominant a part of coming to understand ourselves is growing a sense of what our persona characteristics are. We even form impressions about personalities of people we do now not realize, but have simplest study about. As we shall see, these regular uses of the time period are pretty distinctive from the meaning psychologists give to the term character.

The time period personality has been derived from a Latin phrase ‘personality’- means ‘masks’. In olden days, even as gambling dramas, on the way to provide accurate results to the roles played by means of them, the Greek actors used to put on mask. The psychologists hold to apply the term character to suggest that, the real or inner characteristics of someone could be distinct from, that of the features seen apparently. Hence, defining and expertise the character is not very clean as it appears. It could be very difficult to define character in a unique way. Different psychologists have described persona in their personal ways.

Eysenck defines that, “character is the more or less stable and enduring agency of someone’s character, temperament, mind and body which determines his unique adjustment to the surroundings.”

Most of the definitions of persona have attempted to Consider the totality of the person, that means, all of the capabilities, tendencies and different characteristics, each inherent in addition to acquired, which might be extra or less regular, and distinguishable from the human beings are protected in the personality.

Things to know about Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer affects a life-sustaining system of the body, the respiratory system. It is one of the commonest malignancies in the world. Lung Cancer develops when normal lungs cells sustain genetic damage that eventually leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation. like all cancers, lung cancers cells have the ability to invade neighboring tissues and spread or metastasize to distant parts of the body. Left untreated, lung cancer eventually causes death.

With increasing prevalence of smoking, lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in India. While there are more cases of lung cancer diagnosed in men, the numbers of woman being diagnosed has increased. Lung cancer is rarely diagnosed in younger than 40, but incidence rises steeply thereafter peaking in people aged 75-84 years. Most cases occur in people over the age of 60.

The lungs are highly vascularized organs, meaning they have many blood vessels running through them. This vascularization is needed for the quick exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that takes place with each breath. Among people with lung cancer, these blood vessels provide many convenient routes for lung cancer cells to travel to other pats of the body. Most cancer cells that enter the bloodstream die. However, if lung cancer cells survive and begin to grow in a site distant from the lungs, they produce metastatic tumors. Lung Cancer tends to spread or metastasize very early; therefore it is a very life threatening cancer and one of the most difficult cancers to treat. While lung cancer can spread to any organ in the body, certain organs – particularly the adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bone – are the most common sites for lung cancer metastasis.

The lung also is a very common site for metastasis from tumors in other parts of the body. Tumor metastasis are made up of the same types of the cells as the original (primary) tumor. For Example- If Lung cancers can arise in any part of the lung, but 90%-95% of cancers of the lung are thought to arise from the epithelial-cells, the cells lining the larger and the smaller airways (bronchi & bronchioles); for this reasons, lung cancers are sometime called bronchogenic cancers. Lung cancer development is a multi-factorial process. The majority of lung cancers occur in people who are either current or former smokers. While the relationship between smoking and lung cancer is well established, other factors also come to play

There are two main types of lung cancer- non-small-cell (NSCLS) and small-cell (SCLC), which develop and are treated in different ways. .

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Sociology

MA Sociology- Course Details, Top Colleges, Eligibility - Leverage Edu

Sociology is a social science that deals with the study of society. It is a broad discipline that explores human social behavior and social relationships. At its core, sociology promotes critical thinking, poses analytical questions, and pursues solutions. The word sociology is derived from the Latin word socius (companion) and the Greek word logos (study of), which means the study of companionship. 

The discipline examines human behavior influenced by social structures (groups, communities, organizations), social categories (age, sex, class, race, etc.), and social institutions (politics, religion, education, etc.). The traditional focus of sociology includes social class, social mobility, religion, gender, law, and sexuality. It has now extended its focus to other subjects and institutions like the military, education, social capital, and health.

Origin:

Sociology is a relatively new discipline, with roots in the works of ancient philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, and Confucius. It formally originated in the early 19th century during the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution was one of the main factors in the emergence of sociology.  The industrial revolution had immense effects creating an unprecedented amount of change as well great implications on modern society. Where the once meticulous art of making goods and items by hand was the norm, this was quickly replaced with engine manufacturing allowing goods to be produced in large quantities and bringing about the development of factory organization. The emergence of the nuclear family as well as work force diversifications, are all but some of the implications of the industrial revolution.

Ways of Thinking...: Three Perspectives of Sociology

Auguste Comte, a French philosopher, coined the term sociology in 1838 and is thus known as the “Father of Sociology.” Comte became interested in studying society because of the changes that took place as a result of the Industrial Revolution. He believed that science could help study and understand the social world, and scientific analyses could aid the discovery of laws governing social lives. He then introduced the concept of positivism to sociology — a way to understand the social world based on scientific facts. From his observations of the numerous changes taking place on the societal front, he believed that society should be understood and studied as it was, rather than what it should be. 

The founding fathers of sociology are Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, Karl Marx, and Herbert Spencer. They helped define and develop sociology as a science and discipline, each contributing theories and concepts still used and understood in the field. Some of the other prominent contributors to this discipline were – W.E.B Du Bois, Harriet Martineau.

Main Approaches:

The two main approaches of sociology include micro-sociology and macro-sociology. These two sociological approaches are conceptually different from each other but are interrelated and essential in the study of society.

Microsociology is the study of an individual. It refers to approaches and methods that focus on the nature of everyday human behavior at the community level. At this level, Social status and social roles are the main components of social structure. 

Macrosociology is the study of society as a whole. It refers to approaches and methods that study large-scale patterns and trends within the overall social structure and population. At this level, the main focus is on the social system of a higher level.

Areas of Sociology:

Sociology is a broad discipline with many branches of study. The following are a few areas of sociology –

Criminology: This branch of sociology studies the criminal behavior of individuals or groups. 

Religion: The sociology of religion examines the practices, history, development, and roles of religion in society. 

Family: The sociology of family focuses on marriage, divorce, child-rearing, and domestic abuse.

Education: The sociology of education studies how educational institutions influence social structures and experiences.

Globalization: The sociology of globalization focuses on the economic, political, and cultural aspects and implications of a globally connected society.

Consumption:  The sociology of consumption places consumption at the center of research questions, studies, and social theory. 

Race and Ethnicity: The sociology of race and ethnicity examines the social, political, and economic relations between races and ethnicities. 

Social Inequality:  The sociology of social inequality studies the unequal distribution of power, privilege, and prestige in society.

Work and Industry: The sociology of work examines the implications of technological change, globalization, labor markets, work organization, and employment relations.

Health and Illness:  The sociology of health focuses on the social effects and society’s attitudes towards diseases and disabilities. 

Theories of Sociology:

Symbolic Interaction Theory:
The symbolic interaction perspective is also called symbolic interactionism. George Herbert Mead, an American philosopher, introduced this theory in the 1920s. This perspective relies on the symbolic meaning that people develop in the process of social interaction. This theory studies society, focusing on the symbolic meanings given by people to objects and behaviors. Importance is given to symbolic meanings because people act based on what they choose to believe. People comprehend each other’s behavior, and these comprehensions help form social bonds.

Conflict Theory:
Conflict theory explains that conflicts arise when resources and power are not distributed equally between groups in a society. Karl Marx, a German philosopher, introduced this theory focused on the causes and consequences of class conflict between the bourgeoisie (owners of the means of production) and the proletariat (the laborers). The basic idea of conflict theory is that individuals and groups within society will work to maximize their wealth and power. The conflict theory, premised on class conflicts, is now used to study how other conflicts on race, gender, sexuality, religion, culture, and nationality can affect our lives.

Functionalist Theory:
The functionalist perspective is also called functionalism. This theory has its origins in the works of Emile Durkheim, who was interested in how social order is possible or how society remains relatively stable. The functionalist perspective perceives society as an elaborate system whose individual aspects work together to promote the stability of the whole. According to the functionalist theory, the different parts of society are composed of social institutions, each designed to fulfill different needs. An institution only exists because it serves a vital purpose in the functioning of society. He considered society as an organism since each component plays an important role but can’t function alone. When one part experiences a problem, others must adjust to fill the void.

Some other notable theories include – Feminist Theory, Game Theory, Critical Theory, Social Learning Theory, Rational Choice Theory and Chaos Theory.

Career Prospects:

Best Jobs for Graduates With a Sociology Degree

Sociology prepares people for a range of careers. A degree in sociology can lead to work opportunities with government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and corporations in fields like social service, counseling, designing policies, and market research. Knowledge in sociology serves as an advantage in sales, public relations, journalism, teaching, law, and criminal justice.

Sociology will help gain a better understanding of the social forces that shape our life. It can provide foundational knowledge about social interactions, organizations and society helpful in the pursuit of careers and a good life for ourselves and our families. Sociology helps enhance one’s ability to be an active and informed citizen, and be able to influence societal choices and policies.

Environment Issues

Earth is the only planet in the solar system with life. It is home to numerous species. It is home to numerous species. but today, our planet is afflicted with environmental issues that are life threatening. Now water, air, and soil is polluted. Because of the increasing population and the irresponsible human behaviour, the environment conditions are becoming worse and perhaps uninhabitable. Some of the major environment problems faced by the world looming large are listed below.

Global Warming & Climate Change

  • “Global warming” refers to the rise in global temperatures due mainly to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
  • “Climate change” refers to the increasing changes in the measures of climate over a long period of time – including precipitation, temperature, and wind patterns.
  • Earth’s climate has changed throughout history. Just in the last 650,000 years there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, with the abrupt end of the last ice age about 11,700 years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era — and of human civilization. Most of these climate changes are attributed to very small variations in Earth’s orbit that change the amount of solar energy our planet receives.
  • The current warming trend is of particular significance because it is unequivocally the result of human activity since the mid-20th century and proceeding at a rate that is unprecedented over millennia. It is undeniable that human activities have warmed the atmosphere, ocean, and land and that widespread and rapid changes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, and biosphere have occurred.
  • The planet’s average surface temperature has risen about 2.12 degrees Fahrenheit (1.18 degrees Celsius) since the late 19th century, a change driven largely by increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and other human activities.4 Most of the warming occurred in the past 40 years, with the seven most recent years being the warmest. The years 2016 and 2020 are tied for the warmest year on record.
  • The ocean has absorbed much of this increased heat, with the top 100 meters (about 328 feet) of ocean showing warming of more than 0.6 degrees Fahrenheit (0.33 degrees Celsius) since 1969.6 Earth stores 90% of the extra energy in the ocean.
  • The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased in mass. Data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment show Greenland lost an average of 279 billion tons of ice per year between 1993 and 2019, while Antarctica lost about 148 billion tons of ice per year.
  • Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world — including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska, and Africa.
  • Satellite observations reveal that the amount of spring snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has decreased over the past five decades and the snow is melting earlier.
  • Global sea level rose about 8 inches (20 centimeters) in the last century. The rate in the last two decades, however, is nearly double that of the last century and accelerating slightly every year.

Deforestation

  • The clearing or thinning of forests by humans is known as Deforestation.
  • Forests cover 31% of the land area on our planet. They help people thrive and survive by, for example, purifying water and air and providing people with jobs; some 13.2 million people across the world have a job in the forest sector and another 41 million have a job that is related to the sector. Many animals also rely on forests. Eighty percent of the world’s land-based species, such as elephants and rhinos, live in forests.
  • Forests also play a critical role in mitigating climate change because they act as a carbon sink soaking up carbon dioxide that would otherwise be free in the atmosphere and contribute to ongoing changes in climate patterns.
  • But forests around the world are under threat, jeopardizing these benefits. The threats manifest themselves in the form of deforestation and forest degradation.
  • The main cause of deforestation is agriculture (poorly planned infrastructure is emerging as a big threat too) and the main cause of forest degradation is illegal logging. In 2019, the tropics lost close to 30 soccer fields’ worth of trees every single minute.
Illegal deforestation found in the indigenous Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau territory. This area of ​​deforestation was discovered on December 15th 2019 during the first surveillance made by the Uru-eu-wau-wau after the drone course funded by WWF’s Amazon Emergency Appeal. Drones are to be used to monitor deforestation, invasion and land grabbing. The Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau people received drone piloting training in a partnership between Kanindé Ethno-Environmental Defense Association and WWF. From the funds raised from WWF’s Amazon Emergency Appeal WWF donated 14 drones and trained 55 people to operate them during a training course in December 2019 held in Rondônia. The Indigenous Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau territory in Rondônia measures 1,867,117 hectares and is home to the springs of the 17 largest rivers, it is known as “the state water tank”. This Indigenous Land is the most important of Rondônia because of its biodiversity and the economic value of the water available. There are also caves with rock scriptures, endangered animals, flora and fauna that have never been studied. In the history of the Indigenous Land there have been successive invasions by loggers, rubber tappers, farmers, and land grabbers but it suffers in particular from land grabbing and illegal livestock. The invasions intensified from the 1980s and persist to this day. A new wave of invasions has intensified threats to the people of the Uru-eu-wau-wau Indigenous Land since the 2018 election campaign.

Energy Crisis

Our energy sources such as petroleum, biofuel, coal, etc. are ,mostly non-renewable resources. The energy crisis due to the excess usage of these energy sources, are not depleting the sources fast, but are also adding the green the greenhouse gases which in turn are adding to the green house gases which in turn are adding to the global warming condition. So, most countries are looking for alternative energy sources such as wind energy, solar energy, nuclear energy etc, which will be helpful in the future.

Ozone Layer Depletion

  • Ozone layer depletion is the gradual thinning of the earth’s ozone layer in the upper atmosphere caused due to the release of chemical compounds containing gaseous bromine or chlorine from industries or other human activities.
  • This happens when the chlorine and bromine atoms in the atmosphere come in contact with ozone and destroy the ozone molecules. One chlorine can destroy 100,000 molecules of ozone. It is destroyed more quickly than it is created.
  • Some compounds release chlorine and bromine on exposure to high ultraviolet light, which then contributes to the ozone layer depletion. Such compounds are known as Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS).
  • The ozone-depleting substances that contain chlorine include chlorofluorocarbon, carbon tetra-chloride, hydro-chlorofluorocarbons, and methyl chloroform. Whereas, the ozone-depleting substances that contain bromine are halons, methyl bromide, and hydro bromofluorocarbons.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons are the most abundant ozone-depleting substance. It is only when the chlorine atom reacts with some other molecule, it does not react with ozone.
  • Montreal Protocol was proposed in 1987 to stop the use, production and import of ozone-depleting substances and minimise their concentration in the atmosphere to protect the ozone layer of the earth.
  • If the emission of these gases and other harmful gases are not checked, the ozone layer will disappear very soon. This may expose the living beings to harmful radiations which cause life-threatening diseases like skin cancer.
Forming a Ozone-hole

Pollution

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. All these pollution are very harmful and can seriously affect the living being. Air pollution is related to the emission of harmful gases in the earth’s atmosphere causing health problems. Water Pollution on the other hand, is related to the dumping of waste materials in the water which causes harm to the aquatic as well as terrestrial life. Soil pollution is also related to dumping of waste material, fertilizer run-offs, pesticides and in the sol which degrades the soil. Now comes noise pollution, radio waves from mobile towers and mobile phones, smell pollution, which is related to the high frequency sound ways and pungent smell which are harmful for the ears, brains, nose and lungs.

Waste

  • Waste are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use.
  • A by-product by contrast is a joint product of relatively minor economic value. A waste product may become a by-product, joint product or resource through an invention that raises a waste product’s value above zero.
  • Examples include municipal solid waste (household trash/refuse), hazardous waste, wastewater (such as sewage, which contains bodily wastes (feces and urine) and surface runoff), radioactive waste, and others.
  • Inappropriately managed waste can attract rodents and insects, which can harbor gastrointestinal parasites, yellow fever, worms, the plague and other conditions for humans, and exposure to hazardous wastes, particularly when they are burned, can cause various other diseases including cancers.
  • Toxic waste materials can contaminate surface water, groundwater, soil, and air which causes more problems for humans, other species, and ecosystems.
  • Waste treatment and disposal produces significant green house gas (GHG) emissions, notably methane, which are contributing significantly to global warming.
  • As global warming and carbon-dioxide emission increase, soil begins to become a larger carbon sink and will become increasingly volatile for our plant life.
  • Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste management is increasingly important from a global perspective of resource management. The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources.
  • Local, regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of “green house” gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species, the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity, the security of nations, and the heritage of future generations.
Recycling

Oil Spills

An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. Oil spills may be due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. It has become a major cause for the extinction of many marine species. The biggest oil spill in the world history was a result of Gulf War and it took place in the Persian Gulf where more than 420 million gallons of oil was spilled by the Iraqi forces just to stop the American soldiers from landing.

Depletion of Resources

  • Resource depletion is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished.
  • Natural resources are commonly divided between renewable resources and non-renewable resources . Use of either of these forms of resources beyond their rate of replacement is considered to be resource depletion.
  • The value of a resource is a direct result of its availability in nature and the cost of extracting the resource, the more a resource is depleted the more the value of the resource increases.
  • There are several types of resource depletion, the most known being – Aquifer depletion, deforestation, mining for fossil fuels and minerals, pollution or contamination of resources, slash-and-burn agricultural practices, soil erosion, and over consumption, excessive or unnecessary use of resources.

The 1760 industrial revolution saw large-scale mineral and oil exploration and the practice has been gradually growing, leading to more and more natural oil and mineral depletion. And together with the advancements in technology, development, and research in the contemporary era; exploitation of minerals has become easier and humans are digging deeper to access different ore. The increased exploitation of different minerals has led to some of them entering into a production decline.

For example, minerals such as Gasoline, Copper, and Zinc production are estimated to decline in the next 20 years. Plus, oil mining continues to rise due to the upsurge in the number of engines that use petroleum thereby magnifying its depletion. The peak oil theory supports this fact by putting forward that it will come a time when the globe will experience uncertainties on alternative means of fuels owing to the over-harvesting of petroleum.

Overpopulation

The total global population is more than seven billion people. Still, there is a consistent increase in the overall earth populace and this has been a critical factor in accelerating the depletion of natural resources. An increase in the populace expands the need for resources and conditions necessary to sustain it. In addition, It contributes to increased ecological contamination. Research further indicates that developing countries are using more and more resources to industrialize and support their ever-increasing population. Hence, the depletion of natural resources will continue as long as the world population increases.

Nuclear Issues

Nations long to have nuclear weapons. But the fact is, nuclear weapons have become one of the most dangerous environmental issues today. The amount of nuclear weapons we have can destroy the entire earth in a few seconds. There are many disadvantages of nuclear of nuclear power. Water is used to cool the reactors which then mixes up with he other water bodies and by this, it ads to the problem of global warming. The waste which is produced is so dangerous that even a a small amount of nuclear waste can harm, a big area and effect the living beings. The misuse of nuclear power has become a threat to the survival of life on earth.

Nuclear Power Plants

Go Green to Save Earth

In order to save the planet, the only way is to go green. We need to save energy to reduce the energy crisis and to save nature. Switch off all electrical appliances when not in use. Try to avoid non-renewable energy resources and concentrate on renewable energy like solar energy. Save water. preserve rainwater and stop water pollution. Use recycled things. Stop using plastic bags and bottles. Use Eco-friendly things. Control over-population. save trees avoid using paper bags. Plant tress.

Optical Instruments

Optical instruments are the devices which process light wave to enhance an image for more clear view.

Use of optical instruments, such as a magnifying lens or any complicated device like microscope or telescope usually makes things bigger and helps us to see in a more detailed manner. The use of converging lenses makes things appear larger and on the other hand, diverging lenses always gets you smaller images. While using a converging lens, it’s important to remember that, if an object is at a larger distance then the image is diminished and will be very nearer to the focal point. While the object keeps on moving in the direction of the lens, the image moves beyond the focal point and enlarges. When object is placed at 2F, which is two times the focal distance from the lens, the image and object becomes of the same size. When the object moves from 2F towards the focal point (F), it’s image keeps moving out of the lens and enlarges till it goes to infinity when the object reaches the focal point, F. As the object moves closer to the lens, the image moves in the direction of the lens from negative infinity and gets smaller when the object gets closer to lens.

Image enhancement

The first optical instruments were telescopes used for magnification of distant images, and microscopes used for magnifying very tiny images. Since the days of Galileo and Van Leeuwenhoek, these instruments have been greatly improved and extended into other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. he binocular device is a generally compact instrument for both eyes designed for mobile use. A camera could be considered a type of optical instrument, with the pinhole camera and camera obscura being very simple examples of such devices.

Another class of Optical Instrument is used to analyze the properties of light or optical materials. They include:

  • Interferometer for measuring the interference properties of light waves.
  • Photometer for measuring light intensity.
  • Polarimeter for measuring dispersion or rotation of polarized light.
  • Reflectometer for measuring the reflectivity of a surface or object.
  • Refractometer for measuring refractive index of various materials, invented by Ernst Abbe.
  • Spectrometer or monochromator for generating or measuring a portion of the optical spectrum, for the purpose of chemical or material analysis.
  • Autocollimator which is used to measure angular deflections.
  • Vertometer which is used to determine refractive power of lenses such as glasses, contact lenses and magnifier lens.
  • DNA sequencers can be considered optical instruments as they analyse the color and intensity of the light emitted by a fluorochrome attached to a specific nucleotide of a DNA strand.

Applications of Optical Instruments

Multiple Lenses – There are many devices like telescopes and microscopes which uses multiple lenses to create images. Analyzing any system having multiple lenses shows that it works in stages where each lens forms an image of the object. The original object will work as the object for the first lens and creates an image. This new image will be the object for the second lens and so on..

Microscope

A microscope has two converging lens. This is because it is easier to get higher magnification with two lenses rather than just one. Use of one lens can magnify 5 times more and using a second will magnify 7 times, and you will get an overall magnification of 35 which is not possible in one lens. It’s an easy procedure than to get magnification by a factor of 35 with a single lens. A ray diagram of microscope arrangement is given below. Here you can see the image is the object for the second lens and the image formed by the second lens is the image that you would see when you looked through the microscope.

Types of Microscopes

Simple Microscope

A simple microscope is an optical instrument, we use for the magnification of small objects to get a clear image or vision. It is a convex lens having a short focal length. This microscope is at a small distance from the object for the magnification and hence this forms a virtual image. The simple microscope enables us to view very small letters and figures

Compound Microscope

With a compound microscope, we get very large values of magnification. We use this microscope to see microscopic objects like microorganisms. It comprises of two convex lenses and magnification occurs in both of these lenses. the components of a compound microscope are eyepiece, objective lens, fine and rough adjustment screw.

Telescopes

As we use telescope to view a object that is at very distant place, therefore, a telescope needs at least two lenses. The first lens forms a diminished image which is nearer to its focal point. This device is designed in a way so that real and inverted image formed by the first lens is just nearer to the second lens than its focal length. With the help of a magnifying glass, we gets a enlarged image which is virtual. The final image then inverted with respect to the object. This doesn’t really matter with the astronomical telescope. While observing an object which is on earth, we usually prefer a straight image which is obtained using a third lens.

Types of Telescopes

Refracting Telescopes

All refracting telescopes use the same principles. The combination of an objective lens 1 and some type of eyepiece 2 is used to gather more light than the human eye is able to collect on its own, focus it 5, and present the viewer with a brighter, clearer, and magnified virtual image 6. The figure above is a diagram of a refracting telescope. The objective lens (at point 1) and the eyepiece (point 2) gather more light than a human eye can collect by itself. The image is focused at point 5, and the observer is shown a brighter, magnified virtual image at point 6. The objective lens refracts, or bends, light. This causes the parallel rays to converge at a focal point, and those that are not parallel converge on a focal plane.

Reflecting Telescopes

Reflecting telescopes, such as the one shown in, use either one or a combination of curved mirrors that reflect light to form an image. They allow an observer to view objects that have very large diameters and are the primary type of telescope used in astronomy. The object being observed is reflected by a curved primary mirror onto the focal plane. (The distance from the mirror to the focal plane is called the focal length. ) A sensor could be located here to record the image, or a secondary mirror could be added to redirect the light to an eyepiece.

Catadioptric Telescopes

Catadioptric telescopes, such as the one shown in, combine mirrors and lenses to form an image. This system has a greater degree of error correction than other types of telescopes. The combination of reflective and refractive elements allows for each element to correct the errors made by the other.

X-Ray Diffraction

X-ray diffraction was discovered by Max von Laue, who won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1914 for his mathematical evaluation of observed x-ray diffraction patterns. Diffraction is the irregularities caused when waves encounter an object. You have most likely observed the effects of diffraction when looking at the bottom of a CD or DVD. The rainbow pattern that appears is a result of the light being interfered by the pits and lands on the disc that hold the data. Shows this effect. Diffraction can happen to any type of wave, not just visible light waves
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X-ray Imaging

X-ray radio-graphs are produced by projecting a beam of X-rays toward an object, in medical cases, a part of the human body. Depending on the physical properties of the object (density and composition), some of the X-rays can be partially absorbed.
The portion of the rays that are not absorbed then pass through the object and are recorded by either film or a detector, like in a camera. This provides the observer with a 2 dimensional representation of all the components of that object superimposed on each other.
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Tomography

  • Tomography refers to imaging by sections, or sectioning. demonstrates this concept.
  • The three-dimensional image is broken down into sections.
  • (S1) shows a section from the left and (S2) shows a section from the right.

CT Scans

  • CT scans, or computed tomography scans use a combination of X-ray radiography and tomography to produce slices of areas of the human body.
  • Doctors can analyze the area, and based on the ability of the material to block the X-ray beam, understand more about the material. shows a CT Scan of a human brain.
  • Doctors can cross reference the images with known properties of the same material and determine if there are any inconsistencies or problems.
  • Although generally these scans are shown as in, the information recorded can be used to create a 3 dimensional image of the area. shows a three dimensional image of a brain that was made by compiling CT Scans.

Lasers

  • A laser is a device that produces a very focused beam of visible light of just one wavelength and color.
  • Waves of laser light are synchronized so the crests and troughs of the waves line up.
  • Electrons in a material such as a ruby crystal are stimulated to radiate photons of light of one wavelength.
  • At each end of the tube is a concave mirror. The photons of light reflect back and forth in the tube off these mirrors.
  • This focuses the light. The mirror at one end of the tube is partly transparent.
  • A constant stream of photons passes through the transparent part, forming the laser beam.

Optical fibres

  • One use is carrying communication signals in optical fibres.
  • Sounds or pictures are encoded in pulses of laser light, which are then sent through an optical fiber.
  • All of the light reflects off the inside of the fiber, so none of it escapes. As a result, the signal remains strong even over long distances.
  • More than one signal can travel through an optical fiber at the same time, Optical fibers are used to carry telephone, cable TV, and Internet signals.

Camera

A camera is an optical instrument that forms and records an image of an object. The image may be recorded on film or it may be detected by an electronic sensor that stores the image digitally. Regardless of how the image is recorded, all cameras form images in the same basic way.

  • Light passes through the lens at the front of the camera and enters the camera through an opening called the aperture.
  • As light passes through the lens, it forms a reduced real image. The image focuses on film (or a sensor) at the back of the camera. The lens may be moved back and forth to bring the image into focus.
  • The shutter controls the amount of light that actually strikes the film (or sensor). It stays open longer in dim light to let more light in.

Human EyeAn Optical Instrument

  • The human eye is an optical instrument that enables us to view all the objects around us is a very complex organ.
  • The white protective membrane seen when looked into the eye directly is a Sclera. It is tuff, opaque and fibrous outer layer of the eyeball.
  • The circular part is the Iris. The color of the eye is determined by the color of the Iris. The iris works like the shutter of the camera. It absorbs most of the light falling on it and allows it to pass through the pupil.
  • The center transparent area of the iris is the Pupil. The amount of light that enters the inner part of the eye depends on the size of the pupil.
  • In bright light, the iris contracts the pupil to restrict the light, whereas in low light it widens the pupil to emit more light into the eye. The eyeball is spherical in shape.
  • The retina of the eye is able to detect the light and its color because of the presence of senses known as rods and cones.
  • Light entering the human eye is first refracted by the cornea. The refracted light is then incident on an iris. The lens is just behind the iris and light after refracted through the pupil falls on it and forms a sharp image. Image formation exactly on the retina enables us to see the object clearly.

Defects Of Human Eye

Myopia – A condition in which close objects appear clearly, but far ones don’t.

Hypermetropia – A vision condition in which nearby objects are blurry.

Presbyopia – It is the gradual loss of your eyes’ ability to focus on nearby objects. It’s a natural, often annoying part of aging. Presbyopia usually becomes noticeable in your early to mid-40s and continues to worsen until around age 65.

Astigmatism – A common imperfection in the eye’s curvature. With astigmatism, the front surface of the eye or the lens inside the eye is curved differently in one direction than the other. A common symptom is blurry vision.

Conclusion

Based on the property of reflection and refraction many optical instruments have been designed to understand the behaviour of light more better. Based on the total internal reflection, the phenomenon like Mirage, Transmission through optical fibre, and property of Diamonds could be well understood. Likewise other optical instruments like microscope, telescope etc has been designed to help in the advancement of technology and research studies.

Chemicals in Medicine

Chemistry plays a very significant role in our everyday life. There is hardly any aspect of life where the chemistry does not play a role. We are indebted to chemists for most of the life saving drugs such as sulpha drugs, penicillin, and streptomycin etc-etc.
Medicinal chemistry is an interdisciplinary field of combining aspects of organic chemistry, physical chemistry, pharmacology, microbiology, biochemistry as well as computational chemistry .It is concerned with the discovery, design, synthesis and interaction of pharmaceutical agent (DRUG) with the body. Medicinal chemistry is mainly concerned with small organic molecules both natural and synthetic. Compounds in clinical use are primarily small organic compounds.

Drugs, Medicines and Chemotherapy

In all systems of treatment of disease viz. Ayurvedic, Unani and Allopathic systems, chemical compounds of natural or synthetic origin are used for the treatment of diseases.
Drugs– They r chemical compounds of low molecular weights which interacts with macro-molecular targets and produce a biological response.
Medicines– When the biological response of a drug is therapeutic (curative) and useful, it is called medicine and is used for the treatment, diagnosis and prevention of diseases.

Distinction between the terms Drugs and Medicines

  • From chemistry point of view, there is no distinction between the two terms, i.e. all drugs are medicines and all medicines are drugs. However, according to our society and law, these two terms have different meaning as follows-
  • Medicines are the chemical compounds used to treat diseases, are safe to use, cause no addiction and have minimum toxicity.
  • On the other hand, drugs are the chemical substances which cure the diseases but are habit forming, cause addiction, and have serious side effects.
  • For Example, both Penicillin and Heroin are used to cure disease. However, only Penicillin is called Medicine since it does have side effects. On the other hand, Heroin is called a drug because of its pronounced habit forming and addictive properties.

Classification of drugs

Drugs can be categorized in a number of ways. In the world of medicine and pharmacology, a drug can be classified by its chemical activity or by the condition that it treats. Anticonvulsant medications, For example, are used to prevent seizures, while Mucolytic drugs break down mucus and relieve congestion. Each of the regulated drugs that act on the central nervous system or alter your feelings and perceptions can be classified according to their physical and psychological effects.

The different drug types include the following

  • Depressants – Drugs that suppress or slow the activity of the brain and nerves, acting directly on the central nervous system to create a calming or sedating effect. This category includes barbiturates (phenobarbital, thiopental, butalbital), benzodiazepines (alprazolam, diazepam, clonazepam, lorazepam, midazolam), alcohol, and gamma hydrogenate (GHB). Depressants are taken to relieve anxiety, promote sleep and manage seizure activity.
  • Stimulants – Drugs that accelerate the activity of the central nervous system. Stimulants can make you feel energetic, focused, and alert. This class of drugs can also make you feel edgy, angry, or paranoid. Stimulants include drugs such as cocaine, crack cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. According to the recent World Drug Report published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, amphetamine-derived stimulants like ecstasy and methamphetamine are the most commonly abused drugs around the world after marijuana.
  • Hallucinogens – Also known as psychedelics, these drugs act on the central nervous system to alter your perception of reality, time, and space. Hallucinogens may cause you to hear or see things that don’t exist or imagine situations that aren’t real. Hallucinogenic drugs include psilocybin (found in magic mushrooms), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), peyote, and dimethyltryptamine (DMT).
  • Opioids – These are the drugs that act through the opioid receptors. Opioids are one of the most commonly prescribed medicines worldwide and are commonly used to treat pain and cough. These include drugs such as heroin, codeine, morphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, oxycodone, buprenorphine, and methadone.
  • Inhalants – These are a broad class of drugs with the shared trait of being primarily consumed through inhalation. Most of the substances in this class can exist in vapor form at room temperature. As many of these substances can be found as household items, inhalants are frequently abused by children and adolescents. These include substances such as paint, glue, paint thinners, gasoline, marker or pen ink, and others. Though ultimately all of these substances cross through the lungs into the bloodstream, their precise method of abuse may vary but can include sniffing, spraying, huffing, bagging, and inhaling, among other delivery routes.
  • Cannabis Cannabis is a plant-derived drug that is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide. It acts through the cannabinoid receptors in the brain. Cannabis is abused in various forms including bhang, ganja, charas, and hashish oil.

Therapeutic actions of Different Classes of drugs

Neurologically active drugs -They affect the message transfer mechanism from nerve to receptor.

Tranquilizer

  • A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension.  
  • Tranquilizers fall into two main classes, major and minor. Major tranquilizers, which are also known as anti-psychotic agents, or neuroleptics, because they are used to treat major states of mental disturbance in schizophrenics and other psychotic patients.
  • By contrast, minor tranquilizers, which are also known as anti-anxiety agents, or anxiolytics, are used to treat milder states of anxiety and tension in healthy individuals or people with less serious mental disorders.
  • The major and minor tranquilizers bear only a superficial resemblance to each other, and the trend has been to drop the use of the word tranquilizer altogether in reference to such drugs, though the term persists in popular usage.

Analgesic

  • Any drug that relieves pain selectively without blocking the conduction of nerve impulses, markedly altering sensory perception, or affecting consciousness is called an Analgesic.
  • This selectivity is an important distinction between an analgesic and an anesthetic.
  • Analgesics may be classified into two types: anti-inflammatory drugs, which alleviate pain by reducing local inflammatory responses; and the opioids, which act on the brain.
  • The opioid analgesics were once called narcotic drugs because they can induce sleep. The opioid analgesics can be used for either short-term or long-term relief of severe pain. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory compounds are used for short-term pain relief and for modest pain, such as that of headache, muscle strain, bruising, or arthritis.

Aspirin and its medicinal effect-

  • Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation. Specific inflammatory conditions which aspirin is used to treat include Kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever.
  • Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death. Aspirin is also used long-term to help prevent further heart attacks, ischaemic strokes, and blood clots in people at high risk. It may also decrease the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer.
  • For pain or fever, effects typically begin within 30 minutes. Aspirin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and works similarly to other NSAIDs but also suppresses the normal functioning of platelets.
  • One common adverse effect is an upset stomach.More significant side effects include stomach ulcers, stomach bleeding, and worsening asthma. Bleeding risk is greater among those who are older, drink alcohol, take other NSAIDs, or are on other blood thinners.
  • Aspirin is not recommended in the last part of pregnancy.It is not generally recommended in children with infections because of the risk of Reye syndrome.High doses may result in ringing in the ears.