How to improve Creativity

Creativity is the most difficult thinking skill to acquire, and also the most sought-after. We value it in our music, entertainment, technology, and other aspects of our existence. We appreciate and yearn for it because it enriches our understanding and can make life easier.

1. Keep learning

Once you’ve developed some creative skills, it’s important to keep on challenging yourself and acquiring new knowledge to inspire you and help you grow. Whether you simply make an effort to read more in your spare time, or look into taking more actual courses, constant learning is vital to boost your creativity.

2. Do what you love

When you actually love your job, you are naturally going to be more inspired and enthusiastic about creative problem solving and coming up with new ideas. A task that you keep putting off is going to be very difficult to approach with a positive, creative attitude.

Find a hobby that lets you be creative that you love to do, such as playing an instrument, painting, or even a sport that completely places you in the present.

3. Take a break

Although creativity is absolutely a skill you can train yourself to be better, it’s important to also not put too much pressure on yourself. If you’ve been sitting at your desk for hours desperately seeking new ideas and solutions and coming up with nothing, take a break.

Get a change of scenery, clear your head, and take your mind off the task at hand: when you come back to it with a fresh set of eyes, you might suddenly find the idea you’ve been waiting for sitting in front of you the entire time!

4. Surround Yourself With Inspiration

Surroundings also play a role in the creative process. Stimulating environments can facilitate creativity, so surrounding yourself with things that you find inspiring and motivating can help.

5. Make time for creativity

Many people make the mistake of simply waiting for inspiration to strike, and therefore don’t see creativity as a skill that can be honed and developed when you need it. Try to re-frame the way you see your creative skills and actually make time for creative thinking.


Creativity is not given to certain few individuals at birth. Most psychologists agree that creativity is equally distributed within the population. The truth is, most people use only a small portion of their natural creative abilities. However, if you implement the above tips, you will definitely notice a considerable improvement in your creative thinking abilities.


Game review -Ghost of Tsushima


The game Ghost of Tsushima is open world samurai game made by Sucker Punch Productions and was released in 2020 . The sucker punch productions have bought us many wonderful video games series like infamous, sky copper etc

Game setting

This game is set on real life incident in late 13th century Japan on tsushima island as the mongol invasion takes place. In which almost every samurai were killed by the mongols . The invasion of Tsushima wa the first step in capturing mainland Japan. But when the mongols set sail for a the mainland a typhoon came and destroyed their ship thus saving Japan.


In this game player have control over a samurai named Jin Sakai who is the last of his clan and also last of the few remaining samurais.

In this the game the mongol invasion is led by a mongol leader known as khotun khan who claims that he is the grandson of Genghis Khan. In the early part of the game jin realises that the samurai ways won’t work against this new enemy , fighting with honor will only get more and more people be killed by the mongols so jin has to resort to tactics like assassination and poision enemy which were against the samurai code as these tactics had no honor,it was believed that only cowards use these tactics and a samurai doesn’t, that is jin had to break his samurai code and becomes the ghost.

The game is divided in 3 acts , every acts unlocks a certain play area. In order to defeat the mongols jin had to gather allies which help him throughout the game. Throughout the game jin struggles to find his way as the ghost of Tsushima.

World environment

Exploration is one of the main parts of ghost of Tsushima as it rewards you with various items which become essential in the late game, in order to make the game more enjoyable players can learn various mythical abilities which are really fun to use.

Thier are various shrines located across Tsushima which can be found by exploring the map, the shrines also reward you with a certain type of item. One of the things that I liked the most about ghost of Tsushima is that how beautiful this game can be at certain times, players can also composed haiku (poems) which also makes exploration worth it.


During my time playing ghost of Tsushima I did noticed some points where the game could improve but the experience calls for itself. The game also allows players to do various side activities like bamboo cutting , taking a bath in hot springs, pet a fox etc which are very enjoyable. I really enjoyed the main story and the ending concludes the game in the best way possible. If I wad to rate this game I would give this 10/10 score and I think everyone must play this game at least one.

16 Movies That Prove That Gulzar’s Creative Genius Is Not Limited To His Lyrical Compositions

Ever since he started contributing to the world of cinema, Gulzar’s artistic creations have been a joy to behold. And even though for the world at large his lyrical compositions have been his calling card, cinephiles are aware of how he is also an equally brilliant director. 

Throughout his career, Gulzar has gifted Hindi cinema movies that explored a wide array of subjects and presented characters that stayed with us long after the movie was over. But perhaps his true genius as a director lay in the fact that he presented the kind of movies (original and adaptations) which are relevant even today, though the era in which they were created has long gone by:

1. Maachis

This 1996 political drama, starring Tabu, Jimmy Shergill and Chandrachur Singh, attempts to unearth the root cause of terrorism. An extremely moving tale, expertly supported by brilliant performances from all actors, Maachis is a story that is both, personal and political at the same time. Gulzar managed to infuse an emotional depth to each character, while also adding an objective realism to the story that sets it apart from just another tale of ‘misguided youth’. 

2. Angoor

Inspired by Shakespeare’s Comedy of ErrorsAngoor starred Sanjeev Kumar and Deven Verma in the titular role and is easily one of Bollywood’s finest comedies. Of course, Sanjeev Kumar’s straight-faced dialogue delivery made the suspicious Ashok so much more than just a comic character. But the seemingly simple plot took an altogether refreshing turn under Gulzar’s expert direction. 

3. Aandhi

Though widely regarded as just a political drama, Aandhi was actually a romantic tale as well. Starring Sanjeev Kumar and Suchitra Sen in the lead roles, it presented a love story far ahead of its times, where feminism was as central to the theme as political ambitions. It was a brilliantly sensitive take on the duality of approach when it comes to females in political positions. A special mention to the brilliant soundtrack, with lyrics by Gulzar of course. 

4. Parichay

When it comes to romantic family dramas, Gulzar’s Parichay – starring Jeetendra and Jaya Bachchan in lead roles – is a classic. A beautiful portrayal of how love and kindness can mend broken families, this was one of the first movies to show a ‘non-macho’ hero. Though inspired by the Bengali novel, Rangeen Uttarain by Raj Kumar Maitra and the Hollywood movie The Sound of Music, Gulzar managed to imbibe his signature sensibility to the movie, making a wholly different and entertaining story. 

5. Mere Apne

Gulzar’s directorial debut was a fair indication of his vision as a creator. Starring Meena Kumari, Vinod Khanna, and Shatrughan Sinha in the lead roles, the movie was a remake of the National Award-winning Bengali film Apanjan. But it was Gulzar who eliminated the movie’s formulaic aspects to lend it a more authentic feel. 

6. Koshish

Oft considered to be a landmark movie in the world of Indian cinema, Koshishwas a deeply moving tale about a deaf and mute couple’s personal struggle and societal conflicts. Starring Jaya Bachchan and Sanjeev Kumar, the movie was an extremely sensitive take on the plight of differently-abled people and the message it stood for – to make specially-abled people a part of the ‘normal society’ – is still as relevant as ever. 

7. Ijaazat

For the longest time, Hindi cinema has had a very unidimensional view of love and marriage. But with Ijaazat, Gulzar brought forth a story that was as revolutionary as it was realistic. The National Award winning movie, starring Rekha, Naseeruddin Shah, and Anuradha Patel, made an attempt to explore ‘grey’ characters, without binding them in a moral compass. And of course, the song Mera Kuch Samaan, is a classic if there ever was. 

8. Libaas

Starring Naseeruddin Shah, Raj Babbar, and Shabana Azmi, Libaas was based on Gulzar’s short story Seema and explored the story of a woman sexually frustrated in her marriage and looking for an escape. The movie won international acclaim, and was a refreshing take on adultery, for the time it was created in. 

9. Achanak

Inspired by the famous 1958 murder case KM Nanavati v State of Maharashtra, Achanak starred Vinod Khanna in the lead role and won Gulzar a Filmfare nomination for Best Director. The gripping tale is still considered as one of the finest crime dramas. The movie was also noted for having no songs in it. 

10. Khushboo

Starring Jeetendra and Hema Malini, Khushboo was the kind of story that stayed with you long after the runtime was over. The movie was praised for itssimple yet effective narrative, where it presented a beautiful story without resorting to dramatic dialogues or excessive fanfare. The quiet dignity with which the characters conducted themselves was a result of both fine performances and well-developed storylines.

11. Namkeen

Starring Sharmila Tagore, Sanjeev Kumar, Shabana Azmi and Waheeda Rehman in the lead roles, this National Film Award-winning movie was a sensitive (and much needed) take on the how women are ‘supposed’ to sacrifice to survive. One of the few films of the time to have an all-female lead, the movie is still relevant, years after it first released.  

12. Mausam

Mausam is a prime example of Gulzar’s authentic form of storytelling where false notes rarely, if ever, creep in. Starring Sanjeev Kumar and Sharmila Tagore, the movie was the perfect marriage of a great script and dynamic performances. The heartbreaking story of a man who wishes to improve the life of his former lover’s child is effective in its simplicity, because of Gulzar’s directorial vision. 

13. Meera

As the title suggests, the movie is a historical (and not mythological) take on saint Meera’s life. Her devotion to Lord Krishna is renowned and a major source of Hindu folklore. But Gulzar chose her life to express a woman’s struggle for independence and to represent society’s myopic and orthodoxical view of what a woman ‘should’ be like. 

14. Kitaab

In Bollywood’s phase of the ‘angry young man’ dramas, Kitaab was a poetic narrative of not only the innocence of childhood but also the harsh realities of an unequal society. The movie failed commercially, prompting Gulzar to wonder if Bollywood no longer had space for his gentle form of storytelling. Yet, years later, Kitaab still remains a favorite of cinephiles for whom the story was – and always will be – the king.

15. Kinara

Starring Jeetendra, Hema Malini, and Dharmendra, this romantic drama unearthed the anguish of love in a beautiful manner, and the feelings it invoked stayed with the viewer long after the credits had rolled. One of the few Bollywood movies to explore symbolism, it’s a directorial gem. Gulzar’s attention to detail and his ability to bring together various elements – story, soundtrack, acting – was on fine display here. 

16. Hu Tu Tu

Gulzar’s last directorial venture, Hu Tu Tu was a political drama that saw one of the finest performances by Tabu and Suniel Shetty. Exploring the concept of hate politics, Hu Tu Tu was devoid of the trademark romantic gaze that Gulzar lent to his movies. The brutally honest treatment of corruption and politics may not have gone down well with the audience, but there’s no denying that it was an important story to tell. 

These movies are but a small example of Gulzar’s creative genius. Even though after Hu Tu Tu in 1999 he has only contributed to a movie’s soundtrack, one can’t help but wish for his artistic vision to grace the silver screen again. 


The concept of time is self-evident. An hour consists of a certain number of minutes, a day of hours and a year of days. But we rarely think about the fundamental nature of time.

Time is passing non-stop, and we follow it with clocks and calendars. Yet we cannot study it with a microscope or experiment with it. And it still keeps passing. We just cannot say what exactly happens when time passes.

Time is familiar to everyone, yet it’s hard to define and understand. Science, philosophy, religion, and the arts have different definitions of time, but the system of measuring it is relatively consistent.

Time Dilation

We know from Einstein’s special and general relativity that time is relative. It depends on the frame of reference of an observer. This can result in time dilation, where the time between events becomes longer (dilated) the closer one travels to the speed of light. Moving clocks run more slowly than stationary clocks, with the effect becoming more pronounced as the moving clock approaches light speed. Clocks in jets or in orbit record time more slowly than those on Earth, muon particles decay more slowly when falling, and the Michelson-Morley experiment confirmed length contraction and time dilation.

Time Travel

Time travel means moving forward or backward to different points in time, much like you might move between different points in space. Jumping forward in time occurs in nature. Astronauts on the International Space Station jump forward in time when they return to Earth because of its slower movement relative to the station.

The idea of traveling back in time, however, poses problems. One issue is causality or cause and effect. Moving back in time could cause a temporal paradox. The “grandfather paradox” is a classic example. According to the paradox, if you travel back in time and kill your grandfather before your mother or father was born, you could prevent your own birth. Many physicists believe time travel to the past is impossible, but there are solutions to a temporal paradox, such as traveling between parallel universes or branch points.

Time Perception

The human brain is equipped to track time. The suprachiasmatic nuclei of the brain is the region responsible for daily or circadian rhythms. But neurotransmitters and drugs affect time perceptions. Chemicals that excite neurons so they fire more quickly than normal speed up time, while decreased neuron firing slows down time perception. Basically, when time seems to speed up, the brain distinguishes more events within an interval. In this respect, time truly does seem to fly when one is having fun.

Time seems to slow down during emergencies or danger. Scientists at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston say the brain doesn’t actually speed up, but the amygdala becomes more active. The amygdala is the region of the brain that makes memories. As more memories form, time seems drawn out.

The same phenomenon explains why older people seem to perceive time as moving faster than when they were younger. Psychologists believe the brain forms more memories of new experiences than that of familiar ones. Since fewer new memories are built later in life, time seems to pass more quickly.

The Beginning and End of Time

As far as the universe is concerned, time had a beginning. The starting point was 13.799 billion years ago when the Big Bang occurred. We can measure cosmic background radiation as microwaves from the Big Bang, but there isn’t any radiation with earlier origins. One argument for the origin of time is that if it extended backward infinitely, the night sky would be filled with light from older stars.

Will time end? The answer to this question is unknown. If the universe expands forever, time would continue. If a new Big Bang occurs, our time line would end and a new one would begin. In particle physics experiments, random particles arise from a vacuum, so it doesn’t seem likely the universe would become static or timeless. Only time will tell.


How Should a Fresher Prepare for a Job Interview? Basic Tip!

As a fresher, when you step outside and have no idea, how to prepare and how to prepare for Interviews, Then this article is for you.

I am 24 years old, working with an NGO, still a fresher, but I have fought a lot to get off-campus placement. So I will tell you some basic steps as a fresher, how you should proceed to prepare for the interviews. I am assuming, you know the basic tips before your job interview

Be Confident

Be confident, you have prepared well and this should show in your confidence level in the interview.

Try to appear your best at the Interview

Your appearance should convey that you have taken the interview seriously.   Do not try to turn up in the interview in a manner that does not suit you.   Some basics in grooming will help.

a.       Well Groomed Hair
b.      Well Pressed Shirt
c.       Polished Shoes

Know about the company/organization

You should learn as much as you can about the company.  A good place to start is the company’s website.  If you have been referred through a friend also have a frank discussion with him or her.  Also, do a google search  on the company to understand what others are saying about the company.

Be prepared with questions for the Interviewer

Most interviewers will give you a chance to ask questions.  Use this opportunity to show your knowledge and interest in the company.  Also this is a good opportunity to clear any doubts that you have.

Address the Interviewer politely

It is always polite to refer to the Interviewer as SIR or Ma’am.  You can also address them their Surname (Mr. XXX or Mrs. XXX).  Do not use terms such as Honey, Girl, Dude, Yaar etc.

Do not be argumentative

Present your viewpoint and be professional.  If you do not agree with something the Interviewer has said do not spurn it as invalid.  Learn to understand their point of view even if it clashed with your own.  This does not mean that you need to accept their point of view.

Answer clearly and directly

Spell out your ideas as clearly as you can.  Also try to substantiate your ideas with examples.  Don’t be overly wordy and try to keep your answers to the point.  Do not try to deviate too much from the question.

Experience is not what happens to a man.
It is what a man does with what happens to him

Aldous Huxley

GO and Get that JOB!  Good Luck!

How to Make a Positive First Impression During a Job Interview

When you’re preparing for an interview, you’re probably thinking about the difficult questions you’ll be asked, the thorough solutions you’ll provide, and the professional-yet-slightly-witty tales you’ll relate. After all, that’s what the interview is all about and what will (hopefully) land you a quick offer letter.But, before you even get a chance to offer those well-thought-out responses, all eyes will be on you, assessing your suitability for the position and the firm. The pressure is on from the moment you walk in the door: you have to make a great first impression.

Check out these eight recommendations before your next interview to ensure you’re presenting yourself in the best light and putting yourself up for the most successful interview possible.

1. Arrive on time

“If you’re early, you’re on time; if you’re on time, you’re late,” you’ve heard a million times. Punctuality should come as second nature, especially when your dream job is on the line. But, no matter how many times you’ve heard it, it bears repeating: arrive on time. Are you running late? Please contact your interviewers as soon as feasible. They’ll appreciate it a lot more than if you come up with a stupid reason after they’ve already waited 30 minutes.

2. Put on the Props

Although your appearance is unlikely to influence the interviewer’s final judgment, it can influence how you’re seen at first. You’ll come across as professional and well-put-together if you arrive in a freshly pressed suit and scuff-free shoes with a portfolio in hand. If, on the other hand, you’re dressed a few notches more casually than the rest of the workplace, juggling your briefcase, purse, umbrella, and stack of resumes, you’re unlikely to radiate the same level of professionalism.

3. Only bring what you absolutely need.

You may need a coffee boost to be ready for your upcoming meeting, but don’t carry your paper cup into the workplace to finish the last few drops. Sure, it may not seem like a big deal after all, who doesn’t drink coffee at work? but you don’t want your first interaction with a potential employer.

4. Put Your Phone in a Safe Place

It’s natural to reach for your phone whenever you have to wait: in line at the grocery store, during commercials, while waiting for your Diet Coke to be dispensed from the vending machine you get the picture. However, if you’re waiting in the lobby, don’t just reach for your phone. Instead, use that time to review your CV and consider what you want to say during the interview.

5.Display your zeal.

Demonstrate your enthusiasm for what you do and what you want to do in your future position. It’s a good idea to tell the interviewer that you enjoy your job and are looking forward to this opportunity.

6.Demonstrate how you’re a good fit for the job.

Facts to back up your passion. It’s not enough to say that you’re qualified for the job. Show the employer why and how you’re qualified by being explicit.

7.Don’t be alarmed.

Even if you’ve done all of the necessary preparation, an unexpected interview question can catch you off guard. Prepare for the worst-case scenario so that you can remain calm in the face of adversity.

8.Tell us a story or two.

Don’t just list your credentials. Instead, utilize your narrative abilities to demonstrate what you’ve accomplished at work. Nothing beats a true story to pique your interviewer’s interest and demonstrate your abilities.


What are memes? Memes are build up upon pop culture and recent issues, current affairs, memes work as a social commentary. It is an idea, usage, and style or an amusing video or photo captioned with an interesting comment that spreads from person to person in a fraction of seconds through social media platforms. Consideration of memes may vary from person to person and from community to community. Memes were considered as the concept of catchphrases but they somehow evolved into elaborate Structures like gifs, video viral, challenges. Memes are the tiniest thing on the internet which has now become a full-blown cultural phenomenon and are part of our lives in the digital world. It is a free form of entertainment and can influence the way of communicating and interacting with others. Memes are made for the reason to entertain people, viraling a message, or maybe made on purpose.
The social world has gone crazy and sometimes these memes may offend persons a community’s religious and social beliefs. Though meant for fun we have seen instances that let us tear apart in the name of community, religion. What should be done? Whether there should be regulations and restrictions, but again who decides them, who assesses them. We have seen stand-up comedians going to jail for a joke. The meme is something a type of joke or rather a variety of it using the same variant. It lightens up the mood and is relatable to a group of people. The concept of memes has grown so drastically that every person using social media follows the memes. There are various apps for creating personalized memes Indeed memes make a group closer You school mates, college buddies get an opportunity to come closer and laugh over.

This form of joke is new and builds a good sense of humor. But it has to be maintained at the right place and used in the right places to be on a safer side You never know who gets offended on the internet Many of the comedians and celebrities while posting on their social media handles think a lot and when not handled properly they may receive consequences. But at the end of the day, a joke is a joke and it should be taken as a joke.

11 Classic Films From The Black & White Era That You Must Watch At Least Once In This Lifetime

Are you one of those people who love reading paper books instead of ebooks simply because you love the smell of books? Does the smell of rain falling on dry soil make you more relaxed in comparison to the smell of an essential oil or perfume? Does RD Burman’s music make you happy in a way no one else can? If the answers to all these questions are a big ‘Hell yes’, then you, my friend, are an old soul with a vintage heart. For you simpler things in life matter the most, and in those things you find happiness. 

Remember the times when cinema had vintage feels too? You might not be born in the era, but watching those black-and-white movies will make you feel a great connection with the simpler times.

That was the age when cinema was away from technologies like graphics, VFX and even the vivid colors that appeal to the eye. There weren’t great stunts and illusions, but there were strong plots, great music and brilliant acting. 

To relive the simpler times, watch these classic black-and-white Hindi movies that remain relevant decades later and still leave you impressed. 

1. Awaara (1951)

Cast: Prithviraj Kapoor, Nargis, Raj Kapoor, Leela Chitnis, KN Singh, Shashi Kapoor

We probably didn’t pay attention to this fact but Awaara entered the Cannes Film Festival in 1953. It was nominated for the Grand Prize at a time when many of us didn’t even know about the prestigious film festival. What’s more? The film sold over 200 million tickets overseas. In 2012, the movie made it to the list of All-Time 100 greatest films by TIME.

The movie revolves around innocent Raj Raghunath (Raj Kapoor) and who joins a criminal gang in order to feed his mother. However, when he falls in love with Rita (Nargis), he tries to reform himself. Interestingly, Prithviraj Kapoor, Raj’s real father also plays the role of his real-life father in the movie.

2. Do Bigha Zamin (1953)

Cast: Balraj Sahni, Nirupa Roy, Nazir Hussain, Ratan Kumar, Jagdeep, Murad, Nana Palsikar, Meena Kumari

The film was honoured with All India Certificate of Merit for Best Feature Film. It was also the first Indian film to win the International Prize at the Cannes Film Festival and the first movie to win the Filmfare Best Movie Award.

A poor farmer Shambu Mahato (Balraj Sahni) who lives with his wife Parvati Paro (Nirupa Roy) in a small village becomes a rickshaw puller in Calcutta after being hit by a famine. He has to pay off his debt and save his land.

3. Boot Polish (1954)

Cast: Kumari Naaz, Ratan Kumar, David

At the 1955 Cannes Film Festival, Naaz won the Special Mention to a child actress award for this film. The classic movie also won the Filmfare Award for Best Movie.

The story revolves around siblings Bhola (Rattan Kumar) and Belu (Kumari Naaz), who after the death of their mother are forced by their aunty Kamla Devi (Chanda Burque) to become street beggars. However, with the help of Uncle John (David Abraham), they decide to go against their aunty and lead a respectful life.

4. Shree 420 (1955)

Cast: Raj Kapoor, Nargis, Nadira

The highest-grossing Indian film of 1955, Shree 420 revolves around a small town man Ranbir Raj (Raj Kapoor) who heads to the city to make it big. He falls in love with Vidya (Nargis). However, the city life teaches him to become a fraud. Seductress Maya (Nadira) makes things complicated by trying to manipulate him.

5. Pyaasa (1957)

Cast: Guru Dutt, Waheeda Rehman, Mala Sinha, Johnny Walker, Rehman

Ranked at 160th spot on the Sight & Sound critics’ and directors’ poll of all-time greatest films, Pyaasa is also rated as one of the 100 best movies of all time by TIME magazine.

It is a story about a poet who struggles to make space for himself in the selfish world because no one wants to publish his poems. As he also struggles to find love and recognition, he falls in love with kind prostitute Gulabo (Waheeda Rehman) who not only falls in love with him but his poetry as well.

6. Naya Daur (1957)

Cast: Dilip Kumar, Vyjayanthimala, Ajit, Chand Usmani, Jeevan, Johnny Walker

The film that inspired Aamir Khan’s Lagaan, Naya Daur made Dilip Kumar win his Filmfare Award for Best Actor for the third time in a row. The movie gained such a huge success also dubbed in Tamil.

It follows the story of a son Kundan (Jeevan) of a landlord Seth Ji (Nazir Hussain) that attempts to modernize his business by replacing Tonga (horse carts) with buses to transport passengers. Shankar (Dilip Kumar) who makes his living by pulling a Tonga challenges him.

7. Madhumati (1958)

Cast: Dilip Kumar, Vyjayanthimala, Pran, Johnny Walker 

Based on the theme of reincarnation, Madhumati won nine Filmfare awards and National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi.

A young engineer Devinder (Dilip Kumar) is on his way to the railway station when a landslide blocks the way. He takes shelter in a mansion that he finds familiar. Gradually, he learns the story of his rebirth. In previous life he was Shyamnagar Timber Estate manager Anand, where he had a beautiful relationship with Madhumati (Vyjanthimala).

8. Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi(1958)

Where to watch: MX Player, Amazon Prime, YouTube
Popular song: Ek Ladki Bhigi Bhagi
Cast: Kishore Kumar, Madhubala, Ashok Kumar, Anoop Kumar


Out of three women-hating brothers Manmohan ‘Manu’, Sharma (Kishore Kumar), Brijmohan Sharma (Ashok Kumar) and Jagmohan ‘Jaggu’ Sharma (Anoop Kumar) played by real life Kumar brothers, two fall in love.

9. Kaagaz ke Phool (1959)

Where to watch: Amazon Prime, YouTube
Popular song: Waqt ne Kiya Kya Haseen Sitam
Cast: Guru Dutt, Waheeda Rehman, Kumari Naaz, Mehmood, Johnny Walker


The movie which is inspired by Guru Dutt’s association with Gyan Mukherjee, revolves around a famous director Suresh Sinha (Guru Dutt)  who stumbles upon a woman Shanti (Waheeda Rehman) and discovers star potential in her. He casts her as the lead in a film. In the twisted tale of fate, Shanti indeed becomes a superstar and Suresh faces a decline in his career.

10. Chaudavin Ka Chand (1960)

Cast: Guru Dutt, Waheeda Rehman, Rehman, Minoo Mumtaz, Johnny Walker, Mumtaz Begum, Pravin Paul

This masterpiece also entered into the 2nd Moscow International Film Festival and won several Filmfare awards too.

The story of a love triangle revolves around two friends Aslam and Nawab, who fall in love with the same woman Jameela unknowingly. While the friends are ready to sacrifice for each other, it is Jameela who decides who she is in love with. 

11. Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam(1962)

Cast: Meena Kumari, Guru Dutt, Waheeda Rehman, Rehman, DK Sapru, Dhumal, Pratima Devi

If you have watched Saheb, Biwi Aur Gangster, that film was Tigmanshu Dhulia’s attempt to take the story that was narrated in Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam, a film produced by Guru Dutt and based on a classic Bengali novel Shaheb Bibi Golam by Bimal Mitra, forward. The film was nominated for the Golden Bear at the 13th Berlin International Film Festival, and was chosen as India’s official entry to the Oscars

The story of this film revolves around humble servant Bhootnath (Guru Dutt) gets close to the wife Chhoti Bahu (Meena Kumari) of his employer Chhote Sarkar (Rehman) and narrates the story from his POV


Who was Amar Bose?

Amar Bose, the brilliant mind behind the formation of the Bose Corporation, a brand synonymous with exceptional excellence in the domains of acoustics and sound systems, was a forerunner of his time. He was born and reared in the United States, and he began demonstrating his sharp mind and business abilities at a young age. He was fascinated by electronics since he was a boy, and he spent hours disassembling and repairing radio sets. He had no idea how useful his abilities would be throughout the conflict! During World War II, while his father’s business was struggling, young Amar offered to assist him with his own business enterprise. He repaired radios every day after school and contributed to his family’s income. Recognizing his son’s abilities, his father, despite his lack of financial means, arranged for him to attend the prestigious Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He began his work as a teacher and has always had a passion for study. He eventually founded the Bose Corporation, which went on to become a pioneer in speaker technology and psychoacoustics. Despite the fact that his primary goal was never to generate money, his company did exceptionally well, and he was ranked among the world’s wealthiest individuals in 2007.

Childhood and Adolescence

Amar Bose was born in Pennsylvania to a Bengali father and an American mother. Noni Gopal Bose, his father, was an Indian independence fighter who was frequently imprisoned for his political activities, prompting him to flee to the United States. Charlotte, his mother, was a schoolteacher with French and German descent.
He attended and graduated from Abington Senior High School. He had a fascination with electronics since he was a child, and he liked to disassemble and study radio sets.
Due to shipping constraints, his father’s business of importing coconut-fiber doormats from India became difficult during WWII. Amar proposed that they open a radio repair shop, and he spent his after-school hours repairing radios and boosting the family’s income.
His father, impressed by his young son’s abilities, chose to send him to the greatest college in the country, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In 1947, his father took out a $10,000 loan to send his son to MIT. He intended to study at MIT for two years, but ended up remaining for nine, during which time he earned his BS and then went on to obtain his PhD in Electrical Engineering for his thesis on nonlinear systems.


A lover of classical music, he bought an expensive stereo system which was theoretically supposed to produce high quality sound. However on using it he found that it produced very inferior sound, a realization that motivated him to research on the topic.
Upon his graduation he became an Assistant Professor in MIT though he was equally interested in research. He went on teach at MIT for 45 years.
During the early 1960s, he invented a new type of stereo speaker which made use of multiple smaller speakers. His PhD mentor at the MIT, Dr. Y. W. Lee motivated him to pursue long term research in acoustics. Thus in 1964, he founded his own company, the Bose Corporation that specialized Career He acquired a costly stereo system, which was allegedly meant to generate excellent quality sound, because he was a classical music fan. However, after utilising it, he discovered that it produced poor sound, prompting him to conduct further research.
He became an Assistant Professor at MIT after graduation, despite his passion in research. He went on to teach for 45 years at MIT. He designed a new sort of stereo speaker in the early 1960s that used numerous smaller speakers. Dr. Y. W. Lee, his PhD advisor at MIT, encouraged him to undertake long-term acoustic research. As a result, in 1964, he formed the Bose Corporation, a corporation that specialised in audio.
Bose aimed to develop the next generation of speakers. He invented the 901 Direct/Reflecting speaker system in 1968, which helped him become the market leader in audio components. He continued his groundbreaking work in this field by developing the Bose Wave radio and Bose noise-cancelling headphones. These ideas were so successful that pilots from both the military and the commercial sector embraced them.
Bose was committed to research and developed software that allowed acoustic engineers to recreate sound from each seat in a large hall. This was utilised in the Staples Center in Los Angeles, the Sistine Chapel, and several other places. Despite the fact that Bose was more concerned with changing acoustics and speaker systems than with making money, his company prospered due to the high quality items it developed.
Automobile manufacturers such as Mercedes and Porsche began integrating Bose audio systems in their vehicles in the 1980s. Until 2001, he was a professor at MIT, where he used unusual teaching methods to engage his pupils. In 2011, he gave MIT the bulk of his company’s non-voting shares under the condition that they never be sold.

Achievements & Awards

For his “exceptional contributions to consumer electronics in sound reproduction, industry leadership, and engineering education,” he received the IEEE/RSE Wolfson James Clerk Maxwell Award in 2010. In 2014, the Association of Loudspeaker Manufacturing & Acoustics International presented him with the Beryllium Lifetime Achievement Award, which he received posthumously.

Myanmar coup: Aung San Suu Kyi used to defend the army but what will she do now?

Aung San Suu Kyi: The Burmese Leader

In 2018, a year after the alleged genocide of Rohingya Muslims, Aung San Suu Kyi could not stop praising the military rulers in her cabinet. At that time she was defending them at every step, while most of the world were criticising the military action against the minority Rohingya Muslims.

Now three years later, when she is once again under house arrest and the main victim of this coup, her decision to defend the army appears to be ‘a bad decision’. It is difficult whether Suu Kyi then defended the army for personal, political or patriotic reasons. But her supporters will tell you that she was in difficult situation and it was difficult for her to go against the current.

While her critics say that she could have said at least two words to share the pain of Rohingya Muslims at that time. Well, whatever it is now, the prospects of a democratic Myanmar are scare at the moment.

Suu Kyi’s image is believed to have tarnished, but she still has huge fans in Myanmar and her popularity cannot be understated. In the recently held elections, Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy party won over 80 percent of the vote. This was his big victory. Even today, Suu Kyi’s posters, paintings and calendars that you see everywhere when you walk through the street of Yangon city point to the popularity of ‘Mother Suu Kyi’.

However, now there is noise of protesters in these streets. They are registering their protest by playing utensils and they want Suu Kyi to be released. Traditionally in Myanmar, it is customary to play utensils ‘ to drive away ghosts(evil spirits)’. People are writing on social media that ‘they are now playing utensils to drive away the army, so that Aung San Suu Kyi can be free’.

Wai Nu, a social activist working for the rights of Rohingya Muslims, posted a video of the streets of Yangon on social media, with her writing that “it is very painful to watch”.

“In this footage, a picture that caught my attention was a symbol of Myanmar’s violent and tragic history. The photo flashed by smartphone lights was of General Aung San, the father of Aung San Suu Kyi, who is still talked about in Myanmar to this fay. Spoken with respect. He was assassinated before he got independence from British rule. His popularity was very high then.

He was also the founder of the modern Burmese Army, also known as Tatmadaw. The same army has now taken his daughter captive and once again snatched her freedom.

People believe that the earlier movements in Myanmar – whether it was the 1988 and 2007 movements – were all forgot on the ground. But this time the fight has to be online. Facebook is said to be the most important platform in this which is used the most in Myanmar. Facebook is the main medium for sharing news and perspectives in Myanmar. This is the reason why Myanmar’s military first banned Facebook after the coup.


Life is about becoming the best version of ourselves .In doing so we must inculcate healthy habits in our everyday routine , and concentrate on yourselves . It’s not an easy journey , but by practicing healthy habits each day without fail it can be all worth it. Here are a few habits that can help you be a better YOU :

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MEDITATION – Meditation has a plethora of benefits for the human body . It helps in concentration , reduces stress , helps to get clarity in thoughts , increases self awareness, increases patience and tolerance also increases creativity. Meditating even just for 5 – 7 minutes in the morning can be beneficial.

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JOURNALING – Writing down your goals and thoughts have more benefits than that you know of. It allows self reflect , helps in boosting memory , makes our goals and visions clear , mitigate overthinking , it also improves our communication skills and reduce stress and anxiety. Journaling everyday either after waking up or before going to bed should be inculcated in our routine.

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EXERCISE – It is important to exercise or engage in any physical activity everyday as it helps to keep our mind fresh and hence it functions better. It can be walking , going to the gym , swimming , dancing . Making this a daily habit can make you healthy and fit .

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HAVING HOBBIES – It is really important to have hobbies as it helps in building character and is also a great stress reliever . Having a hobby can also help you find out what your true passions are and also help you find your life goals. It can be painting , drawing , playing an instrument or just about anything.

Mandatory Attendance in Colleges

Many colleges of India made 75% attendance per subject in every semester compulsory for students as a criteria for eligibility to appear for exams and still require at least 50% attendance per subject (during online classes).

Mandatory attendance in college has always been a highly debated topic among students. Many students want freedom to choose which classes to attend, while college authorities insist students must attend classes and maintain a basic discipline.

The attendance rules are very strictly implemented.

Students are sometimes not allowed to give exams because of lack of attendance. If not that, then internal marks are affected.

Parents support this wholeheartedly because there is a preconceived notion that quality of a child’s education is directly proportional to the number of classes, he/she attends. And this is not true, we know it.

  • The problem

The problem arises when you see the actual consequence of this rule. Students do attend more classes, but only because of fear. The actual passion for studying in class is lost. Anything which is forced upon someone will lose its charm. Students don’t come to college because they want to; they come to college because they have to.


The question arises if this rule is really necessary and whether attending classes is really that important in colleges. Let’s see –


  • It does affect grades

An hour or a half or a lecture could be helpful no matter how much we try to oppose it. The knowledge that the professors impart to the students, the tricks and day to day examples shared by the professors are always a big boon while preparing for the exams. Not 100%, but at least 50% of what the professors teach can be easily understood by the students if given proper attention.

  • A responsibility

Education in the colleges is not imparted for free. Parents work hard day and night to pay the five figure fees of the college, because they want to give the best there can be for their children. Ruining their efforts by simply bunking lectures is not a way to pay back. It is extremely important to be responsible and attend lectures to keep in track with the study pattern and the important notes that are delivered out in the process.

  • A matter of discipline

It’s not that the attendance issue is going to be there forever. It is just a matter of 3 or 4 years where the parents invest a lot for their child. There will no longer be classes and teachers to guide along, once the college is over. This is the part of life that comes with the package of being in college and one must learn to live it. Students learn self-discipline due to mandatory attendance, which will help them in their professional as well as personal life.

  • Socialization

Good attendance is needed to develop a strong sense of community in a classroom and to encourage a healthy sense of class participation. In the process of learning how to balance all their responsibilities, students could become better at multi-tasking as well.


  • Earn and Learn

Unnecessary excuse as this may sound to the professors yet it is true that not all students are born with that silver spoon that could pay for the college and other expenses. There are some students in the society that need to work along with attending the college to fight the financial problems of the family. For such students, the mandatory attendance rule becomes difficult to follow. Having a desire to earn for the family and also educated oneself is a very great thought, but remains unsupported due to this rule.

  • Teaching method

The main reason for this issue is the scarcity of quality teachers in colleges these days. If a faculty is not good, no one will pay attention even if all the students are forced to attend all the lectures.

On the other hand, if a faculty is good then all the students will voluntarily come to the class even if it’s an extra lecture or an optional paper. Contrary to popular opinion, students like to study. They want to learn new things. Students are curious.

When a student is forced to attend a lecture, which is given by an incompetent or even a boring lecturer, then the curiosity in him/her dies. It breeds incompetence as faculties are not worried about the number of students attending their class. They can teach in whatever manner they want to and get away with it.

  • Grown ups

By the time students pass out high school, they are grown up and responsible enough to understand what they require from life. As college students and as adults, students should have the right to prioritize their time based on their needs.

If Students are mature enough to elect the country’s government, surely, they can decide what lectures to attend and what lectures to bunk.

  • No time for extra-curricular activities

The mandatory attendance scheme leaves no time for the students to develop their personalities as individuals. These extra-curricular activities, tech-fests and inter-college competitions are the ways one could gain a good exposure to the real world. Students learn how to deal with different people.

  • The old syllabus

The syllabus taught in most of the colleges is very old and has almost 0 practical approach. What makes it boring for the students is the theoretical aspect of education. Listening to one particular person for 60minutes continuously, about some very old technology becomes tedious. College curriculum is hardly providing the skills that are required to get employed.


  • A choice, not an obligation

Attending college should be a choice and not an obligation. Just attending the lectures for attendance and causing disturbance to the others paying attention is of no use. Those who are interested to learn new things will of course attend the lecture, no matter what percentage of attendance is mandatory.

  • Practical approach

The syllabus should be designed in such a way that the latest technologies must be also included in it. There should be a practical and interactive approach to impart the knowledge that would make it interesting for the students to study. Also, the lecture time must be reduced because it is not possible for a human being to concentrate on one particular topic for 60 continuous minutes.

Thus, every coin has two sides. While implementing strict rules regarding attendance could be a way to ensure that students attend the classes and are being evaluated on a regular basis, this could also become troublesome for students. In order to achieve a balance, the implementation of attendance should have relaxations within it for such situations where students are unable to attend the classes regularly due to genuine reasons. Students should have the right to choose which lecture they want to attend and which not. The teaching quality and the syllabus should also be improved, because education is the root cause for a country’s development and it has to always be the best!


Mary Kom

Mary Kom is an Indian Olympic Boxer who is the only female to win World Amateur Boxing Championship six times. She is the only women boxer to have won a medal in each of the first seven world championships. Kom is also the first women boxer to earn a Gold Medal at the Asian Games (2014 in Incheon, South Korea) and at the Commonwealth Games (2018 Gold Coast, Australia).

Kom is also a member of Rajya Sabha after being nominated by the President of India on 26 April 2016. 

Born into a poor family, being the eldest one she had to take care of her siblings and also work with her parents to help them financially. Growing up she wasn’t a fan of boxing. Seeing boxer Dingko Singh won Gold at the Asian Games in 1998, inspired her to take up boxing. Even though her father was against her decision but she stood there firmly and convinced her father and look where she is now.

Mary Kom

Career and Achievements

  • She won her first Gold in 2001 as the Women Boxing Champion of India. Followed by winning the East Open Boxing Champ later in the same year. MC Mary Kom also won the title of Sr World Women Boxing Champ (WWBC) five times in her entire career out of the six she played. The winning editions were the 2nd (2001), 3rd (2003), 4th (2004), 5th (2004), 6th (2005). 

  • Mary Kom also won the National Women Sort Meet in New Delhi 2001 and also won the National Games in the year 2002 held in Hyderabad.

  • In the Asian Women’s Championships held across the Asian countries, she kept on winning a Gold medal for her nation for the years 2005, 2010, 2012, and 2017. But in the event held in 2008 in Guwahati, India she had to settle with a Silver Medal when she lost to Jong Ok again in the pin weight category. MC Mary Kom was also part of the Asian Games both indoor and outdoors. And has made her country proud in both fields. Her first Asian Game medal came in an Indoor tournament held in Hanoi in 2009 where she won a Gold medal again in the category of pin weight. After this, she won a bronze in 2010 and a gold in 2014 in the category of a flyweight.

  • She secured the title of AIBA Women’s World Championship in the next edition of 2002 in Turkey. After that, she played five editions of the same World Championships and kept on defending her title as the World Championships held across the globe.

  • She has also won theWomen’s World Cup once in the year 2004. And a Gold Medal at the Commonwealth Games in 2018 was held in Queensland, Australia.  

Other than that, she has been awarded various honors. She is the first amateur athlete to win the Padma Bhushan.

  • Padma Bhushan (Sports), 2013
  • Arjuna Award (Boxing), 2003
  • Padma Shree (Sports), 2006
  • Contender for Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award, 2007
  • People of the Year- Limca Book of Records, 2007
  • Pepsi MTV Youth Icon, 2008
  • ‘Magnificent Mary’, AIBA 2008
  • Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award, 2009

Importance of technology in education

Currently, we are living in a world of technology and we are simply surrounded by technology everywhere. Technology has just become an unavoidable part of our life. It affects our life in numerous ways like shopping, socializing, connecting, playing and most importantly learning. With the presence of technology increasing day by day it is of utmost importance that technology should be used for education as well. Technology basically plays a crucial role in the system of education.

  • First and foremost, technology greatly increases the scope of education. The correct use of technology will help the students to prepare for their future career. The access to technology has become very easy and convenient in the recent times and hence its importance has also greatly increased. With the advent of wireless technology, it has even become more simplified.
  • The integration of technology in the education system will be the most effective way of providing education. Most importantly, technology is a great way to achieve diversity in the styles of learning and this diversity will be of immense benefit for the students in their future life & career.
  • Technology provides an effective way of interaction. The students are able to interact with their classmates more and more by encouraging collaboration which is very beneficial for effective learning.
  • Technology helps the students to prepare themselves for the real world after the education is completed. As we are currently living in a technological world and the nation is becoming more & more dependent on technology it is extremely important that technology is inculcated among the students so that they do not face any kind of problem in their future life. The students are becoming tech savvy from their school life itself so they would not have to face any difficulties in their future career and life. Technology has the capability of making the students successful in their future and hence its importance.
  • Implementation of technology in the education system helps the students to focus and get engaged. The students of today simply love technology and hence they will definitely be interested in learning if the thing what they love is integrated into their system of learning. Technology will simply attract the students towards learning if technology is a part of the education.
  • The classroom has become a happier place with technology. The students get extremely excited about being able to use the technology themselves which increases their interest towards learning. With constant and continuing advances in the world of technology, the students are able to get improved access to the various educational opportunities.
  • Technology has been improving on a daily basis and with the advent of mobile technology which is readily available, the students are able to get the latest information at a single click. The access to information has become extremely quick and convenient at the same time which is much easier as that ever before.


Technology is helpful in many ways especially in terms of education. It helps students to develop interest and learn new things. Nowadays a newly born child gets used to a mobile phone and when kids will get their education on these platforms, they will just love it.




Technology has a developed a lot and it has made possible many things that weren’t earlier . everyday we encounter new type of technology that helps us in day to day activity . Earlier we used animals to travel from here and there . Then engines were developed and we started using cars , train and other vehicles to travel . We used to send letters that usually took around 5-7 days to reach . But now we have a e-mail services and so better technology to send letters . 
Technology has made things easier and faster . There is no doubt that technology has helped us in several ways . Hospitals are filled with new technology equipment that makes possible to detect several diseases that were not possible earlier . 


Mobile phone is one of the biggest gift of technology and so a biggest addiction . Nowadays smart phones are able to do what earlier computer’s couldn’t do . But if you see around small kids are holding a phone and use it continuously for several hours . When parents are busy they hand over them their mobile phones and keep them busy . But now when it has become an addiction to their children , they are worried . 


A mobile phone has everything . You can watch YouTube ,movies , cartoons and several things . Small kids finds it attractive and use it until they get bored , but than again mobile phones have so many options that no one can get bored with it . They keep playing new games and find another interesting game and keep on using it.


What parents can do is set example to them by using minimum phone infront of them . So they can learn from them that they should not use mobiles the much . They should give them daily remainders how harmful a mobile phone can be .


What Is The Importance Of Social Media In Education?

For quite some time, social media has had an impact on our lives, and the trend of utilizing it is growing by the day. People use it as a platform to communicate with one another, post personal images, videos, opinions, and reviews on a variety of themes such as everyday life, politics, sports, markets, and much more over the internet using devices such as computers, tablets, and cell phones, among other things.

  1. Nowadays, social media usage is on the rise. Whether it’s social networking and networking sites like Facebook, blogs and information sites like Twitter and Tumblr, video sharing sites like YouTube and Daily-motion, or other platforms, they’ve made life easier by allowing people to quickly share nearly anything they want to know about. Humans’ reliance on these sources of socialization is undeniable, which is why every organization employs them to increase productivity and profits.
  2. The use of social media in education is no exception. We all know that education has been heavily reliant on print and electronic media for a long time, but both media are costly owing to their limited availability, but social media is both inexpensive and readily available. Most instructors and professors now use YouTube to present students various types of videos relating to their studies, and as a result, their productivity has increased significantly.
  3. Teachers have come up with the idea of creating a shared page for all students to communicate updates about any changes in class schedule, due dates for assignment submission and tests, and so on, because students increasingly use Facebook. It allows students to communicate with their lecturers and inquire about course challenges while at home. This does not end there; it also encourages collaboration: when students are working on a group assignment, they can better communicate with one another and share files and comments on the same page.
  4. Students no longer need to lug around hefty books: they may learn about anything by browsing collaborative media sources like Wikipedia at any time. Not just for students, but also for instructors, it functions as a dictionary. The most essential feature of these social media platforms is that they encourage open debate. When students and teachers communicate through these channels, they engage in a dialogue that leads to a useful conclusion, for example, when a teacher from Asia meets a teacher from Europe, both can share their perspectives on the educational system and learn about useful teaching methods they had never tried before.
  5. Diigo is another social bookmaking tool. Because it can pool intellectual information, this social media technology is simply user friendly for educators and learners. It provides tailored materials on any area of interest to its users. Wikis are also used as participatory platforms by educational systems all throughout the world, with site visitors contributing to their upkeep. Another social technology that is used in interactions is Twitter (Dixon, 2012). This program allows students to engage with their classmates as well as their professors. Teachers can utilize Twitter effectively to boost post-class discussions.
  6. Social media also exposes students to a variety of instruments that aid in the rapid advancement of the educational process. Students should be taught the benefits and drawbacks of such instructional tools and given the opportunity to utilize them whenever they want. Students can use social media to hold group discussions in the form of chats. Such technologies are critical for the advancement of education. Teachers’ teaching techniques have also benefited from the use of social media. Teachers can now offer online lessons that are transmitted over social media platforms like Skype, thanks to the advancement of social media.


How do you view the education system of India? The education system plays a crucial role in one’s development. Though the whole education system of India in history has some positive examples. Nowadays we can’t deny the fact that the education system is failing for quite some decades. There are many Indian colleges and schools and that many students have been studying in those schools and colleges. But the quality is important to India’s education system, it turned out to be a failure as compared to a foreign country’s education. Because many of the colleges and schools( larger or smaller) and universities have flaws and lag. Colleges and schools mainly focus on the journey of a student rather than teaching some core disciplines and all-important destination of learning. Majority of the people who manage to learn to tend to shift abroad for earning a better income. Because the mindset of Indian people is, even after studying for 15 years jobs aren’t properly assigned to a person who deserves it.  The government is paying attention to educate every child as a basic right, the illiteracy rate is going high. To study students usually appeal to study under their guru and then the guru invites them to their home, one should stay there. Students get to learn and have detailed ideas about all the subjects from Sanskrit maths to physics. So, earlier everything was related to life and nature and it was not just about learning and juggling up.

Earlier India was considered as richest of all countries, but due to the entry of foreign colonizers, India lost its richness, wealth, and knowledge. The educational system restricted the so-called modern education knowledge, including English, mathematics, philosophy was considered vague in the late 1830s.

There are major downsides to modern education in India. Which is an ongoing system of education that is just not affordable for many students. In India, more than 37% of the people are living below the poverty line, so education is so expensive that it is unavailable for many of them. Many schools have poor teaching systems, many have fluctuating teachers in government schools. The level of education in government schools is just not applicable because they do not possess a proper image among students and people. Instead of focusing on learning new things and focusing on the debate, writing, expressing new ideas, writing, developing mental and critical thinking our education is mainly focused on where is your degree achieved. Absence of proper framework for developing industry with academia. Our colleges lack a multi-disciplinary approach. Private institutions which provide degrees to postgraduate. Even private institutes are expensive and also complicated procedures for common people.

Steps to enhance the recent system.
1. Government should take steps to extend the rate of primary schools in rural areas so that people who are staying in villages have the proper opportunity to study.
2. More emphasis should be given to adult education and teach guidelines. So, that parents become keen towards their kid’s education.
3. There should be strict laws related to cheating and then the system should be created corruption-free.
4. Everyone should be given proper opportunity rather than discriminating on cast, culture, and gender, rich and poor.
5. People should be employed and get jobs according to their results and grades.
6. Education loans should be made available, so that poor families for their kid’s education.
7. Girls’ education should give the highest priority.
8. The condition of colleges and schools should be raised to a reasonable level.

India is a progressive country and the recent education system can be improved. As of now, there’s an urgent need for change in the education system or else India will be more divided and unequal than it is today. There’s going to be a change in the education system.  The sole step to improve education is to help strict laws, education itself, and to penalize those who are against it.


Macroeconomics is a branch of economics that studies how an overall economy—the market or other systems that operate on a large scale—behaves.

The two main areas of macroeconomic research are long-term economic growth and shorter-term business cycles.

Macroeconomics in its modern form is often defined as starting with John Maynard Keynes and his theories about market behavior and governmental policies in the 1930s; several schools of thought have developed since.

Macroeconomics studies economy-wide phenomena such as inflation, price levels, rate of economic growth, national income, gross domestic product (GDP), and changes in unemployment.

Some of the key questions addressed by macroeconomics include: What causes unemployment? What causes inflation? What creates or stimulates economic growth? Macroeconomics attempts to measure how well an economy is performing, to understand what forces drive it, and to project how performance can improve.


Understanding Macroeconomics

There are two sides to the study of economics: macroeconomics and microeconomics. As the term implies, macroeconomics looks at the overall, big-picture scenario of the economy.

Put simply, it focuses on the way the economy performs as a whole and then analyzes how different sectors of the economy relate to one another to understand how the aggregate functions. This includes looking at variables like unemployment, GDP, and inflation.

Macroeconomists develop models explaining relationships between these factors. Such macroeconomic models, and the forecasts they produce, are used by government entities to aid in the construction and evaluation of economic, monetary, and fiscal policy; by businesses to set strategy in domestic and global markets; and by investors to predict and plan for movements in various asset classes.

Given the enormous scale of government budgets and the impact of economic policy on consumers and businesses, macroeconomics clearly concerns itself with significant issues. 

Limits of Macroeconomics

It is also important to understand the limitations of economic theory. Theories are often created in a vacuum and lack certain real-world details like taxation, regulation, and transaction costs.

The real world is also decidedly complicated and includes matters of social preference and conscience that do not lend themselves to mathematical analysis.

Even with the limits of economic theory, the performance of companies, and by extension their stocks, is significantly influenced by the economic conditions in which the companies operate and the study of macroeconomic statistics can help an investor make better decisions and spot turning points.

Likewise, it can be invaluable to understand which theories are in favor and influencing a particular government administration. 

Areas of Macroeconomic Research

Economic Growth

Economic growth refers to an increase in aggregate production in an economy. Macroeconomists try to understand the factors that either promote or retard economic growth in order to support economic policies that will support development, progress, and rising living standards.

Business Cycles

Superimposed over long term macroeconomic growth trends, the levels and rates-of-change of major macroeconomic variables such as employment and national output go through occasional fluctuations up or down, expansions and recessions, in a phenomenon known as the business cycle.

The Basic of Macroeconomics


Manipur – Home to number of Indian Olympians

Manipur – Home to number of Indian Olympians

A relatively small northeastern state with a population little above twenty five lakhs, Manipur has produced many renowned athletes as well Olympians. The most recent example is Mirabai Chanu, silver medalist in weightlifting at Tokyo 2020 Olympics.

There are several reasons due to which Manipur produces many Olympians. The state has a very strong sporting culture. Amarjit Singh Kiyam, captain of Indian team at FIFA U-17 World Cup 2017 said “Everyone loves sports in Manipur, be it football, hockey, boxing or wrestling”. National footballer Gurmangi Singh said “There are no malls and multiplexes, so sports remains the primary source of entertainment.” and this is the reason why around 20 thousand people came up for a friendly match at Imphal which itself resides a population of 2.5 lakhs.

The sporting culture of Manipur is supported by the community clubs. These community clubs get huge amount of support from the people. And these community clubs are run by volunteers. Dr. R.K. Nimai Singh, former Commissioner of sports and youth affairs for Manipur, says the spirit of volunteering in the people of Manipur is a result of a pre-colonial tradition known as ‘lallup’. As per this tradition of the monarchy of Manipur, every man aged between 17 to 60 had to voluntarily work for the state for a few days each year. Although this tradition was exploited during the colonial period, still the spirit of volunteering remained a part of Manipuri heritage even after independence. Journalist Dipanjan Sinha wrote “Local clubs are started, run and funded by local communities”. Sportspersons and former players also extend their support to such clubs from funding to donating equipment or subsidizing the meals.

Another factor is the body type of people from Manipur which gives them advantage in various sports including boxing, weightlifting and football. Dangmei Grace, Indian Women’s National Football team says “Our body structure is quite different from other players. Our ability and speed are very good”. The key factor of their body structure is low center of gravity. Most popular example of such structure is Lionel Messi. Low center of gravity is useful especially for weightlifting due to which women from Manipur are efficient with heavy weights. Anita Chanu, former weightlifting champion and coach says the average Manipuri has the right built for weightlifting-“short but with good muscle mass”. For example Hidilyn Diaz the recent gold medalist in weightlifting from Philippines has a height of 4 feet 11 inches and Mirabai Chanu too is of the same height. And this low center of gravity can partly explain the Chinese domination in weightlifting.

Having many advantages doesn’t make success at national and international level easy. Sponsorship is still a struggle for the sportspersons of Manipur which leads them to go for other professions for financial stability. Politics also affects the game negatively. The insurgency of Manipur highlighted in the national and international media prevents foreigners etc. from lending their support. But Dr. R.K. Niami Singh said that the sporting culture of Manipur is so strong that even insurgents won’t interfere with a player or a game. And this is the main reason of sportsperson’s successes at events like the Olympics.

Operation Polo: an operation lead by real iron man

Pre- Independence Hyderabad

Operation Polo is called the military campaign after which the princely states of Hyderabad and Brar joined the Indian Union. This was needed because the Nizam of Hyderabad Osman Ali Khan Asif Jah VII decided to remain independent after the partition of the country. The continuation of an independent princely state in India was not acceptable to the government. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the principal architect of India’s political integration, made it his priority.

Attempts were made to persuade the Nizam but he refused to sign the treaty. The army was sent in defeat and Hyderabad joined the Indian Union on 12 September 1948.

Emergency-like situation was created for the first time in India on September 13, 1948. This was different from the Indira Emergency of 1975. On this day 36,000 soldiers of India camped in Hyderabad. From 13 to 17 September, there took place a genocide which shook whole Hyderabad. It was said that thousands of people were shot standing in line. The army called it ‘Operation Polo’. In some part it was also called ‘Operation Caterpillar’. Sardar Patel told the world that it was ‘police action’. Read the story of Hyderabad meeting in India.

One of the world’s richest people, Nizam wanted a separate country:

Nizam of Hyderabad

After the independence of India, many princely states wanted their separate country. But the Indian government was not ready for this. Because it was not possible. No argument went in favor of his point. As a result, either out of love or reprimand, everyone had to unite with India. But some princely states had made up their mind to challenge India. One of these princely states was the princely state of Hyderabad.

Here the lineage of Asafjah who came from Samarkand used to run. These people were the governors of this princely state on behalf of the Mughals. After Aurangzeb, they were ruled here. They were called Nizams. So in 1948, Nizam Osman Ali Khan Asafjah used to rule the seventh subject, which was mostly Hindus. The Nizam was one of the richest people in the world at that time.

The Nizam’s dream was to have a separate country of its own. For this, apart from his army, he had made a separate army. In which there were people from the Muslim community. They were called Razakars. Before this, the Nizam had also gone to the British government. That they should have their own country under the Commonwealth.

But Mountbatten refused. A. G. Noorani has written that Nehru wanted to settle the matter through dialogue. But Sardar Patel did not have the patience to talk.

Agreements were broken, talk reached from country to America:

Till now there was an agreement with Hyderabad that you should run your state now. Just the Government of India will see your foreign relations. Also you don’t have to have any relation with Pakistan. But the princely state of Hyderabad had also given crores of rupees to Pakistan. Due to this, both the parties kept accusing each other of breaking the agreement.

The princely state alleged that the Indian government was besieging them from all sides. The government said that you are not even using our currency. Weapons are being imported from Pakistan. Razakar’s army is being built. What do you want?


Mountbatten again placed an agreement in June 1948. According to this, everything will continue as it is. Nizam will remain head of state. But gradually the decision of the people will be brought. The Government of India agreed. But the Nizam was not ready. He wanted complete swaraj. For this, he also sought the help of the UN and US President Harry Truman. But not found. Those people didn’t say anything.

The head of the Razakars who wanted an Islamic country was sent to Pakistan:

There was already communal tension in Hyderabad. At the same time there was opposition to Telangana. At the same time a group of Muslims was formed, MIM, headed by Nawab Bahadur Yar Jung. After his death, Qasim Rizvi became the chief. Qasim was the leader of the Razakars. The purpose of these people was to create an Islamic state. They did not believe in democracy. These people spread terror.

Whoever was against him was his enemy. Communists and Muslims who were different from him were also his targets. The main target were Hindus. As a result, thousands of people were killed. Women were raped. They felt that by doing this their great kingdom would become.

The patience of the Indian government was broken. Sardar Patel sent an army contingent to Hyderabad. After the arrival of the army, there was a fierce battle for 5 days. Because of telling police action, no other country in the world has put its hand. As soon as the military action was called, the rest of the countries of the world would have accused India that India has attacked any other country. The Razakars were completely ruined. Qasim was put in jail.

His office Darussalam was made a fire station. MIM leaders were sent to Pakistan or stopped from going out in public. Later, Qasim was given two days’ time on his release from jail to go to Pakistan. When Qasim got two days’ time, the biggest question in front of him was what would happen to MIM now. For this a meeting of MIM was held.

A lawyer named Abdul Wahid Owaisi was also present in this meeting. He took the responsibility on his shoulders. Changed the name of the party to AIMIM i.e. All India Majliye-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen. This is the same party which is now run by Owaisi bhai.

ऑपरेशन पोलो के बाद नेहरू, निज़ाम और जे एन चौधरी
Nehru, Nizam of Hyderabad and J.N.Chaudhary

There were allegations against the Indian Army, the report came after 65 years:

हैदराबाद के मेजर जनरल सैयद अहमद भारत के मेजर जनरल जे एन चौधरी को सरेंडर करते हुए
Major General Syed Ahmed of Hyderabad surrendering to Major General JN Choudhary of India

There were many allegations on this fight. It was alleged that the people of the army and civil had started looting and rape in Hyderabad. But all these things were not allowed to come out. Sunder Lal Committee was also formed for this. But it took 65 years for its report to come out! This report came out in 2013. According to many people, 10-40 thousand people were killed in this fight. Some say that close to two lakh people died!

The report has clearly given the details of robbery and rape in Hyderabad State. Hyderabad was merged with India, but it had to pay a heavy price for it.

APJ Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (October 15, 1931 – July 27, 2015), known as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from July 25, 2002, to July 25, 2007. He was honored with several prestigious awards during the course of his carrier including India’s highest civilian honor “Bharat Ratna” in 1997. 

Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

He was born in Dhanuskhodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, and studied physics and aerospace engineering. 

Before becoming President of India, he worked with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) as an aerospace engineer and was intimately involved in India’s civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missiles and launch vehicle technology.

If you fail, never give up because FAIL means “First Attempt In Learning”

– APJ Abdul Kalam

Some biggest achievements of India’s ‘Missile Man’

  • Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam led India’s two major science research organizations – Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

  • Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period and Kalam played an intensive political and technological role in their success.

  • He directed the project to develop India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SVL). As a project director for the development of the indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle at ISRO led to groundbreaking scientific development. It was in July 1980, that India’s SVL-III successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in the near-Earth orbit leading to the country becoming a member of the exclusive Space Club. 

  • He was responsible for the successful launch of Agni and Prithvi missiles.

  • Dr. Kalam directed projects for the development of India’s ballistic missiles. He headed the projects Devil and Valiant, for the development of ballistic missiles using the technology behind the successful SLV programme. 

  • The Government of India honored him with Padma Bhushan in 1981, Padma Vibhbuhsan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Government. In 1997, Kalam received India’s highest civilian honor,the Bharat Ratna, for his contribution to the scientific research and modernization of defense technology in India. In 2013, he was the recipient of the Von Braun Award from the National Space Society “to recognize excellence in the management and leadership of space-related project”.

  • Dr. Kalam had always encouraged the young population of India to develop a habit of reading and penned down many inspirational books. Some of his notable masterpieces are India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium (1998); Wings of Fire: An Autobiography of A P J Abdul Kalam (1999); Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India (2002).

  • APJ Abdul Kalam made huge contributions to the healthcare sector. Woking jointly with the cardiologist Soma Raja, the late President developed a cost-effective coronary stent ‘Kalam-Raju Stent’ which helped in making healthcare accessible to all.

Dr. Kalam died on July 27, 2015, while delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management in Shillong.

Reference Link :

Best places to study on campus

Studying is a must in college. It’s how you turn those grades into a degree. Unfortunately, studying can sometimes be a hassle to your busy schedule. Also, finding a quiet place to study and keep you focused can be an issue. Typically, it’s hard to study in your dorm or your apartment with all the distractions around you. You may want to hang out with your friends or watch some Netflix. However, you have to get up and start studying!

Here are some of the best places to study on your campus:


Depending on the weather outside, studying under a tree or at a picnic bench can be the perfect study area. You can enjoy the outdoor weather while studying your notes and getting your homework done.  If you don’t want a lot of noise where you’re at, try finding a place on campus away from the dorms where you can study.


The most obvious option is the campus library. Everyone goes to the library for peace and quiet. It’s a distraction-free zone to get all your work done. Your library will usually have study rooms or quiet floors. Take advantage of the study rooms! You can rent one for a certain amount of time and its a great option to getting a lot of work done without distractions. Watch out during finals week in the library. Hoards of students will come to study and it might be a distraction for you. Try renting out a room a week or more in advance so you’ll be guaranteed to study without the distraction of all the new students in the library.

Empty Classrooms:

Another area to study is in an empty classroom. Generally, by the end of the day, most teachers and students will be out of the classrooms. This is your chance to study in a classroom where no one else can distract you and you can get some excellent studying done.


Going to the park is a natural way to improve your mood as you surround yourself with nature. Furthermore, many people enjoy being outside rather than staying in a room or building. Consequently, studying at a park table, bench, or picnic area can boost your mood and inspire creativity and focus.

Not only do you receive natural light and vitamin D, but you also become more connected to the outdoors. Finally, consider bringing food and a drink so you can enjoy the breeze and eat a good meal. This will help you stay focused and provide optimal energy throughout your study session.

commons ROOM:

Finally, there’s the commons. Everyone knows about it, and only few utilize it for their studying needs.

This is a great place to study, so long as you pick the right times. It can get busy during meal times and other high traffic times throughout the day, but later at night or earlier in the morning, this is going to be one of the most quiet places on campus.

So if you’re an early bird or a night owl, definitely consider this option.



This pandemic has left us all homebound and bored . Online school and college can be tiring and we long for recreation and a much needed break from this monotonous life . Well , there is always a way out, yes , Movies , the perfect form of escapism . So , here are a few movies to watch and have a good time with friends and family and to wind down a bit . Hope you enjoy ,

I KNOW WHAT YOU DID LAST SUMMER – If you are a horror/thriller movie fan , you need to watch this . The story about the 4 protagonists will surely blow your mind and keep you glued to your seats still the very end . The unexpected jumpscares , the casting , directing and the cinematography makes this a classic must watch . And there is a sequel as well , now thats a bliss , isn’t it?

CLUELESS – I highly doubt about the fact that people have not already watched this 90s classic romcom , but if you haven’t , then you must add it to your list. This quintessential teenage movie is evergreen and very entertaining , and the fashion element of the movie makes it even better . Cher’s closet is *chef’s kiss* , will surely make you want to go shopping. You will not regret watching this classic romcom.

SEVEN – If you love watching murder mysteries and movies about serial killers you will surely love this masterpiece . The casting is enough to tempt one to watch this movie , Morgan Freeman and Brad Pitt play the lead detectives here. The slow burn , suspense and unexpected turns will leave you completely shook .With an amazing storyline and amazing performance from all actors , this movie is a must watch .

ALPHA – In times like these where there is hopelessness and so much negativity , we need motivation and things that inspire us to keep moving forward . This movie will surely motivate and make you realise that us humans are more powerful than we realise and we can literally conquer anything if we put our mind to it. By the end of the movie you surely will be filled with positivity and hope.

Astronomers has discovered first bursts of light from a black hole, validating Einstein’s Theory

First of all What are black holes and how do they form?

A black hole is generated when a star dies with such a strong gravitational field that stuff is crushed into the little region underneath it, trapping the dead star’s light. Because matter is crammed into such a smallspace, gravity is extremely powerful. People cannot perceive black holes because no light can escape. They are undetectable.

Astronomers have spotted light behind a black hole for the first time, despite the fact that black holes are notorious for allowing no light to escape.

Black Holes, a massive emptiness capable of engulfing anything in its path, are notable for their vast gloomy blackness, which prevents light from passing through. For the first time, astronomers have spotted light from behind a black hole.

Researchers observed strong X-Ray flares erupting from a supermassive black hole at the centre of another galaxy, which is almost 800 million light-years away, deep in the universe. The new discovery is likely to alter our view of the universe’s largest baddies, which are capable of sucking planets and stars while defying gravitational forces.

The research published in the journal Nature reported the observations of X-ray flares emitted from ar0ound the supermassive black hole and its accretion disk. It is already known that the black hole’s extreme gravitational field redirects and distorts light coming from different parts of the disk.

Detecting light behind a black hole

Researchers were researching the region known as the corona when they noticed the light. It’s a type of X-Ray light produced by materials colliding with a supermassive black hole that can be used to map and characterise them.

However, the telescope picked up unexpected “luminous echoes”, smaller flashes, which were of a different colour than bright flashes. Analysis of the X-ray flares revealed short flashes of photons consistent with the re-emergence of emission from behind the black hole.

“These photons’ energy shifts reveal their origins from various areas of the disc. Photons that ricochet off the disk’s far side are curved around the black hole and intensified by the intense gravitational field “According to the study’s findings.

As photons bend around the black hole, the bright flare confirms Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. Although it has long been known that any light that enters a black hole does not exit and cannot be seen again, astrophysicists believe they were able to glimpse the light because black holes warp space and bend light as the magnetic field surrounding them twists.

New Gold Regulations

Gold is not just an asset in India it holds significance in our culture. Being the symbol of the Goddess Lakshmi and considered to be auspicious.

It is part of several cultural and social events of Indian society. Not just bought on special occasions or passed down from several generations, but it also holds the great economical point. Being one of the most trusted investment all over the world even the RBI of India holds 695 tonnes of gold within it as a reserve.The government of India had mandatory hallmarking for gold in 256 districts and plan to implement it all over India in the future.

What is a Hallmark?

It is series of marks made on the metal to clarify the content of the noble metals like gold, silver, etc.In other words,s it lends credibility to the purity of gold. The Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS), in India, is the accreditation agency that certifies and Hallmark gold jewelry and other precious metals.

Other key terms related to gold-

Carat– It indicates the percentage of purity of the metal. Eg 24 carat means gold contains 100 pct gold. But to lend it some strength metal is mixed. Hence gold is about 18 -22 K only.

Stamp of BIS and year of the mark-It is a triangle mark assure of purity with the year of hallmarking of jewelry.

Jewelry Identification mark-BSI mark also carries jewellery stamps to Indicate that jewelry is certified. Its certification is cheap at Rs 2 per gram of gold.

Currently, this regulation is only imposed on jewelers having a turnover of above 40 Lakh only.

Mahatma Gandhi Jayanti – International Day of Non-Violence

  • Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated on the 2nd October year on the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi). The great freedom fighter of India is regarded as the ‘Father of the Nation’. Mahatma Gandhi is popularly known as ‘GandhiJi’ and ‘BapuJi’ in India and the world.
  • He was born on 2 Oct 1869 to his Hindu parents named Karamchand Gandhi and Putlibai in Porbandar, Gujarat. This day is observed as national holiday across all the states and territories of Republic of India. It is also one of 3 official national holidays of India which are 26 January (Republic Day) and 15 August (Independence Day) declared as public holidays.
  • On this national day, all the Govt. offices, banking, and postal services (excluding the emerging services) are normally closed to remember the great the son of Mother India. Private companies mark as holiday with opening of emergency services like medical, health care, and transport service for urgent needs of the public. However, most of the school, college, university and education institutes organise essay completion, quiz, public debate related on life and history of Mahatma Gandhi. There are cultural functions from the Govt. and private organizations, TV Channels and media circles to celebrate the learning and quotes by Gandhiji.

International Day of Non-Violence by the United Nations

Vande Mataram, Jai Hind and Satyamev Jayate’ 

On 15 June 2007, the United Nations General Assembly announced by adopted a resolution which declared that 2 October will be observed as the International Day of Non-Violence in the world. On this day, there are so many public debates arranged by the United Nations offices in various cities of the world.

In India, Gandhi Jayanti official celebration starts with a prayer services at Raj Ghat, Gandhi’s memorial (his cremated place) in New Delhi. National slogans like ‘Vande Mataram, Jai Hind and Satyamev Jayate’ are given with prayer meetings, commemorative ceremonies in different cities by local government institutions and educational institutions and political parties. Favourite painting competitions are conducted among the children with prizes given for projects in schools for peace, non-violence. A Hindu devotional song “Raghupathi Raghava Rajaram” is usually sung in his memory which Gandhi’s favourite Bhajan of spiritual.

People lighting candles and offering flowers on Gandhi’s statue or photo in all parts of India. Remembering his patriotic and philosophy which inspires all the Indian freedom for Independence of India from the British. Awards are given to important personalities for glorifying non-violence and peace of Gandhi’s ideology. There are 3 most important places of Mahatma Gandhi. Please travel the following historical places which explore you more about the life of Mahatma Gandhi.

  • Sabarmati Asharm – The place of the Gandhi’s most of the life living.
    Martyr’s Column at Gandhi Smriti in Delhi – Here Gandhi was shot down.
    Raj Ghat on banks of river Yamuna in Delhi – The place of his cremation.


-Aastha Joshi

Gerda Lerner was bornin 30 April 1920 in Austria. She was Austrian born American historian and a women’s history author. Apart from scholarly publication she wrote numerous poems, fiction, screenplays, theater pieces and an autobiography. She also served as the president of organization of American historians from 1980 to 1981. She was also appointed as the history professor of Robinson Edward in Wisconsin until retiring. She was the founder of women’s history and in 1963 while she was still an undergraduate she taught “Great women’s in American history” which is considered as the first regular course for women in the field of women’s history. She played a key role in development of the curricula of the women’s history and formation of degree programs in women’s history at sarah Lawrence college and Wisconsin university were she also launched PH.D programe. Gerda Lerner was the first child of her parents and she had younger sister. She mentioned that as a child she has strained relationships. In 1938 at the time of anti-Nazi resistance Gerda got involved in it, because of which she and her mother were behind the bars and occupied the cell for 6weeks.In 1939 she immigrated to America on scholarship of bobby Jensen, her socialist fiance. Her marriage with Jensen did not work efficiently after she met carl Lerner who was a theater director. In 1951, Gerda Lerner collaborated with poet Eve Merriam on a musical, The Singing of Women. Her novel No Farewell was published in 1955. In the early 1960s, Lerner and her husband co authored the screenplay of the film Black Like Me, based on the book by white journalist John Howard Griffin. In 1966, Lerner became a founding member of National Organisation for Women.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Lerner published scholarly books and articles that helped establish women’s history as a recognized field of study. Her 1969article “The Lady and the Mill Girl: Changes in the Status of Women in the Age of Jackson”, published in the journal American studies, was an early and influential example of class analysis in women’s history. She was among the first to bring a consciously feminist notion to the study of history. In 1979, Lerner chaired The Women’s History Institute,

a fifteen-day conference at sarah college. It was attended by leaders of national organizations for women and girls


1. Black Women in White America,documentary

2. The Female Experience

3. Creation of patriarchy

4. Fireweed: A political autobiography

5. Creation of feminist consciousness

She died on January 2 2013 in Wisconsin at the age of 92.


-Aastha Joshi

The last 50 years have seen rapid growth in population, urbanization and human Consumption resulting in usage of most of the earth’s resources to an extreme level. A recent report by WWF states that the population size of mammals, reptiles, fishes, birds and amphibians have decreased by 68 percent on a average from 1970 to 2016, which makes us astonished about the biodiversity we have lost. The report pinpoint’s this biodiversity loss to a variety of factors, but mainly land-use change,particularly the conversion of habitats, like forests, grasslands and mangroves, into agricultural systems. Animals like sharks and seahorses are significantly affected by the illegal wildlife trade, and pangolins are critically endangered because of it. It has been found that the sixth mass extinction of wildlife on Earth is accelerating. More than 500 species of land animals are on the brink of extinction and are likely to be lost within 20 years. The species that are endangered will go extinct whereas the species that are readily available will fall into endangered category. Without such harsh actions of humans on the environment this loss of biodiversity would have taken thousands of years. The living planet report 2020 shows that population sizes in Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced the highest decline, at 94%, while globally, freshwater species have been disproportionately impacted, declining 84% of average. Humans have been openly criticised for using up the earths resources and not giving them time to replenish. Since the industrial revolution, human activities have increasingly destroyed and degraded forests, grasslands, wetlands and other important ecosystems. local varieties and breeds of domesticated plants and animals are disappearing. The best example to it is crows and pigeons, early generations have seen the being on their rooftops but now days we can hardly find some around us. Several wildlife conservation techniques have now been adapted by the mankind to tackle this loss of biodiversity and maintain an ecological balance. Many wildlife centuries and biosphere reserves have been made to provide a natural habitat to these endangered species as the loss of natural habitat has been reported one of the major reasons for the loss of these species. The alarming ratios of decrease in the species has made the people around globe a little more concerned. Several projects have been initiated by the counties and also at the global level to converse these species and stop them from getting extinct. Harsh treatment to animals have strongly been prohibited, also hunting has now came in the negative light and strict actions are taken upon people practicing it without the permission of government. All on the world Biosphere reserves have been created to promote the well being of these animals and providing them a secured environment as well as a habitat that is originally meant for them. Humans have created a ruckus all over the earth disturbing the balance around and lifestyle of the species. If optimal measures are not taken at the right time these acts of humans can have a disastrous impact on them itself.

Survival Guide For Distance Learning Education

Computers have provided students and teachers with a plethora of new opportunities in recent years. Technology has progressed beyond books and chalkboards. Every day, more computers are being introduced into schools. With the world becoming more computerized, it is more important than ever to teach people how to use technology. Learning for kids is not only more fascinating, but also more enjoyable, thanks to the modern technologies that teachers employ. The Internet has made a huge difference in schooling. We can now take lessons online from hundreds of miles away while yet feeling like we are in the classroom thanks to the Internet.

Learning can be a difficult task for anyone who wishes to broaden their horizons. Learning has entered a new era with the help of online schools, which is quickly expanding. Secondary education is now available online for individuals who wish to earn their degree. For some pupils, this may not be the best schooling, but for others, it is ideal. To maximize the benefits of online college, a student in an online school must learn to apply his or her educational abilities and tools.

Goal-Setting and Goal-Achievement

Creating an action plan is the first step in doing anything significant. This action plan will assist any student in achieving his or her objectives. This strategy is just a set of objectives. Short-term and long-term attainable goals should be established in order to demonstrate the student’s progress. The long-term goal would be considered the action plan’s final result. Although a student may have numerous long-term goals, it is critical that each long-term goal has its own plan. Short-term goals should serve as stepping stones toward the achievement of the major long-term goal. Short-term goals should also be attainable in order to help the student gain confidence and demonstrate progress. Setting and achieving goals will be extremely vital throughout one’s online learning journey.

Retrieval technique

Retrieval technique entails bringing knowledge from memory to mind. Students do this when they take practice tests or quizzes, but it can also happen in other ways. Students can, for example, jot down what they remember on a blank sheet of paper or even sketch ideas. The important thing is that they should recall the knowledge from memory. So, while duplicating one’s notes would be ineffective, attempting to summarize one’s notes from memory would be extremely valuable. Students do not need to recall everything and can use their notes or course materials to fill up any gaps following retrieval.

Using Time Efficiently

Time is a valuable commodity. Each kid has an own learning style. It is critical to understand each student’s personality and learning style in order to maximize each student’s abilities. Participating in Discussion Questions and speaking with one another allows each student to evaluate who is the greatest at learning in each type. People with the personality styles of organizer, adventurer, giver, and thinker fall into this category.


Elaboration entails posing “how” and “why” questions regarding a certain issue and then attempting to find answers. Students understand and learn more when they try to describe and explain how and why things work. Students can also apply the themes to their own life, or compare and contrast two topics to see how they are similar and different. This method can be assigned to a single student or a group of pupils. Students can use elaboration in online discussion boards or virtual groups via video chat in a distance environment.


Emerging academics

There are so many academic studies introduced in this emerging world. The value for these new studies is great and respectful. Some new academic studies include Artificial intelligence, Machine learning, Deep learning, Cloud computing, and so on. Though the demand for studying these is less among students earlier, it attracts students who are interested in that field. The moment people realize about emerging technologies chooses to study in these fields.

New Technologies
New Technologies

Blooming Fields

Since these studies involve the development in science and the world, software industries are interested to show their talent among their competitors. So, this increases the search for talented students to work with them. Therefore it creates large employment opportunities in these fields. So, we can mark these as a blooming fields.

Awareness among students and parents

Also, due to the pandemic situation right now, the internet discovered many students interested in these fields. Many inventions and discoveries have been made by students to help this world. Thereby it enhances the academic and leadership potential of the students. This shows people’s awareness about the new academic fields.

In India, many new courses and streams have been introduced in colleges and schools to develop the standard in education. Also, awareness about these courses is being made among students by government and industry peoples. 

Online class
Online Class

Due to the pandemic situation, students attend online classes which also made students think about the necessity of new technologies and the demand for these technologies. Since new streams are introduced in colleges, some parents who understood the real demand are interested to join their children to enlighten their knowledge.

 Hereby, we can conclude that the dynamics for emerging academics are changing in developing countries.


Google is an American company that is famous for providing information and many other services through the Internet all over the world.

Currently the owner (CEO) of Google is an Indian named Sundar Pichai who is an Indian-American business executive. He is Alphabet Inc. And its subsidiary is the CEO of Google. He is 49 years old and he was elected CEO of Google in 2015. Pichai Sundararajan was born on 12 July 1972 in Madras. He was originally an Indian citizen but was later granted US citizenship after being hired by Google.Now for many years Pichai lives in America with his family but his parents live in India only. His parents are very proud of his success.

His education

Pichai completed his schooling at Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, a Central Board of Secondary Education school in Ashok Nagar, Chennai and completed class XII from Vana Vani School, IIT Madras. Pichai had obtained a degree in Metallurgical Engineering from IIT Kharangpur CB Tech. After which he went to Stanford University for his further studies.After receiving his MS from Stanford University, he had an MBA from the University of Pennsylvania where he was named a Siebel Scholar and Palmer Scholar, respectively. Pichai was very interested in studies from the beginning.

And the result of that interest is in front of the entire nation today. Due to the interest in his studies, he has achieved this success today and his name is in the whole country.At an early age Pichai displayed an interest in technology and an exceptional memory, particularly for telephone numbers. In December 2017, Pichai was a speaker at the World Internet Conference in China, where he said that “Google” does a lot to help Chinese companies. There are many small and medium-sized businesses in China that take advantage of Google.Getting the products in many other countries outside China. Pichai was reportedly aggressively pursued for employment by microblogging service Twitter in 2021, and in 2014 he was seen as a potential CEO of Microsoft, but in both cases he was older than Google to stay with. Financial packages were given. He has received many awards throughout his life. Then after that Sundar Pichai became the owner of Google

His success

Pichai was named one of Time magazine’s 100 Most Influential People in 2016 and 2020. At the same time ensuring its continued growth is a huge responsibility.When asked what he does to get results in meetings, he said that he tries to involve people in the conversation so that everyone can participate. If the meetings are not virtual, he actually goes around the table one by one, and asks people to clearly state their position, to make sure the introverts in the meeting have opinions, perspectives, and attitudes. The stands are brought to the front.

His life

Pichai joined Google in 2004, where he led product management and innovation efforts for a group of Google’s client software products, including Google Chrome. In addition, he oversaw the development of other applications such as Gmail and Google Maps. In 2010, Pichai also announced the open-sourcing of the new video codec VP8 by Google and introduced a new video format, Web M. Chromebook was released in 2012.In 2013, Pichai added Android to the list of Google products he had visited.

His mother, Lakshmi, was a stenographer, and his father, Regunath Pichai, was an electrical engineer in the British conglomerate GEC. Pichai is married to Anjali Pichai, an Indian chemical engineer currently working as a business operations manager at Intuit, a software company, and they have two children.His daughter also works in Google. His recreational interests include cricket and football. Google’s owner Pichai is an American citizen but he says that he has a lot of love for India and India will always be close to his heart. Pichai is heavily inspired by the culture of India.Because he was born in Madras, he did not know how to speak Hindi, he speaks Tamil and English very well, he had learned some words of Hindi during his college days, due to which he was very interested in Hindi language but while living in America He prefers to speak English only.

Keeping up with the To-do Lists

Be Honest. Not everyone runs on lists. However, if you’re struggling to make sense of your goals, a list could save you time, energy, and the need to come up with excuses for when the thing that needs to happen, well, it doesn’t.

List-making is pretty personal. Some people border on obsessive about them. Others prefer less to-doing and fro-ing. They’d rather wing it, writing important telephone numbers on the backs of their hands or sticking Post-its to their leg, “Memento”-style.

For one thing, the act of writing out a list forces us to set concrete goals (To-do: “Take out the trash.”). This can be way more effective than thinking about vague objectives.

By creating organized to-do lists, you can prioritize the things you need to do, keep track of what still needs to be finished, and feel productive and prepared in all areas of your life.

Creating To-do list

So, here are some tips which I personally find useful.

  • Decide what medium works best for you – If your smartphone is in your hand all day every day, use the Notes application to create your to-do list. If you hate staring at a phone or computer screen, grab a pen or pencil and write your list by hand. A to-do list will not be helpful if you dread making it or using it, so choose whatever medium you prefer most. Although it does not guarantee you’ll be ticking it all off.

  • List all of the tasks that you need to accomplish – Writing absolutely everything down, you will be getting it off your mind and onto paper. It will ensure you don’t forget anything, and hopefully, it will also help your mind feel less crammed. The running list of every single task you have on your radar will be referred to as your primary list.

  • Keep it simple – There’s nothing more intimidating than a mile-long to-do list. The longer a to-do list becomes, the harder it can be to motivate yourself. But it’s human tendency to back-off at the sight of anything that seems too heavy. Simply put, Looks are important. So, chop it up if you need to but keep it sweet and simple. Create an illusion for yourself forcing you to believe it very easy and do able.

  • Meet the MIT’s ( Most important tasks) – Prioritize everything. This is the key rule and also the reason why we make a primary list. Remember, so we don’t forget anything and not jumble up the order we need the tasks to be done. Because we’ve a deadline to follow and we all know what happens when we miss one by accident.

  • Stay specific and don’t stress – We love lofty goals here. We’d love to have all our task done at once, it provides you relief, “I’m done for this week, Freedom here I come “. Nice scenario but seldom does it occur. Every list has a few tasks on it that we’ve been meaning to do for days, weeks, or maybe even years but haven’t yet. For, this we have one of the two reasons, first ” I’ll do it later, I have to do this first.” Or “What is this, I swear I’ll do it someday”. So either it’s not on your priority list or you don’t think it’s important enough to execute.

  • Be flexible to have a new start everyday – Leave your self with some wiggle room. This will provide you with the space to think, to reboot, to remain on track. Make a new list every day so the same old items don’t clog up the agenda. If something lives on the to-do list for too long, it does not get to-done, and that is to-disappointing.
Doing all the things to do

Self-discipline is a good thing: It’s a key part of maintaining balance, success, and health. But so are pleasure, relaxation, relationships, and hobbies. However, punishing yourself will lead exactly nowhere. Make sure that, among all the scheduling and listing, you block out some time for yourself, whether in the form of exercise, mindfulness, or sitting around in your pajamas.

Your to-do list should be contributing to your happiness, not dominating your life. Don’t beat yourself up if you don’t complete all of your tasks. Getting up and trying again tomorrow is the real achievement.

Hope you find this helpful!!


Why the disintegration of Soviet Union was surprising?

Pictorial representation of USSR disintegration

Before we start on the topic here is a fun fact the Soviet Union covered the one-sixth portion of the whole world.

The Soviet Union, a group of 15 republican factions, broke up overnight and it was such a big break that even today after 30 years its tremors are being felt.

How the Soviet Union, which influenced the history, economy, ideology and technology of the 20th century, was torn apart in one night. Born of the Communist Revolution of Russia in 1917, people of at least 100 nationalities lived in the Soviet Union and they owned one-sixth of the earth. An empire that defeated Hitler, waged a cold war with America and took part in a nuclear race. Also played a role in the Vietnam and Cuban revolutions.

The empire that sent the first satellite into space and also the first man. His name was Yuri Gagarin. The Soviet Union also remained at the forefront of sports, dance, cinema, literature, art and science. Archie Brown, professor at Oxford University and an expert on Soviet policies, says, ‘The speed with which the Soviet Union broke up in a single night was astonishing to everyone.’

Many other experts, including Brown, consider many reasons responsible for the disintegration of the Soviet Union. That disintegration, which happened on a Christmas night in 1991.

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin

1. Dictatorship and Centralized Governance:

The Soviet Union was formed in 1917. When the Bolshevik Revolution took place and the Russian Empire was abolished by ousting Tsar Nicholas II from power. In 1922, under the leadership of Lenin, far-flung states were merged into Russia and the USSR was officially established, headed by Vladimir Lenin. It was obvious that it would not be easy to control such a complex and diverse country.

The Soviet Union tried to become a democracy by breaking away from the Tsar’s dictatorship. But eventually dictatorship was established, with Stalin being the most prominent dictator. Later on, a kind of parliament was formed, which was called Supreme Soviet, but all the decisions were taken by the Communist Party. From choosing the head of the country, every decision was taken by a small committee of the party, which was called the Politburo.

From the time of Stalin, the party’s control over politics, economy and common life went on. Opponents were sent to Gulag. Gulag, where people were tortured. Lakhs of people died in Gulag.

2. ‘Hellish’ Bureaucracy:

Dictatorship and centralized rule also led to an extensive bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, whose control extended to every corner of society. That is, you have to go through the process of paper, stamp and identification for everything. Oxford professor Archie Brown says, this bureaucracy made the Soviet Union a difficult country.

Karl Marx

3. Failing Economy:

The economy of the Soviet Union was inspired by the principles of Karl Marx, who considered the resources of production, distribution and exchange to be the property of society. The economy ran on the basis of five year plans. Most of the population of the Soviet Union was employed in industry and agriculture.

But despite this, the Soviet Union lagged behind America in the economy. And in the 1980s, the GDP of the Soviet Union fell to half that of the United States.

4. Best Education:

Education initiation in the Soviet Union was excellent and millions of people were educated. Gradually, the restrictions on external connections were reduced and people began to know about the world. Gradually it happened that social groups of better educated people started being formed which became influential. He became an advocate of Gorbachoff’s economic reforms, which were announced in the nineties.

Gorbachoff’s Reforms:

According to Brown, although the reasons for the disintegration of the Soviet Union were many, the most important reason was Gorbachev himself. His coming to power was a big deal in itself. He came to power to change the Soviet system, that is, he was about to dig his own grave. When he became the General Secretary of the Communist Party in 1985, he began a reform program because of a poor economy and an inefficient political structure.

He started two policies named perestroika (reducing government control) and glasnost. Gorbachoff felt that this would benefit the private sector. Innovation will increase and later on foreign investment will also be in the Soviet Union. He gave the workers the right to strike so that they could demand better wages and working conditions.

Under Glasnost, there was an attempt to adopt openness and transparency. The ban on books by authors such as Solzhenitsyn and George Orwell was lifted. Political prisoners were released and newspapers were encouraged to criticize the government’s policies.

Elections were attempted for the first time and the Communist Party was involved in it:

As a result, people queued up to buy more ration. Prices started rising and people started getting upset with Gorbachoff’s rule. Gorbachev resigned on the night of 25 December of the same year, and the next day the document was signed, separating all parts of the Soviet Union.

Archie Brown says, ‘It did not happen that the economic and political crisis led to liberalization and democracy started.’ According to him it was all the opposite. Due to liberalization and democratization, the system reached a period of crisis and the Soviet Union broke up. They say that if Gorbachoff’s economic reforms had not taken place, then perhaps the Soviet Union would still exist today.


Is it necessary to success fully to get succeed? Not necessary. It is said that even after getting successful, success is the realization of being happy is more important than success. It is saying that winning or losing doesn’t matter, it is more important that you have attempted and then you lose. What do you mean by success? Everyone has a different definition of success, which is, if you are healthy and wealthy you are successful. The actual meaning of success is something you decide for yourself. Success could be the thing you love to do, it could mean career progression also. Success is to do whatever you wanna do which makes you happy. It is true that the more success we receive, the more we tend to expect and the definition of success rises. Which leads to hard work.
As we are living in the society, the mindset of people works accordingly to the society, what society will think? will they judge? ‘if we earn less’. We are focused on what society thinks so in that fear we tend to work hard so that, we can fulfill the expectations they have created for us.
Success is the only thing that doesn’t get without failure. For a lot of people, success seems to be an easy spot. But without embracing, perseverance and learning from the failure, and taking something positive from many people, those who have experienced. Sometimes people get lucky, but success comes in a very short period but with no struggle is short-lived. If success is so easy to grasp, then till now everyone should be wealthy enough.

Failure can be sometimes embarrassing to your ego, but failure doesn’t mean to be sad and quit things up, to be a successful person, one has to face many failures which teach us air flaws and our mistakes which will make us better people and will also cultivate the courage. While being successful there will be a lot of outcomes, some less to learning. This will change us, that is why this is important than outcomes.
Everyone should truly believe that everyone will be and are successful. Success isn’t just essential but it is vital. It should not be increased or decreased for anyone, do whatever makes you happy.

Indian Education System

Indian Education System

Rukmini Banerjee, the incharge of Pratham which is an organization striving to improve the quality of education in India. Pratham publishes an annual survey for the same known as ‘Annual Status of Education Report’ popularly known as ASER. For their 2018 report ASER surveyed a total of 546,527 children across 596 districts in rural India. For this survey the ASER staff gives children reading and basic calculations as test. And if you aren’t familiar with rural India, the results may seem shocking. About 50.3 per cent children studying in 5th standard were unable to read a paragraph from 2nd standard textbook. Only 4.4 per cent of students aged between 7 to 16 years are recorded not going to school which implies that children are merely going to school and not actually learning.

The problems of the Indian education system maybe classified as

  1. Design of the system
  2. Governance

Design of the system (Low learning)

Economists Karthik Murlidharan and Abhijeet Singh conducted tests with children from government schools in Delhi and came up with results reciprocating those of ASER. For example their survey showed that only two students in 6th standard had the learning level of an average 6th standard student. Other students of the 6th standard had learning levels that of an average 5th, 4th and even that of 1st standard student. According to researchers majority of the students are lagging behind the curriculum.

Any education system shall work to fulfil two major purposes i.e., Skill development and Filtering students for higher studies. Whereas the Indian education system works more like a factory system which has set really high standards to produce students which would further perform well at various Indian competitive examinations. Our education system does not focus much on the skill development of the students. It is basically a ‘one size fits all’ kind of a system where students are supposed to pass out of school or college even when they haven’t learnt properly. This pressure leads to cheating, bribing and other such malpractices observed during the major examinations. This system isn’t limited to schools. The same situation prevails in many universities as well. This is the major reason why many surveys say majority of Indian graduates are unemployable.


A government school teacher Sangita Kashyap came to lime light in the year 2014 as she set a record of being absent for 23 years from her job. But she isn’t an exception. Survey conducted by Karthik Murlidharan shows that 23.6 per cent of teachers were absent during unannounced visits, and it is estimated to salary cost of about 1.5 billion dollars per year to the Indian government. Due to this absenteeism Delhi government installed CCTV cameras in all classrooms of government schools. But teachers aren’t the only one’s responsible, system actually makes the situation worse.

A analysis conducted by Azim Premji foundation showed that about 18 per cent of teachers were absent from classes but only 2.5 per cent were actually skipping their duty. About 9 per cent were on paid leave whereas 7 per cent were busy with official duties. According to the Right To Education (RTE) Act 220 days of study is mandatory at school but on the contrary, in 2015-16, just 42 days were spent on teaching during the academic year. This means teachers spent about 81 per cent of their time on administrative duties. Many teachers recently lost their lives to election duties in Uttar Pradesh due to the large scale negligence of Covid protocols.


There are two major problems i.e., low learning despite going to school and further lessening of the learning potential due to administrative duties performed by teachers.

Several learning programmes in the country are working innovatively to solve the first issue. The Indian government too recognizes the issue to some extent, as a result it recently withdrawed its ‘no fail policy’ till class 8.

For the second issue, efforts should be made to reduce the admin duty time of teachers. This may be done using technology and hiring staff specifically for administrative tasks like poll duty.

Solving all such issues, one at a time, lead us to a education system that the Indian youth deserves.

Pegasus – A malicious software

Pegasus, a malicious software, has been developed in 2010 by the Israel firm, the NSO(Niv Carmi, Omri Lavie, and Shalev Hulio-company’s founders) group. It was initially discovered for iOS devices later it extended to the Android devices.

Birth of Pegasus:

2016 – Hackers send malicious link to the targeted persons(smartphones,laptops) via text messages and email. This process was given a name called “spear fishing”.

2019 – Pegasus got updated where a single missed call on WhatsApp can infiltrate a device and even delete the record of this missed call which makes it difficult for the user to know what had happened to their device.

Also in the same year, WhatsApp Pegasus exploited a bug in its code to infect more than 1,400 iPhones and Android phones. These include journalists, government officials and human rights activists. But soon WhatsApp done away with the bug.

2021 – The Pegasus Project,an international investigative journalism effort, proved that various governments used the software to spy on opposition politicians, government officials, activists, journalists and many other.

Working of Pegasus:

=> Once the Pegasus got installed in a device, the entire control of device is in hacker’s hands. It gives access to hacker to gather data and forwards to the third party without the consent of the user.

=> It can read messages, emails, take screenshots, access contacts and know browser history.

=> Through hijacking, hacker gets access to microphone and camera turning it into a real-time surveillance device through capturing all activities in the phone’s vicinity.

=> Pegasus sends back the private data of the user to the hacker including contact list, calendar events, passwords, text messages and live voice calls from popular messaging apps thus accentuating the chances of user being blackmailed.

=> It is a software that can compromise a phone without the user having to click on a single link called “Zero-link-attack“.

=> Business executives, activists politicians, heads of state, many Royal Family members of Arab, journalists were found to be on the targeted list.

How to detect:

Mobile Verification Tool: A tool to check whether your phone has been targeted to attack or not and works with both iOS devices and Android. It has been developed by researchers at Amnesty International.

Measures taken to mitigate cyber crimes:

International Telecommunication Union: It is a specialized agency within the United Nations which plays an significant role in development and standardization of telecommunication and cyber security issues.

Budapest convention: An international convention which seeks to address Internet and computer crime by improving investigative techniques and increasing cooperation among nations. India is not a signatory to this convention.


The government need to take certain measures to restrict the usage only for authorized agencies and purposes. Unrestricted usage will become power to hackers and a pain to the society. To reap the benefits of this software, proper implementation is necessary.

Tips of Hair Care

Spending too much on expensive shampoos, but not getting the desired results that you see in TV ads? It is mostly possible and very common, because we see overly exaggerated results on TV, since these ads are designed to attract customers. But, reality speaks a different story. Follow these easy and simple beauty tips for hair to give that luster and shine, and flaunt your hair like the models do…


1. Cleanliness is important

The most important reason for hair fall is dandruff and itchy scalp. Therefore, maintain good cleanliness for beautiful and healthy hair.

2. Avoid hot water

Skip hot water showers, because hot water will make your hair dry and brittle as it strips protective oils from your hair. Thus, prefer a temperature which is just a bit warmer than your body temperature.

3. For that shiny soft hair

Prepare a mixture of 1 cup of your daily conditioner and 2-3 tablespoons of honey. Apply this mixture evenly on your wet hair. Leave it for 30 minutes and wash it off thoroughly. This mixture will close down your hair’s cuticle and give your hair that amazing shine.

4. For bouncy hair

Apply a one to one mixture of warm water and apple cider vinegar to your hair. Rinse it thoroughly after 5 minutes to get rid of the apple cider smell.

5. For strong hair

Use almond oil to treat dry and damaged hair. It is a very simple procedure, pour some almond oil in a bowl and heat it for 40 seconds. Then evenly distribute on your hair. Leave it for 30 minutes and then rinse normally with shampoo and conditioner using cold water.

6. Moisturize your hair

Pour a little beer in your wet hair. Distribute evenly and massage your scalp with your fingers for 20 minutes. Then rinse it thoroughly to get rid of the beer smell. Do this procedure once a week for salon smooth hair. It is recommended that people with sinus and cold should avoid using this treatment.

7. Let your hair air-dry

Allow your hair to dry by itself instead of using a blow-dryer or hot rollers. Using this artificial mode of drying technique will make your hair more brittle and dry. If you have no time to let your hair air dry, then use blow-dryer sparingly and make sure you use a warm setting instead of a hot setting.

8. Good diet

Drink lots of water and eat a healthy diet of raw fruits and vegetables. The most effective home treatment for hair care is a healthy diet. You are what you eat, and what you put into your body will be reflected on the outside.


Improve Your Personal Development Skills – Tips to help you!

Nowadays, merely having a qualification isn’t enough in the job market. To land that dream job, it’s vital that you have specific skills, especially soft skills, for example, being able to communicate well or to work in a team.

Generally speaking, you don’t acquire these skills at university, but you do acquire them in daily working life. But how? Let’s take a look at some useful methods, tips, and examples.

What are skills?

Skill – an ability to perform a specific task or activity to a high level of proficiency

It’s possible to acquire and hone skills to perfection (or near‑perfection) through practice and dedication. Learning and mastering a skill involves far more than just a theoretical understanding of facts or concepts.

Personal development skills can be traits or qualities you already have or ones you can gain through education and training. Individuals will value different personal development skills depending on their goals, but here are some examples of skills people commonly practice to facilitate personal growth.

  • Communication
  • Interpersonal
  • Organization
  • Problem-solving
  • Self-confidence
  • Adaptability
  • Integrity
  • Work ethic
  • Leadership


Communication includes your ability to speak, write and listen. With these skills, you can understand what others are saying and feeling and also convey your own ideas and feelings. Good communicators can speak clearly and confidently, using a tone that is positive and appropriate for the situation.


Also called people skills or social skills, interpersonal skills are the verbal and nonverbal behaviors and reactions to interactions with other people. They affect your ability to build relationships and make impressions on others in social situations.


Organization skills include the tidiness of your physical and digital spaces as well as your ability to plan, schedule and prioritize. Good organization can help save time, prevent miscommunications and improve efficiency.


Problem-solving is your ability to handle challenging or surprising situations. Good problem-solvers can stay calm when they encounter obstacles and assess all their options to find the best solution.


Self-confidence is the belief in your abilities, actions and decisions. If you have confidence in yourself, you might be more likely to pursue ambitious goals, try new things and believe you can succeed.


Adaptability is your ability to adjust quickly and easily to new things. People who handle change well often get along with a variety of personalities and thrive in any environment. They can also remain calm in surprising situations.


People tend to trust those who are honest and stand by their values. Integrity means doing what is right and telling the truth, even if doing so presents challenges. Having integrity can lead to a good reputation and opportunities for advancement.

Work ethic

Work ethic includes not only hard work but also reliability, responsibility, quality, determination and discipline. People with good work ethic tend to be productive and have a positive attitude.


Leadership is the ability to guide people. Good leaders can motivate others and help them reach a shared goal. They build confidence and improve morale.

Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom.

Viktor Frankl


In this fast pacing world with ever increasing competition , the struggle to be at the top , and everybody’s desire to become ‘successful’ , we are slowly becoming so very self critical and judgemental towards ourselves . We are so desperate to be the very best that we are blindly running in this rat race and not realising that we all have our own paths that we need to follow . We are slowing loathing ourselves for everything that we are not , instead of loving ourselves for all that we are . This constant comparison that we do with others is just not the healthy way of becoming a better version of ourselves . Here are a few points to remember before you start comparing and critiquing yourself:-

Photo by Mike Chai on

EACH ONE OF US IS UNIQUE- We all have different sets of talents and things that we are good at , be it dancing , singing , writing , photography , or being academically gifted. We just need to find out what we are good at and what we like instead of comparing ourselves . You might have the qualities of becoming a great teacher and you might be unaware of it , or have an inclination towards cars or computers . Your likes and dislikes makes you more unique and more YOU , so embrace it and find your uniqueness. This will help you find your own path in life and automatically halt the comparisons .

DIVINE TIMING – We often want instant results and are impatient . Seeing our friends getting their dream jobs or succeeding makes us feel bad about ourself because we seem to be exactly where we were, despite the hardwork and dedication . This can be frustrating , but you will succeed when its your time to.This statement seems pretty phoney, but its not ,there is room for everyone to succeed , we just need. to be patient and continue to persevere. Our time will come .

WE ALL ARE ON DIFFERENT BOATS- Its true , we are all on different boats , with different sets of obstacles and challenges , so its not practical to compare each other . Every human is dealing with problems that differ from ours. We must understand this and realise that just like there is no comparing between the sun and moon , we humans can’t be compared either.

ITS IMPORTANT TO FAIL SOMETIMES – After failing a test or a job interview we tend to feel a deep sense of disappointment and tend to levitate towards self doubt and fall in the labyrinth of comparing ourselves . But it’s imperative to know that its okay to fail sometimes and its actually good . Failure is a good teacher and helps us understand the areas we need to work on . So next time you fail at something , try to learn from it instead of hating yourself.

Computer literacy is an essential.. find out why?

Computer literacy is the knowledge and ability to use computers and technology efficiently.
Computer literacy can also refer to the comfort level someone has with using computer programs
and other applications that are associated with computers. The precise definition of “computer
literacy” can vary from group to group. However, “computer literate” often connotes little more
that the ability to use several specific applications (such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft
Internet Explorer) for certain very well-defined simple tasks.

The great thing about computer knowledge, though, is that learning begets learning. Once you
figure out how one part works, it gets easier to dive into other parts and figure out how things
And the benefits of having some basic computer knowledge under your belt extend way beyond
just the tech industry, especially in the 21st century. And here’s why:

They Make You a Better Problem-Solver

Problem-solving skills are universal and can be applied to virtually every part of your life, and
work, regardless of industry. From identifying an issue and breaking it down into parts to problems.

They Future-Proof Your Career

Virtually every career and industry is becoming more tech-reliant. From agriculture to education,
all are integrating tech into their day-to-day operations. It’s clear – those who have tech skills and
are comfortable working with technology will have a much easier time adapting to changing

They Make You a Better Collaborator

Connecting with others from diverse backgrounds increases the ability to understand multiple
perspectives. Learning from and with others all over the world is possible with digital tools like
Twitter and Skype, to name a few. Students can work beyond their classroom walls to find
answers to real problems. By engaging in this type of collaboration, individuals are even more
prepared to participate successfully in our global economy.

They Make You a Well-Rounded Individual

Having a well-rounded set of skills and knowledge will serve you well, both professionally and
personally. Being able to list basic tech skills on your resume will make you more attractive to
virtually every employer out there, regardless of industry. And as more and more people become
involved in the tech industry, having at least a passing knowledge of what it’s all about can come
in handy when networking personally or professionally.

They Make You a Better Leader

Companies are now reliant on technology and as a manager or CEO, it’s important to be able to work effectively with either a department that handles web development or with an outside
agency that handles the same. And if you don’t know the first thing about the jobs those
departments or agencies do, it makes it a lot harder to work with them in a way that’s both
efficient and productive.

The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.

Stephen Hawking


Along with worldwide appreciation feminists have also faced criticism not only from men but also women. There are some who believe themselves to be Feminism but are still not au Courant with the actual meaning of Feminism and practice pseudofeminism

Let’s begin by understanding what actually Feminism is, according to wikipedia “Feminism is a range of social movements, political movements, and ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes.

It has been well quoted that Feminism is not about making women strong, women are already strong it’s about changing the way the world perceives that strength.

Feminism is about tackling the misogynistic mindset, the advocacy of women’s rights on the basis of the equality of the sexes . To make the world realise that no gender is superior and we should get over the deep rooted patriarchy. It’s about shutting down sexism. It is not about hating men but about keeping women equal to men. To accept the fact that a female is as capable as a male. And it is also about ditching tha fact that certain tasks are for a specific gender and the opposite gender is not worth performing them. Feminism is about accepting that women are free to make their own choices.

But why do Feminism face worldwide criticism?

• we have seen many Feminism moments worldwide aimed at equal opportunities for women. Feminism has associated with empowered, forceful and angry women, and the society finds it hard to accept words of forceful women.

• some fear that with Upliftment of women there will be imposed a great danger upon their culture and traditions. But it is wrong to change traditions which satisfy only a part and leaves the other in grief ?

• others who hate Feminism are those who presume feminism about considering women superior to men. A good lot of people who firmly believe in equal rights for both male and female but still don’t align with the word Feminism solely because they don’t accurately understand what feminism is.

It was stated by emma watson that “The more I have realized that fighting for women’s rights has too often become synonymous with man-hating. If there is one thing I know for certain, it is that this has to stop. For the record, feminism, by definition, is the belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes.”

So why exactly do we need feminism?

First of all we need feminism because a lot of men hate the idea of women getting equal opportunities as them in all fields. It is considered necessary for a man to be earning and be financially independent but the same is not necessary for women. The household chores are considered sole responsibility of the female of the house even though men also live in the same house. A male doing household chores is considered helping the female whereas for females it considered their duty.

Secondly ,We are all well aware that 1 in 3 women are sexually assaulted in India. Gang-rape, sexual assault, sexual harassment, child sexual abuse – these terms can be found daily in headlines. And even in these circumstances the patriarchal mindset becomes the bread winner by putting blame of the female for the assult faced by her. We are more concerned about our daughters getting sexuality harasses that thinking about can our son harass someone.

Next is because sexist jokes are the ones we find most funny without realising how deep patriarchal meaning they carry. A successful indipendent female is considered to be great deal, but why not same for men? Women are told what to wear what not to but why not men? Who gave men the authority to impose upon women what to wear what not to? Why do women that accept the oppressive misogyny appreciated and those who stand against it shamed?

Once there is full equality in political, economic and social life, there will be no need for the word ‘feminism’. It will simply become obsolete. As we are nowhere near this Utopia, this is why we sill need feminism.



Whether we are at home or outside , working or studying we always want someone besides us who is waiting for us . We crave for the presence of someone around us , we want a person in our life to whom we can share anything .Yes we have parents , siblings , friends and many more . But we want someone that we can claim , yes he/she is mine . 

We all want love in our life to whom we can share our day to day life , our sadness, happiness and everything .Parents are always there for us , they support us . But sometimes we can’t share something very private to them because they are not of our age. They will not understand us  . But they try there best . Same goes with our friends . They are always with us for supporting us and help us in difficult situations . 

But again what we crave for is presence of someone that we can rely on completely . Everyone needs love in there life . A partner for life . Many people find there love earlier than others and some people never find them . Some people stay heart broken forever 


Don’t always go for handsome ,good figure , rich person to be your love . Find the one who understands you better than anyone . Because that’s the reason you wanted someone in your life . Sometimes we loose ourselves in finding and adjusting for our perfect one . But than they are not meant for us . If we have to change ourselves for someone to accept is than they are not the right one. 

Choose the one who chooses you above all . Love yourself and let love give you power to uplift your life . Don’t waste your life on an immature person , to destroy your life completely.  

The Yellow Wallpaper

‘The Yellow Wallpaper,’ by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, begins with the narrator describing the yellow wallpaper as the worst paper she had ever seen. The narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper” begins to write when she looks to be suffering from postpartum depression. The narrator appears to have discovered some advantages to writing about her despair. She frequently refers to writing as a form of expression “a sigh of release’ for her She’s referring to some sort of mental relaxation. She is attempting to dispute her husband’s insistence on a “rest cure:” “This necessitates her staying at home and resting all day. She fights her own feelings to some extent, but she recognizes their existence, at least at the start of the novel. She acknowledges the need of valuing her own views and feelings, as well as the need to express herself, up to a degree. In the beginning of the story, she maintains her imagination and, at least in her writing, provides some resistance to her husband’s beliefs. She begins to suppress her imaginative thoughts and beliefs in order to outwardly accept her husband’s scientific ideals. Her husband/doctor, on the other hand, bans her from expressing herself, indicating a lack of communication between them.

The mental health of the narrator is deteriorating. Her husband and doctor discourage her from writing because they believe it will exacerbate her mental instability, but she continues to secretly record her thoughts. Meanwhile, her thoughts and ideas continue to flood in unchecked, but she no longer has a healthy means of dealing with them. The narrator has reached a point where only a complete change in treatment will save her from mental collapse. Even in John’s absence, the narrator becomes progressively dejected and thus less willing to write as a result of John’s continual discouragement of writing and other forms of self-expression. Nonetheless, she feels driven to continue authoring this account when she can, and finds it liberating to express herself. Unfortunately, journaling serves as her only source of solace, as she is unable to express her thoughts—even about her own treatment—otherwise, and this case demonstrates that it is insufficient to maintain mental health.

“Nationalism, Colonialism and Indian English Literature” – P. P. Raveendran

P. P. Raveendran’s article “Nationalism, Colonialism and Indian English Literature” attempts to study how a nation is constructed by the writer through their works. The essayist describes nationalism as an ‘awakening of a nation to self-consciousness’. It differs from the colonial forms of domination and he states that English literature appeared as a subject in the curriculum of the colonies before it was institutionalized in its home country. The emergence of Indian English Literature was an Indian response to both nationalism and national movement. Some writers used English for writing because of the universal acceptance of this language; so that their works would reach more hands. Others wanted to prove their proficiency in English through their works. They indirectly state that they can stand before everyone even though once they are considered uncivilized.

P. P. Raveendran talks about the evolution of Indian English Literature by tracing its history. The first book written by an Indian in English was “Travels of Dean Mahomet”, a travel narrative by Sake Dean Mahomet published in English in 1793. He tries to compare the writings of early Indian writers with modern writings. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote “Rajmohan’s Wife” and published it within the year 1864. It is the primary Indian novel written in English. Rajaram, an Indian philosopher, and writer authored “Kanthapura” and “The Serpent and The Rope”, which are Indian in terms of their storytelling qualities. Kisari Mohan Ganguli translated “The Mahabharata” into English. Rabindranath Tagore wrote in Bengali and English and translated his own works into English. He gives the examples and writing styles of some of the Indian English writers like R.K. Narayan, Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao, Kiran Desai, V.S. Naipaul, etc. He also compares Sarojini Naidu’s poem with Kamala Das’s poem and says that Naidu’s is highly ‘orientalized’.


On this date in1999 India took a command on high outpost on 26th of July. The Kargil war was fought against the Pakistani army who took advantage of melting ice and weather and took command of high outposts of India. Pakistani army denied that they are not involve in the war, claiming that it was caused by independent Kashmiri rebel forces and by getting document on the post that showed the involvement of Pakistan army. Pakistani army capture the Indian posts and then the kargil war resulted in loss of life and war was ended when the Indian regained control over the post and ejected Pakistani army out of territory.

Photo by Alok Uniyal on

Kargil Vijay Diwas is celebrated on 26th of July every year in the honour of kargil war’s heroes.


In the era of the 21st century, digital advancement brought smartphones, laptops, Internet, into regular usage which is now become persistently an integral part of society and lives. People now have virtual friends, it is okay for them to not meet in the public world has become a puppet on social media. Earlier when this internet thing was still new to people, social Media networking apps came into notice, which has overturned the things which were previously functioned. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp are the example of social networking sites. These are started on the internet as an online community to connect people from various states and countries of diversified cultures having the same interests and to share ideas. This will lead to nation-building, which is a basic principle of political concept. More people will make connections and talk more will superiority to the strengthening of a relationship. When the internet was created, feasibly no one used to be convinced by the fact that the internet has some level of potential. But by time gone, it is proved that the internet has changed life in every sense. A social media network can be a boon for a particular community and can be a bane.

Let’s see how social media has made a major difference in our lives in today’s generation. BOON. 1. Social media sites help us keep in touch with the outside world, family, and friends in today’s world. In a pandemic, everyone has celebrated their birthday and many events via an online platform, which turned out to be the strongest humanity of all.
2. The initial purpose of social media is to connect with friends and family which is most likely the actual purpose but another good opportunity is to improve the skills, career, motivational videos/ideas by sharing them with everyone on social media. This is the best platform to evolve, as we get many negative comments and positive too, that’s the reason we understand our flaws and work upon ourselves, and we tend to learn more things about our talent. And this kind of thing is certainly not possible physically.
3. Due to pandemics people are on the job hunt, so this has become seamless via LinkedIn, Internshala to find an internship or a job with all the network and opportunities, and it also allows work from home. This internet has been a good help in the covid lockdown when the whole world was falling.
4. It has been a revolutionary change in the process of learning in the history of teaching. School faculties have made social network virtual classes for discussion and learning. It has now been over a year, and some sites help students to solve their doubts in a fraction of seconds.
Overall social media network is a boon in many such essential reasons and has a positive atmosphere.

BANE. 1.  The life of social media is quite different in reality. It makes us believe that we want to be better than usual, it has made people compare their lives with those projects/shows their life as perfect. This creates so much chaos in our lives, and sometimes it makes us doubt our self-esteem.
2. As of now, all sorts of students, many businessmen, employees have been working from home due to covid which has lead to backaches, headaches, stress, eye site-related issues.
3. As a matter of fact, privacy on social media networks are not thorough, there have been many cases related to hacking, information leaking through an online transaction on purpose. Instagram has been on leed nowadays, many accounts have been hacked, and are some serious issues with it.
4. Socialising is all about communicating online rather than face to face, which has affected communication skills and making a serious move on mental health. Social media has created life so addictive. Sometimes it is known as FOMO ( fear of missing out).
There has been an incident recently on Instagram. There was a group on Instagram called ‘bois locker room’ in that they used to send and comment on all the posts of girls and used to leak their personal information. It was later got investigated and that revealed, girl was the sender and boy was the receiver. Girls used to sent messages through a fake account.

Social media is an important tool that is put into the hands of ordinary people. Social media network is a boon or bane is the decision of a user, depends on it is used by one. It is a double-sided sword. However, the use of social media by children and teenagers should be guided before use so that they do not face any allegations and can not manipulate and has a high tendency to be a part of traps, which lead to cybercrime.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Biography: Early Life, Education, Career, Books, Awards & More

Our Missile Man

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was an Indian scientist and politician who played a leading role in the development of India’s missile and nuclear weapons programs. Come, through this article, Dr. A.P.J. Let us study about Abdul Kalam’s early life, career, education, awards, etc.

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s involvement in nuclear energy in India earned him the title “Missile Man of India”. Due to his contribution, the Government of India honored him with the highest civilian award.

Let us tell you that the Union Information and Broadcasting Minister Prakash Javadekar on 9 February 2020 in New Delhi, Dr. APJ. The first look of Abdul Kalam’s biopic was released. The title of the movie is A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: The Missile Man (APJ Abdul Kalam: The Missile Man).

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931. His birth anniversary is celebrated as World Students Day. He was the President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was honored with several prestigious awards including the “Bharat Ratna”, India’s highest civilian honor in 1997. He was born in Dhanushkodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering.

Name: Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam)
Nationality: Indian
Occupation: Engineer, Scientist, Writer, Professor, Politician
Born: 15-Oct-1931
Place of Birth: Dhanushkodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Died: 27 July 2015, Shillong, Meghalaya, India
Famous As: Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was the President from 2002 to 2007

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was elected President in the year 2002 against Lakshmi Sehgal. Before becoming the President of India, he worked as an aerospace engineer with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO).

He was nicknamed the ‘Missile Man of India’ for his important role in the country’s space programme, launch vehicle and ballistic missile technology development. In addition, in 1998, he also contributed significantly to India’s Pokhran-II nuclear tests.

Do you know that Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam started his career as a scientist in which Aeronautical Development Establishment of Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO)? He also served as a project director of India’s first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) at ISRO.

In the 1990s, he served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister before becoming the President of India in 2002. Come now, through this article, Dr. A.P.J. Let us study in detail about Abdul Kalam.

Family history and early life:

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 in Rameswaram in a Tamil Muslim family. His father’s name was Jainulabdeen, who was a sailor. His mother’s name was Aseemma and she was a housewife. These were a total of five siblings, three elder brothers and one elder sister.

His eldest sister named Asim Zohra and three elder brothers, namely Qasim Mohammad, Mustafa Kamal, Mohd Muthu Meera Lebai Marikayar. He was close to his family and always helped them, although he remained a bachelor all his life.

Abdul Kalam’s ancestors were wealthy merchants and landowners with many properties and large tracts of land. They traded groceries between the mainland and the island and to and from Sri Lanka, and ferrying pilgrims from the mainland to Pamban Island. So, his family came to be known as “Mara Kalam Iyakkivar” (wooden boatman) and later as “Marakier”.

But by the 1920s, his family’s businesses failed and by the time Abdul Kalam was born, he was struggling with poverty. To help the family, Kalam started selling newspapers at an early age.

During his school days, he was normal in studies, but was always ready and ready to learn new things. He wanted to learn things and used to concentrate on his studies for hours. His main interest was in mathematics.

He completed his matriculation from Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu and later joined St. Joseph’s College and graduated in Physics in 1954. In 1955 he moved to Madras from where he studied Aerospace at the Institute of Technology. His dream of taking engineering education was to become a fighter pilot, but he secured ninth position in the examination, while the IAF had declared only eight results. So he could not succeed in that.

Education and career:

After completing his graduation in the year 1960, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defense Research and Development Organization as a scientist.

He also worked with renowned scientist Vikram Sarabhai as part of the committee of INCOSPAR (National Committee of India). He started his career by designing a small hovercraft in DRDO. Early in his career, he designed a small helicopter for the Indian Army. From 1963 to 1964, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam visited Defense Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Wallops Flight Efficiency on the East Coast of Virginia and NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

He started working independently on an expandable rocket project at DRDO in 1965. He was not very satisfied with his work in DRDO and was happy when he got transfer orders to ISRO in 1969. There he served as the Project Director of SLV-III. In July 1980, his team was successful in placing the Rohini satellite near Earth’s orbit. It is India’s first indigenously designed and built satellite launch vehicle.

Abdul Kalam received the approval of the government in 1969 and expanded the program to include more engineers. In the 1970s, he made an effort to develop the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) so that India could launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite into Sun-Synchronous orbit, the PSLV project was successful and on 20 September On 1993, it was launched for the first time.

Dr Kalam’s efforts in the development of projects of SLV-3 and Polar SLV from the year 1970 to 1990 proved to be quite successful. Dr Kalam directed Project Valiant and Project Devil which aimed to develop ballistic missiles using the technology of the SLV programme, which was also successful.

An Indian Defense Ministry managed by DRDO along with other government organizations launched the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) in the early 1980s. Abdul Kalam was asked to lead the project and hence he returned to DRDO as the Chief Executive Officer of IGMDP. Due to his instructions, it was successful to make other missiles like Agni missile, Prithvi.

Under the leadership of Abdul Kalam, the project of IGMDP proved successful by producing missiles like the first Prithvi missile in 1988 and then Agni missile in 1989. Due to his contribution, he is known as the “Missile Man of India”. He served as Secretary, Defense Research and Development Organization from July 1992 to December 1999, and was also the Chief Scientific Advisor to the Prime Minister.

Dr. Kalam played an important technical and political role in the Pokhran II nuclear test during this period and the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee declared India a full-fledged nuclear state.

Did you know that in 1998, Abdul Kalam ji along with cardiologist Dr. Soma Raju developed a low cost coronary stent? Which was later named as “Kalam-Raju Stent”. Apart from this, both these people also designed tablet PC for health care in rural areas which was named “Kalam-Raju Tablet”.

Term as President of India (2002 to 2007):

  • On 10 June 2002, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government elected Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s name was proposed to the Leader of the Opposition, Congress President Sonia Gandhi.
  • Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam served as the President of India from 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007. He was the first single and scientist to live in Rashtrapati Bhavan.
  • Do you know that he got around 922,884 votes in the presidential election and won the election by defeating Laxmi Sehgal of the opposition?
  • KR Narayanan was followed by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam became the 11th President of India.
  • He was the third President of India to receive the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award. Prior to this, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was conferred this honor in the year 1954 and Dr. Zakir Hussain in the year 1963.
  • Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was also known as People’s President.
  • According to him, the most difficult decision taken by him as President was to sign the bill of Office of Profit.
  • During his five-year tenure, he remained committed to his vision of transforming India into a developed nation.
  • However, he was also criticized as a President for his inaction to decide the fate of the mercy petitions of 20 out of 21 people, including Afzal Guru, a Kashmiri terrorist who was convicted for the December 2001 Parliament attacks had gone.
  • He decided not to contest the presidential election again in 2007 and stepped down as President on 25 July 2007.

The demise of great personality:

On 27 July 2015, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was delivering a lecture at IIM Shillong, where he suffered a heart attack and his condition became critical, therefore, he was shifted to Bethany Hospital, where he later died of a cardiac arrest. His last words to Shrijan Pal Singh were “Funny guy! Are you doing well?”

On 30 July 2015, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s last rites took place near his ancestral village Rameshwaram. Did you know that around 350,000 people attended Kalam’s funeral rites, including the Prime Minister of India, the Governor of Tamil Nadu and the Chief Ministers of Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh?

Awards and Achievements:

  • In 1981, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India.
    In 1990, was awarded the Padma Vibhushan.
  • In 1997, was awarded the highest civilian award like Bharat Ratna.
  • In 1998, was awarded the Veer Savarkar Award.
    In 2000, Alvaras Research Centre, Chennai presented him with Ramanujan Award.
  • In 2007, Britain was awarded the King Charles II Medal by the Royal Society.
  • In 2008, he was awarded the Doctor of Engineering (Honoris Causa) degree from Nanyang Technical University, Singapore.
  • In 2009, awarded the Hoover Medal by the ASME Foundation of America
  • In 2010, the University of Waterloo honored Dr. Kalam with a Doctor of Engineering.
  • In 2011, he became an honorary member of the IEEE.
  • In 2013, he was awarded the Von Braun Prize by the National Space Society.
  • In 2014, he was awarded the Doctor of Science degree by the University of Edinburgh, UK.
  • Dr. Kalam was the recipient of honorary doctorates from about 40 universities.
  • In 2015, the United Nations recognized Dr. Kalam’s birthday as “World Students’ Day”.

Let’s understand Anger and Frustration during Lockdown in Pandemic

The pandemic situation is very real whether we accept it or not. And it’s not just about the virus, it’s about us as well. When the pandemic began we were all hopeful that it would end and we’d leave everything behind in 2020. Or at least, I thought so. Let me know by commenting if you had some different assumptions.


-Charles Swindoll.
The frustration

It is quite evident, that our reaction and counter-action are no where near enough satisfactory to what it should have been. We can’t deny the effect of situation. It has been quite detrimental for all of us. Some more and some less, but without exception.

The pandemic situation resulted in – “LOCKDOWN”. And one of the by products of lockdown is – ANGER. Anger in turn gives birth to frustration and depression. Often, leading to serious mental issue. This is neither unexpected nor unrealistic.

We had situations where we felt like we have no control over life and death. Not that we ever had but our illusion was broken in a forceful manner, but it’s beyond our imagination where we didn’t even have the chance to say goodbye to out loved ones.

But life is not black and white. You see what you wish to see. So, let’s list some common reasons.


First and foremost, increased frustration and irritability can be a common reaction to stress. With the current pandemic, many aspects of our daily lives are more stressful than usual. For example, grocery lines may be slower, work tasks may require quick adaptation and time may be increasingly devoted to new roles or obligations brought about by social distancing measures, such as child care or homeschooling.

At the same time, many of us likely have decreased access to activities that help us cope with stress in healthy and familiar ways.

For example, if activities such as going to the gym, going out to dinner with friends or shopping with family aren’t accessible in their traditional ways, you may feel less able to rely on your typical outlets for stress. This may lead to coping with stress in other ways, such as lashing out at others.

There may be good intentions behind some of our frustration toward our loved ones. Often when we care for others and their well-being, we find ourselves frustrated if they engage in activities we perceive as unsafe. For example, if a loved one is taking social distancing measures less seriously than we’d like, we may feel angry and upset toward them because we care about their well-being.

Stress is the root of evil


“We like it when things are in our control,” according to the human behavioral studies. Take a moment to pause, notice how you’re thinking and feeling, and acknowledge that feelings of frustration are a normal reaction to increased stress.

A lot of the sadness comes from what we’re missing. Zoom happy hours don’t compare to last year’s ladies’ weekend. A staycation with your family members is a lot less exciting than the beach vacation you took last summer. But thinking about what you’re missing prevents you from seeing what’s good in your life. So try to you just look at what happened today, it might help us in coping with the situation.

Take control of your situation


The coronavirus has upended a lot of our routines. We’ve had to get used to sanitizing and mask-wearing, working remotely and finding new ways to stay in touch with loved ones. Figuring out all those new habits is exhausting. But try your best and instill them as habits so you won’t feel it mentally taxing.

Try to find positive in the negative. Yes, you might have to look really hard, but focusing on the positive can help you move forward each day. Maybe working from home means you don’t have to deal with traffic. Or you’re spending more time with family. Or you’re simply grateful for your good health.

Pandemic life is hard, and you’ll have good days and bad days. But if you’re feeling really down, it might be a good idea to seek timely help. Lots of people are feeling the same stress, sadness and frustration right now. It can help to reach out to friends to talk about it.

Our feelings during this period are so up and down. Writing about them can help us detach to see the big picture. If hitting the gym or grabbing coffee with a friend were your go-to coping mechanisms, try thinking outside the box to find new ways to cope with stress. The key is to focus on trying new things, instead of dwelling on old coping strategies that are no longer working.




The world has witnessed a series of history’s greatest deceptions in the fields of art , science , fake identities , law , and fake money that has led the world into thinking , is anything REAL? Here are a few of these deceptions that has me in complete shock and disbelief.

ANOTHER SHAKESPEARE? – William Henry Ireland was born in 1775 . His father Samuel , was a dealer in rare books and also a great lover of William Shakespeare. William Henry went to Shakespeare’s birthplace in 1794 and met with a local poet there , who allegedly had a fund of doubtable anecdotes concerning Shakespeare . Back in London , Henry went to work for a solicitor who had parchments and used them to forge a mortgage agreement between William Shakespeare and John Heminge – an actor. He copied Shakespeare’s signatures and fooled the college of heralds into thinking this was authentic. This document was hence authenticated. He also faked wealth documents , and love poems written to Anne Hathaway . Henry’s father mounted an exhibitions of these ” finds” and London society came to see them . But scholars had their fair share of doubt about these, and by December his game was up . Quite a story , huh?

MICHELANGELO AND THE FAKE ANTIQUE- The famous Italian painter, sculptor , architect and poet once carved a life sized sleeping cupid . One of his friend notoriously suggested that if he buried this statue and then send it to Rome as an antique , he could make a lot more money than selling it in Florence. Michelangelo allegedly did exactly what he was told to do , some sources claimed to say that he buried the statue in Rome itself. Nonetheless , the statue was bought by the cardinal of San Giorgio, and he soon discovered that it was not an antique.

BENITO MUSSOLINI’S DIARIES – After Mussolini’s death , an Italian woman named Amalia Panvini and her mother , in 1957 produced around 30 volumes of what the duo claimed to be Benito Mussolini’s diaries . This even fooled Mussolini’s own son as he thought them to be his father’s diaries, along with an expert.


Ratan Tata, full name Ratan Naval Tata,(born December 28, 1937, Bombay[now Mumbai], India) ,Indian businessman who served as chairman of the Tata Group, a Mumbai based conglomerate ( 1991-2012 and 201617).
He was educated at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, where he earned a B.S. (1962) in  architecture before returning to work in India. He was born into a prominent family of Indian industrialists and philanthropists (Tata family).
He gained experience in a number of Tata Group. companies before being named director in charge of one of them, the National Radio and Electronics Co., in 1971
.A decade later, he became chairman of Tata Industries, and in 1991, he succeeded his uncle, J.R.D.Tata, as chairman of the Tata Group. Tata aggressively sought to expand the conglomerate after taking over a CEO, and he increasingly focused on globalising its businesses. In 2000, the group paid $431.3 million for London based Tetley Tea, and in2004, it paid $102 million for Daewoo Motors’ truck manufacturing operations.
 Tata Steel completed the largest corporate takeover by an Indian company in 2007 when it paid $11.3billion for the giant Anglo Dutch steel manufacturer Corus Group. Tata oversaw Tata Motors’ purchase of the prestigious British car brands Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford Motor Company in 2008. The $2.3 billion transaction was the largest ever acquisition by an Indian automaker.
The Tata Nano, a tiny rear engine ,pod shaped vehicle with a starting price of around 100,000 Indian rupees, or about $2,000, was introduced the following year. Despite being only slightly more than 10 feet (3 metres) long and about5 feet(1.5 metres) wide, the much touted “People’s Car” could seat up to five adults and, in Tata’s words, would provide a “safe, affordable, all weather form of transport” to millions of middle- and lower-income consumers both in India and abroad.
Tata stepped down as chairman of the Tata Group in December 2012. Following the ouster of his successor, Cyrus Mistry he briefly served as interim chairman beginning in October 2016.Natarajan Chandrasekhar  was appointed as the chairman of the Tata Company in January 2017, and Tata returned to retirement.
Among many other honours bestowed upon him during his career, Tata received the Padma Bhushan, one of India’s most distinguished civilian awards, in 2000.
“I came close to getting married four times and each time I backed off in fear or for one reason or another,” Ratan Tata said in 2011.Ratan Tata recently revealed that he had a crush on a girl while working in Los Angeles. Because one of his family members was ill, he had to return to India, but the girl’s parents refused to allow her to accompany Tata.
Before you go do you know
Ratan Tata has a pilot’s licence and is a trained pilot. He is the first civilian to fly an F-16 fighter

Child marriage ; A case study

Child marriage is a major sociological problem that has persisted for centuries in India. The early marriage of children, particularly of the girl child, is not an uncommon practice in over many countries. In India the latest assessment is that 44% are married before the age of 18 years because of religious traditions, social practices, economic factors and blind beliefs. It is considered as a violation of child and human rights and it affects the child physically, psychologically and emotionally. Marriage is considered ‘safe’ to protect the girl from unwanted sexual advances. Child marriages also limited girls’ access to education and increased their health risks. Early pregnancy and childbirth would impact on the overall health and development of girls.

A case study was carried out in 10 villages of Rajasthan about the practice of child marriage. Villages near urban centers showed more progress in terms of economic status of the villagers, literacy levels and in particular the level of awareness regarding illegality of child marriage. Child marriage was also lower in these villages. But the rural villagers are different. Joint family system is a common feature of rural society. The traditional value system upholds traditional norms.

Twelve couples were identified and interviewed for the study. The study found low literacy levels among the respondents. One- third of the respondents at the state level were illiterate and only 8% were graduates, while one-fourth had educational skills up to the primary level. The low level of literacy and high prevalence of child marriage could be seen as a vicious circle. An early marriage limits the opportunities for education and self-development, whereas lack of education results in a stubborn mindset and ignorance of the ill effects of child marriage.

A typical feature of the child marriage practice in Rajasthan is that after the marriage ceremony the bride is not usually sent to her in-law’s house immediately. She will be sent usually when the girl is considered mature enough to handle the household chores, which is generally considered to be after she attains puberty. Also over 50% of the respondents admitted that the practice of child marriage was followed in their families. Moreover, the parent-child relationship is such that a child rarely questions the authority of the parents in taking decisions about his or her life. More than 50% of the respondents in Rajasthan who have undergone child marriage stated that they were forced to marry. A large proportion of respondents who had themselves undergone marriage as children were against the idea of child marriage. But there are some among them who supported the idea.

In Rajasthan, most of the male respondents agreed with the legal age as the right age for a male to marry, but some felt that early marriage was advisable. About one-fourth of the male population who themselves were married early held this view. Interestingly, all female respondents believed that males should marry only after they were 21 years. About three-fourths of the male respondents believed that girls should marry after reaching the legal age. The study also shows that poverty and safety of the girl child are also the causes for the continuation of the practice of child marriage.

The practice of child marriage in the study areas is characterized by the fact that both the bride and the groom are underage, sometimes as young as five or six years old. This aspect of early marriages is unlike that in some other parts of India and the world where a huge age difference exists between the two, with the girl usually being the child. Existing laws and awareness campaigns taken up periodically against the practice of child marriage have failed to diminish the fervor of the communities even in the 21st century.

English education in India

English education in India has largely depended on the teaching of literature. In recent years, there has been a shift of emphasis from teaching literature to language. The relationship between literature and English language teaching has been rather a difficult marriage throughout all these years. While English language teaching adopted a structural approach in many situations, literature was taught as a separate subject. Nevertheless, current approaches have endeavored to re-examine the value of literature and have begun to uphold its worth again. These approaches assert the value of literature teaching from several aspects, primarily, literature as an agent for language development and improvement. Literature is a verbal art that leads readers to appreciate the beauty of language.

Literature is used in English Language teaching to broaden students’ horizons by giving them a knowledge of the classics of literature, to improve student’s general cultural awareness, to stimulate students’ creative and literary imagination, and to develop their appreciation of literature. Literary texts offer a rich source of linguistic input and can help learners practice the four language skills – listening, speaking, reading, and writing – and exemplifying grammatical structures and presenting new vocabulary. The Literary texts provide opportunities for multi-social classroom experiences and can appeal to learners with different learning styles. Literature is beginning to be viewed as an appropriate vehicle for language learning and development since the focus is now on authentic language and authentic situations.

Tips to boost your immune system

In the current pandemic, “How to strengthen the immune system?” “What are immunity-boosting foods?” “How to improve immunity?” “Foods that help you boost your immune system?” are some of the most searched queries. There are many ways to boost your immunity naturally or by supplements. Here are some immunity boosters you should include in your daily diet. 

1. Eating the right food

Eating a healthy and well-balanced diet is one of the most important things to boost your immunity. Try to include whole foods, fruits in your diet, and avoid taking a large amount of salt, sugar, or processed foods.

Nutrients are an essential part of building a healthy immune system. A good healthy diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables and lean protein is a good source of most of these nutrients. Supplements can be included as per the advice of your doctor to fill any nutritional gap.

Vitamin A: It is a powerful antioxidant and acts as a natural defence against illness and infection.

Source: Sweet potatoes, pumpkin, carrots, and squash.

Vitamin C:  It is an antioxidant that fights against free radicals in the body.

Source: Citrus fruits (like orange, lemon), leafy green vegetables, strawberries, carrots, bell peppers and many more fruits and vegetables.

Vitamin D:  Vitamin D protects you from a number of health problems and it keeps your teeth, bones, and muscles healthy. The body creates vitamin D from sunlight on the skin when outdoors, but you may need a supplement to fulfil the requirement.

Source:  Sun

Vitamin E: Antioxidant that fights infections in the body.

Source: Spinach, almonds, peanuts, broccoli, and hazelnuts.

Folate (folic acid): It helps the body form healthy red blood cells. Folic acid deficiency can lead to a weakened immune system. Folate reduces the risk of unusual birth defects such as spina bifida in unborn babies.

Source: Beans, peas, leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and brussels sprouts.

Iron: Iron forms an important part of haemoglobin that absorbs oxygen and carries it in the blood to take it to the rest of the body. 

Source: Beans, nuts, fortified breakfast cereals, soybean flour, and dried fruit. 

Zinc: It helps to control inflammation in the body.

Source: Beans.

2. Exercise

Engaging your body with regular exercise daily or 3-4 days a week can strengthen your immune system. Other than this, it also helps you sleep better and reduces your stress levels.

3. Get Quality Sleep

When you sleep, your body produces proteins called cytokines, which fight against infection and inflammation. So, not getting enough sleep will impact the immune system. If throughout the day your body is feeling fatigued then probably you aren’t getting enough sleep.

4. Manage stress

There is a wide body of research that links stress levels with immune function.

When we’re stressed, the immune system doesn’t function as well. That’s because stress causes the body to release hormones, such as adrenaline, dopamine, norepinephrine, and cortisol, which can decrease the body’s ability to make lymphocytes — the white blood cells that help fight off harmful viruses or bacteria. 

Some activities that help alleviate stress include meditation, yoga, and grounding techniques like mindful breathing.

5. Drink plenty of water

To function properly, your immune system relies heavily on the nutrients in your bloodstream, which mostly consists of water. Without water, the cells and tissues of your immune system don’t receive the nutrients they need. Your immune system also relies on water to flush out germs and waste materials.


You can make several lifestyle and dietary changes today to strengthen your immune system. These include reducing your sugar intake, staying hydrated, working out regularly, getting adequate sleep, and managing your stress levels.


Child Marriage

Child marriage is a marriage or comparative association, formal or casual, between a kid and a grown-up or another kid under a particular age, normally age eighteen.[1] by far most of kid relationships are between a young lady and a man, and are established in sex imbalance.

Child marriage disregards the privileges of kids and has broad and long haul ramifications for kid ladies and kid grooms. For young ladies, notwithstanding psychological wellness issues and an absence of admittance to schooling and profession opportunities, this incorporates unfavorable well being impacts because of early pregnancy (counting teen pregnancy) and childbirth. There is little examination on young men in kid relationships, however consequences for young men incorporate being poorly ready for specific duties, for example, accommodating the family, early parenthood, and an absence of admittance to training and vocation opportunities. Child marriage is identified with kid pledge, and it incorporates common living together and court-supported early relationships after teen pregnancy.Causes of kid relationships incorporate neediness, lady of the hour value, settlement, social practices, strict and prevalent difficulties, local traditions, dread of the kid staying unmarried into adulthood, ignorance, and saw failure of ladies to work for money. Research demonstrates that far reaching sex instruction can assist with forestalling kid marriage.

Child marriage has enduring outcomes on young ladies, from their well being (mental and physical), training and social advancement perspectives. These results last past adolescence. One of the most well-known reasons for death for young ladies matured 15 to 19 in non-industrial nations was pregnancy and childbirth. In Niger, which is assessed as having the most noteworthy pace of youngster marriage on the planet, around 3 of every 4 young ladies wed before their eighteenth birthday celebration.

Child Labour : a growing concern

There is a big difference in children helping their parents with chores around the house and children working day to night on roads, train stations just to earn food for their family. The latter destroys the child’s childhood, deprives them of their dignity, potential and harms them mentally and physically.

Child labour has always been a major concern for multiple underdeveloped nations and recently because of the pandemic and economic crisis, the number seems to be increasing. According to one of the UNICEF records, rougly 160 million children were subjected to child labour at the beginning of 2020 with 9 million additional children at risk due to impact of COVID-19.

Negative effects of child labour

Children are driven into work due to various reasons and poverty outstands them all. The consequences are hazardous since it risks the child’s health both mentally and physically and extreme harm can even lead to death. And most importantly it cuts ties with educational facilities, health care and fundamental rights, thus harming their future.

The worst kind of child labour encompasses forced labour, trafficking, debt bondage, forced prostitution, pornography, compulsory recruitment in armed conflicts and other illicit activities. Hazardous activities like working in mines or construction sites can increase risks of lung cancer, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, silicosis and several autoimmune diseases.

The difficulty of tasks and bad working conditions lead to premature aging, depression, malnutrition, drug addiction etc. These children from poor and disadvantageous backgrounds and many who are abducted from their families or trafficked because of war have no one to protect them.

Overview of child labour around the world

  • In South East Asia and Pacific, girls are sold to provide prostitution or work as domestic labourers and many are sold to work in textile factories to cover up their family debt.
  • In Africa, parents sell their children mostly for livestock. These children are either left to work in mines and construction sites or sold to become domestic workers.
  • In North America and Latin America, the majority of children are forced in prostitution or are exploited by drug traffickers.

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The feeling that we are not being tuned in to is quite possibly the most baffling emotions possible. A great many people don’t tune in to understand but just to answer, but they fail to realise that they can reply well only if they clearly understand what is being discussed. A good listener never fails to enthrall others. Active listening involves giving full attention to the person you are communicating to.

And it is well said by Bernard Baruch that “Most of the successful people I’ve known are the ones who do more listening than talking.”

We can describe active listening as undivided attention alludes to the speaker that keeps you drew in with your discussion accomplice in a positive way. It is the way toward listening mindfully while another person talks, summarizing and reflecting back the thing is said, and retaining judgment and exhortation. Being an active listener helps in perceiving other’s viewpoints and sentiments and causes us appreciate them. This not only aides in preventing clashes as well as encourages a culture of regard.

So, how does being an active listener affect your carrier? Active listening has a great role to play in your success. With regards to your accomplishment in schooling and the work environment, it will require undivided attention. This is on the grounds that it takes regard for both the large view and little subtleties to learn. At the point when you effectively tune in, your manager can see the distinction in your reactions and work that follows. Maybe the primary spot in your vocation where undivided attention assumes a huge part is in the meeting cycle. By giving close consideration and visually connecting with the questioner, you can exhibit that you are keen on the position, can help issue settle, and can function admirably in a group.

Let`s take an example at the point when you acquaint yourself with a renewed individual, you presumably have encountered asking them their name. At that point, while they are disclosing to you their name, you’re contemplating saying your name straightaway. You haven’t actually tuned in to their name, and now, you’re humiliated to ask once more. This is the issue such countless individuals face in correspondence. Our brains can undoubtedly meander into our own heads and envision what’s returning straightaway or fall into the past. That is the reason undivided attention is so significant. It’s the best way to remain genuinely present in correspondence. To remain genuinely present in our present circumstance, a great many people need to rehearse this as both an update and an expertise. The vast majority get trapped in aloof tuning in rather than undivided attention. This implies they aren’t actually tuning in. While they may not interfere with, they are not giving criticism or posing inquiries to truly comprehend the speaker. With regards to building a fruitful vocation, it doesn’t occur in segregation. This implies that you’ll need to dominate the specialty of active listening.

Apart from active listening there are others soft skills you need to incorporate in yourself in order to be successful. Success is just a mindset and can have different meanings for everyone. But here are some tips that can help.

1)Set an aim for yourself – to achieve anything in life first you need to be clear about what exactly you want. Set aims for yourself and then focus on accomplishing them. It includes the advancement of an activity plan intended to rouse and direct an individual or gathering toward an objective. First of all focus on your short term goals which eventually lead you to your long term goal. Once you are done with one aim start working on others. Just remember only sky is the limit nothing else.

2)Think positively – Positive thinking, or a hopeful mentality, is the act of zeroing in on the positive qualities in some random circumstance. It can immensely affect your physical and psychological well-being. It just methods you approach the great and the terrible in existence with the assumption that things will work out positively. when you think of achieving something you instruct your mind to work on it. If you think about it in a negative way , you are making way for your own failure.

3)Work hard but don’t forget to work smart – Achievement involves trying sincerely as well as working keenly to accomplish your ideal objectives quicker. You should be able to spot the difference between when you should be working hard and when you need to put in some smart work. Working smart incorporates outfitting yourself with information and data in regards to your ideal region of progress. It incorporates finding out about how others have succeeded instead of attempting to rehash an already solved problem. Discover which alternate ways, tips and deceives exist in finishing an errand acceptably.

4) Start observing – Being observant involves being cautious, mindful, sharp looked at and alarm to watch and screen patterns, being cutting-edge on issues and recognizing openings. Start paying attention to minute details. Focus on what is happening in your regions of interest. Observing assists with improving your relationship building abilities and communicate well with others. Being attentive likewise incorporates peering inside yourself or deep down to know and comprehend minutes when you get glimmers of motivation.

5) Don’t procrastinate – procrastination is a really common practice. It basically refers to a situation when you start wasting your time in some futile task rather than the one you are supposed to be doing. It eventually leads to a lot of stress because then you have to complete a bulk of tasks at the last moment. In such a situation you are not able to function to your full abilities. So don’t leave work pending for the last moment and try to finish it as soon as possible.

6)Seek feedback – often you fail to realize your own mistakes and where do you lack. Feedbacks from others can be of great aid in such situations. It helps you realize where do you need to focus more and what new strategies you need to form to achieve your goals. learn about your mistakes and work on them . Take frequent feedbacks from people who you think can help you improve.

7) Patience– patience is something you must have in order to aim for something. Immediate success is rare . Numerous individuals are dependent on needing accomplishment at this very moment, not even tomorrow. When we plant a seed it first need to develop strong roots underground in order to support a large tree. Similar is the case when we work on achieving our aims . be patient and let your base be strong. There are no alternate ways to progress, it requires some investment, energy, penance, energetic longing to succeed and a solid will to win.

8) Don’t give up and believe in yourself – most provocative people in the world are the ones who won’t settle for average and have triumphed through adversity. We are most inspired by people who have experienced difficulty and never, ever give up. Following your fantasies can be both unnerving and energizing. Always have faith in yourself ,if you can think of it you can surely achieve it .

4 Pillars of Object-Oriented Programming

What is OOPS ?

It is a programming paradigm based on a concept of objects and classes. It allows the programmer to work with real life entities like inheritance, polymorphism, hiding, etc. Some popular object-oriented programming languages are Java, C++, Python, PHP, etc.

Before diving into the concept of OOPS, you should be familiar with object and classes.

Object – These are the real world entities having a specific identity, specific characteristics and behavior you find in your everyday life.

Classes – It is the blueprint that represents a set of objects that share common characteristics and behavior.

Object’ is an instance of ‘class’. For example, ‘bird’ is a class but ‘eagle’ is an object.

The four pillars of object-oriented programming are – 

  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism

Let’s take a look at these concepts – 


It is the method of hiding the implementation details and showing only the functionality to the user.

For example, when we are driving a car to the grocery store ignoring the details of how the engine, braking systems works. We think car as an object with its own unique behavior. We are only interested in how to propel the car forward and reach the destination. The user need not be concerned about how a particular feature is implemented. From the outside, the car is a single entity. But from inside, you see that the car consists of several systems – brakes, sound system, steering wheel, and so on. 


It is an object-oriented programming concept that binds together the data and functions that manipulate the data and keeps both safe from outside interference. In other words, encapsulation is a programming technique that binds the class members (variables and methods) together and prevents them from being accessed by other classes. Therefore, it is also called data mining.

For example, a capsule encapsulates several ingredients of the medicine. The mixture of medicines are variables and methods then the capsule will act as a class and the whole process is called encapsulation as shown in the figure given below.


Inheritance is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object. It is important because it supports the concept of hierarchical classification.

For example, the Cat extends the Mammal class, which extends the Animal class. So cat would directly inherit all the functions from Animal and Mammal class. 

It represents an IS-A type of relationship. From the above example, we can say that cat is a mammal, which is a mammal. So anything that applied to animals also applies to a cat. This will make more sense when you will be writing complicated code and using inheritance for the reusability of code.


Polymorphism (from Greek, meaning “many forms”) is a feature that allows one interface to be used for a general class of action. A specific action is determined by the exact nature of the situation. In simple words, it means one function behaves in different forms.

For example, a dog’s sense of smell is polymorphic. If a dog smells cat, it will bark and run after it, if the dog smells its food, it salivates and run to its bowl.

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7 Bollywood Comedians We Grew Up Watching And Miss In The Age Of Stand-Up

Comedy in Bollywood movies in the ‘80s, ‘90s, and the mid-2000s was gold. And so were the comedians who delivered some great light-hearted comedy. In the digital era, where stand-up comedians are ruling the roost, we take a look back at the long-forgotten comedy actors in Bollywood. From Johnny Walker to Rajpal Yadav, here’s a list of comedians we miss watching. 

1. Johnny Lever

Johnny was not only our favourite but Bollywood’s most popular comedian for decades. In his 40-year-long career, he’s featured in more than 200 films. Little did we know that Johnny was the OG stand-up comedian who started his journey by performing comedy acts in musical shows. He was later discovered by Sunil Dutt, who got him his first movie Dard Ka Rishta in 1982. The actor was last seen in Cooli No.1 starring Varun Dhawan.

2. Laxmikant Berde

Salman Khan and Laxmikant Berde’s Jodi was an absolute hit in the ‘90s. But did you know that the comedian who was a constant in every Sooraj Barjatya film, was actually a superstar in Marathi cinema? He was popularly known as the ‘Comedy King’ of Marathi cinema. He made his Bollywood debut with Maine Pyar Kiya in 1989 and featured in a couple of other popular Hindi films including Hum Aapke Hain Koun..!, Mere Sapno Ki Rani, Aarzoo, Saajan, Beta, 100 Days and Anari. His sudden demise in 2004 came as a shock to everyone.

3. Raju Srivastav

Our very dear Gajodhar bhaiya needs no introduction. Much like Laxmikant, Raju also started his Bollywood journey with Maine Pyar Kiya. However, he never got much recognition in Bollywood and rose to fame with The Great Indian Laughter Challenge, an Indian reality stand-up comedy series. Raju is popular for doing some great mimicry.

4. Rajpal Yadav 

The last we saw Rajpal in Coolie No.1 starring Varun Dhawan. There was a time when he delivered some of the most iconic comical roles in the mid-2000s like Lal Hanuman in Bhool Bhulaiyaa, Bandya in Chup Chup Ke, and Chota Don in Bhagam Bhag. His other notable films include Hungama, Mujhse Shaadi Karogi, Partner, and Dhol. How we wish we get to see him more.

5. Johnny Walker

Anand, Hrishikesh Mukherjee

Remember Isa bhai from Anand? Johnny is another iconic comedian from the bygone era who never failed to crack us up with his distinct voice. Oh, did we mention his signature pencil-thin moustache? Johnny was last seen playing the character of Joseph in Chachi 420. He passed away in 2003, we hope someone with a similar style emerged on the scene.

6. Keshto Mukherjee

Remember the drunk comedian in almost every ‘70s and ‘80s film? The man with a bottle of alcohol who made funny faces just to make us laugh? Keshto made his look legendary and one-of-a-kind, and was perhaps one of the best comedians Indian cinema has ever seen.

7. Mehmood

And we saved the best for the last. Mehmood aka Master Pillai from Padosan is Indian cinema’s best comedian ever. He’s not only featured in more than 300 films but also won several Filmfare Awards for Best Comedian. 



Dogs are the best companion when you are feeling low or when you are feeling tired . They make you happy with there silly habits and beautiful face . Dogs are loved by most . Every person in there life ones have thought of petting a dog . They are fluffy , chubby, hairy and small . But they also come in different size and shapes . 

They don’t see your money they just wanted love they just give love . Even if you just show love to a street dog it will follow you even if you don’t give him food . They are not selfish , they are selfless . They don’t care about your looks . They just want love and care .


You might have seen many dogs roaming in your area or around your area . They eat whatever you give them. But sometimes some people have evil thinking’s towards them . They beat them or throw stones on them . Some people even give them poison . 

There are several cases of rape towards dogs also . Human is the only creature in the planet earth who can communicate and talk . But what is the benefit of such gift when you are ruining a life of a small creature , by your power. We should care and love animals not destroy there life with our malfunctioning brain . 


• Communicative language teaching (CLT), or the communicative approach, is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study.
• It emphasizes the ability to communicate the meaning of the message, instead of concentrating on grammatical perfection.
• Language learners learn practice the target language through the interaction with one another and the instructor, the study of “authentic texts” and through the use of the language both in class and outside of class.
• Learners converse about personal experiences with partners, and instructors teach topics outside of the realm of traditional grammar, in order to promote language skills in all types of situations. This method also claims to encourage learners to incorporate their personal experiences into their language learning environment, and to focus on the learning experience in addition to the learning of the target language.
• The goal of language education is the ability to communicate in the target language. This is in contrast to previous views in which grammatical competence was commonly given top priority
• It also focuses on the teacher being a facilitator, rather than an instructor.
• The approach is a non-methodical system that does not use a textbook series to teach the target language, but rather works on developing sound oral/verbal skills prior to reading and writing.
• The class activities under this method includes grammar drills, reading and writing activities, role-play, opinion sharing, group work and information gap.
• Errors are tolerated and treated as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills.
• Proper situations should be created by the teacher so as to promote communication in the classroom.
• The social contexts of the communicative situations are essential for giving meaning to the utterances.
• The target language is a vehicle for classroom communication, not just the object of study. Hence, attention is given to teaching language for communication.
• Accuracy and Fluency activities play very important role in Communicative Competence.
• In CLT, languages are learned not only as skills but also as social behavior, by using tasks that learners would also do in the real world.
• Learning a language is interactive, co-operative, learner-centered and content-based, but the approach does not mean that learning a second language involves just ‘conversation‘.
• The ‘3 Ps’ teaching model are Presentation, Practice and Production.