Health is wealth: this is an adage that is forever true. We are living in an age where everyone lives life in the fast lane. People want to get everything done quickly and on the go. Unfortunately, this attitude is also being applied to our eating habits, which has given rise to fast foods, aka. junk foods.

Of course, junk foods are extremely tasty and offer you a palatable taste and quickly satiate your hunger. They are easily available and have the ability to suit a wide variety of taste buds. But, taste is not everything, and researchers have pointed out that a diet consisting primarily of junk food can lead to many health problems.

Avoiding junk food once you’re used to it can be very difficult, but certainly not impossible. There are many healthy alternatives to junk food that can satisfy your palate as well as provide the essential nutrients that are required for the smooth functioning of the body and mind.

Adopting a diet that is free of junk food brings about many benefits such as weight loss, stronger bones, better digestion, sharper memory and a healthy heart. So, ditch that urge for fast food and hop on to the healthy-eating bandwagon.


A knowledge repository is an online database that systematically captures, organizes, and categorizes knowledge-based information. Knowledge repositories are most often private databases that manage enterprise and proprietary information, but public repositories also exist to manage public domain intelligence. They are also referred to as  Digital Learning Repositories, Digital Object Repositories and Electronic Performance Support Systems.


Retaining and sharing corporate knowledge has become a critical objective for companies, regardless of their size and industry. The proliferation of digital resources such as online databases and corporate intranets enable training organizations to create and maintain knowledge repositories for the benefit of employees and customers alike.

Knowledge repositories help organizations connect people with information and expertise globally via online searchable libraries, discussion forums and other elements. They provide a central location to collect, contribute and share digital learning resources for use in instructional design and content development for both traditional and non-traditional learning environments. They have become an integral part of corporate-wide knowledge management programs and a valuable stimulant of social and informal learning activities.

Along with providing centralized hosting and access, repositories enable users to share digital objects or files while also allowing administrators to set permissions and controls for access to content, and to protect the integrity and intellectual property rights of content owners and creators. They also invite collaboration among facilitators and students.

Knowledge repositories have evolved from static archives of published documents; they are now dynamic online communities that facilitate search and navigation of relevant information within agile learning platforms. Along with being a vehicle for just-in-time learning, knowledge repositories also enable post-training support and assessment.

Numerous software providers serve the fast-growing marketplace for digital repositories. They include suppliers of learning content management systems (LCMS), Microsoft Corporation’s SharePoint collaboration tool, an open source content management package called Drupal, and Pearson Education’s Equella solution.


There are several key features of effective digital knowledge repositories:

  • Centralization. A wide variety of digital courseware, and content curated from multiple sources, can be housed in a central location where it can be tagged, shared and commented upon globally within one consistent interface.
  • Content management. The breadth of learning content can include audio visual files, simulations, data, learning modules, articles, blogs, YouTube videos, best practices guidance, monitoring capabilities and contact information. Content is searchable by key words, learning outcomes, and other vehicles.
  • Cost savings. Repositories can potentially reduce the cost of training and education by making affordable course materials accessible, reducing the need for classroom training and stimulating productive informal learning.
  • Access control. By restricting individual content pieces via password authentication and other security functionality, curators can accomplish various goals. Access controls often involve safeguarding proprietary information and protecting intellectual property. Some, but not all, repositories employ digital rights management (DRM) to protect and monetize intellectual property in the market.
  • Record management. Repositories can integrate with learning management systems to blend seamlessly into learning and talent management programs.


A variety of best practices are employed by training organizations to facilitate learning while also protecting proprietary information and intellectual property.

  • Ensure quality over quantity. To protect and maintain the integrity of information contained in repositories, organizations often create a system of “stewards” — subject matter experts who accept responsibilities over specific areas or communities. Stewards often moderate posts, respond to questions and, when advisable, coach and mentor learners and host webinars.
  • Provide oversight and control. To ensure that knowledge sharing objectives are established and executed, organizations can create a cross-functional committee of valued employees and training professionals. The panels are tasked with ensuring that repositories become a valued aspect of a holistic learning experience for intended internal and external audiences. That means making certain that the right people can acquire the right knowledge at the right time. Other priorities include gauging the effectiveness of e-learning modules created to teach important skills and modifying them, as needed.
  • Protect intellectual property. Knowledge repositories are required to protect the integrity and relevance of IP. Organizations can do so most effectively by building copyright compliance and digital rights management (DRM) into systems so that administrators can track content usage. Most current repositories lack DRM capabilities, a major limitation that impacts content creators and other IP holders, and stunts the growth of the platforms.


Knowledge Management infrastructure reflects the long-term foundations for knowledge management. In an organizational context, knowledge management infrastructure includes five major components:

  • organization culture
  • organization structure
  • organisation’s information technology infrastructure
  • common knowledge, and
  • physical environment (Becerra-Fernandez and Sabherwal, 2010).

Organization culture reflects the norms and beliefs that guide the behaviour of the organization’s members. It is an important enabler of knowledge management in organizations.

Attributes of enabling organizational culture include understanding the value of knowledge management practices, managing support for knowledge management at all levels, incentives that reward knowledge sharing, and encouragement of interaction for the creation and sharing of knowledge (Ambrect et al, 2001 as cited in Becerra-Fernandez and Sabherwal, 2010).


Professional ethics are principles that govern the behaviour of a person or group in a business environment. Like values, professional ethics provide rules on how a person should act towards other people and institutions in such an environment.

The Code is an example of a codified set of professional ethics for those who choose to enter the immigration advice profession.

Ethical principles

Ethical principles underpin all professional codes of conduct. Ethical principles may differ depending on the profession; for example, professional ethics that relate to medical practitioners will differ from those that relate to lawyers or real estate agents.

However, there are some universal ethical principles that apply across all professions, including:

  • honesty
  • trustworthiness
  • loyalty
  • respect for others
  • adherence to the law
  • doing good and avoiding harm to others
  • accountability.

Codes of conduct

Professional codes of conduct draw on these professional ethical principles as the basis for prescribing required standards of behaviour for members of a profession. They also seek to set out the expectations that the profession and society have of its members.

The intention of codes of conduct is to provide guidelines for the minimum standard of appropriate behaviour in a professional context. Codes of conduct sit alongside the general law of the land and the personal values of members of the profession.

Professional codes of conduct provide benefits to:

  • the public, as they build confidence in the profession’s trustworthiness
  • clients, as they provide greater transparency and certainty about how their affairs will be handled
  • members of the profession, as they provide a supporting framework for resisting pressure to act inappropriately, and for making acceptable decisions in what may be ‘grey areas’
  • the profession as a whole, as they provide a common understanding of acceptable practice which builds collegiality and allows for fairer disciplinary procedures
  • others dealing with the profession, as the profession will be seen as more reliable and easier to deal with.

Other contributors to professional ethics

Fiduciary duties

When an adviser agrees to assist a client, they agree to take on a level of responsibility for that person and their immigration matter. The client becomes dependent on the adviser in relation to that assistance. This is a fiduciary relationship between the fiduciary (the adviser) and a principal (the client). Even without a Code this fiduciary relationship means the adviser has certain obligations to their client.

Contractual obligations

When an adviser enters into a contract (or written agreement) with a client this creates legally binding obligations to perform the terms of the contract in a particular way. This includes a duty to act with diligence, due care and skill, and also implies obligations such as confidentiality and honesty, even if they are not specifically set out in the contract.

Many ethical issues are likely to stem from advisers’ relationships with clients. Most of these can be overcome by having clear terms in a written agreement about how certain matters will be dealt with, such as the sharing of confidential information, the use of interpreters, refunds and invoicing. More information on written agreements can be found in the code of conduct toolkit.

Other laws

As well as New Zealand immigration legislation, advisers should also be aware of other relevant laws that seek to regulate how service providers must behave. In New Zealand this could include the Consumer Guarantees Act 1993. Advisers operating outside of New Zealand should make sure that they are familiar with any equivalent legislation that governs the behaviour of service providers there.


Environment refers to the natural surroundings and conditions in which we live. Unfortunately, this Environment has come under serious threat. This threat is almost entirely due to human activities. These human activities have certainly caused serious damage to the Environment. Most noteworthy, this damage risks the survival of living things on Earth. Therefore, there is an urgent need to save the Environment.

Ways of Saving Environment

First of all, planting trees should be given massive attention. Above all, a tree is the source of oxygen. Unfortunately, due to construction, many trees have been cut down. This certainly reduces the amount of oxygen in the environment. Growing more trees means more oxygen. Hence, growing more trees would mean better life quality.

Similarly, people must give attention to forest conservation. Forests are vital for the Environment. However, deforestation certainly reduces the area of forests around the World. The government must launch programs to conserve the forests. The government must make harming forests a criminal offense.

Soil conservation is yet another important way to save the Environment. For this, there must be control of landslides, floods, and soil erosion . Furthermore, there should also be afforestation and tree plantation to conserve the soil. Also, terrace farming and using natural fertilizers are some more ways.

Waste management is a powerful way of protecting the environment. There must be proper disposal of wastes. Most noteworthy, this would help to keep the surroundings healthy. The government must ensure to clean the streets and other polluted land areas. Furthermore, there should be toilets in every house. Also, the government must provide enough public toilets.

Pollution is probably the biggest danger to the Environment. Smoke, dust, and harmful gases cause air pollution. These causes of air pollution come from industries and vehicles mostly. Furthermore, Chemicals and pesticides cause land and water pollution.

Saving Environment would certainly protect the animals. Extinction of many species will not take place due to saving Environment. Many endangered species would also increase in population.

The water level would rise. Damage to Environment has severely reduced the level of groundwater. Furthermore, there is a scarcity of clean drinking water around the World. Due to this, many people fell ill and die. Saving Environment would certainly avoid such problems.

In conclusion, Environment is a precious gift on this planet. Our Environment is facing a big danger. Saving Environment is the need of the hour. Probably, it is the biggest concern of Humanity right now. Any delay in this regard could be disastrous.


The importance of the girl child 

A recent news report revealed that not a single girl was born in 132 villages in Uttarkashi district in Uttarakhand in the previous three months. Census 2011 had indicated that the child sex ratio of girls to boys (0-6 years) had deteriorated to 919 girls per thousand boys from 927 girls per 1000 boys in 2001. The adverse sex ratio is the result of a patriarchal mindset due to which families do not want to give birth to a daughter and raise her to fulfil her potential.  How can we convince people of the importance of the girl child in India? How can we make everybody celebrate daughters?

Girl Child Protection- the need for Beti Zindabad

The struggle of a girl child begins even before the day she is conceived. In India, female foeticide is a worrying practice, as cheap abortion technology allows households to exercise their preference for sons over daughters. She is ‘lucky’ if she is allowed to be born. Even after birth, the girl child faces discrimination and oppression. She is not provided with proper nutrition compared to her male siblings, her education is not given much importance and in many cases, parents prefer that their sons continue schooling, and want their daughters to stay at home and do household work.  After marriage, the trials faced by women do not end as she continues to face oppression and even violence in her marital home.
We, at ActionAid Association, launched Beti Zindabad –a nation-wide campaign to tackle the adverse sex ratio. The campaign has grown since its inception and come to address a wide variety of issues of violence against women, the need to recognize and celebrate women’s place in the world of work, and efforts to ensure women’s access to the property, including housing and agricultural land.
Through all our interventions at ActionAid Association, we seek to reach out to the women in the communities we work with.  We encourage them to take up positions of leadership in the family and the community. When we support the creation of collectives or community-based organisations in these communities or in our partner civil society we actively look for strong women community leaders and empower them to take up key positions in these groups.  Our allies and partners are encouraged to take pride in their daughters and value the contributions of the women in their communities. This can be seen through programmes like the Beti Utsav where communities celebrate the birth of a girl child amongst them.

The Government is also concerned with declining child sex ratio and in 2015 it launched ” Beti Bachao Beti Padhao” Scheme, to create awareness on the need to protect the girl child and focus on their education. We at ActionAid have welcomed this scheme and wish to support the government’s initiatives through our interventions. We seek to work with communities to celebrate the girl child and ensure the protection of the girl child.

How can we save girl children in India?

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, the architect of the Constitution of India has said, “I measure the progress of a community by the degree of progress which women have achieved.” A country that empowers women empowers every individual! We have to start with protecting the girl child, ensuring that her birth is greeted with joy and she receives all the care and love needed to grow to her full potential. As a woman, we need to work to ensure that she gets every opportunity to realise her potential. By celebrating, protecting and educating the girl child, we empower her. By empowering our daughters we empower their communities which means empowering the nation! We must start making significant steps in the following directions:

  • Spread awareness and change mindsets to ensure that communities and families welcome and celebrate daughters.
  • Education for all girl children.
  • Create a safe environment for all women and support women’s resistance to violence.
  • Mobilize society, private enterprise and the government to recognize and celebrate women in the world of work.
  • Recognize, redistribute and reduce care work.
  • Ensure decent work, fair and equal wages and a safe working environment for women.
  • Ensure that women have access to the property, including house and land.

Why it is important to save and educate girls
In order to achieve true women empowerment, it is important that we begin with the girl children. This is because girls of today are the women of tomorrow. The role of social welfare organizations is critical here as it is not possible for the government to reach every nook and corner of the country. As the aware citizens, we can support organizations which work for the eradication of female infanticide and women empowerment. Donations to them serve two purposes: driving change in the society and providing 
tax benefit to the donor.

Some yardsticks of women empowerment are:

  • Helping women carve a positive self-image and increase their confidence level
  • Enabling them to develop the ability to think critically.
  • Ensuring that they have equal participation in decision making, whether it’s in the family or at the community level
  • Providing economic independence to women

The mindset that a girl is a liability needs to be changed and this requires happening at the grass root level. While spreading awareness is critical, there is a need of stricter laws in place which deter people from resorting to female foeticide.

The role of education is extremely important here and goes a long way in empowering women. And the process of education has to begin early in life. More and more girl children need to be sent to school, provided quality and holistic education. Numerous benefits come with educating girls the right way. Educated girls are able to take the right decisions in life. For example, when an educated girl falls sick, she will have better understanding and awareness to avail proper healthcare services. At the same time, a society in which girls are educated will see less child marriages, decreased levels of poverty and heightened participation of women in socio-economic processes. Educating a girl has far-reaching impacts. It is rightly said that when a woman is educated, an entire generation benefits from it.

There is an urgent need to change this archaic mindset of the patriarchal Indian society which views girls as liabilities. It needs to be established that girls are in no way less than boys. When given the right chances to nurture their talent and skills, they have it in them to excel in different areas of life. It is therefore imperative that both government and non-government organizations work in cohesion to spread the message of saving and educating the girl child. You can donate online to NGOs to lend your support to this movement.


How to Set a Goal

First consider what you want to achieve, and then commit to it. Set SMART (specific, measureable, attainable, relevant and time-bound) goals that motivate you and write them down to make them feel tangible. Then plan the steps you must take to realize your goal, and cross off each one as you work through them.

Goal setting is a powerful process for thinking about your ideal future, and for motivating yourself to turn your vision of this future into reality.

The process of setting goals helps you choose where you want to go in life. By knowing precisely what you want to achieve, you know where you have to concentrate your efforts. You’ll also quickly spot the distractions that can, so easily, lead you astray.

Why Set Goals?

Top-level athletes, successful businesspeople and achievers in all fields all set goals. Setting goals gives you long-term vision and short-term motivation. It focuses your acquisition of knowledge, and helps you to organize your time and your resources so that you can make the most of your life.

By setting sharp, clearly defined goals, you can measure and take pride in the achievement of those goals, and you’ll see forward progress in what might previously have seemed a long pointless grind. You will also raise your  self confidence, as you recognize your own ability and competence in achieving the goals that you’ve set.

Starting to Set Personal Goals

You set your goals on a number of levels:

  • First you create your “big picture” of what you want to do with your life (or over, say, the next 10 years), and identify the large-scale goals that you want to achieve.
  • Then, you break these down into the smaller and smaller targets that you must hit to reach your lifetime goals.
  • Finally, once you have your plan, you start working on it to achieve these goals.

This is why we start the process of setting goals by looking at your lifetime goals. Then, we work down to the things that you can do in, say, the next five years, then next year, next month, next week, and today, to start moving towards them.

Step 1: Setting Lifetime Goals

The first step in setting personal goals is to consider what you want to achieve in your lifetime (or at least, by a significant and distant age in the future). Setting lifetime goals gives you the overall perspective that shapes all other aspects of your decision making.

To give a broad, balanced coverage of all important areas in your life, try to set goals in some of the following categories (or in other categories of your own, where these are important to you):

  • Career – What level do you want to reach in your career, or what do you want to achieve?
  • Financial – How much do you want to earn, by what stage? How is this related to your career goals?
  • Education – Is there any knowledge you want to acquire in particular? What information and skills will you need to have in order to achieve other goals?
  • Family – Do you want to be a parent? If so, how are you going to be a good parent? How do you want to be seen by a partner or by members of your extended family?
  • Artistic – Do you want to achieve any artistic goals?
  • Attitude – Is any part of your mindset holding you back? Is there any part of the way that you behave that upsets you? (If so, set a goal to improve your behavior or find a solution to the problem.)
  • Physical – Are there any athletic goals that you want to achieve, or do you want good health deep into old age? What steps are you going to take to achieve this?
  • Pleasure – How do you want to enjoy yourself? (You should ensure that some of your life is for you!)
  • Public Service – Do you want to make the world a better place? If so, how?

Spend some time brainstorming  these things, and then select one or more goals in each category that best reflect what you want to do. Then consider trimming again so that you have a small number of really significant goals that you can focus on.

As you do this, make sure that the goals that you have set are ones that you genuinely want to achieve, not ones that your parents, family, or employers might want. (If you have a partner, you probably want to consider what he or she wants – however, make sure that you also remain true to yourself!

Step 2: Setting Smaller Goals

Once you have set your lifetime goals, set a five-year plan of smaller goals that you need to complete if you are to reach your lifetime plan.

Then create a one-year plan, six-month plan, and a one-month plan of progressively smaller goals that you should reach to achieve your lifetime goals. Each of these should be based on the previous plan.

Then create a daily  To_Do_List of things that you should do today to work towards your lifetime goals.

At an early stage, your smaller goals might be to read books and gather information on the achievement of your higher level goals. This will help you to improve the quality and realism of your goal setting.

Finally, review your plans, and make sure that they fit the way in which you want to live your life.


1. Learn something new

Memory strength is just like muscular strength. The more you use it, the stronger it gets. But you can’t lift the same size weight every day and expect to get stronger. You’ll need to keep your brain constantly challenged. Learning a new skill is an excellent way to strengthen your brain’s memory capacity.

There are many activities to choose from, but most importantly, you’ll need to find something that forces you out of your comfort zone and commands your full attention.

Here are some examples:

  • learn a new instrument
  • make pottery
  • play mind games, like Sudoku or chess
  • learn a new type of dance, like the tango
  • learn a new language

2. Repeat and retrieve

Any time you learn a new piece of information, you’re more likely to mentally record that information if it’s repeated.

Repetition reinforces the connections we create between neurons. Repeat what you hear out loud. Try using it in a sentence. Write it down and read it aloud.

But the work doesn’t stop there. Research shows that simple repetition is an ineffective learning tool if used on its own. You’ll need to sit back down later and actively try to retrieve the information without looking at where you wrote it down. Testing yourself to retrieve the information is better than repeated studying. Practicing retrieval creates more long-term and meaningful learning experiences.

3. Try acronyms , abbreviations, and mnemonic

Mnemonic devices can be in the form of acronyms, abbreviations, songs, or rhymes.

Mnemonics have been tested  since the 1960s as an effective strategy for students. You’ve probably been taught a few mnemonic devices for remembering long lists. For example, the colors of the spectrum can be remembered with the name ROY G. BIV (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet).

4. “Group” or “Group” or “Chunk” information

Grouping or chunking refers to the process of dividing newly learned information into chunks to produce fewer, larger chunks of information. For example, you may have noticed that it’s much easier to remember a phone number if the 10 digits are grouped into three separate chunk

5. Construct a “mind palace”

The mind palace technique is often used by memory champions. In this ancient technique, you create a visual and complex place to store a set of memories.


Concentration and memory work together, but one does not lead to the other. To concentrate is to direct your mental powers, or efforts, towards a particular activity, subject, or problem. Memory is the ability to remember information, experiences, and people. There are some specific skills that can be learned to enhance both concentration and memory. Practicing these skills is likely to improve one’s success as a student.

Once something is stored in our brains, we never forget it. We may, however, have difficulty recalling the information. It is also possible that the information we are trying to recall was never stored. This program will help you understand the structure of memory and also suggest some skills you can use to try to improve your memory.

Good concentration will enhance memory. If we only practice skills that improve our memory but never look at factors that enhance concentration, our efforts will only be marginally successful. For this reason, tips for improving concentration will also be discussed.

Memory Basics

Creating conditions for better concentration is likely to improve the quality of your studying; however, it is also necessary to implement skills that will enhance your ability to remember the material you are studying.

Four skills that can improve memory:

  • Organizational skills
  • Using your body
  • Using your brain
  • Including time for recall


All living things including, plants, animals and human beings need water to live and to carry out different cellular activities.

Have you ever imagined a day without water?  

No, we have not and it is hard to imagine. We all use water for different kinds of day to day activities, such as cleaning, washing, bathing, cooking, drinking and other domestic and industrial uses.

Water is a precious, essential and an abiotic component of the ecosystem. Today we all are heading toward the scarcity of water, and this is mainly because of the lack of water conservation and pollution of water bodies. So, let us not waste a drop of water and start conserving water for further use.

Also read: Water

There are different methods used for conserving water, here let us learn about the rainwater harvesting system.

What is Rainwater harvesting?

Rainwater harvesting is the simple process or technology used to conserve Rainwater by collecting, storing, conveying and purifying of Rainwater that runs off from rooftops, parks, roads, open grounds, etc. for later use.

How to Harvest the Rainwater?

Rainwater harvesting systems consists of the following components:

  • Catchment- Used to collect and store the captured Rainwater.
  • Conveyance system – It is used to transport the harvested water from the catchment to the recharge zone.
  • Flush- It is used to flush out the first spell of rain.
  • Filter – Used for filtering the collected Rainwater and remove pollutants.
  • Tanks and the recharge structures: Used to store the filtered water which is ready to use.

The process of rainwater harvesting involves the collection and the storage of rainwater with the help of artificially designed systems that run off naturally or man-made catchment areas like- the rooftop, compounds, rock surface, hill slopes, artificially repaired impervious or semi-pervious land surface.

Several factors play a vital role in the amount of water harvested. Some of these factors are:

  • The quantum of runoff
  • Features of the catchments
  • Impact on the environment
  • Availability of the technology
  • The capacity of the storage tanks
  • Types of the roof, its slope and its materials
  • The frequency,  quantity  and the quality of the rainfall
  •  The speed and ease with which the Rainwater penetrates through the subsoil to recharge the groundwater.

Why do we Harvest Rainwater?

The rainwater harvesting system is one of the best methods practised and followed to support the conservation of water. Today, scarcity of good quality water has become a significant cause of concern. However, Rainwater, which is pure and of good quality, can be used for irrigation, washing, cleaning, bathing, cooking and also for other livestock requirements.

Advantages of Rainwater Harvesting

The benefits of rainwater harvesting system are listed below.

  • Less cost.
  • Helps in reducing the water bill.
  • Decreases the demand for water.
  • Reduces the need for imported water.
  • Promotes both water and energy conservation.
  • Improves the quality and quantity of groundwater.
  • Does not require a filtration system for landscape irrigation.
  • This technology is relatively simple, easy to install and operate.
  • It reduces soil erosion, stormwater runoff, flooding, and pollution of surface water with fertilizers, pesticides, metals and other sediments.
  • It is an excellent source of water for landscape irrigation with no chemicals and dissolved salts and free from all minerals.


Every engineer understands the value of code knowledge management. I doubt many developers repeatedly say to themselves: “There’s too much documentation here.” Yet, most of the existing knowledge management tools do not answer our requirements, and we’re left with tedious, manual processes. As a result, documenting code has become like going to the gym. Once we’re into it, we understand the value, but it’s hard to get us up and running.

As a VP R&D who is co-founding a startup, and a tech lead at Guradicore just last year, I believe knowledge management is at the core of making good decisions and being productive. Here are four requirements I look for when shopping for a code knowledge management tool.

4 Code Knowledge Management Tool Requirements

1. Covers Multiple Use Cases

A good code knowledge management tool will single-handedly cover a wide span of use cases, from onboarding to code reviews to component installation. To do so, the tool should be able to include tutorials, algorithm explanations, information about why certain technologies were chosen, etc. If these different documentation formats are distributed between different tools, adoption will be scarce and usage will be non-efficient.

2. Available On-demand

Tools like Discord , Confluence and Notion are useful for managing discussions and projects. They can be used for looking back into why certain decisions were made. But a good documentation tool needs to be able to provide answers on-demand, without the digging (and the time that goes into it).

Developers need to be able to immediately find out what a code line means, why a decision was made, how to install a component, why files are divided the way they are, which research was done on the feature, etc. Trying to find out by retrieving lists from Jira or Confluence does not yield high-quality results. If getting the answers is too difficult or takes too much time, they will not use the tool and go back to asking others or move forward to the best of their understanding.

3. Answers the What and the Why

Today, most tools either explain what they did with the code, or why they did it. Code snippets, service contracts, in-line documentation – they all explain what happened in the code. Wikipedias, emails, chats – cover the why. But more often than not, this is not documented anywhere.

To really understand the code and how to use it, our engineers need to understand both what was done and why it took place. Blog posts are a good way to cover this, as they provide technical tutorials and explanations. But they are not scalable in large organizations, and they could also be difficult to find answers in, if they are not structured well. So, we need a tool that shows us the code, and the entire story behind developing it – from design through research and up to programming.

4. Fit For Beginners and Senior Engineers

Too often we think of documentation only for one audience: new developers. More specifically, when they’re onboarded to the company. As a result, we lack the right infrastructure for more senior developers. For example, when they work together on a new feature a service they’re not familiar with. Or when they have to gain observability into dependencies.

Therefore, good documentation needs to be usable and understandable for beginners, intermediate developers and our advanced developers who (think they’ve) seen everything. It should include beginner and advanced explanations, enable high-level and in-depth understanding, and enable integration into existing developer tools.


Several years on from the so called ‘war’ for talent, most organisations agree that having the biggest share of the right people is crucial when it comes to achieving a competitive edge.

Research completed by McKinsey & Company found that 86% of senior executives believe that talent is the single biggest contributor towards profitability and bottom line performance.  At the same time, over half of those same executives admitted that they do not spend enough time on key talent matters, including:

  • How to recruit more of the right people
  • How to identify potential stars and high performers within an organisation more accurately
  • How to identify and develop leadership skills, behaviours and traits
  • How to prepare for management and leadership succession
  • How to prevent derailment and failure
  • How to deal with the people implications of structural business change, growth and evolving customer expectations


Since our launch in 1993, Quo have been a global pioneer when it comes to helping organisations address the above challenges.  Blending applied psychology, commercial best practices and our core expertise in behavioural science, we have helped hundreds of organisations identify, develop and retain the right people at all levels, from front line colleagues and team managers to senior leaders and the next Chief Executive.

Over two decades we have developed a globally unique assessment approach (PfAM) which allows organisations to accurately project the likely career paths of their most talented people, significantly increasing internal succession numbers and reducing recruitment costs. 

We have pioneered the application of the Assessment for Development Centre, enabling large numbers of high potential colleagues to build on their core strengths and address development needs, while increasing future leader pools significantly. 

We have developed ground breaking screening and assessment tools, including psychometric assessment, innovative 360 degree evaluation, thinking styles, complexity exercises and 1:1 interview techniques.  Our global partnership with Hogan Assessments and the bespoke application of the Hogan Suite of psychometric questionnaires has played a significant role in helping organisations resource, screen and develop the right people, while planning with greater certainty for future succession.

Organisations including Warner Bros, Johnson & Johnson, Align Technology, Cancer Research UK and Berendsen PLC have worked with Quo to address their biggest talent challenges.  To arrange an initial consultation please contact us at the number listed above.

Recent research on the subject of talent and potential

  • Internally appointed staff members are 3 times more likely to remain with the organisation (than external hires) according to research completed by Hogan Assessments
  • In the next 10 years there will be a 25% increase in the demand for talent within the 35-45 age range.  At the same time, due to changing demographics in recent decades, the supply of talent within this age range will decrease by 15% (research by McKinsey & Company)
  • The cost of losing top performing staff can equate to a financial sum up to 500 times greater than the cost of their replacement (in lost revenues)
  • Staff who have taken up structured personal ’Development Plans’ have been twice as likely to remain with an organisation than those who have not


Contemporary Theories of Motivation

Early motivation theories were based on the assumptions and sometime these theories were not supported by strong evidence. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a good example of this approach. Therefore, alternative theories of motivation have been put forward over time.

 Self-determination theory

Self-determination theory of motivation and argues that people often seek control of their actions.

 Goal setting theory

Goal setting theory is based on the view that challenging objectives should aid and improve workplace performance. In this theory, it is assumed that an employee is committed to the firm’s goals and desires to make a positive contribution. It is important that the set goals are also perceived as achievable.

Self-efficacy theory

Self-efficacy theory is based upon an employee’s view about their ability to perform the tasks of their job role. This theory is also known as social learning theory or social cognitive theory.

If an employee has a high self-efficacy, then they will be more confident and have a greater chance of success. In more challenging situations, employees with a low self-efficacy will often have a reduction in their job performance levels.

According to the Albert Bandura, self-efficacy can be increased by four ways such as:

  1.  Vicarious modeling
  2. Enactive mastery
  3. Arousal
  4. Verbal persuasion

 Reinforcement theory

Reinforcement theory refers that to behavior or an attitude is a function of its outcomes or consequences. That is, the theory suggests that the outcomes of behaviour (positive or negative) will either reinforce (or modify if a negative outcome) ongoing behavior.

Equity theory

Equity theory is where employees compare their job inputs and outputs with others in the organisation – primarily in an attempt to reduce the perceived inequities.

If the employees find inequities they seek resolve them by:

  • Changing the inputs
  • Changing the outcomes
  • Distorting perceptions of themselves
  • Distorting perceptions of others
  • Quitting their job

Expectancy theory

Expectancy theory is the tendency to act in a particular way based upon a preconceived expectation of the likely outcome.


What is recruitment?

Recruitment refers to the process of identifying, attracting, interviewing, selecting, hiring and onboarding employees. In other words, it involves everything from the identification of a staffing need to filling it.

Depending on the size of an organization, recruitment is the responsibility of a range of workers. Larger organizations may have entire teams of recruiters, while others only a single recruiter. In small outfits, the hiring manager may be responsible for recruiting. In addition, many organizations outsource recruiting to outside firms. Companies almost always recruit candidates for new positions via advertisements, job boards, social media sites, and others. Many companies utilise recruiting software to more effectively and efficiently source top candidates. Regardless, recruitment typically works in conjunction with, or as a part of Human Resources.

What is recruiting in HRM?

Human Resource Management, otherwise known as HRM or HR for short, is the function of people management within an organization. HR is responsible for facilitating the overall goals of the organization through effective administration of human capital — focusing on employees as the company’s most important asset.

Recruitment is the first step in building an organization’s human capital. At a high level, the goals are to locate and hire the best candidates, on time, and on budget.

What does recruitment involve?

While the recruitment process is unique to each organization, there are 15 essential steps of the hiring process. We’ve listed them here, but for a detailed exploration of these steps, check out our page on Hiring processing steps

  • Identify the hiring need
  • Devise a recruitment plan
  • Write a job description
  • Advertise the position
  • Recruit the position
  • Review applications
  • Phone Interview/Initial Screening
  • Interviews
  • Applicant Assessment
  • Background Check
  • Decision
  • Reference Check
  • Job offer
  • Hiring
  • Onboarding.

Types of recruiting

There are several types of recruiting. Here’s an overview:

Internal Recruiting: internal recruiting involves filling vacancies with existing employees from within an organization.

Retained Recruiting: When organization hire a recruiting firm, there are several ways to do so; retained recruiting is a common one. When an organization retains a recruiting firm to fill a vacancy, they pay an upfront fee to fill the position. The firm is responsible for finding candidates until the position is filled. The organization also agrees to work exclusively with the firm. Companies cannot, in other words, hire multiple recruiting firms to fill the same position.

Contingency Recruiting: like retained recruiting, contingency recruiting requires an outside firm. Unlike retained recruiting, there is no upfront fee with contingency. Instead, the recruitment company receives payment only when the clients they represent are hired by an organization.

Staffing Recruiting: staffing recruiters work for staffing agencies. Staffing recruiting matches qualified applicants with qualified job openings. Moreover, staffing agencies typically focus on short-term or temporary employment positions.

Outplacement Recruiting: outplacement is typically an employer-sponsored benefit which helps former employees transition into new jobs. Outplacement recruiting is designed to provide displaced employees with the resources to find new positions or careers.

Reverse Recruiting: refers to the process whereby an employee is encouraged to seek employment with a different organization that offers a better fit for their skill set. We offer Reverse recruiting days to help workers with this process. At our Reverse Recruiting Days we review resumes, conduct mock interviews, and offer deep dives into specific job roles.


Definition: The Selection is a process of picking the right candidate with prerequisite qualifications and capabilities to fill the jobs in the organization.

The selection process is quite lengthy and complex as it involves a series of steps before making the final selection. The procedure of selection may vary from industry to industry, company to company and even from department to department. Every organization designs its selection process, keeping in mind the urgency of hiring people and the prerequisites for the job vacancy.

Selection Process

The selection procedure comprises of following systematic steps:

  1. Preliminary Interview: The preliminary interview is also called as a screening interview wherein those candidates are eliminated from the further selection process who do not meet the minimum eligibility criteria as required by the organization.Here, the individuals are checked for their academic qualifications, skill sets, family backgrounds and their interest in working with the firm. The preliminary interview is less formal and is basically done to weed out the unsuitable candidates very much before proceeding with a full-fledged selection process.
  2. Receiving Applications: Once the individual qualifies the preliminary interview he is required to fill in the application form in the prescribed format. This application contains the candidate data such as age, qualification, experience, etc. This information helps the interviewer to get the fair idea about the candidate and formulate questions to get more information about him.
  3. Screening Applications: Once the applications are received, these are screened by the screening committee, who then prepare a list of those applicants whom they find suitable for the interviews. The shortlisting criteria could be the age, sex, qualification, experience of an individual. Once the list is prepared, the qualified candidates are called for the interview either through a registered mail or e-mails.
  4. Employment Tests: In order to check the mental ability and skill set of an individual, several tests are conducted. Such as intelligence tests, aptitude tests, interest tests, psychological tests, personality tests, etc. These tests are conducted to judge the suitability of the candidate for the job.
  5. Employment Interview: The one on one session with the candidate is conducted to gain more insights about him. Here, the interviewer asks questions from the applicant to discover more about him and to give him the accurate picture of the kind of a job he is required to perform.Also, the briefing of certain organizational policies is done, which is crucial in the performance of the job. Through an interview, it is easier for the employer to understand the candidate’s expectations from the job and also his communication skills along with the confidence level can be checked at this stage.
  6. Checking References: The firms usually ask for the references from the candidate to cross check the authenticity of the information provided by him. These references could be from the education institute from where the candidate has completed his studies or from his previous employment where he was formerly engaged. These references are checked to know the conduct and behavior of an individual and also his potential of learning new jobs.
  7. Medical Examination: Here the physical and mental fitness of the candidate are checked to ensure that he is capable of performing the job. In some organizations, the medical examination is done at the very beginning of the selection process while in some cases it is done after the final selection.Thus, this stage is not rigid and can take place anywhere in the process. The medical examination is an important step in the selection process as it helps in ascertaining the applicant’s physical ability to fulfill the job requirements.
  8. Final Selection: Finally, the candidate who qualifies all the rounds of a selection process is given the appointment letter to join the firm.


Industrial operators widely recognised preventative maintenance extends the life of assets, increases productivity, improves overall efficiency and reduces maintenance costs, with a significant margin on a run-to-failure maintenance approach..

But proper preventative maintenance is difficult to achieve, because it involves putting the seemingly non-urgent things before the fires that need to be fought in everyday production.

Today, we’ll take a look at a time-honoured tool in the business world,the Time Management Matrix, to show how it can help industrial operators move towards a preventative maintenance The good news is, It’s surprisingly simple.


Definition of Job Analysis

Mathis and Jackson (1999) view job analysis as a systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content and human requirements of jobs and the context in which jobs are performed.

Dessier (2005) defines job analysis as the procedure through which job analyst determines the duties of different positions of an’ organization and the characteristics of the people to hire them.

Dale Yoder (1983) defines job analysis as “a process in which jobs are studied to determine what tasks and responsibilities they include their relationships to other jobs, the conditions under which work is performed, and the personnel capabilities required for satisfactory performance.”

In the opinion of Strauss and Sayles (1977), job analysis consists of two parts, a statement of work to be done (Job description) and the skills and knowledge which must be possessed by anyone filling the job (Job Specification)”.

According to Gary Dessler, “Job analysis is the procedure for determining the duties and skills requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.”

According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Job Analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operation and responsibilities of a specific job.”

“Job analysis is a systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content and the human requirements of jobs and the context in which jobs are performed.” – Decenzo and Robbins.

Job analysis involves collecting data about the performance of the job in an organization.

However, this definition is probably too simplistic when all of the different types of information that must be collected are considered.

For example, the data collected should clearly describe exactly what is required to perform a specific job.

This should include the:

  • Knowledge: Knowledge is defined as the degree to which a job holder must know specific technical material.
  • Skill: Skill is defined as adequate performance on tasks requiring tools, equipment, and machinery.
  • Abilities: Abilities refers to the physical and material capabilities needed to perform tasks not requiring the use of tools, equipment, and machinery. Further, where the job is completed must be considered.

So the types of information to be collected by a job analysis are shown below:

  • Work activities.
  • Work-oriented activities.
  • Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids are used.
  • Job-related tangible and intangible.
  • Work performance.
  • Job context.
  • Personal requirement.

So. job analysis is the process of determining and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. It is the determination of the tasks that comprise the job and the skills, knowledge, abilities, and responsibilities required of the holder for successful job performance.

The end product of a job analysis is a written description of the actual requirements of the job.


Learning organisation is the one that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change”. — B. P. Robbins and M. Coulter

Organisations operate in the dynamic environment. There are continuous innovations in information and computer technologies. Markets are global and customers are spread worldwide. Though the world has become global, customers all over the world are not the same. They are guided by their country’s culture, attitudes and beliefs.

In order to be successful, organisations should learn and respond to changes quickly. They learn about effectively challenging conventional wisdom, manage the organisation’s knowledge base and make the desired changes. All organisational members take active part in identifying and resolving work- related issues. In a learning organisation, employees practice knowledge management.

They continuously acquire, share and apply new knowledge in making decisions. In today’s world of competition, organisations that learn and apply new concepts have edge over competitors. “All organisations learn, whether they consciously choose to or not — it is a fundamental requirement for their sustained existence”.

Learning organisations:

a. Learn from experience

b. Adopt continuous development programmes.

c. Solve problems through systematic techniques

d. Transfer knowledge throughout the organisation through formal training programmes.

e. Create space and formal mechanism for people to think, ask questions, reflect and learn, encourage them to challenge the existing way of working and suggest improvements.

It “provides a healthy environment for natural learning.” It identifies individual needs, develops skills of people through training, reviews organisational policies and learns from experiences of its members. It makes use of experiences of managers to meet its strategies needs. Learning organisations are associated with internal renewal of the organisation in the face of competitive environment.

Save Girl Child!

The existence of human lifestyles on the planet is not possible with out the equal participation of both women and men. They are similarly responsible for the survival of the human race on this planet. They are also accountable for the development and growth of a nation. However, the lifestyles of the girl is for greater essential than men. Because with out her we can’t consider our lifestyles.

Girl toddler is a blessing. There are some societies where gender discrimination exits until today. Uneducated and illiterate people do not recognise that girls are similarly essential for the social equilibrium. In many societies it’s far observed that ladies enjoy much less rights compared to guys. People’s attitude has grown so terrible that they started out to differentiate among little children. Girls were understood as fabric or stranger man or woman but no longer as a daughter of own residence. Such sort of human beings are satisfied and have a good time the delivery of a son whilst they’re blessed with a daughter, the complete house is in silence or grief. They even mourn for the delivery of a female child. Many cases have been located in our united states of america that the newly born female infant has been dumped in an unwanted and stranger location. Also, from time to time they have been admitted to the orphanage, although their mother and father still exist on earth.

We can’t deny the value of a lady toddler, she plays her position within the form of a mother, wife, daughter or sister. Government is taking strict measures to do away with the crime towards women.

Social Media!

Social media is a device which is becoming quite popular these days due to its consumer-friendly features. Social media systems like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and greater are giving human beings a chance to connect with every different throughout distances. In other words, the entire global is at our fingertips all thanks to social media. The youngsters is mainly one of the most dominant users of social media. All this makes you wonder that something so powerful and with one of these big attain can not be all appropriate. Like how there are continually aspects to a coin, the equal goes for social media. Subsequently, exclusive human beings have exceptional critiques on this debatable subject matter.

When we have a look at the wonderful factor of social media, we discover several benefits. The most crucial being a top notch device for schooling. All the statistics one requires is just a click on away. Students can train themselves on numerous subjects the use of social media. Furthermore, as an increasing number of humans are distancing themselves from newspapers, they are depending on social media for news. You are always updated at the state-of-the-art happenings of the world through it. An individual turns into extra socially aware of the issues of the arena. Most importantly, it also presents a tremendous platform for young budding artists to showcase their talent without cost. You can get amazing possibilities for employment via social media too.

Despite having such precise advantages, social media is taken into consideration to be one of the most dangerous elements of society. If using social media isn’t monitored, it is able to lead to grave results. It is harmful because it invades your privacy like by no means earlier than. The oversharing taking place on social media makes youngsters a goal for predators and hackers. It also results in cyberbullying which impacts any individual notably. This dependancy hampers with the educational performance of a student as they waste their time on social media rather than studying. Social media additionally creates communal rifts. Fake information is unfold with the usage of it, which poisons the thoughts of peace-loving residents.

Social media has both advantages and downsides. When you use it productively, it could be a device of titanic assist however over utilization can become a silent enemy. Thus, we as users ought to learn how to stability and now not permit ourselves to be controlled by way of this technology.

Different Types of Vegetables

1. Artichoke

Artichoke (or artichoke heart) is a kind of thistle.Interestingly, this vegetable is actually the flower buds of the plant before they bloom.Nutritionally, artichokes offer a decent mix of vitamins and minerals per 100g (1);Calories: 47 kcalCarbohydrate: 10.5 gFiber: 5.4 gSugar: 1.0 gFat: 0.2 gProtein: 3.3 gVitamin C: 20% RDAVitamin K1: 18% RDAFolate: 17% RDAMagnesium: 15% RDAManganese: 13% RDA

2. Arugula

Arugula leaves are otherwise known as ‘rocket’, and they are particularly popular in the Mediterranean and Middle-East.

In fact, arugula is one of the tastiest foods on this vegetable list, and it adds a complex flavor to any dish.These leaves are relatively nutrient-dense too, and their nutritional

3. Asparagus

Out of all the different vegetables in the world, asparagus has a good argument for being the tastiest.After all, it’s often the one which steakhouses serve alongside the main attraction.As well as being one of the tastiest vegetables, it provides a good source of nutrition too (3);Calories: 20 kcalCarbohydrate: 4.0 gFiber: 2.1 gSugar: 1.9 gFat: 0.1 gProtein: 2.2 gVitamin K1: 52% RDAVitamin A: 15% RDAFolate: 13% RDAIron: 12% RDAVitamin B1: 10% RDA

4. Bell Peppers

Bell peppers come in all shapes and sizes, but they all grow from the same plant.The difference between green, yellow, orange and red varieties is merely the state of ripeness. Red bell peppers are the ripest and sweetest, while green peppers are the freshest and slightly bitter.Technically bell peppers are a fruit, but since most people use them as a vegetable, they make this list.Nutritionally, each color pepper has a very slight difference, but they are fairly similar.

5 . Beet Greens

The leaves of the beetroot plant are incredibly nutritious, so don’t throw them away!Out of all plant foods, beet greens are one of the most impressive for nutrient density (5);Calories: 22 kcalCarbohydrate: 4.3 gFiber: 3.7 gSugar: 0.5 gFat: 0.1 gProtein: 2.2 gVitamin K1: 500% RDAVitamin A: 127% RDAVitamin C: 50% RDAPotassium: 22% RDAManganese: 20% RDASee this guide to leafy greens for an in-depth look at the nutritional benefits of leafy vegetables.

6. Beets / Beetroot

Depending on where you are from, beets (or beetroot) goes by different names.Beets are a root vegetable, and they are quite adaptable too. For instance, they can be boiled, fried, roasted, mashed, or you can even buy pickled beets.Consuming beets leads to a large intake of nitrate, which has many purported health benefits. Most notably, nitrate helps to lower blood pressure

Health Benefits Vegetables

All food and beverage choices matter – focus on variety, amount, and nutrition.

1 . As part of an overall healthy diet, eating foods such as vegetables that are lower in calories per cup instead of some other higher-calorie food may be useful in helping to lower calorie intake.

2 . Eating a diet rich in vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet may reduce risk for heart disease, including heart attack and stroke.

3 . Eating a diet rich in some vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet may protect against certain types of cancers.

4 . Adding vegetables can help increase intake of fiber and potassium, which are important nutrients that many Americans do not get enough of in their diet.

Benefits of Lemons

Lemons are high in vitamin C, fiber, and various beneficial plant compounds.These nutrients are responsible for several health benefits.In fact, lemons may support heart health, weight control, and digestive health

1. Support Heart Health

Lemons are a good source of vitamin C.One lemon provides about 31 mg of vitamin C, which is 51% of the reference daily intake (RDI).Research shows that eating fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C reduces your risk of heart disease and stroke

2. Help Control Weight

Lemons are often promoted as a weight loss food, and there are a few theories as to why this is.One common theory is that the soluble pectin fiber in them expands in your stomach, helping you feel full for longer.That said, not many people eat lemons whole. And because lemon juice contains no pectin, lemon juice drinks will not promote fullness in the same way.

3. Prevent Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are small lumps that form when waste products crystallize and build up in your kidneys.They are quite common, and people who get them often get them repeatedly.Citric acid may help prevent kidney stones by increasing urine volume and increasing urine pH, creating a less favorable environment for kidney stone formation

4. Protect Against Anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is quite common. It occurs when you don’t get enough iron from the foods you eat.Lemons contain some iron, but they primarily prevent anemia by improving your absorption of iron from plant foods (26Trusted Source, 27Trusted Source).Your gut absorbs iron from meat, chicken, and fish (known as heme iron) very easily, while iron from plant sources (non-heme iron) not as easily. However, this absorption can be improved by consuming vitamin C and citric acid.

5. Reduce Cancer Risk

A healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables may help prevent some cancers (28Trusted Source).Some observational studies have found that people who eat the most citrus fruit have a lower risk of cancer, while other studies have found no effects (29Trusted Source, 30Trusted Source, 31Trusted Source).In test-tube studies, many compounds from lemons have killed cancer cells. However, they may not have the same effect on the human body



The popularity of avocado is down to its rich, creamy texture and mild flavour. The avocado, or Persea Americana, is a fruit that belongs to the family of lauraceae; a group that also includes members such as cinnamon and laurel. There are dozens of varieties of avocado, ranging in size, colour and texture. All are native to tropical climates and when harvested, the flesh softens to a buttery texture that has become extremely popular in everything from dips to desserts.

  1. Avocados are nutritionally rich

Avocados have been commended as an example of a nutrient dense food, with one half of the fruit counting towards your five-a-day.Avocados are an excellent source of monounsaturated fat and vitamin E, and are a good source of folate. They also supply more soluble fibre than other fruit and contain a number of useful minerals including iron, copper and potassium.

2. May support heart health

Avocados are high in fat with 60 per cent of this being monounsaturated fats, which research suggests helps to protect against heart disease and lower blood pressure. They are also an excellent source of potassium, folate and fibre, all of which benefit the heart and cardiovascular system.

3. May help to lower cholesterol

The oils supplied by avocado include oleic acid and linoleic acid, these unsaturated fats are recommended as part of a balanced diet to help manage cholesterol.

4. May help to regulate appetite

There is no doubt that the calorie content of avocados is greater than other fruits and vegetables. However, an interesting study has shown that the fat and fibre content of avocados leads to feelings of satiety which helps regulate appetite.

5. May help keep eyes healthy

Alongside the benefits outlined above, avocado are a rich source of protective vitamin E as well as carotenes including lutein and zeaxanthin which are thought to help keep the eyes healthy.

Health Benefits of Kiwifruit

The kiwifruit, or Chinese gooseberry, originally grew wild in China. Kiwis are a nutrient-dense food — they are rich in in nutrients and low in calories.A schoolteacher introduced the fruitTrusted Source to New Zealand in 1904, upon returning from China with seeds. The New Zealanders called it “kiwi” after their national bird.Kiwi has a reputation as a health food because of its high vitamin C content, but the fruit is also rich in other nutrients. These may help reduce blood pressure, boost wound healing, help maintain bowel health, and more.

Kiwi and other fruits provide a range of health benefits due to their nutritional contents. Kiwis are a good source of vitamin C, antioxidants, and fiber.Antioxidants — including vitamin C, choline, lutein, and zeaxanthin — help remove free radicals from the body. Free radicals are unstable molecules that the body produces during metabolism and other processes.If too many free radicals build up, they can causeTrusted Source oxidative stress, which can result in cell damage. This damage may lead to issues such as heart disease or cancer. Antioxidants can help protect the body by removing free radicals.

Are you also thinking to do B.Pharm?

If you are thinking to do a Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm) after your 12th, then you must know the various career opportunities after B.pharm.

In my previous content, we talk about the various entrance exams after B. Pharmacy and their preparation.

Now we will address the various career opportunities after B. Pharmacy.

First, we will talk about the “Government Jobs” available for B. Pharm graduates.

Goverment Jobs:-

All of us have a dream to do government jobs. If we start our preparation from today then our dreams can comes true.

Drug inspector:-

After graduating we can give this test. This test is not much easy as you assume. Most of the students have a dream to become a drug inspector, but the problem is that the seats for this post are very less and the competition is very high, that’s why many of the students are not able to achieve this.

Drug inspector is an expert in monitoring and executing efficiency, safety, quality and usefulness of drugs from the production stage to the final stage.

To become a drug inspector, students are required to go through a selection process conducted by the UPSC and/ or SPSCs.


Railway Recruitment Board Exam (RRB) also we can give after our graduation. For this exam both B. Pharma and D. Pharma candidates are eligible.

The exam type of RRB exam is objective and computer-based. The jobs are available all over India.

Syllabus:-The Syllabus for the RRB Pharmacist exam includes topics from Aptitude, Reasoning, Professional Knowledge, General Awareness. Professional knowledge encompasses questions from all 4 years of B. Pharmacy subjects.

Hospital pharmacist:-

After completion of our graduation, we can also do a job as hospital pharmacists.

Hospital pharmacists (also known as health-system or clinical pharmacists) encompasses a broad range of duties which includes providing quality care during an inpatient stay, ensuring a seamless transition of care, and reducing the number of medication mistakes.

The important thing for students who are interested in doing government jobs is to keep updated on vacancy seats.

Jobs In Industrial Sector:-

Most of the students are interested in doing the job in the industrial sector. But many of the graduates that are doing the job in the industrial sector are completed their master’s degree after B.Pharm. It is our wish to do Masters Degree or not, but I think if we do the masters then we can get placement in the industry with a good package.

Production Department:-

In the industrial sector, there are two divisions one is production and the other is R&D.

Further, there are two divisions in the Production department i.e. “Quality Control & Quality Assurance”.

Quality control:- As the name suggests, it involves assuring the quality of all the products manufactured, at every stage of manufacturing/processing Drug Products.

It also involves the tests to verify the product quality against the predefined standards given in pharmacopoeias.

Quality Assurance:- In the pharmaceutical industry, the main role of the QA department is to ensure that pharmaceutical products are manufactured to a safe and are of a consistent standard. It’s is a very broad field and it involves various other important roles.

R & D department:-

This sector involves research and development and it mostly works to review its business model strategies to maximize the income.

In this sector largely preferred candidates are of having a masters degree (M.Pharm). In this department, the candidate having a B. Pharm degree are much low. The advantage of doing M.Pharm is to increase our knowledge and experience which helps us in this department.


In this, we can do our own business. After B. Pharmacy we have the license and we can easily do our business.

In wholesale business, we can transport the required product to a small pharmacy store.

As an entrepreneur, we have to be confident, have patience and work hard to achieve the success. If we have a loss in our business then we have to face the problem and not stay away from that issue.

It includes a whole sell business, retailer and we can also do business of selling manufacturing units.


After our graduation, we can also get a job in the marketing field as a “Medical Representative”(MR), in which we have to increase the sales of specific medical products of the respective brand.


After our graduation or post-graduation, we have also a career opportunity in academics as Assistant Professor & lecturers.

In this, if we have completed our graduation in B.Pharm then we can do the job as a professor to teach D.Pharm students. And if we have completed our masters then we can teach to B.pharm students.

Entrance exam & Post-graduation:-

As we know, B.Pharm is graduation after this we can prepare for various competitive exams including MPSC etc.

If you want to accomplish specialisation in pharmacy then you have two options i.e. M.Pharm and M.B.A.

My opinion is if you are having an interest in the marketing field then you can do an M.B.A.from a top university.

The benefit of doing M.Pharm. :- As I said earlier, we have the benefit of doing M.Pharm for doing the job in the industrial sector.

Secondly, after qualifying for GPAT (Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test ) i.e. entrance exam for taking admission, with good rank, then we can get a scholarship monthly.

Entrance exams to take admission in postgraduate courses:- There are mainly two tests that are GPAT (Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test ) & NIPER JEE (National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Joint Entrance Exam ).

After qualifying the GPAT we are eligible for the NIPER JEE exam.

There are other entrance exams too such as GMAT, CAT etc.

This is all about the basic knowledge about various career opportunities after B.Pharmacy. So, let’s start investing the time for preparation and achieve success. If you are currently doing the B. Pharm then you must have to do planning as per your interest in various fields and work hard. Best of luck with your upcoming journey. 👍✌

!! Thank you !!


MuskmelonHomeEntertainment & Pop CultureFoodMuskmelonplantAlternate titles: nutmeg melon BY The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica | View Edit HistoryMuskmelon, also called nutmeg melon, any of several varieties of netted-rind melons in the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), noted for their musky-scented sweet juicy orange flesh. Muskmelons are among the most-important commercial melons and are commonly eaten fresh. Although the term muskmelon is sometimes loosely applied to any dessert melon, in botanical usage it refers strictly to the fruits that are cultivars of the common melon (Cucumis melo) and are classified in the Reticulatus cultivar group. In addition, those melons are sometimes inaccurately referred to as cantaloupe in North America, a term that should properly be reserved for European melons of the Cantalupensis group. Like all melons, muskmelons are annual vines that require a long warm growing season. They have hairy trailing stems with clasping tendrils and bear round to lobed leaves. The yellow unisexual flowers produce large fruits, which give off a sweet odour when ripe. The plants are susceptible to a number of fungal diseases, especially in humid conditions, and are killed by frost.

Cantaloupe nutrition benefits

The humble cantaloupe may not get as much respect as other fruits, but it should.This tasty, although odd-looking, melon is packed with nutrients. If you don’t think about nabbing a cantaloupe each time you hit your grocery store’s produce section, read on to learn why you may want to think again.Adding fruit of any kind to your diet is beneficial. Cantaloupe, a variety of musk melon, is a particularly good choice.


When it comes to beta-carotene, cantaloupe knocks other yellow-orange fruits out of the park.According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)Trusted Source, cantaloupe has more beta- carotene than:apricotsgrapefruitorangespeachestangerinesnectarinesmangoes

Vitamin C

According to the USDATrusted Source, 1 cup of balled cantaloupe contains over 100 percent of the recommended daily value (DV) of vitamin C. According to the Mayo Clinic, vitamin C is involved in the production of:blood vesselscartilagemusclecollagen in bonesMore research is needed on vitamin C to prove its effectiveness against diseases like:asthmacancerdiabetesHowever, eating vitamin C-rich foods may help reduce how long your symptoms last the next time you have the common cold.


Folate is also known as vitamin B-9. Folate is the term used when it’s naturally present in foods. Folic acid is the term used for supplements and fortified foods.Folate is well-known for preventing neural-tube birth defects like spinal bifida.It may also help:reduce the risk of some cancersaddress memory loss due to aging, although more research is neededWhen it comes to cancer, folate may be a double-edged sword.According to a closer look at studies on the vitamin published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, folate may offer protection in early cancers and in people with a folate deficiency. However, vitamin B-9 in high doses, such as excessive supplementation, may stimulate or worsen later-stage cancers.


Cantaloupe melon makes a refreshing snack in the summer, and it contains nutrients that can benefit a person’s health.Popular with children and adults, cantaloupe can make a refreshing, healthful, and easy summer dessert, while their high water content helps prevent dehydration.This type of fruit also contains a variety of vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.Other names for cantaloupe include muskmelon, mush melon, rock melon, and Persian melon. They are a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, along with honeydew melons, watermelons, and cucumbers.

The water, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals in cantaloupe can provide a variety of health benefits.Antioxidants, for example, can help prevent cell damage that can lead to cancer and other health conditions.During metabolism, the body produces unstable molecules called free radicals, which can collect in the body and damage cells. This damage is known as oxidative stress. Antioxidants help remove free radicals from the body and prevent oxidative stress.Canteloupe contains a range of antioxidants, includingTrusted Source:seleniumbeta carotenevitamin CluteinzeaxanthincholineIt is worth noting that, while the nutrients in food are essential for maintaining a healthy body, scientific investigations into the effects of these nutrients often deal with supplements, rather than dietary sources, and the results may be somewhat different.

Health benefits of oranges

Human and animal studies indicate that regular consumption of oranges is beneficial for health.

Heart health

Heart disease is currently the world’s most common cause of premature death.Flavonoids — especially hesperidin — in oranges may have protective effects against heart disease (11Trusted Source, 16).Clinical studies in humans note that daily intake of orange juice for four weeks has a blood-thinning effect and may reduce blood pressure significantly (11Trusted Source, 17Trusted Source).Fibers also seem to play a role. Intake of isolated fibers from citrus fruits has been shown to decrease blood cholesterol levels (8).Taken together, it is likely that regular consumption of oranges may help lower your risk of heart disease.

Kidney stone prevention

Oranges are a good source of citric acid and citrates, which are believed to help prevent kidney stone formation.Potassium citrate is often prescribed to patients with kidney stones. Citrates in oranges seem to have similar effects (14Trusted Source, 15Trusted Source).

Anemia prevention

Anemia is a condition characterized by low level of red blood cells or hemoglobin, decreasing its ability to carry oxygen. It is often caused by iron deficiency.Although oranges are not a good source of iron, they are an excellent source of organic acids, such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and citric acid.Both vitamin C and citric acid can increase your body’s absorption of iron from the digestive tract (18Trusted Source, 19Trusted Source).When eaten with iron-rich food, oranges may help prevent anemia.

paper making

Chemical pulping

Main articles: kraft process, sulfite process, and soda pulpingTo make pulp from wood, a chemical pulping process separates lignin from cellulose fibre. A cooking liquor is used to dissolve the lignin, which is then washed from the cellulose; this preserves the length of the cellulose fibres. Paper made from chemical pulps are also known as wood-free papers (not to be confused with tree-free paper); this is because they do not contain lignin, which deteriorates over time. The pulp can also be bleached to produce white paper, but this consumes 5% of the fibres. Chemical pulping processes are not used to make paper made from cotton, which is already 90% cellulose.

Mechanical pulping

There are two major mechanical pulps: thermomechanical pulp (TMP) and groundwood pulp (GW). In the TMP process, wood is chipped and then fed into steam-heated refiners, where the chips are squeezed and converted to fibres between two steel discs. In the groundwood process, debarked logs are fed into grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones to be made into fibres. Mechanical pulping does not remove the lignin, so the yield is very high, > 95%; however, lignin causes the paper thus produced to turn yellow and become brittle over time. Mechanical pulps have rather short fibres, thus producing weak paper. Although large amounts of electrical energy are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than the chemical kind.

De-inked pulp

Paper recycling processes can use either Chemically or mechanically produced pulp; by mixing it with water and applying mechanical action the hydrogen bonds in the paper can be broken and fibres separated again. Most recycled paper contains a proportion of virgin fibre for the sake of quality; generally speaking, de-inked pulp is of the same quality or lower than the collected paper it was made from.


Besides the fibres, pulps may contain fillers such as chalk or china clay,[12] which improve its characteristics for printing or writing.[13] Additives for sizing purposes may be mixed with it or applied to the paper web later in the manufacturing process; the purpose of such sizing is to establish the correct level of surface absorbency to suit ink or paint.

Producing paper

Paper mill in Mänttä-Vilppula, FinlandThe pulp is fed to a paper machine, where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying.Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, which is not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water. When making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead.

The paper may then undergo sizing to alter its physical properties for use in various applications.Paper at this point is uncoated. Coated paper has a thin layer of material such as calcium carbonate or china clay applied to one or both sides in order to create a surface more suitable for high-resolution halftone screens. (Uncoated papers are rarely suitable for screens above 150 lpi.) Coated or uncoated papers may have their surfaces polished by calendering. Coated papers are divided into matte, semi-matte or silk, and gloss. Gloss papers give the highest optical density in the printed image.The paper is then fed onto reels if it is to be used on web printing presses, or cut into sheets for other printing processes or other purposes. The fibres in the paper basically run in the machine direction. Sheets are usually cut “long-grain”, i.e. with the grain parallel to the longer dimension of the sheet. Continuous form paper (or continuous stationery) is cut to width with holes punched at the edges, and folded into stacks.

Paper grain

All paper produced by paper machines as the Fourdrinier Machine are wove paper, i.e. the wire mesh that transports the web leaves a pattern that has the same density along the paper grain and across the grain. Textured finishes, watermarks and wire patterns imitating hand-made laid paper can be created by the use of appropriate rollers in the later stages of the machine.

Rose And Uses Of Rose

Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization.

Ornamental plants

The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia, and China.It is estimated that 30 to 35 thousand rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants.Most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having morphed into additional petals.
Cut flowers

Cut flowersBouquet of pink rosesRoses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in greenhouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.

Cut flowers

Main article: Cut flowersBouquet of pink roses

Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.

In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in greenhouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.


Rose oil and Rose waterGeraniol (C10H18O)Rose perfumes are made from rose oil (also called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia and then spread through Arabia and India, and more recently into eastern Europe. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa × damascena ‘Trigintipetala’) are used. In other parts of the world Rosa × centifolia is commonly used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. ‘Rose Absolute’ is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil.



EditSunflowers originate in the Americas. They were first domesticated in what is now Mexico and the Southern United States.Domestic sunflower seeds have been found in Mexico, dating to 2100 BCE. Native American people grew sunflowers as a crop from Mexico to Southern Canada. In the 16th century the first crop breeds were brought from America to Europe by explorers.


Sunflowers are thought to have been domesticated 3000–5000 years ago by Native Americans who would use them primarily as a source for edible seeds. They were then introduced to Europe in the early 16th century and made their way to Russia. In Russia, where oilseed cultivators were located, these flowers were developed and grown on an industrial scale. Russia then reintroduced this oilseed cultivation process to North America in the mid-20th century; North America began their commercial era of sunflower production and breeding.New breeds of the Helianthus spp. began to become more prominent in new geographical areas.

Benefits of pomegranate


Pomegranates have been eaten throughout history for their health benefits. Nowadays, the juice of this fruit is a popular part of healthy diets.Pomegranate seeds get their vibrant red hue from polyphenols. These chemicals are powerful antioxidants.Pomegranate juice contains higher levels of antioxidants than most other fruit juices. It also has three times more antioxidants than red wine and green tea.

xidants in pomegranate juice can help remove free radicals, protect cells from damage, and reduce inflammation.

Vitamin C

The juice of a single pomegranate has more than 40 percent of your daily requirement of vitamin C. Vitamin C can be broken down when pasteurized, so opt for homemade or fresh pomegranate juice to get the most of the nutrient.

Alzheimer’s disease protection

The antioxidants in the juice and their high concentration are believed to stall the progress of Alzheimer disease and protect memory.


Pomegranate juice can reduce inflammation in the gut and improve digestion. It may be beneficial for people with Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and other inflammatory bowel diseases.While there are conflicting beliefs and research on whether pomegranate juice helps or worsens diarrhea, most doctors recommend avoiding it until you are feeling better and your symptoms have subsided

Cancer prevention

Pomegranate juice recently made a splash when researchers found that it may help stop the growth of prostate cancer cells. Despite multiple studies on the effects of the juice on prostate cancer, results are still preliminary.While there haven’t been long-term studies with humans that prove that pomegranate juice prevents cancer or reduces the risk, adding it to your diet certainly can’t hurt. There have been encouraging results in studies so far, and bigger studies are now being doneTrusted Source.


Pomegranate is a tree. Various parts of the tree and fruit are used to make medicine.People use pomegranate for high blood pressure, athletic performance, heart disease, diabetes, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.Pomegranate has been used for thousands of years. It is in Greek, Hebrew, Buddhist, Islamic, and Christian mythology and writings. It is described in records dating from around 1500 BCE as a treatment for tapeworm and other parasites.Many cultures use pomegranate as a folk medicine. Pomegranate is native to Iran. It is primarily cultivated in Mediterranean counties, parts of the United States, Afghanistan, Russia, India, China, and Japan. You’ll see pomegranate in some royal and medical coats of arms.

Uses of pineapple

Pineapple is more than just a delicious tropical fruit — it offers significant health benefits as well. In fact, it’s been used in folk medicine since ancient times, according to a study published in September 2016 in Biomedical Reports. It’s native to the Americas and is also grown in tropical climates around the world, according to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH).“Pineapple is a great source of vitamin C, B vitamins, fiber, and minerals like manganese,” says Julie Andrews, RDN, a chef based in Appleton, Wisconsin.You’ll find pineapple offered fresh, frozen, and canned, making it a year-round option for those living in the United States. Canned pineapple is convenient, but be sure to look for an option that’s packed in its own juices, not syrup, says Allison Knott, RDN, a dietitian in New York City. “Fruit naturally contains sugar in the form of fructose, so even the canned fruit in its own juice will have grams of sugar listed on the label,” she says. “However, the syrup is considered added sugar and will increase the total grams of sugar while contributing to added sugar intake for the day.”REL

uses of apple

All parts of the fruit, including the skin, except for the seeds, are suitable for human consumption. The core, from stem to bottom, containing the seeds, is usually not eaten and is discarded.Apples can be consumed various ways: juice, raw in salads, baked in pies, cooked into sauces and spreads like apple butter, and other baked dishes.Apples are sometimes used as an ingredient in savory foods, such as sausage and stuffing.Several techniques are used to preserve apples and apple products. Apples can be canned, dried or frozen.Canned or frozen apples are eventually baked into pies or other cooked dishes. Apple juice or cider is also bottled. Apple juice is often concentrated and frozen.Apples are an important ingredient in many desserts, such as apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. When cooked, some apple cultivars easily form a puree known as apple sauce. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are often baked or stewed and are also (cooked) in some meat dishes. Dried apples can be eaten or reconstituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid).Apples are milled or pressed to produce apple juice, which may be drunk unfiltered (called apple cider in North America), or filtered. Filtered juice is often concentrated and frozen, then reconstituted later and consumed. Apple juice can be fermented to make cider (called hard cider in North America), ciderkin, and vinegar. Through distillation, various alcoholic beverages can be produced, such as applejack, Calvados, and apfelwein


An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus domestica). Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including NorseGreek, and European Christian tradition.

Apples grown from seed tend to be very different from those of the parents, and the resultant fruit frequently lack desired characteristics. Generally then, apple cultivars are propagated by clonal grafting onto rootstocks. Apple trees grown without rootstocks tend to be large and much slower to fruit after planting. Rootstocks are used to control speed of growth and the size of the resulting tree allowing for easier harvesting.There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and use, including cooking, eating raw and cider production. Trees and fruit are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means. In 2010, the fruit’s genome was sequenced as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.Worldwide production of apples in 2018 was 86 million tonnes, with China accounting for nearly half of the total.

Life of Mukesh Dhirubhai Ambani

Mukesh Dhirubhai Ambani was born on 19 April 1957 in the British Crown colony of Aden (present-day Yemen) to Dhirubhai Ambani and Kokilaben Ambani. He has a younger brother Anil Ambani and two sisters, Nina Bhadrashyam Kothari and Dipti Dattaraj Salgaonkar.Ambani lived only briefly in Yemen, because his father decided to move back to India in 1958[7] to start a trading business that focused on spices and textiles. The latter was originally named “Vimal” but later changed to “Only Vimal”.[8][9] His family lived in a modest two-bedroom apartment in Bhuleshwar, Mumbai until the 1970s.[10] The family’s financial status slightly improved when they moved to India but Ambani still lived in a communal society, used public transportation, and never received an allowance Dhirubhai later purchased a 14-floor apartment block called ‘Sea Wind’ in Colaba, where, until recently, Ambani and his brother lived with their families on different floors.


Ambani attended the Hill Grange High School at Peddar Road, Mumbai, along with his brother and Anand Jain, who later became his close associate After his secondary schooling, he studied at the St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai.He then received a BE degree in chemical engineering from the Institute of Chemical Technology.Ambani later enrolled for an MBA at Stanford University, but withdrew in 1980 to help his father build Reliance, which at the time was still a small but fast-growing enterprise.[15] His father felt that real-life skills were harnessed through experiences and not by sitting in a classroom, so he called his son back to India from Stanford to take command of a yarn manufacturing project in his company.

Ambani has been quoted as saying that he was influenced by his teachers William F. Sharpe and Man Mohan Sharma because they are “the kind of professors who made you think out of the box.

Sister Nivedita

Sister Nivedita (Bengali pronunciation: [bhågini: niːbediːtaː] About this soundlisten born Margaret Elizabeth Noble; 28 October 1867 – 13 October 1911)[1][2] was an Irish teacher, author, social activist, school founder and disciple of Swami Vivekananda.[3][4] She spent her childhood and early youth in Ireland. She was engaged to marry a Welsh youth, but he died soon after their engagement.

Sister Nivedita met Swami Vivekananda in 1895 in London and travelled to Calcutta (present-day Kolkata), India in 1898. Swami Vivekananda gave her the name Nivedita (meaning “Dedicated to God”) when he initiated her into the vow of Brahmacharya on 25 March 1898. In November 1898, she opened a girls’ school in the Bagbazar area of Calcutta. She wanted to educate girls who were deprived of even basic education. During the plague epidemic in Calcutta in 1899, Nivedita nursed and took care of the poor patients. Nivedita had close associations with the newly established Ramakrishna Mission. Because of her active contribution in the field of Indian Nationalism, she had to publicly dissociate herself from the activities of the Ramakrishna Mission under the then president, Swami Brahmananda. She was very close to Sarada Devi, the spiritual consort of Ramakrishna and one of the major influences behind Ramakrishna Mission, and also with all brother disciples of Swami Vivekananda. She died on 13 October 1911 in Darjeeling. Her epitaph reads, “Here lies Sister Nivedita who gave her all to India”.[5]

Bhuvaneswari Devi

Bhuvaneshwari Devi (19th century AD) was the mother of Swami Vivekananda and she lived a pious and a noble life, and contains very good qualities. At her younger age, she got married to a noble person Sri Vishwanath Datta, who was a barrister by profession. She gave birth to Swami Vivekananda in the year 1863 at Kolkata, and during that time, she got a dream that the powers of Lord Shiva was entering in her womb. After her husband’s death, she went to her mother’s house and lived along with Vivekananda, and at that time she was very poor. And in course of time, her daughter was also died and Swami Vivekananda has also become a saint.Even then, Mata Bhuvaneshwari Devi remained calm, and maintained her strength, and concentrated her entire attention towards worshipping Shiva-Parvati. Swami Vivekananda was very affectionate with his mother, and visits his mother’s home, once in a month, and used to help her.She spent most of her days by observing fasting and doing meditation, and gained more spiritual energy through that. After leading a spiritual and a noble life for several years, she died, and attained SALVATION.Let us worship the holy mother and be blessed.

Bhupendranath Datta

Bhupendranath Datta (4 September 1880 – 25 December 1961)[1] was an Indian revolutionary and later a noted sociologist and anthropologist. He associated Rishi Aurobindo in his political works. In his youth, he was closely associated with the Jugantar movement, serving as the editor of Jugantar Patrika till his arrest and imprisonment in 1907. In his later revolutionary career, he was privy to the Indo-German Conspiracy. His elder brother was Swami Vivekananda. The Asiatic Society today holds the Dr. Bhupendranath Datta memorial lecture in his honour

Datta was a writer too. He wrote several books on Indian culture and society. He wrote a book named “Swami Vivekananda, Patriot-prophet”.

Life of Sarada Devi

Saradamani Devi was born of Brahmin parents as the eldest daughter on 22 December 1853, in the quiet village of Jayrambati in present-day West Bengal, India.[2] Her parents, Ramachandra Mukhopadhyay and Shyama Sundari Devi,[3] were poor. Her father Ramchandra earned his living as a farmer and through the performance of priestly duties. According to traditional accounts, Ramachandra and Syama Sundari had visions and supernatural events foretelling the birth of a divine being as their daughter.[2][4]Sarada lived the simple life of an Indian village girl. As a child, Sarada—then known as Saradamani—was fascinated by traditional Hindu folklore and narratives. As in the case of most girls of rural upbringing, she did not receive any formal education but learned to serve others as she helped her mother run a large household and looked after her younger brothers.[5][6] During the terrible famine of 1864, Sarada worked ceaselessly as her family served food to hungry people.[7] She was interested in the clay models of goddesses Kali and Lakshmi, which she worshiped regularly. She is said to have started meditating from her childhood, and traditional accounts recount her mystic visions and experiences.[2] According to Sarada Devi, she used to see a bevy of eight girls of her age coming from an unknown place and escorting her in her chores during her childhood.[6]The mother and brother of Ramakrishna thought that a marriage would be a good steadying effect on him, by diverting his attention away from spiritual austerities and visions.[8] It is reported that Ramakrishna himself indicated Saradamani as the bride.[9] In May 1859, Sarada was betrothed to Ramakrishna. Sarada was 5 years old and Ramakrishna was 23; the age difference was typical for 19th century rural Bengal.[10][11]After the betrothal, Sarada was left to the care of her parents and Ramakrishna returned to Dakshineswar.[9] Sarada next met Ramakrishna when she was fourteen years old, and she spent three months with him at Kamarpukur. There, Ramakrishna imparted to Sarada instructions on meditation and spiritual life.[12] Ramakrishna’s frequent bhava samadhi (ecstasy)[13] and unorthodox ways of worship led some onlookers to doubt his mental stability, while others regarded him as a great saint.[14] Sarada joined Ramakrishna at Dakshineswar in 1872 on her own accord when she was eighteen, after hearing these rumours about his mental health. She found Ramakrishna to be a kind and caring person.[11]

Sarada Devi was born in Joyrambati, a village in present-day Bankura District in the state of West Bengal, India. She was married to Ramakrishna in 1859[citation needed] when she was only six years old while Ramakrishna was 23 years old. After the marriage, Sarada mostly stayed at Jayrambati and joined Ramakrishna in Dakshineswar Kali temple at the age of eighteen. According to her biographers, both lived “lives of unbroken continence, showing the ideals of a householder and of the monastic ways of life”. After Ramakrishna’s death, Sarada Devi stayed most of the time either at Joyrambati or at the Udbodhan office, Calcutta. The disciples of Ramakrishna regarded her as their own mother, and after their guru’s death looked to her for advice and encouragement. The followers of the Ramakrishna movement and a large section of devotees across the world worship Sarada Devi as an incarnation of the Adi Parashakti or the Divine Mother.


All that we see around us, directly from the second we venture outside our house is essential for nature. The trees, creatures, scene, blossoms, trees, breeze, daylight, all that makes our environmental elements so lovely and hypnotizing are important for nature. Nature doesn’t emerge immediately however needs forever and a day to sprout and bloom.

Nature has given us such a great amount to contemplate at. It has turned into the focal point of the formation of numerous expressions and thoughts. It is the motivation and directing component for some. All incredible artists on the planet have referenced nature in their compositions as well. There are such countless grand and lovely scenes on earth, for example, the extraordinary valleys, seas, mountains, untamed life, and so on Individuals head out for a significant distance to see a nightfall, investigate a specific normally made spot, partake in the landscape. Everything gives us a feeling of unwinding as one contemplates and loses all sense of direction in the magnificence of nature. It is the Mother Nature who never hurts us yet consistently supports us. By giving us products of the soil, it sustains our body. By giving us water hydrates our body, and by giving oxygen, it scrubs our body. It is normally seen that individuals who live near nature, particularly the locals carry on with a fairly cheerful daily routine when contrasted with individuals experiencing in the midst of the great drifting high rises. Nature gives our ears sweet strong of birds, restores us with outside air, breeze fills our spirit with satisfaction, and rouses to stream like the waterway. Nature gives the unrefined substance to monetary improvement too.

Taking everything into account, nature has an amazing groundbreaking force which is liable for the working of life on the planet. It is fundamental for humanity to prosper so it is our obligation to preserve it for our people in the future. We should stop the childish exercises and make an honest effort to protect the regular assets so life can everlastingly be supported on the planet.

Time Management

In our daily life, we’ve got handiest twenty-four hours. Therefore we can’t do everything in one day. This creates obstacles in our ordinary work. In order to manage paintings, social life and sleep, division of time is crucial. In a particular way division of time is the need. This will help the character to finish all his obligations. You ought to write your duties in a schedule.

Time Management refers to the green use of time in order that it is able to be the most useful. The less complicated it seems, the greater difficult it is to observe this method. If you learn how to control the time, then he can attain nearly everything in lifestyles. It is said, “If you cannot control a while, you’ll not be able to set up every other part of your lifestyles”. Therefore, the first step toward success is to control a while effectively. If you master the art of organizing a while, then you may be capable of deal with your paintings higher. Time control will assist you to remove wastage, be organized for conferences, refuse immoderate workloads, screen challenge development, allocate aid (time) appropriate to a undertaking’s importance, ensure that long term initiatives are not unnoticed, plan every day successfully, plan each week efficiently.

With time management skill sets, you may get a deeper understanding of your self. As we develop antique, we lose music of the important matters in our lives. This may be averted to an quantity if you discover what you sincerely want to accomplish. Focus on quick term desires. Maintain a diary to maintain tune of your tasks. You also can put together a chart of your agenda on a paper and stick it in your bulletin board. This will assist you be updated for every mission. Learn to mark deadlines for your calendar. This acts as a consistent reminder if you want to obtain your dreams.

In conclusion, time control is a completely vital ability to be found out and to be mastered so as to have a higher way of life. By coping with nicely time, you will not suffer from strain and your works/tasks may be carried out on time and with exceptional great.

The beginning of covid culture

With the rise of coronavirus (COVID19), In the last few months, individuals, families, and communities in India have been negotiating a new social order. India’s roughly 1.3 billion people went under the first phase of lockdown in March 2020.  

The government had initiated these protocols concerning WHO :

  1. Wearing a mask in public 
  • Make sure your mask covers your nose, mouth, and chin.
  • Clean your hands before you put your mask on, before and after you take it off, and after you touch it at any time.
  • When you take off your mask, store it in a clean plastic bag, and every day either wash it if it’s a fabric mask or dispose of it in a trash bin if it’s a medical mask.
  • Don’t use masks with valves. 

2. Maintaining distance in public places

  • Avoid the 3Cs: spaces that are closed, crowded, or involve close contact.
  • Keeping 6 feet distance or a minimum of 3 feet in public
  • Meet people outside. Outdoor gatherings are safer than indoor ones, particularly if indoor spaces are small and without outdoor air coming in.
  •  Open a window to increase the amount of natural ventilation when indoors.

3. Keep good hygiene 

  • Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with either an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water. This eliminates germs that may be on your hands, including viruses.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Dispose of the used tissue immediately into a closed bin and wash your hands.
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces frequently, especially those which are regularly touched, such as door handles, faucets, and phone screens.

4. Vaccination 

  • Get vaccinated as soon as it’s your turn and follow local guidance on vaccination.
  • Do not believe in any false information about vaccination.
  • The vaccines approved in India are :

          1 Zydus Cadila. ZyCoV-D. 

          2 Moderna. mRNA-1273.

          3 Sputnik V.

          4 Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) 

          5 Oxford/AstraZeneca. AZD1222.

          6 Serum Institute of India. Covishield

          7 Bharat Biotech. Covaxin. 

What to do if we get sick?

  • If you have a fever, cough, and difficulty breathing, seek medical attention immediately. Call by telephone first and follow the directions of your local health authority.
  • Do not take any random medicines without the concern of a proper physician. 
  • Know the full range of symptoms of COVID-19. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, tiredness, and loss of taste or smell. Less common symptoms include aches and pains, headache, sore throat, red or irritated eyes, diarrhea, a skin rash, or discoloration of fingers or toes.
  • Stay home and self-isolate for 10 days from symptom onset, plus three days after symptoms cease. Call your health care provider or hotline for advice. Have someone bring you supplies. If you need to leave your house or have someone near you, wear a properly fitted mask to avoid infecting others.
  • Keep up to date on the latest information from trusted sources, such as WHO or your local and national health authorities. Local and national authorities and public health units are best placed to advise on what people in your area should be doing to protect themselves.

Written with reference to WHO and MoHFW (Ministery of health and family welfare Government of India ) 

Fix your browser opening by itself in android

Hey all! technology is an inseparable part of our lives. And when we talk about technology how can we forget about our mobile phones. None of us want any malfunction in these devices we carry in our pockets daily. Android is quite possibly the most well-known working system with regards to mobile phones and is something that numerous clients can’t simply manage their day without. However, nothing comes without problems likewise, with some other gadget, it can have a lot of issues. Android phones are often reported of various problems occurring due to several reasons. We are going to discuss one such prevalent issue and the solution to it. a plethora of android users repine about their web browser opening itself and this causes them an abundance of arduousness in utilizing their device.

Let us begin by discussing what could cause this trouble in your android device. Below are listed few reasons which might be troubling you: –

1)    Visiting any unsafe website: one very prevalent reason for your android browser malfunction could be if you visited any unknown/unsafe website. this could pave a way for sundry viruses to enter your android and cause trouble in its functioning.

2)    Downloading applications from obscure sources: using third-party apps can also be harmful to your device. Downloading apps from unknown sources is another way for malware to enter your android mobile device. Third-party apps are often reported to harm the system’s functioning. So, always avoid downloading applications from an unsafe site.

3)    Android upgrade: you are not to be blamed for this, sometimes the system upgrades instead of improving the functioning of your device cause various problems in it. it’s often reported that users face the issue of their web browser opening on its own after upgrading their device.

4)    Processing resetting your Android phone in the incorrect manner: you might think of resetting your phone as the easiest way to solve any issue but this doesn’t solve always solve your problem, sometimes it might create a new issue. If you reset your android phone in the incorrect manner, it might cause a problem in your web browser.

5)    Pairing your phone with an affected device:  you might have Paired your phone with another phone or PC that is affected by malware which paved way for the malware to enter your device and cause trouble in your browser.

so now you are cognizant of the possible causes of your quandary. you will probably eschew these in the future so that your android works without any trouble.

Let us now discuss the solution to the problem we are facing. One solution cannot fix the same problem for all android users. Below are mentioned some tips to guide you.

1.    Begin by uninstalling any suspicious app: before you initiate this step, stop briefly and ponder when have you begun confronting the issue? Then, uninstall all applications which you had as of late introduced on your Android gadget and check if the program continues to open without anyone else on your Android cell phone. Here’s how you can locate and uninstall the suspicious app. Go to settings application and in the application locate apps, look for the application without any name (usually at the end of the application list) and uninstall it.

2.Force stop the app: If the above step did not fix your issue or you did not find any suspicious application, so try to force stop the affected browser and clear cache. To do so effectively, go to the settings application on your android device and open apps. select the program that is opening on itself and without any hesitation, force stop it. further clear cache and browser data of the application. After done with this try running the browser again your problem might have been fixed. notwithstanding, If the program synchronizes with Chrome, Mozilla, Firefox, or some other program, ascertain you clear out your Chrome history on your work area withal since they sync. when you will tap on the Clear All information all your application information will be erased, it is prudent that you take a reinforcement of your information, keep a note of your passwords – ideally by utilizing secret word directors, reinforcement data sets, and so on.

3.Try using another web browser: if your browser continues to trouble you it might be a better option to look for an alternative. Either you can switch to a new browser completely or for a short interval of time until you find out what caused trouble in your previous browser.

4.Install an anti-virus application: Download and introduce an alternate internet browser and check if the quandary persists. If your browser still opens by itself, you definitely need an anti-virus on your android device. Install anti-virus software and scan your device, make sure to instantly remove any malware if detected.

5. Switch to safe mode: a ton of clients are ignorant of this component of their gadget yet this can end up being extraordinary assistance. safe mode can be considered as an indicative mode in Android. What it does is that it opens your Android gadget in its easiest structure i.e., with its essential interface. Here you can be liberated from the unsettling influence from most outsider applications. Additionally, in case there is any offender outsider application, you will actually want to seize that application in this mode. To enable this feature long-press the power button just the same way you do to power off your device, just as the option to power off pops up press the power button further for few more seconds. Your android device will restart in safe mode.

6. Factory reset your device: if none of the above options helped you then the only option left is to factory reset the device. ensure you follow the means mentioned to processing factory reset your Android device. Kindly don’t utilize the force button and the volume button to factory reset your telephone to not prompt another issue. Also, make sure to keep a backup of all your files to avoid losing anything important. To effectively perform a factory reset open the settings application and look for the system option. Now tap on the reset option and further tap on factory reset. After confirming the action your device will initiate a factory reset and the indication will be displayed on your screen.

Just remember to go for factory reset only when the other options don’t help, or you will unnecessarily lose your data. Hope these tips help you.


Corruption refers to any act achieved through people or a set in lieu of some shape of bribes. Corruption is considered to be a unethical and criminal act. If established, corruption can result in criminal punishments. Often times the act of corruption incorporates the rights and privileges of some. It is very difficult to find a definition that takes under consideration all of the characteristics and factors of corruption.

Today, humans believe that politics is based on corruption. Few politicians are uncovered, and the last ones have a namesake easy chit. One birthday celebration is probably less corrupt than the alternative, but all are corrupt to some extent. People have lost their agree with in the democratic machine, the authorities places of work, and institutes. The prosperity of a state is at stake due to the prevalence of rampant corruption within the machine. The big pile of Non Performing Assets, loss of overseas investments, time and price overruns of infrastructure projects are the unfavourable consequences on our progress. Social inequality is particularly due to corruption. It hits the terrible tough. Not all pays bribes. Moreover, in our network, there are greater projects for pipelines, dams, refineries, but nevertheless, the primary wishes such as faculties, hospitals, and roads aren’t available for every person. The politicians, administrative officers, and personal agencies degrade the surroundings for his or her benefits. The exploitation of herbal assets and non-observance of the guidelines associated with ecological stability result in unexpected consequences.

There isn’t any end of corruption as there is no end of robbery, theft, homicide, rape , bullying and lots of other acts humans are doing to others. Corruption , similar in a manner to theft from government or from an “summary entity” looks extraordinary, however is comparable . You take some thing from others for your very own exact.
Corrupt humans should chased , haunted and punished within the harsher methods to prevent the feeling that exists in some societies that this is the way to make cash and sell your self in society. The higher the corruption, the higher the punishment.

College Life!

College Life is one of the maximum incredible and lovable times of an character’s lifestyles. Unlike School Life, College Life has a one of a kind experience, and someone wishes to have this experience in his/her lifestyles. College Life exposes us to complete new experiences which we always dream of experiencing after our college lifestyles. Lucky are folks who get the risk to revel in their university existence, as many people don’t get this chance due to their situations or economic problems. For all and sundry, College Life has a different which means. While a few people spend their university life via partying with buddies, others end up extra careful about their career and study difficult. Whatever the manner, each character experience their college lifestyles and constantly desire to relive that point as soon as it is over.

College existence is a big transition from college life. We go through a number of adjustments while we input university. Our faculties had been a secure location where we had grown up and spent half our lives. The transition to university is so surprising that you’re now not covered via your teachers and friends of your faculty time. In faculty lifestyles, we have been continually dependant on our buddies or teachers. College life teaches us to be independent. It makes us stronger and teaches us to combat our personal battles. It also makes us critical about our careers. We make selections so as to affect our destiny all through ourselves, as in faculty existence our parents did it for us.

College existence experience is certainly one of a kind. The most not unusual reminiscences people have of university existence are genuinely goofing around with buddies. They don’t forget how the group of buddies walked around the college in style and gambling stupid pranks on each other. I assume, university existence would be a combined bag of fun, freedom, experiments and obligations. It will incorporate new hopes and aspirations, new joys and disappointments and new pals. Those wiser than us say that college days are the first-rate days of 1’s life. The selections we make now form up our future.

Changes in Education

It all started on the ending days of march 2020 when lockdown began in India, everyone was at home and there were no signs of going out. At that time many problems came out among students like stress, anxiety, frustration, and boredom and we missed going to school/college and hanging out with friends. 

Soon schools and colleges started the medium of education through the internet. First, we all thought it would be easy to cope up but it didn’t work out to be like that. Various methods were used for classes like reading material, assignments, communication via email, live chats or messages, and delivering content by live sessions, presentations, recorded videos, or lectures.

Picture credits: https://thedmonline.com/how-students-are-adjusting-to-online-classes/

 Both students and teachers faced a lot of problems in this medium.

Technical issues

Many students were not well equipped with devices and a high internet connection that is required for online learning. Due to this, they face problems in going live for virtual learning and other platforms that require an internet connection. And most of the teachers were not much familiar with technology as it was their first time teaching on this medium.


Because online learners use their computers and the Internet to participate in online learning, they may be tempted by many distractions. Students working on an assignment may find themselves surfing the Web, checking social networking sites, or catching up with video games. 

Lack of In-Person Interaction

Despite of getting reading material, communication via email, live sessions, presentations, recorded videos, or lectures for the students. As compared to traditional ones, students find it difficult to communicate in person who struggles with understanding concepts. Many times these students do not even approach teachers to clear their doubts as they are shy to speak up in front of everyone.


In online mode, the task of giving assignments is easier but it is difficult to evaluate the students on basis of their performance. There would be students who would be copying everything from the internet. In a recent survey, it was found that 73% of students cheat during online examinations via internet, and 27% were cheating through books. 

Time management

In many cases, both students and teachers find difficulty in managing their time with online learning and doing household work. Online learning is completely new for them and requires intensive work. Everyone needs a well-planned schedule to manage their time in an effective manner. Online learning provides flexible time unlike traditional classrooms, whereas in traditional classes the schedule is highly maintained.


The course and its content is designed earlier with respect to traditional classrooms. But with the shift to online learning, it requires redesigning of course which can take a considerable amount of time. In most cases, these courses work well in traditional classrooms but go flat in online learning. It happens when there are no content-related activities, assignments, or projects that can be done online.

Covid 19 brought a very big change in Education. Well in the end from my own perspective I can say conclusively that both traditional and online methods are in need of much evolving in fulfilling the needs of both teachers and students.


Childhood is the best time and significant time in anybody’s life. It’s the principal phase of life which we appreciate in the manner we like. Plus, this is the time that shapes up what’s to come. The guardians love and care for their youngsters and the kids to the equivalent as well. Additionally, it’s the brilliant time of life wherein we can show kids everything.

The recollections of childhood have their own place in any singular’s heart. As one grows up, one feels increasingly more connected with his youth, the best time frame in a singular’s life. Having no tensions, stresses or work, a kid is liberated from the grimy and dirty commotion of the common life. At the point when people recall the recollections of youth, they feel charmed as it is the most wonderful period which is liberated from any sort of stress or nervousness. Youth minutes are the best snapshot of life. Whenever lost, these never returned. This is the ideal opportunity for the youngsters to play, to be adored and taken care of their wellbeing. Many guardians attempt to experience their fantasies through their youngsters. However, guardians ought not do such incredible treachery towards their kids. They should look what their kids need, what are their likings. Guardians should not put presure on their kids for considers. It has been seen that now a days pressure is there on investigations and guardians put should weight on them, yet this does more mischief than anything to them.

At the point when we were kids, the littlest of things gave us colossal joy. Neither did we need materialistic stuff to be content, nor there was a spot for childishness in our souls. Since we’ve strolled past the most lovely period of our lives, the main way passed on to encounter it again is to esteem, recall and remember that load of sweet recollections sooner rather than later. Besides, they show everybody the illustration of mankind that they have forgotten in this chaotic way of life of this world. Furthermore, these youngsters are the eventual fate of the nation and on the off chance that they don’t develop as expected, in future how might they help in the development of the country.

As we develop we feel greater connection to our youth and we need to get back those days however we can’t. That is the reason many individuals say ‘time is neither a companion nor an enemy’. Since the time which is gone can’t return and neither do our adolescence. It is a period which numerous artists and essayist acclaims in their manifestations.


Data is a collection of facts, figures, objects, symbols, and events gathered from different sources. Organizations collect data to make better decisions. Without data, it would be difficult for organizations to make appropriate decisions, and so data is collected at various points in time from different audiences.

For instance, before launching a new product, an organization needs to collect data on product demand, customer preferences, competitors, etc. In case data is not collected beforehand, the organization’s newly launched product may lead to failure for many reasons, such as less demand and inability to meet customer needs. 

Although data is a valuable asset for every organization, it does not serve any purpose until analyzed or processed to get the desired results. 

You can categorize data collection methods into primary methods of data collection and secondary methods of data collection.

Primary Data Collection Methods

Primary data is collected from the first-hand experience and is not used in the past. The data gathered by primary data collection methods are specific to the research’s motive and highly accurate.

Primary data collection methods can be divided into two categories: Quantitative methods and qualitative methods

Quantitative Methods:

Quantitative techniques for market research and demand forecasting usually make use of statistical tools. In these techniques, demand is forecast based on historical data. These methods of primary data collection are generally used to make long-term forecasts. Statistical methods are highly reliable as the element of subjectivity is minimum in these methods.

Time Series Analysis

The term time series refers to a sequential order of values of a variable, known as a trend, at equal time intervals. Using patterns, an organization can predict the demand for its products and services for the projected time. 

Smoothing Techniques

In cases where the time series lacks significant trends, smoothing techniques can be used. They eliminate a random variation from the historical demand. It helps in identifying patterns and demand levels to estimate future demand. The most common methods used in smoothing demand forecasting techniques are the simple moving average method and the weighted moving average method. 

Barometric Method

Also known as the leading indicators approach, researchers use this method to speculate future trends based on current developments. When the past events are considered to predict future events, they act as leading indicators.

Qualitative Methods:

Qualitative methods are especially useful in situations when historical data is not available. Or there is no need of numbers or mathematical calculations. Qualitative research is closely associated with words, sounds, feeling, emotions, colors, and other elements that are non-quantifiable. These techniques are based on experience, judgment, intuition, conjecture, emotion, etc.

Quantitative methods do not provide the motive behind participants’ responses, often don’t reach underrepresented populations, and span long periods to collect the data. Hence, it is best to combine quantitative methods with qualitative methods.


Surveys are used to collect data from the target audience and gather insights into their preferences, opinions, choices, and feedback related to their products and services. Most survey software often a wide range of question types to select.

You can also use a ready-made survey template to save on time and effort. Online survey can be customized as per the business’s brand by changing the theme, logo, etc. They can be distributed through several distribution channels such as email, website, offline app, QR code, social media, etc. Depending on the type and source of your audience, you can select the channel.

Once the data is collected, survey software can generate various reports and run analytics algorithms to discover hidden insights. A survey dashboard can give you the statistics related to response rate, completion rate, filters based on demographics, export and sharing options, etc. You can maximize the effort spent on online data collection by integrating survey builder with third-party apps.


Polls comprise of one single or multiple choice question. When it is required to have a quick pulse of the audience’s sentiments, you can go for polls. Because they are short in length, it is easier to get responses from the people.


Tabulation Meaning:

Tabulation is a systematic and logical representation of numeric data in rows and columns to facilitate comparison and statistical analysis. It facilitates comparison by bringing related information close to each other and helps in statistical analysis and interpretation.

In other words, the method of placing organised data into a tabular form is known as tabulation. It may be complex, double, or simple, depending upon the nature of categorisation.

Objectives Of Tabulation:

(1) To simplify complex data

  • It reduces the bulk of information, i.e., it reduces raw data in a simplified and meaningful form so that it can be easily interpreted by a common man in less time.

(2) To bring out essential features of data

  • It brings out the chief/main characteristics of data.
  • It presents facts clearly and precisely without textual explanation.

(3) To facilitate comparison

  • The representation of data in rows and columns is helpful in simultaneous detailed comparison on the basis of several parameters.

(4) To facilitate statistical analysis

  • Tables serve as the best source of organised data for statistical analysis.
  • The task of computing average, dispersion, correlation, etc., becomes easier if data is presented in the form of a table.

(5) To save space

  • A table presents facts in a better way than the textual form.
  • It saves space without sacrificing the quality and quantity of data.


What is Hypothesis in Research?

A Hypothesis is a tentative statement of a proposition which the researcher seeks to prove. It’s basically a concrete generalization. Of course, this generalization requires essential characteristics that pertain to an entire class of phenomena.

When a theory stated as a testable proposition formally and subject to empirical verification we can define it as a hypothesis. Researchers make a hypothesis on the basis of some earlier theories and some rationale that generally accepted as true. The hypothesis test finally will decide whether it is true or rejected.

So, to clarify a hypothesis is a statement about the relationship between two or more variables. The researcher set out the variables to prove or disprove. Hypothesis essentially includes three elements. For example-

  1. Variables
  2. Population
  3. Relationship between variables.

Example of Hypothesis

  1. Rewards increase reading achievements
  2. Rewards decrease reading achievements
  3. Or rewards have no effect on reading achievements

In the above examples- variables are- Rewards & Achievements.

Steps in Formulation of Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a tentative assumption drawn from practical knowledge or theory. A hypothesis is used as a guide in the inquiry of other facts or theories that a researcher does not know. However, the formulation of the hypothesis is one of the most difficult steps in the entire scientific research process.

Therefore, in this regard, we intend to point out the basic steps in the formulation of a hypothesis. We are pretty sure that this guideline will be helpful in your research works.

1. Define Variables

At first, with a view to formulating a hypothesis, you must define your variables. What do you want to test? Will you test that rewards increase reading achievement? Or rewards decrease reading achievement? Whatever your goals are, they need to be clearly defined, quantifiable, and measurable. This will provide you with a clear idea of what to follow to achieve results.

2. Study In-Depth the Variables

If we do think that your variables are Rewards & Achievements, then you need to intense study how rewards increase reading achievements? An in-depth study, rigorous questions, and data of rewards increase reading achievements will make you able to confirm your hypothesis. Specify dependent and independent variables.

3. Specify the Nature of Relationship

Then, identify what relationship there exist between the variables. What variable influences the other? That is what is the dependent variable and what is the independent variable? How Rewards impact achievements? If reward plays a key role in reading achievements, then reward is the independent variable.

4. Identify Study Population

The population in research we mean the entire group of individuals is going to study. If you want to test how rewards increase reading achievements in the United Kingdom, you need not study the whole population of the United Kingdom. Because the total population does not involve in reading achievements. Therefore, the researcher must identify the study population.

5. Make Sure Variables are Testable

Variables in your hypothesis must be testable. Otherwise, the hypothesis would be worthless. Because your research study must accept or reject a variable. So, variables you must need to test. Testable variables can only be accepted or rejected. Moreover, the sole aim of a research hypothesis is to test variables in the long run.


1. Mission Changes

Did you know that the team who made Instagram had previously developed a product called Burbn?  It was a check-in service similar to Foursquare except that it focused on hanging out with your friends.  Needless to say, it never took off.  The team performed something that is most visibly seen in the tech community: a company pivot.  They changed their business focus and created Instagram.

Sometimes companies need to change direction to survive.  For more on corporate culture and the role of the mission statement, check out this article on shaping an authentic corporate culture.

2. Strategic Changes

A strategic change is a change in how the company tackles a problem.  Going from print advertising for your business to online, for example, is a strategic change.  As is targeting a different demographic or selling a new type of product.  When Amazon launched the Kindle, that was a strategic change.  When Microsoft revealed that Windows 8 had changed how the company had approached operating systems, that was a strategic change.  Change management in this case means convincing your team of the new strategy’s value.

3. Operational Changes

An operational change is a change in the structure of your company.  That could be a reorganization, lay offs, or just a team change due to a strategic or mission statement change.

Operational changes are some of the roughest for your employees because they never quite know what to expect.  At least with a change in technology they aren’t likely to find themselves without a job.

4. Technological Changes

Technology is advancing inexorably, whether we like it or not.  That means we need to keep upgrading or fall behind.  Often operational and strategic changes are driven by a change in technology.  At the turn of the century, for example, it was rare to see a TV commercial direct you to a website.  Now it is commonplace.

A change in technology could mean a change that affects all your employees.  If an operating system upgrade breaks a proprietary piece of software, you are going to have to retrain your team with the new software.  Technological changes don’t have to be rough, though.  Switching to Intuit Quickbase is often quick and painless.

That said, people are stubborn.  Often technological changes cause the most trouble.  Make sure your team is trained for the software, though, and you should be able to avoid most of it.


Total project management solutions (TPM solutions) will help a project-thinking organization to stabilize the business processes and begin leading employees towards achieving refined efficiency and accountability. Implementing TPM solutions requires a flexible infrastructure that lets respond to the dynamics of a project environment and rapid technological advances. In this article, I will briefly talk about what TPM concept means and will also outline a 5-step model for implementing total PM solutions. I guess my considerations will be helpful for management staff and executives in project-thinking organizations.

TPM Concept

The key idea behind total project management (TPM) consists in providing a project-thinking organization with an enterprise-wide approach to establishing an efficient project management system. Such a system paves the way for developing total project management solutions (TPM solutions) through creating a project-based culture in which every project is performed in line with the organization’s corporate strategy, and therefore every project participant and team member can get necessary support from managers at all levels. The system will be the foundation for implementing TPM effort and starting the project management process.

TPM solutions make it possible to build close collaboration and communication between project-thinking employees, technology and processes which are the key drivers in the total project integration environment. The implementation of total project management solutions depends on a selected management style that integrates accountability into the total project processes and serves as a convenient way for continuous improvement of both corporate and individual performance.

A 5-Step Model

A macro-level model of total project management includes 5 steps Taking each of the steps builds an infrastructure for implementing TPM solutions. Here are these steps:

  • Communication
  • Assessment
  • Recommendation
  • Implementation
  • Validation

Because a model of total project management encompasses all of the listed steps, a project-thinking organization needs to incorporate collaborative methods, tools, and appropriate technologies to create a synchronized and highly productive infrastructure that tends to be stable and flexible in a rapidly changing project environment.

Once the steps of TPM model are taken along with the standards of best practices (incl. communication protocols, employee competency assessments, project portfolio analysis, project methodology planning, process scheduling and mapping, application-based working environments, team training and development), the infrastructure for achieving efficient total project management solutions will be established.

The performance appraisal

Performance appraisal

Forming part of an organisation’s overall performance management system, the performance appraisal can be defined as the process of identifying, evaluating and developing the work performance of employees to help achieve the goals and objectives of the organisation. At the same time, appraisals benefit employees by providing them with recognition, feedback, career guidance and development.

Performance appraisal involves managers and their staff members meeting on a one-on-one basis at regular intervals (at least annually) to discuss work performance in relation to:

  • execution of roles and responsibilities
  • the requirements of the organisation and individuals’ contribution to the achievement of the organisation’s objectives.

Effective performance appraisal relies on clear performance standards being established and discussed with employees. Using these standards, appraisal involves:

  • observing the employee’s work behaviour and results, and comparing them against the agreed standards
  • evaluating job performance and the employee’s development potential
  • providing feedback to the employee
  • acting on the results of the appraisal process, for example through promotion, reward and recognition, counselling, training, or in some cases termination.


Negotiation is a dialogue between two parties to resolve conflicts or issues so that both parties find the solution acceptable. Usually, it is a compromise involving give and take. Negotiation results when each party compromises to resolve a conflict for everyone’s benefits. In the workplace, negotiations may take place between managers, departments, colleagues or between a team member and a manager. Even before you join the workplace, you may negotiate the job offer with the interviewer or HR manager.

In this article, we will discuss what negotiation skills are, its benefits, examples and tips for improving your negotiation skills.

What are negotiation skills?

Negotiation skills are inherent qualities that help two or more parties agree to a common logical solution. In the workplace, you may have to display your negotiating skills in various situations such as:

  • Negotiating a salary hike with the HR manager after promotion
  • Negotiating a project deadline with your team lead or manager
  • Negotiating few days off for a family holiday with your manager
  • Negotiating contract terms with a potential customer

Lack of negotiation skills affects the business bottom line and could ruin customer relationship. Negotiation skills are soft skills and essential to become a negotiator and resolve workplace conflicts.

However, this skill set depends on the work environment, the parties involved and outcome desired. Often, when one party is ready for reaching a compromise, the other party may be resistant. This makes negotiation difficult and you are likely to encounter such situations in the workplace. That is why you need to master your negotiation skills.

Why is knowledge management important?

Knowledge management

The knowledge management (KM) category represents solutions that streamline the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using knowledge. When an organization is able to easily access, share, and update business knowledge, it can become more productive and cost-efficient. The ability to access the right knowledge at the right time, via a robust knowledge management system, informs accurate decision-making and stimulates collaboration and innovation.

A McKinsey Global institute reports indicates that a robust knowledge management system can reduce information search time by as much as 35 percent and raise organization-wide productivity by 20 to 25 percent. Findings culled from the International Data Corp also corroborates the value of a knowledge management system.

As your enterprise grows, so too will the need to access a reliable knowledge database in order to effectively run your business, serve your clients, and increase revenue. Without a knowledge management system in place, your employees will be forced to learn and relearn processes and information. That’s an inefficient and costly practice. Plus, you may also run the risk of losing those processes or information if a knowledge leader or legacy employee leaves your company.


1. Human Resources Approach:

This approach recognizes that human resources in an organisation are the central force. Their development will contribute to the success of the organisation. Human resources approach provides for the changes in the managerial role. It requires that the managers, instead of controlling the employees, should provide active support to them by treating them as part of the group.

The superiors and managers should practice a style where workers are given the opportunities and encouragement to perform under loose supervision. By treating individuals as mature adults, organisations can increase productivity and at the same time meet the needs of individuals for independence and growth.

2. Contingency Approach:

The approach stresses that there is no single way to manage effectively under all circumstances. The methods of behaviours which work effectively in one situation may fail in another. The organisational structure and the processes of management are governed by the external environment and several aspects of the internal environment. Effective management processes will vary in different situations depending on the individuals and groups in the organisation, the nature of the job and technology, the environment facing the organisation and its structure.

The manager’s task therefore, is to identify which method will, in a particular situation, under particular circumstances and at a particular time, best contribute to the attainment of organization’s goals. Thus, the manager will have to analyze each situation prior to action and different managerial practices and styles are needed for effective management.

3. Productivity Approach:

Productivity means the numerical value of the ratio of output to input. Higher the value of this ratio, greater is the efficiency and effectiveness of the management. The traditional concept of productivity was concerned with economic inputs and output only. But nowadays human and social inputs and outputs are equally important. Productivity, a significant part of organisational behaviour decisions, is recognized and discussed extensively. These decisions relate to human, social and economic issues. For example if better organisational behaviour can reduce worker’s turnover or the number of absentees, a human output or benefit occurs.

4. System Approach

The systems approach is of the view that an organisation is a powerful system with several subsystems which are highly and closely interconnected. Any action taken to solve the problems in one subsystem will have its effect on the other subsystems as well; since all the parts of the organisation are closely connected. Thus, this approach gives the managers a way of looking at the organisation as a whole, whole group, and the whole social system. Systems approach has become an integral part of modern organisational theory. Organisations are termed as complex systems comprising of interrelated and interlocking systems.

According to this approach, an organisation receives several inputs from its environment such as material, human and financial. These inputs are then processed so as to produce the final output in terms of products or services.